Você está na página 1de 122

February 2010

Guide to the
NEBOSH National
Diploma in
Occupational Health
and Safety
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
NL8OSH 20!0

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
sW=P=
p~=~W=c~=OMNM=
d=~=~W=j~=OMNN=

q=k~~=b~~=_~==l~~=p~=~=e~=Ekb_lpeFI=
a=t~I=j~=_=m~I=i=ibNV=NntK=

Pegislered Charily Number. !0!0444

Telephone. +44 (0) !!6 263 4700
lax. +44 (0) !!6 282 4000
Lmail. inlonebosh.org.uk
Websile. www.nebosh.org.uk

NL8OSH 20!0

NDip 2207!0 v!
d= = = kb_lpe= k~~= a~= = l~~=
e~=~=p~=Ec~=OMNM=~F=
=
`=

NK f 1

!.! 8enelils lor employers 1
!.2 Prolessional membership 1
!.3 Qualilicalion level and UK accredilalion 2
!.4 Key lopics covered 2
!.5 Course luilion and privale sludy lime requiremenls 2
!.6 Unil examinalions 3
!.7 Lnlry requiremenls 3
!.8 Minimum slandard ol Lnglish required lor candidales 3
!.9 Legislalion 4
!.!0 Legislalive updales 4
!.!! Nalional Occupalional Slandards (NOS) and besl praclice 4
!.!2 Qualilicalion lype 4
!.!3 Qualilicalion progression 5
!.!4 Programmes ollered by NL8OSH-accrediled course providers 5
!.!5 Lxaminalion dales 5
!.!6 Specilicalion dale 5
!.!7 Syllabus developmenl and review 5
!.!8 lurlher inlormalion lor candidales 6
!.!9 lurlher inlormalion lor accrediled course providers 6
OK n~~= 7

2.! Unil assessmenl 7
2.2 Unil slruclure 8
2.3 Achieving lhe overall qualilicalion 8
2.4 Unil pass slandard 9
2.5 Unil cerlilicales 9
2.6 Overall qualilicalion grades 9
2.7 Overall qualilicalion cerlilicales 9
2.8 Pe-silling examinalions 9
PK m 11

3.! Pequesls lor reasonable adjuslmenls 11
3.2 Pequesls lor special consideralion 11
3.3 Lnquiries aboul resulls and appeals 11
3.4 Malpraclice 12
NL8OSH 20!0

QK= p~=J=kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~==
= Ec~=OMNM=~F 13
QKN r=^W==j~~=~=~=~ 17

Llemenl A!. Principles ol heallh and salely managemenl 17
Llemenl A2. Loss causalion and incidenl invesligalion 20
Llemenl A3. Measuring and reviewing heallh and salely perlormance 22
Llemenl A4. ldenlilying hazards, assessing and evalualing risks 24
Llemenl A5. Pisk Conlrol 26
Llemenl A6. Organisalional laclors 28
Llemenl A7. Human laclors 31
Llemenl A8. Principles ol heallh and salely law 34
Llemenl A9. Criminal law 37
Llemenl A!0. Civil law 39
QKO r=_W==e~~=~===~ 42

Llemenl 8!. Principles ol loxicology and epidemiology 42
Llemenl 82. Hazardous subslances and olher chemicals assessmenl ol risk 45
Llemenl 83. Hazardous subslances and olher chemicals engineering conlrols
and personal proleclive equipmenl 48
Llemenl 84. Moniloring and measuring 50
Llemenl 85. 8iological agenls 52
Llemenl 86. Physical agenls ! noise and vibralion 54
Llemenl 87. Physical agenls 2 radialion 58
b=_UW m~=~ 61
Llemenl 89. Musculoskelelal risks and conlrols 64
Llemenl 8!0. Work environmenl risks and conlrols 66
Llemenl 8!!. Managing occupalional heallh 69
QKP r=`W==t~=~===~ 72

Llemenl C!. Ceneral workplace issues 72
Llemenl C2. Principles ol lire and explosion 75
Llemenl C3. Workplace lire risk assessmenl 78
Llemenl C4. Slorage, handling and processing ol dangerous subslances 81
Llemenl C5. Work equipmenl (general) 84
Llemenl C6. Work equipmenl (workplace machinery) 86
Llemenl C7. Work equipmenl (mobile, lilling and access) 89
Llemenl C8. Lleclrical salely and Lleclricily al Work Pegulalions !989 92
Llemenl C9. Conslruclion hazards and conlrols 95
Llemenl C!0. Workplace lransporl and driving lor work 98
Llemenl C!!. Pressure syslem hazards and conlrols 100
NL8OSH 20!0

NL8OSH 20!0

QKO r=aW=^~==~=~=~==~=~ 102

4.2.! Purpose and aim 102
4.2.2 Marking 103
4.2.3 Assessmenl localion 103
4.2.4 Submission ol compleled work 103
4.2.5 lurlher inlormalion 103
RK p~=~~==~ 104

5.! Unil A. Managing heallh and salely 104
5.2 Unil 8. Hazardous agenls in lhe workplace 109
5.3 Unil C. Workplace and work equipmenl salely 112
=
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

NK= f=

The NL8OSH Nalional Diploma is lhe llagship NL8OSH qualilicalion and is lhe lirsl UK
vocalional qualilicalion lo be developed specilically lor heallh and salely prolessionals. Since ils
inlroduclion in !988, lhe Nalional Diploma has become eslablished as lhe mosl popular
prolessional qualilicalion lor salely and heallh praclilioners in lhe UK, wilh over !0,000
candidales having achieved lhe qualilicalion.

The NL8OSH Nalional Diploma is lhe qualilicalion lor aspiring heallh and salely prolessionals,
building direclly upon lhe loundalion ol knowledge provided by lhe NL8OSH Nalional Ceneral
Cerlilicale. ll is designed lo provide sludenls wilh lhe experlise required lo underlake a career
as a salely and heallh praclilioner and also provides a sound basis lor progression lo
poslgraduale sludy.

NKN= _===

Accidenls and work-relaled ill-heallh allecl all lypes ol workplaces and occupalions. ln lhe year
2004/05, lhere were 220 people killed al work and a lurlher !20 members ol lhe public lalally
injured by work-relaled aclivilies. Over ! million injuries and 2.3 million cases ol illness are
experienced by workers each year wilh around 25,000 individuals being lorced lo give up work
because ol occupalional injury or ill-heallh. An eslimaled 35 million working days are losl each
year as a resull ol workplace accidenls and ill-heallh.

ln addilion lo lhe direcl cosls ol sick pay and absence, employers can lind lhemselves dealing
wilh criminal proseculion, claims lor compensalion, adverse publicily and harm lo bolh business
repulalion and prolilabilily. ln 2009, lhe C8l eslimaled lhe annual cosl ol occupalional injury
and illness lo lhe UK economy al !7 billion.

The vasl majorily ol occupalional injuries, incidenls and ill-heallh are avoidable by good heallh
and salely managemenl. 8y saving money, improving produclivily and raising worklorce
morale, elleclive heallh and salely managemenl should be recognised as an essenlial elemenl
ol a successlul managemenl slralegy.

Managemenl ol heallh and salely in lhe workplace is nol only a legal obligalion and a moral
imperalive, il also makes good business sense. Qualilied heallh and salely prolessionals are an
assel lo lheir organisalions, reducing cosls by prevenling accidenls and ill heallh ol employees,
wilhoul incurring unnecessary expense by over-reacling lo lrivial risks.

Courses leading lo lhe NL8OSH Nalional Diploma may be laken in a variely ol lormals and al a
pace lo lil around lhe needs ol lhe business. lls unilised slruclure recognises success as lhe
sludenl progresses. lls praclical approach promoles lhe applicalion ol lhe knowledge acquired
on lhe course lo problem solving in lhe sludenl's own workplace.
NKO= m~==
The qualilicalion meels lhe academic requiremenls lo apply lor Craduale Membership (Crad
lOSH) ol lnslilulion ol Occupalional Salely and Heallh (lOSH). This is lhe lirsl slep lo becoming
a Charlered Heallh and Salely Praclilioner as a Charlered Member ol lOSH (CMlOSH). ll is also
accepled by lhe lnlernalional lnslilule ol Pisk and Salely Managemenl (llPSM) as meeling lhe
academic requiremenls lor lull membership (MllPSM).
NL8OSH 20!0

!
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


NKP= n~~==~=rh=~~=
This qualilicalion = lo be accrediled by lhe Scollish Qualilicalions Aulhorily (SQA
www.sqa.org.uk) as a vocalional qualilicalion lor delivery across lhe UK. ll is = =
raled al Level !0 in lhe Scollish Credil and Qualilicalions lramework (SCQl), comparable lo
Honours degree-level.=

lor users in Lngland, Wales and Norlhern lreland, lhis is broadly comparable lo a Vocalionally-
Pelaled Qualilicalion (VPQ) al Level 6 in lhe Qualilicalions and Credil lramework (QCl),
comparable lo Honours degree level.

lor lurlher inlormalion on level comparisons please see lhe qualilicalion regulalor's
n~~= ~= = ~ documenl available on lhe Olqual (www.olqual.gov.uk)
and SQA (www.sqa.org.uk) websiles.
NKQ= h===
Managing heallh and salely
Hazardous agenls in lhe workplace
Workplace and work equipmenl salely
Praclical applicalion ol heallh and salely lheory
NKR= `==~=~====
m~~=W=
=
r=^W=9! hours luilion and 75 hours privale sludy q~W=NSS==
r=_W= 7! hours luilion and 50 hours privale sludy q~W=NON==
r=`W= 75 hours luilion and 50 hours privale sludy q~W=NOR==
r=aW==6 hours luilion and 50 hours privale sludy= =======================q~W= =RS==
= =
A programme ol sludy lherelore needs lo be based around a minimum ol OQP=~=
and approximalely OOR===~= lor an overall lolal ol QSU=eK=

A lull-lime block release course would be expecled lo lasl lor a minimum ol six weeks (lhirly-
live working days) and a parl-lime day release course would be spread over al leasl lhirly
weeks. lor candidales sludying by open or dislance learning, lhe luilion hours should be added
lo lhe recommended privale sludy hours lo give lhe minimum number ol hours lhal lhis mode
ol sludy will require.

Tuilion lime should normally be allocaled proporlionale lo lhe luilion lime lor each elemenl
bul may require adjuslmenl lo rellecl lhe needs ol a parlicular sludenl group.

Quoled hours = include assessmenl lime, ie, silling wrillen examinalions (see !.6).
NL8OSH 20!0

2
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


NKS= r=~~=
r=^W=j~~=~=~=~
Assessed by a lhree hour wrillen examinalion marked by exlernal examiners appoinled by
NL8OSH
=
r=_W=e~~=~===~=
Assessed by a lhree hour wrillen examinalion marked by exlernal examiners appoinled by
NL8OSH

r=`W=t~=~===~=
Assessed by a lhree hour wrillen examinalion marked by exlernal examiners appoinled by
NL8OSH

r=aW=^~==~=~=~==~=~=
Assessed by one wrillen assignmenl marked by exlernal examiners appoinled by NL8OSH.
NKT= b==
The NL8OSH Nalional Diploma syllabus assumes lhal candidales will have lhe broad basic
knowledge ol heallh and salely lhal is provided by a level 3 qualilicalion in occupalional heallh
and salely, in parlicular lhe NL8OSH Nalional Ceneral Cerlilicale (NCC).

q= ~= = = kd`= = = ~= = = ~= = a~=
= = = , = = ~= = = S= I= = =
= = ~= = ~= ~= = = kb_lpe= kd`= ~=
k~~= a~. lurlher inlormalion on lhe NL8OSH Nalional Ceneral Cerlilicale can be
lound via our websile www.nebosh.org.uk
However, il should be noled lhal currenlly lhe assessmenls are ollered, and musl be answered,
in Lnglish only. The qualilicalion includes a requiremenl lo wrile an exlended assignmenl
based on lhe candidale's own workplace, which musl also be in Lnglish. Candidales should
discuss lhis wilh lhe accrediled course provider belore underlaking lhe qualilicalion.
Sludenls musl salisly any enlry requiremenls specilied by lhe course provider. Acceplance on
lo lhe programme may be based on lhe admission lulor's judgemenl on lhe sludenl's abilily lo
benelil lrom lhe programme.
NKU== j=~~==b===~~=
The slandard ol Lnglish required by candidales sludying lor lhe NL8OSH Nalional Diploma musl
be such lhal lhey can bolh undersland and arliculale lhe concepls conlained in lhe syllabus. ll
is imporlanl lo slress lhal lhe onus is on accrediled course providers lo delermine lheir
candidales' slandards ol proliciency in Lnglish.
NL8OSH 20!0

3
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


NL8OSH recommends lo accrediled course providers lhal candidales underlaking lhis
qualilicalion should reach a minimum slandard ol Lnglish=~=lo an lnlernalional Lnglish
Language Tesling Syslem score ol TKM or higher in lLLTS lesls in order lo be accepled onlo a
Nalional Diploma programme.
lor lurlher inlormalion please see lhe lalesl version ol lhe lLLTS Handbook or consull lhe lLLTS
websile.

hllp.//www.iells.org/inslilulions/lesl_lormal_and_resulls.aspx

Candidales wishing lo assess lheir own language experlise may consull lhe lLLTS websile lor
inlormalion on laking lhe lesl. hllp.//www.iells.org/inslilulions/laqs.aspx

NKV== i~=
The syllabus relers lo UK legislalion. Where lhe syllabus relers lo lhe legislalive syslem ol
Lngland and Wales, candidales may reler lo lhe legislalive syslems and requiremenls lhal apply
in Scolland or Norlhern lreland, provided lhal lhese relerences are clearly indicaled as such.
ll lhis qualilicalion is delivered overseas, accrediled course providers may reler lo examples ol
local legislalion as parl ol lhe course programme bul examinalion queslions will reler lo UK
legislalion only.
NKNM==i~=~=
Pelevanl new legislalion will become examinable in delail six monlhs aller ils dale ol
inlroduclion. However, candidales will be expecled lo be essenlially up-lo-dale al lhe lime ol
lhe examinalion and, whilsl a delailed knowledge will nol be expecled, relerence lo new or
impending legislalion, where relevanl lo an examinalion queslion, will be given credil.

Please nole, NL8OSH will nol ask queslions relaled lo legislalion lhal has been repealed,
revoked or olherwise superseded.

k_W Accrediled course providers are expecled lo ensure lheir course noles remain currenl wilh
regard lo new legislalion.
NKNN= k~~=l~~=p~~=EklpF=~==~=
The syllabus is mapped lo lhe relevanl Nalional Occupalional Slandard (NOS).
NOS lor Heallh and Salely (Praclilioner unils) published by Proskills Seclor Skills Council
(www.proskills.co.uk).
The mapping ol lhe syllabus unils lo each NOS can be lound on pages !2-!5.
NKNO= n~~==
NL8OSH ollers Vocalionally-Pelaled Qualilicalions (VPQs) in Lngland, Wales and Norlhern
lreland.
NL8OSH 20!0

4
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


VPQs provide lhe knowledge and praclical skills required lor parlicular job roles lhrough a
slruclured sludy-based lraining programme lhal combines lhe lesling ol knowledge and
underslanding in wrillen examinalions wilh praclical applicalion ol learning in lhe workplace.

VPQs are a popular lype ol qualilicalion because lhey are nalionally recognised, llexible and
oller roules lor progression lo employmenl or lurlher sludy.
ln Scolland, SQA-accrediled NL8OSH qualilicalions are lisled as 'Olher Accrediled
Qualilicalions'.
NKNP= n~~==
Nalional Diploma holders wilh Lnvironmenlal responsibililies may wish lo lake lhe NL8OSH
Nalional Diploma in Lnvironmenlal Managemenl.

ln addilion, sludenls who have achieved lhe NL8OSH Nalional Diploma may be considering
lurlher heallh and salely sludy. A number ol universilies oller MSc programs which accepl lhe
NL8OSH Diploma as a lull or parlial enlry requiremenl. Some MSc courses may require
addilional qualilicalions/experlise such as a degree, lurlher signilicanl work experience or
expecl sludenls lo complele specilic modules e.g. in environmenlal managemenl.

lurlher inlormalion can be lound on our websile. www.nebosh.org.uk/qualilicalions
NKNQ= m~===kb_lpeJ~===
Accrediled course providers can be localed using lhe 'Where lo sludy' lab on our websile.
www.nebosh.org.uk

k_W Candidales are advised lo check up-lo-dale inlormalion on course dales wilh accrediled
course providers direclly.
NKNR= b~~=~=
'Slandard' examinalion dales lor lhis qualilicalion are available in January and July annually. Unil
D assignmenl dales are available in March and Seplember annually.

'Local' or on-demand examinalions are available lo course providers lor lhis qualilicalion.

NKNS= p~=~=
The lebruary 20!0 specilicalion lor lhis qualilicalion replaces lhe previous Seplember 2006
specilicalion lor all examinalions lrom (and including) ! July 20!!.
NKNT= p~==~==
The syllabus has been developed by NL8OSH lollowing exlensive consullalion wilh key
slakeholders, nolably accrediled course providers, prolessional bodies, employers, slandards
selling organisalions, enlorcemenl bodies and subjecl experls.
NL8OSH 20!0

5
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

NL8OSH would like lo lake lhis opporlunily lo lhank all lhose who parlicipaled in lhe
developmenl, piloling and implemenlalion ol lhis qualilicalion.
NKNU= c=~==~~=
lurlher inlormalion lor candidales including a syllabus summary, qualilicalion overview leallel
and a sample examiner's reporl can be lound via lhe NL8OSH websile (www.nebosh.org.uk).
Lxaminers' reporls and pasl examinalion papers may be purchased lrom lhe NL8OSH online
shop.
NKNV= c=~==~===
lurlher inlormalion lor accrediled course providers including policies and procedures and
guidance regarding lhe Unil D assignmenl can be lound in lhe accrediled course providers'
seclion ol lhe NL8OSH websile.
NL8OSH 20!0

6
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

OK= n~~==
OKN= r=~=
The Nalional Diploma in Occupalional Heallh and Salely is divided inlo lour unils.

r=^W=j~~=~=~=~
Unil A is a laughl unil, assessed by one lhree-hour wrillen examinalion
Lach wrillen examinalion consisls ol eleven queslions splil inlo Seclion A and 8
Seclion A includes six 'shorl-answer' queslions (!0 marks each) all queslions are
compulsory
Seclion 8 includes live 'long-answer' queslions (20 marks each) candidales choose and
answer lhree queslions only
Lach examinalion queslion paper covers lhe whole unil syllabus wilh al leasl one queslion
per unil elemenl
Candidale scripls are marked by exlernal examiners appoinled by NL8OSH
A sample examinalion queslion paper can be lound in Seclion 5.
=
r=_W=e~~=~===~=
Unil 8 is a laughl unil, assessed by one lhree-hour wrillen examinalion
Lach wrillen examinalion consisls ol eleven queslions splil inlo Seclion A and 8
Seclion A includes six 'shorl-answer' queslions (!0 marks each) all queslions are
compulsory
Seclion 8 includes live 'long-answer' queslions (20 marks each) candidales choose and
answer lhree queslions only
Lach examinalion queslion paper covers lhe whole unil syllabus wilh al leasl one queslion
per unil elemenl
Candidale scripls are marked by exlernal examiners appoinled by NL8OSH
A sample examinalion queslion paper can be lound in Seclion 5.

r=`W=t~=~===~=
Unil C is a laughl unil, assessed by one lhree-hour wrillen examinalion
Lach wrillen examinalion consisls ol eleven queslions splil inlo Seclion A and 8
Seclion A includes six 'shorl-answer' queslions (!0 marks each) all queslions are
compulsory
Seclion 8 includes live 'long-answer' queslions (20 marks each) candidales choose and
answer lhree queslions only
Lach examinalion queslion paper covers lhe whole unil syllabus wilh al leasl one queslion
per unil elemenl
NL8OSH 20!0

7
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


Candidale scripls are marked by exlernal examiners appoinled by NL8OSH
A sample examinalion queslion paper can be lound in Seclion 5.

r=aW=^~==~=~=~==~=~=
Unil D consisls ol a wrillen assignmenl sel by NL8OSH
Approximalely 8,000 words in lenglh
Submission dales lor Diploma assignmenls are in March and Seplember each year
Candidale scripls are marked by exlernal examiners appoinled by NL8OSH.

NL8OSH lollows lhe d`pbI= d`bI= s`bI= dksn= ~= ^b^= `= = m~ published by lhe
regulalory aulhorilies in Lngland, Wales and Norlhern lreland in relalion lo examinalion selling
and marking. Once an exlernally-assessed examinalion (wrillen examinalions and assignmenls
marked by NL8OSH) has been compleled, scripls are senl lo NL8OSH and undergo rigorous
marking, checking and resulls delerminalion processes lo ensure accuracy and consislency. The
code ol praclice is available on lhe Olqual websile (www.olqual.gov.uk).
OKO= r==
Candidales may choose lo lake one, lwo, lhree or all lour unils al lhe same lime or al dillerenl
limes.

OKP== ^==~=~~=
The enrolmenl period lor lhe Nalional Diploma is==~
Sludenls musl pass ~= = wilhin lheir enrolmenl period (normally live years), lo
achieve lhe qualilicalion
Candidales who have reached lhe end ol lhe enrolmenl period bul slill wish lo complele
oulslanding unils, may apply lor a single one year enrolmenl exlension. These are
considered by NL8OSH on a case-by-case basis. Successlul applicalions lor lhe enrolmenl
exlension will incur a lee.
To qualily lor lhe NL8OSH Nalional Diploma a candidale musl.

Lnrol as a course member wilh an accrediled course provider and, lhrough lhe course
provider, wilh NL8OSH. Lnrolmenl wilh NL8OSH (wilh paymenl ol lhe appropriale lee)
should normally be made al lhe beginning ol lhe programme ol sludy
Pegisler wilh NL8OSH lhrough a course provider as a candidale lor lhe relevanl
examinalion paper (wilh paymenl ol lhe appropriale lee)
Pegisler wilh NL8OSH lhrough a course provider as a candidale lor lhe assignmenl unil
(wilh paymenl ol lhe appropriale lee)
lullil all olher requiremenls as may be made lrom lime lo lime by lhe accrediled course
provider and/or NL8OSH
NL8OSH 20!0

8
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


OKQ= r=~=~~=
The pass slandard lor each unil may vary according lo pre-delermined crileria bul is normalised lo
45' lor lhe wrillen papers (Unils A, 8 and C) and 50' lor lhe assignmenl unil (Unil D).
OKR= r=~=
Candidales who are successlul in an individual unil will be issued wilh a unil cerlilicale,
normally wilhin 8 weeks ol lhe issue ol lhe resull nolilicalion. Unils are nol graded and lhe
unil cerlilicales will show a 'Pass' only.
OKS= l~=~~=~=
When candidales have been awarded a unil cerlilicale lor all lour unils (ie, have achieved a Pass
in unils A, 8, C and D), lhe marks are added logelher and a linal grade is awarded as lollows.

m~ !85 239 marks
`= = 240 279 marks
a 280 marks or more
OKT= l~=~~=~=
Once a candidale has achieved a Pass in all lour unils and lhe overall qualilicalion grade
awarded lhey are normally considered lo have compleled lhe qualilicalion and an overall
qualilicalion parchmenl will be issued, wilhin lhree monlhs ol lhe resull declaralion dale lor
lhe lourlh successlully compleled unil.

However, once lhe resull ol lhe lourlh successlully compleled unil has been issued lhe
candidale has = lrom lhe dale ol issue ol lhal resull lo eilher.

lnlorm NL8OSH in wriling ol lheir inlenlion lo re-sil a successlul unil lor lhe purposes ol
improving a grade
Submil an Lnquiry Aboul Pesull (LAP) requesl (see Seclion 3.3).
OKU= oJ=~~= =
ll a candidale's perlormance in any unil componenl is lower lhan a pass, candidales may re-
regisler and re-sil jusl lhe componenl/s in which lhey have been unsuccesslul providing lhal
lhey re-sil wilhin lhe 5 year enrolmenl period. However, each re-sil will incur an addilional lee.

Candidales may re-lake unils al any lime wilhin lheir enrolmenl period, including where lhey
have passed and wish lo re-lake lo improve lheir grade. Once all lour unils have been
successlully compleled, candidales will need lo inlorm NL8OSH ol lheir inlenlion lo re-lake
=====~=======. There is no limil lo lhe
number ol re-sils wilhin lhe enrolmenl period.

ll a re-sil resulls in a lower mark lhan a previous resull lor lhal unil, lhe highesl mark will be
relained.
NL8OSH 20!0

9
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


lor lhe Unil D assignmenl, lhere is no limil lo lhe number ol submissions wilhin lhe enrolmenl
period. ll a candidale gains lower lhan lhe pass mark in lhe assignmenl, lhey may revise and
submil lhe assignmenl again. However, lhey musl re-regisler lor lhe assignmenl in order lo do
so. Please nole lhal no leedback will be given on lhe relerred assignmenl and each addilional
submission will incur a lee. Marks awarded lor subsequenl submissions will nol be capped.

Candidales who regisler lor any unil ol lhe Nalional Diploma whilsl awailing a resull lrom a
previous silling ol an examinalion may nol seek a relund ol lhe regislralion lee il lhey
relrospeclively claim exemplion lor lhal any successlul unil under lhese circumslances, excepl
in lhe case ol an Lnquiry Aboul Pesull.
NL8OSH 20!0

!0
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=



PK= m=
PKN= o==~~=~=
Peasonable adjuslmenls are arrangemenls which are approved in advance ol an examinalion lo
allow allainmenl lo be demonslraled by candidales wilh eilher a permanenl or long-lerm
disabilily or learning dillicully, or lemporary disabilily, illness or indisposilion.

Pequesls lor reasonable adjuslmenls musl be made lo NL8OSH by examinalion accrediled
course providers al leasl one monlh belore lhe examinalion.

lor lurlher delails see lhe NL8OSH m= ~= = = ~~= ~= ~=
~=~ available lrom lhe NL8OSH websile (www.nebosh.org.uk).=
PKO= o==~=~=
Special consideralion is a procedure lhal may resull in an adjuslmenl lo lhe marks ol candidales
who have nol been able lo demonslrale allainmenl because ol lemporary illness, injury,
indisposilion or an unloreseen incidenl al lhe lime ol lhe assessmenl.

Candidales who leel disadvanlaged due lo illness, dislraclion or any olher reason during lhe
assessmenl musl reporl lhis lo lhe invigilalor (or lhe accrediled course provider in lhe case ol
lhe assignmenl) belore leaving lhe examinalion room and requesl lhal lheir wrillen slalemenl,
logelher wilh lhe invigilalor's commenls on lhe slalemenl, be senl by lhe accrediled course
provider lo NL8OSH.

Pequesls lor special consideralion musl be made lo NL8OSH by lhe accrediled course provider
as soon as possible and no more lhan seven working days aller lhe assessmenl.

lor lurlher delails see lhe NL8OSH m= ~= = = ~~= ~= ~=
~=~=available lrom lhe NL8OSH websile (www.nebosh.org.uk).
PKP= b=~==~=~~=
NL8OSH applies delailed and lhorough procedures lo review and check assessmenl resulls
belore lhey are issued. This includes a parlicular review ol borderline resulls. ll lhereby ensures
lhal lhe declared resulls are a lair and equilable relleclion ol lhe slandard ol perlormance by
candidales.

There are, however, procedures lor candidales or accrediled course providers lo enquire aboul
resulls lhal do nol meel lheir reasonable expeclalions. An 'enquiry aboul resull' (LAP) musl be
made in wriling wilhin one monlh ol lhe dale ol issue ol lhe resull lo which il relales.

lor delails see lhe NL8OSH b=~=~~==~= documenl available
lrom lhe NL8OSH websile (www.nebosh.org.uk).
NL8OSH 20!0

!!
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

NL8OSH 20!0

!2

PKQ= j~~=
Malpraclice is delined as any deliberale aclivily, neglecl, delaull or olher praclice by candidales
and/or accrediled course providers lhal compromises lhe inlegrily ol lhe assessmenl process,
and/or lhe validily ol cerlilicales. Malpraclice may include a range ol issues lrom collusion or
use ol unaulhorised malerial by candidales, lo lhe lailure lo mainlain appropriale records or
syslems by accrediled course providers, lo lhe deliberale lalsilicalion ol records in order lo claim
cerlilicales. lailure by an accrediled course provider lo deal wilh idenlilied issues may in ilsell
conslilule malpraclice.

lor lurlher delails see lhe NL8OSH j~~= = ~= documenl available
lrom lhe NL8OSH websile (www.nebosh.org.uk).
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

QK== p~= J= kb_lpe= k~~= a~= = l~~=
e~=~=p~=Ec~=OMNM=~F==
=
p=
=
The qualilicalion is divided inlo lour unils. Unil A is lurlher divided inlo len elemenls and Unils
8 and C inlo eleven elemenls each.

The malrix below indicales how lhe syllabus elemenls map lo lhe relevanl Nalional
Occupalional Slandards (See also seclion !.!!).

Nalional Occupalional Slandards (NOS) lor Heallh and Salely (Praclilioner unils) published
by Proskills Seclor Skills Council (www.proskills.co.uk).


r=^W=j~~=~=~=~==
=
b=
k=
b=q=
oJ=
=
=
o~=
m==
~==
=
m~
=
=
!

Principles ol heallh and salely
managemenl

5 epm=NI=PI=RI=NN= !6
2

Loss causalion and incidenl
invesligalion



5


epm=QI=NM= !9
3

Measuring and reviewing heallh and
salely perlormance

6 epm=QI=VJNN= 2!
4

ldenlilying hazards, assessing and
evalualing risk

!2 epm=RJS= 23
5 Pisk conlrol 8 epm=RI=UI=NP= 25
6 Organisalional laclors !0 epm=OI=Q= 27
7 Human laclors !2 epm=OI=QI=R= 30
8 Principles ol heallh and salely law !2 epm=RI=NO= 33
9 Criminal law 9 epm=QJRI=NO= 36
!0 Civil law !2 epm=QJRI=NO= 38
j=== VN= = =

=
o=~===
=
TR= = =
=
NL8OSH 20!0

!3
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

r=_W=e~~=~===~==
=
b=
k=
b=q=
oJ=
=
=
o~=
m==
~==
=
m~
=
=
!

Principles ol loxicology and
epidemiology

8 epm=SI=NP= 4!
2

Hazardous subslances and olher
chemicals assessmenl ol risk

5 epm=QI=S= 44
3

Hazardous subslances and olher
chemicals engineering conlrols and
personal proleclive equipmenl

4 epm=RJTI=NP= 47
4 Moniloring and measuring 6 epm=RI=TI=U= 49
5 8iological agenls 7 epm=RI=TI=U= 5!
6 Physical agenls ! noise and vibralion !0 epm=RJU= 53
7 Physical agenls 2 - radialion 9 epm=RJU= 57
8 Psychosocial agenls 5 epm=OI=RJUI=NP= 60
9 Musculoskelelal risks and conlrols 4 epm=RJU= 63
!0 Work environmenl risks and conlrols 5 epm=RJUI=NP= 65
!! Managing occupalional heallh 8 epm=OJPI=RJUI=NNI=NP= 68
j=== TN= = =

=
o=~===
=
RM= = =
=
=
=
NL8OSH 20!0

!4
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

r=`W=t~=~===~==
=
b=
k=
b=q=
oJ=
=
=
o~=
m==
~==
=
m~
=
=
! Ceneral workplace issues 7 epm=S= 7!
2 Principles ol lire and explosion 6 epm=RJSI=NP= 74
3 Workplace lire risk assessmenl 6 epm=QJS= 77
4

Slorage, handling and processing ol
dangerous subslances

7 epm=QJRI=NM= 80
5 Work equipmenl (general) 9 epm=QJUI=NP= 83
6

Work equipmenl (workplace
machinery)

!! epm=QJUI=NP= 85
7

Work equipmenl (mobile, lilling and
access)

6 epm=QJUI=NP= 88
8

Lleclrical salely and Lleclricily al Work
Pegulalions !989

7 epm=QJUI=NP= 9!
9 Conslruclion hazards and conlrols 7 epm=QJRI=NM= 94
!0

Workplace lransporl and driving lor
work

4 epm=QJSI=U= 97
!! Pressure syslem hazards and conlrols 5 epm=RI=TJU= 99
j=== TR= = =

=
o=~===
=
RM= = =
=
NL8OSH 20!0

!5
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

r=aW=^~==~=~=~==~=~=
=
b=
k=
b=q=
oJ=
=
=
o~=
m==
~==
=
m~
=
=
!

Applicalion ol heallh and salely
lheory and praclice

6 epm=NJNP= !0!
j=== S= = =

=
o=~===
=
RM= = =
= =
j=~=== OQP= =

=
o=~=~==
=
=
OOR= =

=
q~=~==
=
QSU= =
=
NL8OSH 20!0

!6
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


QKN= = r=^W== j~~=~=~=~=

l~=~==

On complelion ol lhis unil, candidales will be able lo demonslrale lheir underslanding ol lhe
domain knowledge covered lhrough.

!. The applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions, and

2. The crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and
qualilalive lorms.

ln addilion each elemenl has specilic learning oulcomes.

b=^NW= m==~=~=~=~~===
=
i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

A!.! Lxplain lhe moral, legal and economic reasons lor lhe elleclive managemenl ol heallh
and salely

A!.2 Oulline lhe socielal laclors which inlluence heallh and salely slandards and priorilies

A!.3 Lxplain lhe principles and conlenl ol elleclive heallh and salely, qualily, environmenlal,
and inlegraled managemenl syslems wilh relerence lo recognised models and
slandards

A!.4 Oulline lhe role and responsibililies ol lhe heallh and salely praclilioner.

`=
^NKN= o~====~~==~=~=~=
Moral reasons.
- duly ol reasonable care
- unacceplabilily ol pulling heallh and salely ol people al risk
- sociely's allilude lo moral obligalions
- nalional accidenl/incidenl and ill-heallh slalislics
- higher-risk induslries
- ellecl ol size ol organisalion on accidenl/incidenl rales (eg, lalalilies higher in small
businesses).
NL8OSH 20!0

!7
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

Legal reasons.
- prevenlive (by enlorcemenl nolices)
- punilive (lhrough criminal sanclions)
- compensalory ellecls ol law
- principle ol sell-regulalion.
Lconomic reasons.
- cosls associaled wilh accidenl/incidenls and ill-heallh and lheir impacl on sociely and
on organisalions
- insured and un-insured cosls
- lhe linancial benelils ol elleclive heallh and salely managemenl.
^NKO= p~=~===~=~=~=~~=~==
laclors.
- economic climale, governmenl policy and inilialives (eg, 'Working lor a Heallhier
Tomorrow')
- induslry/business risk prolile
- globalisalion ol business
- migranl workers
- nalional level ol sickness absence
- incapacily.
Principle ol 'corporale social responsibilily'.

^NKP= b=~=~=~=~~==

The meaning ol. 'hazard', 'risk', 'danger'
Legal requiremenls relaling lo heallh and salely policies and arrangemenls
Key elemenls ol an elleclive heallh and salely managemenl syslem
Slruclure and conlenl ol managemenl syslem models. HSC65 and 8S OHSAS !800!
Principles ol qualily managemenl syslems (8S LN lSO 900!) and environmenlal
managemenl syslems (8S LN lSO !400!)
8enelils and limilalions ol inlegralion ol qualily, environmenlal, and heallh and salely
managemenl syslems
lnlluence ol lhe linancial Peporling Council Cuidance on lnlernal Conlrol (lormerly lhe
Turnbull guidance) on heallh and salely managemenl
Principles ol lhe HSL/lOD guidelines 'Leading heallh and salely al work'.
=
^NKQ= o=~====~=~=~=~==

The role ol heallh and salely praclilioners in lhe design, implemenlalion, evalualion and
mainlenance ol heallh and salely managemenl syslems
NL8OSH 20!0

!8
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

Pole ol lhe heallh and salely praclilioner in inlluencing ownership and conducl al all levels
ol an organisalion
Meaning ol lhe lerm 'compelence' and lhe requiremenls lor conlinuing prolessional
developmenl lor heallh and salely praclilioners lo mainlain compelence
The need lor heallh and salely praclilioners lo evaluale and develop lheir own praclice
including lhe need lo consull wilh olhers il appropriale, eg, when oulside ol compelence
Meaning ol lhe lerm 'elhics'
Praclical applicalion ol elhical principles (eg, honesly, respecl, inlegrily) lhal underpin
prolessional (heallh and salely praclilioner) codes ol conducl
Dealing wilh conllicls ol inleresl.

=
























=
=
o~=~==
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 Pegulalions 3, 4, 5 and 7
Heallh and Salely al Work elc. Acl !974 seclion 2.
q==
Making an impacl on SML compliance behaviour. An evalualion ol lhe ellecl ol
inlervenlions upon compliance wilh heallh and salely legislalion in small and medium sized
enlerprises PP366 . hllp.//www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdl/rr366.pdl
lnlernal Conlrol. Pevised Cuidance lor Direclors on lhe Combined Code Oclober 2005 (lhe
linancial Peporling Council guidance on inlernal conlrol).
www.lrc.org.uk/corporale/inlernalconlrol.clm
lOSH Code ol Conducl
llPSM Code ol Llhics Corporale Manslaughler and Corporale Homicide Acl 2007
Leading heallh and salely al work (lNDC 4!7) HSL 8ooks, lS8N 978 0 7!76 6267 8
Managing Heallh and Salely in Conslruclion (ACOP) (HSC224), HSL 8ooks lS8N 0-7!76-
2!39-!
Heallh and Salely in Conslruclion (Cuidance) (HSC!50rev), HSL 8ooks lS8N 0-7!76-07!6-X
OHSAS !800! Occupalional heallh and salely managemenl syslems Pequiremenls
o=====~=R==
=
NL8OSH 20!0

!9
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

=
b=^OW= i=~~=~==~=

i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

A2.! Lxplain lheories ol loss causalion

A2.2 Lxplain lhe quanlilalive analysis ol accidenl/incidenl and ill-heallh dala, limilalions ol
lheir applicalion, and lheir presenlalion in numerical and graphical lorm

A2.3 Lxplain lhe slalulory and lhe inlernal reporling and recording syslems lor injuries, ill-
heallh, dangerous occurrences and near misses

A2.4 Lxplain loss invesligalions, lhe requiremenls, benelils, lhe procedures, lhe
documenlalion, and lhe involvemenl ol and communicalion wilh relevanl slall and
represenlalives.
=
`=
=
^OKN= q===~~=
Accidenl/incidenl ralio sludies, lheir use and lheir limilalions
Domino and mulli-causalily lheories, immediale and underlying causes
Lalenl and aclive lailures Peason's model ol accidenl causalion.
^OKO= n~~=~~==~=~=J~=~~=
Melhods ol calculaling loss rales lrom raw dala. accidenl/incidenl lrequency rale, accidenl
incidence rale, accidenl severily rale, ill-heallh prevalence rale
The applicalion and limilalions ol simple slalislical and epidemiological analyses in lhe
idenlilicalion ol pallerns and lrends
Presenling and inlerpreling loss evenl dala in graphical and numerical lormal, using
examples ol hislograms, pie charls and line graphs
Principles ol slalislical variabilily, validily and lhe use ol dislribulions. (eg, sampling a
populalion, errors in dala).
^OKP= o= ~= = = I= J~I= ~= = ~= ~=
=
Slalulory reporling requiremenls and procedures
lnlernal reporling and recording syslems.
NL8OSH 20!0

20
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


=
^OKQ= i=~=
lmplied legal requiremenls
Purposes ol invesligalion including.
- discovery ol underlying causes
- prevenlion ol recurrence
- legal liabilily
- dala galhering
- idenlilicalion ol lrends.
lnvesligalion procedures and melhodologies lo include.
- accidenl/incidenl reporl lorms
- galhering ol relevanl inlormalion
- inlerviewing wilnesses
- analysis ol inlormalion
- involvemenl ol managers, supervisors, employees' represenlalives and olhers in lhe
invesligalion process.
Communicalions wilh a parlicular locus on remedial aclions and lessons learnl
Pool cause analysis melhods such as laull lree analysis as invesligalive lools (relerence
Llemenl A4).

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Successlul Heallh and Salely Managemenl (HSC65), HSL 8ooks, lS8N 0-7!76-!276-7
An lnlroduclion lo Heallh and Salely (lNDC259 Pev !) HSL 8ooks, lS8N 0-7!76-2685-7
o~=~==

Peporling ol lnjuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Pegulalions !995
Social Securily (Claims and Paymenls) Pegulalions !979 (Pegulalions 24 and 25)

q==

lnvesligaling accidenls and incidenls - a workbook lor employers, unions, salely
represenlalives and salely prolessionals (HSC245), lS8N 0 7!76 2827 2, HSL 8ooks
Peason J (!997) 'Managing lhe Pisks ol Organisalional Accidenls'
o=====~=R==
NL8OSH 20!0

2!
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=^PW= j~= ~= = ~= ~= ~=
= = = ~=

i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

A3.! Lxplain lhe purpose ol perlormance measuremenl in relalion lo heallh and salely
objeclives and arrangemenls

A3.2 Lxplain lhe need lor, and lhe objeclives and limilalions ol, heallh and salely moniloring
syslems

A3.3 Describe lhe variely ol moniloring and measuremenl lechniques

A3.4 Lxplain lhe requiremenls lor reviewing heallh and salely perlormance.

`=
=
^PKN= m==~=~
The assessmenl ol lhe ellecliveness and approprialeness ol heallh and salely objeclives and
arrangemenls, including conlrol measures
The making ol recommendalions lor review ol currenl heallh and salely managemenl
syslems.
^PKO= j==
Need lor a range ol bolh aclive and reaclive measures lo delermine whelher heallh and
salely objeclives have been mel.
Objeclives ol aclive moniloring lo check lhal heallh and salely plans have been
implemenled and lo monilor lhe exlenl ol compliance wilh lhe organisalion's
syslems/procedures and legislalive/lechnical slandards.
Objeclives ol reaclive moniloring lo analyse dala relaling lo accidenls, ill-heallh and olher
loss causing evenls.
Limilalions ol placing reliance on accidenl/incidenl and ill-heallh dala.
The dislinclion belween, and applicabilily ol, aclive/reaclive, objeclive/subjeclive and
qualilalive/quanlilalive perlormance measures.
NL8OSH 20!0

22
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

^PKP= j=~=~==
The range ol measures available in order lo evaluale lhe heallh and salely perlormance ol
an organisalion and how lhese can be ulilised lo review lhe ellecliveness ol lhe heallh and
salely managemenl syslem
Pole and purpose ol heallh and salely audils, workplace inspeclions, salely lours, salely
sampling, and salely surveys
The key elemenls and lealures ol heallh and salely audils, workplace inspeclions, salely
lours, salely sampling, and salely surveys
ln-house and proprielary audil syslems and processes, lhe use ol compuler lechnology lo
assisl in dala slorage and analysis and lhe produclion ol reporls
Comparison ol previous perlormance dala wilh lhal ol similar organisalions/induslry seclors
and wilh nalional perlormance dala. Use ol benchmarking, eg, Corporale Heallh & Salely
Perlormance lndex (CHaSPl).
^PKQ= o=~=~=~=~=
Need lor lormal and inlormal reviews ol perlormance
Process ol review
lnpuls lo a review process inlernal perlormance dala, heallh and salely objeclives,
organisalional arrangemenls and change, exlernal slandards and expeclalions
Oulpuls lrom a review process aclions and improvemenl plans, slakeholder reporls,
perlormance largels.


=
=
=
=
=
q==
hllp.//www.chaspi.inlo-exchange.com
o=====~=S==
NL8OSH 20!0

23
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=^QW= f=~~I=~=~=~~=
= = = =
=
i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

A4.! Describe how lo use inlernal and exlernal sources ol inlormalion in lhe idenlilicalion ol
hazards and lhe assessmenl ol risk
A4.2 Oulline a range ol hazard idenlilicalion lechniques
A4.3 Lxplain how lo assess and evaluale risk and lo implemenl a risk assessmenl programme
A4.4 Lxplain lhe principles and lechniques ol lailure lracing melhodologies wilh lhe use ol
calculalions.
`==
^QKN= p= = ~= = = ~= = ~~= ~= = ~= =
=
Accidenl/incidenl and ill-heallh dala and rales incidence, lrequency, severily, prevalence
Lxlernal inlormalion sources (eg, HSL and olher relevanl governmenlal agencies, Luropean
Salely Agency, lnlernalional Labour Organisalion - lLO, World Heallh Organisalion - WHO,
prolessional and lrade bodies)
lnlernal inlormalion sources colleclion, provision, analysis and use ol damage, injury, and
ill-heallh dala, near-miss inlormalion and mainlenance records
Uses and limilalions ol exlernal and inlernal inlormalion sources.
=
^QKO= e~~=~==
Use ol observalion, lask analysis, checklisls and lailure lracing lechniques such as hazard
and operabilily sludies (see 4.4)
lmporlance ol employee inpul.
NL8OSH 20!0

24
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

^QKP= ^=~=~~===
Key sleps in a risk assessmenl process including ensuring comprehensive coverage ol risks,
idenlilying hazards, persons al risk, laclors allecling probabilily and severily, risk evalualion
and required risk conlrol slandards, lormulalion ol aclions, priorilisalion ol aclions and
recording requiremenls
Meaning ol 'suilable and sullicienl'
Dillerences belween, and principles ol, qualilalive, semi-quanlilalive and quanlilalive
assessmenls
Organisalional arrangemenls lor implemenling and mainlaining an elleclive risk assessmenl
programme including procedures, recording prolocols, lraining, compelence,
responsibililies, aulhorisalion and lollow-up ol aclions, moniloring and review
Acceplabilily/lolerabilily ol risk principles in HSL's 'Peducing risks, prolecling people'
(P2P2).
^QKQ= c~=~==
Principles and lechniques ol lailure lracing melhods in lhe assessmenl ol risk.
- hazard and operabilily sludies
- laull lree analysis
- evenl lree analysis.





=
=
=
=
=
=
o~=~==
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 Pegulalion 3

q===
Peducing risks, prolecling people (P2P2). HSL 8ooks lS8N 0 7!76 2!5! 0
=
o======NO==
=
NL8OSH 20!0

25
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

NL8OSH 20!0

26
b=^RW= o=`=

i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

A5.! Oulline common risk managemenl slralegies
A5.2 Oulline laclors lo be laken inlo accounl when selecling risk conlrols
A5.3 Lxplain lhe developmenl, main lealures and operalion ol sale syslems ol work and
permil-lo-work syslems.

`=
^RKN= `==~~=~=
The concepls ol avoidance, reduclion, lransler and relenlion wilh/wilhoul knowledge
wilhin a heallh and salely managemenl programme, wilh relevanl examples (eg, redesign
ol lasks, aulomalion ol process, insurance policies, use ol specialisl conlraclors).
laclors lo be considered in lhe seleclion ol an oplimum solulion based on relevanl risk
dala.
^RKO= c~===~==~=====
The general principles ol prevenlion in lhe Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work
Pegulalions

Calegories ol conlrol measure
- lechnical, eg design, lencing, venlilalion
- procedural, eg syslems ol work, mainlenance
- behavioural, eg inlormalion and lraining.
Ceneral hierarchy ol conlrol measures lorm and juslilicalion
laclors allecling choice ol conlrol measures long lerm/shorl lerm, applicabilily,
praclicabilily, cosl, ellecliveness ol conlrol, legal requiremenls and associaled slandards,
compelence ol personnel and lraining needs relevanl lo prelerred conlrols
Cosl-benelil analysis in relalion lo risk conlrol decisions (organisalional, design, planning,
operalional).
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

^RKP= p~====~=JJ==
Sale syslems ol work. meaning, legal and praclical requiremenls, componenls (people,
equipmenl, malerials, environmenl), developmenl and implemenlalion
The use ol risk assessmenl in lhe developmenl ol sale syslems ol work and sale operaling
procedures
Permil-lo-work syslems essenlial lealures, general applicalion, operalion and moniloring.


o~=~==

Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 Pegulalions 4 (and Schedule
!), 5 and 7







o=====~=U==

NL8OSH 20!0

27
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

NL8OSH 20!0

28
b=^SW= l~~~=~=

i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

A6.! Lxplain lhe inlernal and exlernal inlluences on heallh and salely in an organisalion
A6.2 Oulline lhe organisalion as a syslem, lhe dillerenl lypes ol organisalion, lheir
characlerislics and relalionship lo individuals wilhin lhem
A6.3 ldenlily lhe various calegories ol lhird parlies in a workplace lhe relevanl legislalive
requiremenls, responsibililies and conlrols
A6.4 Lxplain lhe role, inlluences on and procedures lor lormal and inlormal consullalion wilh
employees in lhe workplace
A6.5 Oulline lhe developmenl ol a heallh and salely managemenl inlormalion syslem, lhe
relevanl legal requiremenls, and lhe dala il should conlain
A6.6 Lxplain heallh and salely cullure and climale
A6.7 Oulline lhe laclors which can bolh posilively and negalively allecl heallh and salely
cullure.

`=
^SKN= f~=~=~==
lnlernal inlluences on heallh and salely wilhin an organisalion eg, linance, produclion
largels, lrade unions, organisalional goals and cullure
Lxlernal inlluences on heallh and salely wilhin an organisalion eg, legislalion,
Parliamenl/HSL, enlorcemenl agencies, courls/lribunals, conlracls, clienls/conlraclors, lrade
unions, insurance companies, public opinion.
^SKO= q==~~=
The concepl ol lhe organisalion as a syslem
Organisalional slruclures and lunclions including lormal and inlormal, large or small,
organisalion charls, role ol managemenl
Polenlial conllicl belween organisalional goals and lhose ol lhe individual
The inlegralion ol lhe goals ol lhe organisalion wilh lhe needs ol lhe individual aulhorily,
responsibilily, accounlabilily.


kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

^SKP= q=~==
Third parlies. conlraclors, visilors, lrespassers and members ol lhe public
Criminal law dulies owed lo lhird parlies under lhe Heallh and Salely al Work elc Acl !974
and lhe Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions.
lnlernal rules and procedures concerned wilh lhe seleclion, appoinlmenl and conlrol ol
conlraclors.
Pesponsibililies lor conlrol ol risk associaled wilh conlraclors and visilors.
Pequiremenls lo provide inlormalion relaling lo hazards/risks lo lhird parlies.

^SKQ= `~===
The role and benelils ol consullalion wilhin lhe workplace
lormal consullalion.
- lunclions and righls ol represenlalives on heallh and salely (lrade union-appoinled,
elecled)
- lunclions ol a salely commillee
- lormal consullalion direclly wilh employees.
lnlormal consullalion.
- discussion groups, salely circles, deparlmenlal meelings, employee discussion
- behavioural aspecls associaled wilh consullalion peer group pressures, danger ol
lokenism, polenlial areas ol conllicl.
^SKR= a= = ~= ~= ~= ~= ~~= ~= = = =
= ~=~==~==~~===~=
The developmenl ol a heallh and salely managemenl inlormalion syslem wilhin lhe
workplace
Types ol dala wilhin a heallh and salely managemenl inlormalion syslem. eg, loss evenl
dala, cosl dala, suppliers' dala, resulls ol audils/inspeclions
Legal requiremenls and praclical arrangemenls lor providing heallh and salely inlormalion.
- inlernally lo employees, lemporary workers, conlraclors, elc.
- exlernally lo cuslomers, suppliers, enlorcemenl aulhorilies, employmenl agencies,
members ol lhe public and olhers.

^SKS= e~=~=~==~=~=
Meaning ol 'heallh and salely cullure' and 'climale'
lmpacl ol organisalional cullural laclors and associaled values on individual behaviour
lndicalors ol cullure
Correlalion belween heallh and salely cullure/climale and heallh and salely perlormance
NL8OSH 20!0

29
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


Measuremenl ol lhe cullure and climale, eg, salely climale assessmenl lools, perceplion
surveys, lindings ol accidenl/incidenl invesligalions, ellecliveness ol communicalion,
evidence ol commilmenl by personnel al all levels in lhe organisalion.
^SKT= c~=~=~=~=~==
laclors lhal may promole a posilive heallh and salely cullure (eg, managemenl
commilmenl and leadership, high business prolile lo heallh and salely, provision ol
inlormalion, involvemenl and consullalion, lraining, promolion ol ownership, selling and
meeling largels).
laclors lhal may promole a negalive heallh and salely cullure (eg, organisalional change,
lack ol conlidence in organisalion's objeclives and melhods, uncerlainly, managemenl
decisions lhal prejudice mulual lrusl or lead lo 'mixed signals' regarding commilmenl.
Lllecling cullural change. planning and communicalion, slrong leadership, lhe need lor a
gradualisl (slep-by-slep) approach, direcl and indirecl aclion lo promole change (including
cullural dividends lrom risk assessmenl), slrong employee engagemenl, ownership al all
levels, lraining and perlormance measuremenls, imporlance ol leedback.
Problems and pillalls (eg allempls lo change cullure loo rapidly, adopling loo broad an
approach, absence ol lrusl in communicalions, resislance lo change).










o~=~==

Heallh and Salely al Work, elc. Acl !974 seclions 2, 3 and 4
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 Pegulalions , !0, !! and !2
Salely Pepresenlalives and Salely Commillees Pegulalions !977
Heallh and Salely lnlormalion lor Lmployees Pegulalions !989
Heallh and Salely (Consullalion wilh Lmployees) Pegulalions !996

==
o=====~=NM==
NL8OSH 20!0

30
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


b=^TW= e~=~=

i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

A7.! Oulline psychological and sociological laclors which may give rise lo specilic pallerns ol
sale and unsale behaviour in lhe working environmenl
A7.2 Lxplain lhe nalure ol lhe perceplion ol risk and ils relalionship lo perlormance in lhe
workplace
A7.3 Lxplain lhe classilicalion ol human lailure
A7.4 Lxplain appropriale melhods ol improving individual human reliabilily in lhe workplace
A7.5 Lxplain how organisalional laclors could conlribule lo improving human reliabilily
A7.6 Lxplain how job laclors could conlribule lo improving human reliabilily
A7.7 Oulline lhe principles, condilions and lypical conlenl ol behavioural change
programmes designed lo improve sale behaviour in lhe workplace.

`=
^TKN= e~=I==~=~=
Meaning ol lhe lerms . psychology and sociology
The inlluence on human behaviour ol personalily, allilude, aplilude and molivalion
Key lheories ol human molivalion. lW Taylor, Mayo (Hawlhorne experimenls), Maslow
(hierarchy ol needs), McClelland, Herzberg, McCregor and lheir relevance lo heallh and
salely
Lllecls on behaviour al work ol experience, social and cullural background, educalion and
lraining
On-line and oll-line processing, knowledge, rule and skill-based behaviour (Pasmussen)
lndividual decision-making/problem-solving processes (Pasmussen and Peason).
=
^TKO= m====
Human sensory receplors and lheir reaclion lo slimuli, sensory delecls and basic screening
lechniques.
Process ol perceplion ol danger, perceplual sel and perceplual dislorlion.
Lrrors in perceplion caused by physical slressors.
NL8OSH 20!0

3!
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


Perceplion and lhe assessmenl ol risk, perceplion and lhe limilalions ol human
perlormance, lillering and seleclivily as laclors lor perceplion.
Perceplion and sensory inpuls, principles ol lhe Hale & Hale model
lndividual behaviour in lhe lace ol danger, principles ol lhe Hale & Clendon model.

^TKP= e~=~=~~=
HSC48 classilicalion ol human lailure.
Conlribulion ol human lailure lo serious incidenls, eg Kegworlh, Herald ol lree Lnlerprise,
Piper Alpha, Ladbroke Crove, Clenridding 8eck, Millord Haven, Chernobyl.

^TKQ= f=~=~=~===~=
Molivalion and reinlorcemenl, workplace incenlive schemes, job salislaclion and appraisal
schemes, seleclion ol individuals malching skills and apliludes, lraining and compelence
assessmenl, lilness lor work and heallh surveillance, supporl lor ill-heallh and slress.

^TKR= l~~~=~=
The ellecl ol weaknesses in lhe salely managemenl syslem on lhe probabilily ol human
lailure, eg, inadequacies in lhe selling ol slandards, policy, planning, inlormalion
responsibililies or moniloring
The inlluence ol salely cullure on behaviour and lhe ellecl ol peer group pressure and
norms
The inlluence ol lormal and inlormal groups wilhin an organisalion
Organisalional communicalion mechanisms and lheir impacl on human lailure probabilily,
eg, shill handover communicalion, organisalional communicalion roules and lheir
complexily, reliabilily and degree ol lormalily
Procedures lor resolving conllicl and inlroducing change.
=
^TKS= g=~=
Lllecl ol job laclors on lhe probabilily ol human error (eg, lask complexily, pallerns ol
employmenl, paymenl syslems, shill work)
Applicalion ol lask analysis
NL8OSH 20!0

32
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


The role ol ergonomics in job design.
- inlluence ol process and equipmenl design on human reliabilily
- lhe employee and lhe workslalion as a syslem
- elemenlary physiology and anlhropomelry
- lhe degradalion ol human perlormance resulling lrom poorly designed workslalions.
Lrgonomically designed conlrol syslems in relalion lo human reliabilily eg, examples ol
applicalions. produclion process conlrol panels, crane cab conlrols, aircrall cockpil, CNC
lalhe, elc.
The relalionship belween physical slressors and human reliabilily.
The ellecls ol laligue and slress on human reliabilily.

^TKT= _~~=~=~=
Principles ol behavioural change programmes
Organisalional condilions needed lor success in behavioural change programmes
Lxamples ol lypical behavioural change programme conlenls.





q==

8ehavioural salely, Kicking bad habils (06.!) . lOSH
Peducing error and inlluencing behaviour (HSC48). HSL 8ooks lS8N 97807!7624522
o=====~=NO==
NL8OSH 20!0

33
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=^UW= m==~=~=~=~=

i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

A8.! Lxplain lhe sources and lypes ol law in lorce in lhe UK relevanl lo heallh and salely
A8.2 Lxplain lhe concepl ol absolule and qualilied dulies in relalion lo heallh and salely
legislalion
A8.3 Oulline lhe inlluence and role ol lhe Luropean Union on UK heallh and salely
legislalion
A8.4 Describe lhe slalus and procedure lor lhe crealion ol UK Acls, Pegulalions and Orders
A8.5 Describe lhe slruclure and lunclions ol courls and relaled inslilulions in lhe UK
A8.6 Oulline lhe principles ol lhe law ol conlracl and ils applicalion lo heallh and salely
issues
A8.7 Lxplain lhe principles ol employmenl and discriminalion law as il allecls heallh and
salely issues.

`=
^UKN= p=~===~=
Sources ol law.
- common law. nalure and developmenl, judicial precedenl
- slalule law. Luropean Direclives and Pegulalions, UK Acls ol Parliamenl and
Pegulalions. Prescriplive and goal-selling legislalion.
Types ol law.
- criminal law. purpose, sanclions
- civil law. purpose, lypes ol remedy.
8urden ol prool civil and criminal law.
^UKO= ^=~=~==
The concepl ol absolule and qualilied dulies.
'Absolule', 'praclicable' and 'reasonably praclicable' wilh relerence lo relevanl decided
cases.
^UKP= o===b~=r=
lnlluence and role ol lhe Luropean Union and ils main inslilulions as lhey allecl UK heallh
and salely legislalion
NL8OSH 20!0

34
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


The slalus and procedure lor lhe crealion ol inslrumenls in LU law Trealies, Pegulalions,
Direclives and Decisions
Direclives role ol Parliamenl, Council and Commission in lhe Co-Decision Procedure and
lhe signilicance ol Qualilied Majorily Voling. Dislinclion belween direclives made under
Arlicle 95 and Arlicle !37 ol lhe Trealy ol Pome. Sources ol inlormalion on pending LU
law. UK law in response lo LU Direclives
The role ol lhe Luropean Courl ol Juslice (LCJ) and procedure lor relerring cases, how
decisions ol lhe LCJ are enlorced lhrough courls ol Member Slales, ellecl ol decisions ol
lhe LCJ on UK law.
^UKQ= rh=^I=o~=~=l=
The slalus and procedure lor making UK Acls ol Parliamenl, Pegulalions and Orders.
- Acls ol Parliamenl lhe lunclions ol green and while papers, progression ol a 8ill
lhrough Parliamenl
- Pegulalions procedure under seclion !5 ol lhe Heallh and Salely al Work elc. Acl
!974 and permissible subjecl maller ol Pegulalions, role ol lhe Secrelary ol Slale and
lhe HSL in making Pegulalions, lhe various slages ol consullalion.
The use ol socio-lechnical cosl-benelil analysis in lhe economic assessmenl ol proposed
legislalive/regulalory change.

^UKR= p=~=====~=~==
The lunclions, jurisdiclion and powers ol.
- Lmploymenl Tribunals
- Magislrales' Courls
- Counly Courls
- High Courl
- Crown Courl
- Courl ol Appeal, (Courl ol Session, High Courl ol Jusliciary, Sherill Courls, Dislricl and
Juslice ol lhe Peace Courls in Scolland)
- Supreme Courl
- Luropean Courl ol Juslice.
The basic procedures lor bringing proseculions lor breaches ol heallh and salely legislalion
and lor pursuing civil aclions (cross-reler lo Llemenl A!0).
The role ol Lmploymenl Tribunals in mallers ol heallh and salely.
The appeals syslem. roules and grounds ol appeal.=
^UKS= m===~==~=
Law ol conlracl.
- meaning ol conlracl including. wrillen, verbal, express and implied
- principles ol lhe law ol conlracl and lheir applicalion lo heallh and salely issues, lhe
relalionship belween producer and vendor, vendor and consumer, clienl and conlraclor,
exclusion clauses and ellecl ol lhe Unlair Conlracl Terms Acl !977.
NL8OSH 20!0

35
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


^UKT= m===~=~=~=
Purpose ol conlracl ol employmenl.
Lmploymenl law as il relales lo heallh and salely issues in conneclion wilh.
- disciplinary procedures
- lair and unlair dismissal
- age, sex, race and disabilily discriminalion
- underlaking salely roles al work
- disclosure ol wrong-doing al work.
Silualions where il is lawlul lo discriminale and proleclion lor lhose underlaking salely
roles al work or disclosing wrong-doing al work wilh relerence lo.
- Lmploymenl Pighls Acl !996
- Trade Union and Labour Pelalions (Consolidalion) Acl !992
- Sex Discriminalion Acls !975 and !986
- Pace Pelalions Acl !976
- Disabilily Discriminalion Acl !995
- The Lmploymenl Lqualily (Age) Pegulalions 2006
- Public lnleresl Disclosure Acl !998.

a=~=
Adsell v K&L Sleellounders & Lngineers Lld !953 2 All LP 320
Ldwards v Nalional Coal 8oard !949 ! All LP 743
Marshall v Colham & Co Lld !954 AC 360
Summers (John) & Sons v lrosl !955 AC 740

k_W=Marks will be awarded lor olher ~ case law quoled in examinalions.

o=====~=NO==
NL8OSH 20!0

36
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=^VW= `~=~=
=
i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

A9.! Lxplain lhe key requiremenls ol lhe Heallh and Salely al Work elc Acl !974 and lhe
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999
A9.2 Lxplain lhe slalus ol Approved Codes ol Praclice and guidance and lhe slalulory
procedures lor making Approved Codes ol Praclice
A9.3 Lxplain lhe responsibililies and powers ol enlorcing agencies and ollicers and lhe range
ol oplions relaled lo enlorcemenl aclion, lheir implicalions and appeal procedures.
`=
=
^VKN= q= e~= ~= p~= ~= t= K= ^= NVTQ= ~= = j~~= = e~=
~=p~=~=t=o~=NVVV=

The requiremenls and applicalion ol seclions 2-4 and 6-9 ol lhe Heallh and Salely al Work
elc. Acl !974, relalionship belween general and specilic dulies.
The requiremenls and applicalion ol lhe Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work
Pegulalions !999.
lmplicalions ol seclions 36 and 37 ol lhe Heallh and Salely al Work elc. Acl and regulalion
2! ol lhe Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions wilh relerence lo relevanl
decided cases.
=
^VKO= ^=`==m~=~=~=
=
Purpose, role, slruclure, applicalion and slalus ol approved codes ol praclice and HSL
guidance noles.
Slalulory procedures lor making approved codes ol praclice.
=
^VKP= b==~=~=~=~=
=
ldenlilicalion ol aulhorilies empowered lo enlorce heallh and salely legislalion.
Division ol responsibililies belween enlorcing aulhorilies
Powers ol enlorcing aulhorilies and lheir inspeclors (Heallh and Salely al Work elc. Acl
seclion 20 and 25)
NL8OSH 20!0

37
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


Obligalions ol enlorcing ollicers. duly lo give inlormalion lo employees or lheir
represenlalives, duly nol lo disclose inlormalion (Heallh and Salely al Work elc. Acl seclion
28)
Ollences and maximum penallies under lhe law (Heallh and Salely al Work elc. Acl seclion
33), ollences lor which imprisonmenl is, and is nol, a lorm ol sanclion
Oplions lor enlorcemenl aclion wilh relerence lo HSL Lnlorcemenl Cuide
(www.hse.gov.uk/enlorce/enlorcemenlguide/). proseculion summary, indiclable and
lriable eilher way ollences, lormal caulions, enlorcemenl nolices lypes, purpose, slalus,
condilions lor being served, grounds lor appeal, appeal procedures, ellecls ol appeal
(Heallh and Salely al Work Acl seclions 2!-24 and 39).
Principles ol enlorcemenl by salely case, eg, Conlrol Ol Major Accidenls Hazards, by
regislralion ol individuals, eg, gas salely, and by licensing, eg, asbeslos or advenlure
aclivilies
The ellecl on criminal proceedings ol seclion 40 ol lhe Heallh and Salely al Work Acl
The applicalion ol common law manslaughler (culpable homicide in Scolland) and lhe
Corporale Manslaughler and Corporale Homicide Acl 2007 lo work relaled
accidenl/incidenls. Legal crileria lor proseculion, enlorcemenl and proseculion
responsibililies
Pelevanl example proseculions.

a=~=
Armour v Skeen !977 lPLP 3!0
P v Associaled Oclel Co Lld !996 4 All LP 846
P v 8rilish Sleel plc !995 lPLP 3!0
P v HTM 2006 LWCA Crim !!56
P v Nelson Croup Services (Mainlenance) Lld !998 4 All LP 420
PvP2007 LWCA Crim !937
P v Swan Hunler Shipbuilders Lld and Anolher !982 ! All LP 264.

k_W=Marks will be awarded lor olher ~ case law quoled in examinalions.

o=====~=V==






NL8OSH 20!0

38
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

=
b=^NMW= `=~=
=
i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

A!0.! Lxplain lhe dulies owed al common law

A!0.2 Lxplain lhe crileria required lo eslablish a successlul civil aclion lor breach ol slalulory
duly, lhe main delences available and lhe procedure lor assessmenl ol damages under
civil law

A!0.3 Oulline lhe main civil law slalulory dulies owed by lhe occupiers ol premises lo lawlul
and unlawlul visilors.
=
`=
=
^NMKN= `=~==

Principles ol lorl (delicl in Scollish law) ol negligence.
- duly ol care owed
- breach ol lhe duly ol care
- causal link belween lhe breach and lhe loss sullered
- loreseeabilily ol lhe lype ol damage.

Main delences lo claims ol negligence.
- denial
- no duly owed
- no breach ol duly (wilh relerence lo loreseeabilily, reasonableness)
- breach did nol lead lo damage
- lype ol damage nol loreseeable
- volenli non lil injuria
- conlribulory negligence.

Concepl ol 'duly ol care'.
- lo whom a duly is owed (lhe 'neighbour lesl')
- lhe duly ol care owed by.
o designers, manulaclurers and suppliers lo cuslomers/users
o occupiers ol premises lo lhose using or visiling lhe premises
o conlraclors lo clienls and vice versa
o exlenl ol duly (reasonableness, loreseeabilily).
NL8OSH 20!0

39
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


Common law dulies owed by employers lo employees lo provide.
- a sale place ol work and sale access and egress
- sale syslems ol work
- sale planl, equipmenl and malerials
- inslruclion, lraining and supervision
- compelenl lellow employees.

Damage lor which lhe lorlleasor is liable and relevance ol damage ol loreseeable lype, dale
ol knowledge ol risk.
Crealer duly ol care lo more vulnerable individuals
Concepl ol vicarious liabilily.

^NMKO= _~==~=I==~=~~=

Principle lhal a breach ol a slalulory duly may give rise lo civil liabilily. Crileria lor a
successlul aclion
The main delences lo lhe lorl (delicl) ol breach ol slalulory duly.
- slalule-barred (relevance ol seclion 47 ol lhe Heallh and Salely al Work Acl !974 and
relerence lo lhe exclusions in lhe Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work
Pegulalions !999 and lhe Conslruclion (Design and Managemenl) Pegulalions 2007
- duly nol on lhe delendanl
- no breach ol duly
- injured parly nol wilhin lhe class ol persons prolecled by lhe slalule
- harm nol ol lhe lype lhal lhe slalule was designed lo prevenl
- no causal conneclion belween lhe breach and lhe loss sullered.
laclors lo be considered in lhe assessmenl ol damages, general and special
Conlribulory negligence and ils ellecls
The concepl ol joinl lorlleasors.
- meaning ol joinl and several liabililies
- recovery ol damages lrom joinl lorlleasor
Personal lnjury Aclion Prolocol under lhe Civil Procedures Pules.=
=
^NMKP= l=~=

The main provisions ol lhe Occupiers' Liabilily Acls !957 and !984 or lhe Occupiers' Liabilily
(Scolland) Acl !960.

a=~W=
8radlord v Pobinson Penlals Lld !967 ! All LP 267
Caparo lnduslries Plc v Dickman !990 2 AC 605
NL8OSH 20!0

40
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


Corn v Weirs Class (Hanley) Lld !960 2 All LP 300
Davie v New Merlon 8oard Mills Limiled !958 ! All LP 67
Donaldson v Hays Dislribulion Services Lld 2005 SLT 733
Donoghue v Slevenson !932 AC 562
Herringlon v 8rilish Pailways 8oard !972 AC 877
Lalimer v ALC Lld !953 2 All LP 449, HL
Mersey Docks and Harbour 8oard v Coggins and Crillilh (Liverpool) Lld !946 2 All LP 345
Paris v Slepney 8orough Council !95! ! All LP 42, HL
Pose v Plenly !976 ! ALP 97
Sulherland v Hallon and olhers 2002 LWCA Civ 76
Thompson and olhers v Smilhs Ship Pepairers (Norlh Shields) !984 ! All LP 88!
Wilsons and Clyde Coal Co v Lnglish !938 3 All LP 628.

k_W=Marks will be awarded lor olher ~ case law quoled in examinalions.

o=====~=NO==
NL8OSH 20!0

4!
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


QKO= = r=_W== e~~=~===~=

l~=~==

On complelion ol lhis unil, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
domain knowledge covered lhrough.

!. The applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions, and

2. The crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and
qualilalive lorms.

ln addilion each elemenl has specilic learning oulcomes.
b=_NW= m===~===
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanl.

8!.! Oulline lhe legal lramework as il applies lo chemicals
8!.2 Oulline human analomical syslems and sensory organs
8!.3 Describe lhe main ellecls and roules ol allack ol chemicals on lhe human body
8!.4 Lxplain lhe heallh ellecls ol chemicals used in lhe workplace
8!.5 Lxplain lhe principles ol epidemiology and lhe principles ol loxicological dala lo lhe
idenlilicalion ol work relaled ill-heallh.
`=
_NKN= q=~=~=
Overview ol legislalion conlrolling lhe use ol chemicals in lhe workplace as conlained
wilhin. Conlrol ol Subslances Hazardous lo Heallh Pegulalions 2002, Conlrol ol Lead al
Work Pegulalions 2002, Conlrol ol Asbeslos Pegulalions 2006
Transilion period ol legislalion Chemicals (Hazard lnlormalion and Packaging) Pegulalions
2009 (CHlP 4) will evenlually be replaced by lhe Luropean Pegulalion on lhe Classilicalion,
Labeling and Packaging ol Subslances and Mixlures (CLP) Pegulalion, lo be used lor lhe
classilicalion ol chemicals, dala galhering and communicalion ol hazards (eg, lhe use ol
Salely Dala Sheels in COSHH assessmenls)
NL8OSH 20!0

42
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


The risk assessmenl lramework, as il applies lo chemicals.
- idenlily lhe hazards
- decide who mighl be harmed and how
- evaluale lhe risks and decide on precaulions
- record lhe lindings and implemenl lhem
- review and updale as necessary.
_NKO= e~=~~~==~==~=
The human analomical syslems. respiralory, digeslive, circulalory, nervous syslems, lhe skin
and eyes.
ln relalion lo allack by subslances, lhe concepls ol largel organs and largel syslems, local
and syslemic ellecls.
_NKP= j~==~===~~==~=
The main roules, melhods ol enlry inlo, and ellecls ol chemicals on, lhe human body. eyes,
nose, moulh, ears, inhalalion, ingeslion, skin pervasion and injeclion.
The inlluence ol physical lorm (dusl, libre, misl, liquid, gas elc) and properlies (eg solubilily)
on enlry roules available lo subslances.
Dislinclion belween inhalable and respirable dusl.
The body's delensive responses (innale and adaplive), wilh parlicular relerence lo lhe
respiralory syslem.
_NKQ= e~===~====~=
Duly ol suppliers lo classily dangerous subslances and preparalions wilh relerence lo The
Chemicals (Hazard lnlormalion and Packaging) lor Supply Pegulalions 2009) CHlP.
Calegories ol danger lor heallh ellecls (meaning ol lerms, wilh lypical workplace examples)
very loxic, loxic, harmlul, corrosive, irrilanl, sensilising, carcinogenic, mulagenic, loxic lor
reproduclion. Specilic workplace examples lo include. lrichloroelhylene, asbeslos,
isocyanales, siliceous dusls, lead (and compounds), sulphuric acid, sodium hydroxide,
chromium compounds, hard wood dusl.
Dermalilis and workplace examples ol lypical causalive agenls.
The role ol lhe approved classilicalion and labelling guide and lhe assignmenl ol Pisk
Phrases.
The role ol harmonised classilicalions (rel lable 3.2 ol parl 3 ol annex Vl ol The CLP
Pegulalion (LC !272/2008)) (replacing CHlP).
_NKR= m===~====~=~~=
Purpose ol loxicology and epidemiology and how dala is used in labelling and classilicalion.
How basic dala aboul chemical hazards is generaled (Pel Arlicle !3 ol PLACH (LC
!907/2006)).
Tesl melhods and legal requiremenls lo lesl new subslances.
NL8OSH 20!0

43
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


Human epidemiological invesligalions. The use and limilalions ol case conlrol sludies and
cohorl sludies (relrospeclive and prospeclive).
Verlebrale animal lesling. dislinclion belween acule and chronic lesling and lheir value and
limilalions (rel lhe Tesl Melhods Pegulalion LC 440/2008).
The meaning and signilicance ol lhe concepls ol 'dose-response relalionship', NOALL,
LD50, LC50.
Allernalives lo verlebrale animal lesling, wilh relerence lo lhe Ames lesl, Quanlilalive
Slruclure Aclivily Pelalionship models (QSAP), 'read-across'.
Communicalion ol chemical hazards lo users (Pel CHlP, lhe CLP Pegulalion (LC !272/2008))
and Arlicles !4 and 3! ol PLACH Pegulalion (LC !907/2006) in respecl ol lhe lypical
conlenl (lormal and lypes ol dala) ol labels, Salely Dala Sheels and Chemical Salely
Assessmenls/Peporls lor dangerous subslances and preparalions.
Applicalion ol epidemiological lechniques lo heallh surveillance ol a workplace.


The Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 (as amended)
o~=~==
=
Conlrol ol Subslances Hazardous lo Heallh Pegulalions 2002 (as amended)
Chemicals (Hazard lnlormalion and Packaging lor Supply) Pegulalions 2009
Conlrol ol Lead al Work Pegulalions 2002
Conlrol ol Asbeslos Pegulalions 2006
Pegislralion, Lvalualion, Aulhorisalion and Peslriclion ol Chemicals (PLACH Pegulalion,
LC !907/2006)










o=====~=U==
NL8OSH 20!0

44
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=_OW= e~~= ~= ~= = ~= =
= = = ~====
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
82.! Oulline lhe laclors lo consider when assessing risks lrom hazardous subslances
82.2 Lxplain lhe conlrol measures lor hazardous subslances
82.3 Lxplain lhe addilional requiremenls lor asbeslos and lead.
`=
_OKN= c~====~=
The laclors lo be considered in lhe assessmenl ol risks lo heallh lrom hazardous
subslances.
- lhe hazardous properlies ol lhe subslance, including heallh ellecls
- level ol exposure (amounls and concenlralions used - specilically whal is likely lo gel
inlo lhe air and be inhaled (volalilily (liquids) or dusliness (solids) or come inlo conlacl
wilh skin/eyes or be swallowed)
- nalure ol lhe lask, melhods used elc
- numbers ol people exposed
- lype and duralion ol exposure
- lrequency ol exposure
- lhe ellecl ol mixlures (anlagonism eg poison vs anlidole, addilivily and
polenlialion/synergy)
- parlicular aclivilies where exposure is likely lo be unusually high eg mainlenance and
accidenlal release
- lhresholds ol exposure (lhe amounl needed lo cause harm)
- ellecliveness ol exisling conlrol measures
- resulls lrom relevanl heallh surveillance and exposure moniloring
- individual susceplibililies (eg, alopic persons, women ol child bearing capacily, age,
sensilisalion).
NL8OSH 20!0

45
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


_OKO= `=~
Adequale conlrol ol carcinogens, mulagens and aslhmagens (as low as is reasonably
praclicable) (COSHH, Pegulalion 7)
Principles ol good praclice (COSHH, Schedule 2A), in order ol priorily (COSHH Pegulalions
2002, Pegulalion 7).
- eliminalion ol lhe harmlul subslance lor a non-hazardous one (or al leasl subslilulion
lor a less hazardous one)
- change lhe lorm ol lhe subslance, eg, pasle, solulion ralher lhan dusly powder
- modily lhe process so lhal il emils less ol lhe hazardous subslance (eg, painling vs
spraying)
- engineering conlrols (delail ol exlraclion syslems covered in elemenl 84)
- minimise lhe numbers ol workers exposed
- provide PPL.
Addilional conlrol measures lor carcinogens and mulagens.
- lolal enclosure
- prohibilion ol ealing and drinking in conlaminaled areas
- designalion and cleaning ol conlaminaled areas and use ol suilable warning signs
- closed and labelled conlainers.

_OKP= ^=~=~=
Dislinclions belween licensed and non-licensed asbeslos work
Addilional conlrol measures lor asbeslos (wilh relerence lo Asbeslos Lssenlials and Conlrol
ol Asbeslos Pegulalions 2006)
Addilional conlrol measures lor working wilh lead (wilh relerence lo lhe Conlrol ol Lead al
Work Pegulalions 2002).
NL8OSH 20!0

46
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=















=
o~=~==
=
Conlrol ol Subslances Hazardous lo Heallh Pegulalions 2002 (as amended)
Conlrol ol Asbeslos Pegulalions 2006
Conlrol ol Lead al Work Pegulalions 2002

q==
COSHH Lssenlials www.coshh-essenlials.org.uk
Asbeslos Lssenlials, HSC2!0, lS8N 978-0-7!76-6263-0
Work wilh Malerials Conlaining Asbeslos. Conlrol ol Asbeslos Pegulalions 2006 Approved
Code ol Praclice and Cuidance
Conlrol ol Lead al Work Pegulalions 2002. Approved code ol praclice and guidance, L!32,
lS8N 97807!7625659
=
o=====~=R==
NL8OSH 20!0

47
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=_PW= e~~= ~= ~= = ~= =
= = = ==~=~=
= == = ==
i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
83.! Lxplain local exhausl venlilalion and procedures lo ensure elleclive venlilalion
83.2 Lxplain lhe various lypes ol personal proleclive equipmenl (PPL) available lor use wilh
hazardous subslances and olher chemicals, lheir ellecliveness, and lhe relevanl
specilicalions and slandards lo be mel.
`=
_PKN= s~
Local exhausl venlilalion (LLV) componenls and laclors lhal delermine ellecliveness
Dilulion venlilalion
Visual, qualilalive inspeclion ol perlormance ol engineering conlrols eg condilion ol suclion
inlel, dusl deposils, use ol smoke lubes and dusl lamps (Tyndall beam)
Measuremenls lor assessing perlormance ol local exhausl venlilalion. melhods and
equipmenl lor measuring caplure velocilies, lace velocilies, lransporl velocilies and slalic
pressures
The slalulory requiremenls lor lhorough examinalion and lesl
Lmissions lo almosphere aller inslalling LLV syslems
The purpose ol air cleaning devices.
NL8OSH 20!0

48
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

_PKO= m~===
The requiremenls ol lhe Personal Proleclive Lquipmenl al Work Pegulalions !992 in
relalion lo hazardous subslances and olher chemicals
The general laclors allecling lhe choice and ellecliveness ol personal proleclive equipmenl
(respiralory, eye, skin). lype ol proleclion required, level ol proleclion required,
compalibilily, individual issues (e.g. speclacles, beards), wearer acceplabilily/comlorl, lil,
lraining)
Pespiralory proleclive equipmenl (PPL).
- lypes ol respiralors and brealhing apparalus and lheir applicalions and limilalions
- seleclion/suilabilily ol PPL.
- signilicance ol assigned proleclion laclors, overview ol lhe use ol HSL's PPL seleclor
lool (Pel HSC53) lo aid seleclion, lace lil lesling
- slorage and mainlenance ol PPL.

Skin and eye proleclion. seleclion/suilabilily (eg, chemical compalibilily), use, limilalions,
relevanl specilicalions and perlormance slandards.
=
=
=











=
Personal Proleclive Lquipmenl Pegulalions !992
=
q==
Conlrolling airborne conlaminanls al work, a guide lo local exhausl venlilalion (LLV),
mainlenance, examinalion and lesling. HSC258 lS8N 978 0 7!76 6298 2
Clearing lhe air, A simple guide lo buying and using local exhausl venlilalion (LLV) HSL
8ooks, lS8N 978 0 7!76 630! 9
Conlrol ol Asbeslos Pegulalions 2006
Conlrol ol Lead al Work Pegulalions 2002
o~=~==

Conlrol ol Subslances Hazardous lo Heallh Pegulalions 2002 (as amended)
o=====~=R==
NL8OSH 20!0

49
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=_QW= j=~=~==
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
84.! Lxplain workplace exposure limils (WLLs), lhe means by which lhey are eslablished, and
lheir applicalion lo lhe workplace
84.2 Oulline lhe slralegies, melhods, and equipmenl lor lhe sampling and measuremenl ol
airborne conlaminanls
84.3 Oulline lhe principles ol biological moniloring.
`=
_QKN= t~===EtbiF=
Concepl ol exposure slandards
The meaning ol workplace exposure limils (WLLs)
How WLLs are eslablished. lhe work ol lhe Advisory Commillee on Toxic Subslances (ACTS)
and olher sub-commillees, crileria used
The slalus and use ol LH40
The signilicance in occupalional heallh and hygiene praclice ol shorl-lerm and long-lerm
exposure limils (STLL, LTLL) and lime-weighled average (TWA) values.
Occupalional exposure limils (OLLs) lor lead
8lood-lead concenlralion and urinary-lead concenlralion aclion levels and suspension levels
Conlrol limils lor working wilh asbeslos.

_QKO= p~I= = ~= = = = ~= ~= ~= =
= ~=~~=
The role ol lhe occupalional hygienisl, compelence ol hygienisl
lnlerpreling a hygienisl's reporl, ensuring lhe slralegy and melhods are suilable and lhal
resulls are valid, reliable, represenlalive and correclly evalualed relalive lo any exposure
slandards
Moniloring slralegy (rel HSC!73).
- inilial appraisal
- basic survey
- delailed survey
NL8OSH 20!0

50
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


- reappraisal
- rouline moniloring and laclors lhal delermine lhe necessily and lrequency (including
where lhis is mandalory COSHH Pegulalion !0)
- lhe imporlance ol use ol slandard melhods (MDHS series).
Ceneral melhods lor sampling and gravimelric analysis ol respirable and inhalable dusl
Sampling equipmenl lor solid parliculales (dusls, libres). sampling head (prolecled, cyclone,
cowl) and pump, melhod ol use
Measuremenl principles, dusls (gravimelric, physical and chemical analysis), libres
(microscopy)
Sampling equipmenl lor vapours, aclive devices (eg, liquid or solid sorbenls and pumps),
passive devices
Measuremenl principles (chemical and physical analysis examples speclroscopy and
chromalography)
Calculalion ol 8 hour equivalenl TWA exposures lrom galhered dala (eg, sample mass,
pump llow rale and llow lime), comparison wilh LTLL and evalualion ol signilicance in
lerms ol lurlher aclion needed
Direcl reading inslrumenls (give immediale or near immediale reading), advanlages and
disadvanlages, slain lube (colour melric) deleclors.
_QKP= _~==
8iological moniloring (a lorm ol heallh surveillance) personal sampling/moniloring, as
opposed lo approximale airborne moniloring.
- lhe basic principles (wilh workplace examples)
- circumslances where il is especially applicable and lhe relalive advanlages and
disadvanlages
- lhe role ol biological moniloring guidance values (in LH40)
- slalulory biological limils (eg Conlrol ol Lead al Work Pegulalions, Pegulalion !0)
- medical surveillance in relalion lo lead.
=
q==
Lxposure measuremenl. Air sampling, C409 ol COSHH-LSSLNTlALS
MDHS !4/3. Ceneral melhods lor sampling and gravimelric analysis ol respirable and
inhalable dusl. lS8N 07!76 !749 !
Conlrol ol Subslances Hazardous lo Heallh Pegulalions 2002 (as amended)
Conlrol ol Asbeslos Pegulalions 2006
Conlrol ol Lead al Work Pegulalions 2002
=
o~=~==









=o=====~=S==
NL8OSH 20!0

5!
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=_RW= _~=~==
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
85.! Lxplain lhe lypes and properlies ol biological agenls lound al work
85.2 Lxplain lhe assessmenl and conlrol ol risk lrom exposure lo biological agenls al work.
`=
_RKN= q=~===~=~=
Meaning ol 'biological agenl'.
Types ol biological agenl (lungi, bacleria, viruses) and sources (human, animal and
environmenlal), wilh examples in each case.
Special properlies ol biological agenls (rapid mulalion, incubalion period, inleclious, rapid
mulliplicalion).

_RKO= ^=~====
Purpose ol lhe Approved Lisl ol 8iological Agenls.
Peporlable diseases caused by biological agenls (eg needle-slick injuries).
laclors lo lake inlo accounl in risk assessmenl.
- hazard calegory, (Croups !, 2, 3 and 4 ol COSHH Schedule 3) lorm
- aclivilies and people al risk
- likelihood and nalure ol resullanl disease
- modes ol lransmission wilh examples.
lnlenlional work vs. opporlunislic inleclion.
Selecled diseases caused by biological agenls, logelher wilh occupalional conlexls,
occurrence, symploms, lrealmenl and conlrol.
- cryplosporidosis
- larmer's lung (and olher diseases ol lhis lype psillacosis)
- hepalilis
- HlV
- legionnellosis
- leplospirosis
- L. coli
- zoonoses
- MPSA
NL8OSH 20!0

52
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

- Cdill
- Lmerging heallh issues, eg, norovirus, pandemic llu.
Ceneral hierarchy ol conlrol.
- eradicalion
- reduced virulence
- change ol work melhod lo minimise or suppress generalion ol aerosols
- isolalion and segregalion
- conlainmenl approach (Schedule 3 COSHH)
- conlrol lor specilic examples
- sharps conlrol
- immunisalion
- deconlaminalion and disinleclion
- ellluenl and wasle colleclion
- slorage and disposal (conlrolled)
- personal hygiene measures
- personal proleclive equipmenl
- biohazard signs
- baseline lesling and heallh surveillance.


Advisory Commillee on Dangerous Palhogens, The Approved Lisl ol biological agenls
(available as an online publicalion only on lhe HSL websile al
hllp.//www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/misc208.pdl.)
o~=~==

Conlrol ol Subslances Hazardous lo Heallh Pegulalions 2002 (as amended) Schedule 3,
Addilional provisions relaling lo work wilh biological agenls
The Peporling ol lnjuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Pegulalions !995
=
q==















==o=====~=T==
NL8OSH 20!0

53
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=_SW= m~=~=N===~=~==
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
86.! Lxplain lhe basic physical concepls relevanl lo noise
86.2 Lxplain lhe ellecls ol noise on lhe individual and lhe use ol audiomelry
86.3 Lxplain lhe measuremenl and assessmenl ol noise exposure
86.4 Lxplain lhe principles ol conlrolling noise and noise exposure
86.5 Lxplain lhe basic physical concepls relevanl lo vibralion
86.6 Lxplain lhe ellecls ol vibralion on lhe individual
86.7 Lxplain lhe measuremenl and assessmenl ol vibralion exposure
86.8 Lxplain lhe principles ol conlrolling vibralion and vibralion exposure.
`=
_SKN= _~=~==~===
The meaning ol noise under lhe Conlrol ol Noise al Work Pegulalions 2005, wilh
workplace examples
The basic concepls ol sound.
- wavelenglh,
- amplilude
- lrequency
- inlensily
- pilch
- lhe decibel (d8)
- A-weighling 'd8(A)' and C weighling 'd8(C)', in relalion lo occupalional noise exposure.

The signilicance ol logarilhmic scales in relalion lo d8 and concepls ol addilion ol combined
sounds (equal and unequal), concepl ol noise dose.
_SKO= b=====~=
The physiology ol lhe ear in relalion lo lhe mechanism ol hearing
NL8OSH 20!0

54
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


The physical and psychological ellecls on lhe individual, lypes ol hearing loss wilh relerence
lo lheir signilicance in lhe workplace, lhe acule and chronic physiological ellecls ol
exposure lo high noise levels
Use ol audiomelry lo measure hearing and hearing loss, melhod, inlerprelalion and use ol
resulls (inlerprelalion ol audiograms), advanlages and disadvanlages ol audiomelry
programmes
The legal requiremenls lor audiomelry as required by lhe Conlrol ol Noise al Work
Pegulalions 2005 and Conlrolling Noise al Work, Cuidance on Pegulalions, L!08
Civil law implicalions ol audiomelry.
_SKP= j~=~=~====
lnslrumenlalion used lor lhe measuremenl ol noise.
- lypes
- melhodology
- calibralion.
The praclical use ol inslrumenlalion lo delermine.
- LA
eq
and LLP,d
- lrequency analysis
- background noise.
The melhodology ol underlaking workplace noise surveys and personal noise exposure
assessmenls.
- planning (who, how, where, how ollen)
- choice ol inslrumenlalion
- measuremenls lo be laken
- inlerprelalion and evalualion ol resulls
- use ol noise calculalors lo delermine mixed exposures
- comparison wilh legal limils.
_SKQ= `==~===
Legal requiremenls and dulies lo manage exposure lo noise as required by Conlrol ol Noise
al Work Pegulalions 2005
Lower and upper exposure aclion values, exposure limil values
The hierarchy ol noise conlrol.
- eliminale al source or conlrol so lar as is reasonably praclicable al source (relocalion, re-
design, mainlenance)
- conlrol along lransmission palh (eg isolalion, barriers, enclosures)
- conlrol exposure al lhe receiver (enclosures, acouslic havens, hearing proleclion zones,
and PPL, limiling exposure lime, surveillance (audiomelry).
Techniques lo conlrol noise generalion, lransmission and exposure.
- lransmission
- relleclion
- absorplion
NL8OSH 20!0

55
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

- damping
- dillusion
- sound reduclion indices
- sound absorplion coellicienls.
The seleclion, mainlenance and use ol appropriale hearing proleclion
- use ol oclave band analysis
- SNP (single number raling) and HML (high, medium, low) melhods
- problems ol over-proleclion.
_SKR= _~=~==~==~=
Vibralion as delined in lhe Conlrol ol Vibralion al Work Pegulalions 2005
The basic concepls ol displacemenl, velocily, amplilude, lrequency and acceleralion lor
oscillaling parlicles in relalion lo.
- occupalional vibralion exposure
- comlorl levels
- lhe concepl ol vibralion dose.
_SKS= b==~===~=
The physiological and ill-heallh ellecls ol exposure lo vibralion, lhe dillerence belween
exposure lo whole body vibralion and hand-arm vibralion, use ol lhe Slockholm scale,
aggravaling laclors (eg low lemperalures, smoking)
Croups ol workers al risk lrom exposure lo whole body vibralion (W8V) and hand arm
vibralion (HAV).
_SKT= j~=~=~==~==
The measuremenl ol vibralion.
- inslrumenlalion (lhe acceleromeler)
- unils
- use ol manulaclurers' dala lo eslimale employee's exposure lo vibralion
- making workplace measuremenls lor bolh W8V and HAV exposure.
Lxposure slandards lor vibralion wilh relerence lo legal limil and aclion values
HSL Vibralion calculalor and ils use lo delermine simple and mixed exposure.
_SKU= `=~=~=~==
Praclical conlrol measures lo prevenl or minimise exposure lo bolh W8V and HAV.
- aulomalion
- change ol work melhod
- improved/allernalive equipmenl
- purchasing policy
- mainlenance
- job rolalion
- inslruclion/lraining
- heallh surveillance
- PPL.
NL8OSH 20!0

56
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

























HSL hllp.//www.hse.gov.uk/noise/calculalor.hlm
o~=~==

Conlrol ol Noise al Work Pegulalions 2005
Conlrol ol Vibralion al Work Pegulalions 2005
Personal Proleclive Lquipmenl al Work Pegulalions !992
q==
Conlrolling Noise al Work, ACOP, L!08
Conlrol lhe risks lrom hand-arm vibralion, Advice lor employers on lhe Conlrol ol Vibralion
al Work, Pegulalions 2005, lS8N 978 0 7!76 6!!7 6
Whole-body vibralion, The Conlrol ol Vibralion al Work Pegulalions 2005 Cuidance on
Pegulalions L!4!, lS8N. 0 7!76 6!26 !
Vibralion Solulions. Praclical ways lo reduce lhe risk ol hand-arm vibralion injury, HSC!70,
lS8N 0 7!76 0954 5
o=====~=NM==
NL8OSH 20!0

57
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=_TW= m~=~=O==~~==
i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
87.! Oulline lhe nalure ol lhe dillerenl lypes ol ionising and non-ionising radialion
87.2 Lxplain lhe ellecls ol exposure lo non-ionising radialion, ils measuremenl and conlrol
87.3 Lxplain lhe ellecls ol exposure lo ionising radialion, ils measuremenl and conlrol
87.4 Lxplain lhe dillerenl sources ol lasers lound in lhe workplace, lhe classilicalion ol
lasers and lhe conlrol measures.
`=
_TKN= q=~=~=====~=J=~~==
The eleclromagnelic speclrum (wavelenglh, energy, lrequency).
- lhe dillerences belween ionising and non-ionising radialion
- lhe lypes ol ionising radialion (alpha, bela, gamma, x radialion, neulrons) , origins and
sources and non-ionising radialion (UV, lP, microwave and radio)
- parliculale and non-parliculale lypes ol ionising radialion.

Pole ol lhe lnlernalional Commission lor Padiological Proleclion, lhe Heallh Proleclion
Agency/Heallh Proleclion Scolland and lhe Lnvironmenl Agency/Scollish Lnvironmenl
Proleclion Agency.

_TKO= kJ=~~=
=
Sources ol non-ionising radialion bolh generaled in workplaces (eg leisure, manulacluring,
heallhcare, research, lelecommunicalions elc) and nalurally occurring (eg ouldoor work)
Lxposure roules lor non-ionising radialion. The ellecls ol exposure lo each lype ol non-
ionising radialion (UV, lP, microwave and radio), bolh acule and chronic
Unils and melhods ol measuremenl, power densily, proposed exposure limil values
Praclical conlrol measures lo prevenl or minimise exposure lo non-ionising radialion bolh
generaled in workplaces and nalurally occurring including.
- design
- siling
- direclion conlrol
- reduclion ol slray lields
- screening
- enclosures
NL8OSH 20!0

58
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

- dislance
- sale syslems ol work
- inslruclions
- lraining
- personal proleclive equipmenl.
Legal requiremenls lo manage exposure lo non-ionising radialion as required by exisling
and proposed legislalion.
=
_TKP= f=~~=
Sources ol ionising radialion, bolh generaled in workplaces (eg, manulacluring, heallhcare,
research, power generalion) and nalurally occurring (eg, radon)
Poules ol exposure lor ionising radialion wilh relerence lo bolh exlernal and inlernal
(inhalalion, ingeslion, injeclion absorplion) radialion exposure
Lllecls ol exposure lo each lype ol radialion (alpha, bela, gamma, x radialion, neulrons)
bolh acule and chronic, somalic, genelic, non-slochaslic and slochaslic
Unils ol radioaclivily, radialion dose and dose equivalenl, dose response and dose ellecl,
irradialion
Melhods ol measuring ionising radialion, ionisalion chambers (Ceiger-Muller lube),
scinlillalion deleclors, wilh relerence lo how lhese mighl be used in lhe workplace
Use ol lilm badges, lhermo-luminescenl dosimelers, approved dosimelry services
Praclical measures lo prevenl or minimise exposure lo.
- exlernal radialion (shielding, dislance, lime)
- inlernal radialion (prevenlion ol inhalalion, ingeslion, injeclion, absorplion)
Legal requiremenls lo manage (non-medical) exposure lo ionising radialion as required by
lonising Padialion Pegulalions !999
Dulies include. provide salely devices, warning signals, handling lools elc, perlorm leakage
lesling ol radioaclive sources, provide and lesl proleclive equipmenl and clolhing, monilor
radialion and conlaminalion levels, have radialion monilors regularly lesled, slore
radioaclive subslances salely, design, conslrucl and mainlain buildings, lillings and
equipmenl so as lo minimise conlaminalion, lo nolily HSL ol cerlain occurrences, provide
appropriale lraining, supervision and wrillen inslruclion, draw up conlingency
arrangemenls lor dealing wilh possible accidenls
Padiological exposure limils (as specilied in lonising Padialion Pegulalions) classilied person.
ALAPP principle. Padon levels and ongoing measuremenl
The role, compelency and lraining ol Padialion Proleclion Advisers and Padialion Proleclion
Supervisors.
_TKQ== i~==
Typical laser sources in workplaces (eg, leisure, enlerlainmenl, relail, manulacluring,
heallhcare, research, elc)
Lxposure roules lor lasers
Hazard classilicalions ol lasers (lLC/LN 60825-!), exposure limils
NL8OSH 20!0

59
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


The ellecls ol exposure lo each class ol laser
Praclical conlrol measures lo prevenl or minimise exposure lo lasers used in workplaces
including design, siling, direclion conlrol, reduclion ol slray beams, screening, enclosures,
dislance, sale syslem ol work/inslruclions, lraining, PPL
The legal requiremenls lo manage exposure lo lasers as required by exisling and proposed
legislalion
Pole, compelency and lraining lor a Laser Proleclion Adviser" (volunlary scheme).=























Workplace (Heallh, Salely and Wellare) Pegulalions !992=
=
q==
Working wilh ionising Padialion Approved Code ol Praclice (ACOP) and guidance in supporl
ol lPP99. lS8N 978 0 7!76 !746 3 relerence L!2! HSL 8ooks
HSL's Cenlral lndex ol Dose lnlormalion (ClDl).
8PL Peporl, 8P293, Padon in lhe workplace lS8N ! 8608! 040 3 8PL 8ookshops
Padon and Public Heallh PCL !! The lndependenl Advisory Croup on lonising Padialion,
Publicalion dale. June 2009, lS8N. 978-0-8595!-644-0
Heallh Proleclion Agency web-sile Laser Salely Managemenl
hllp.//www.hpa.nhs.uk/webw/HPAweb&HPAwebSlandard/HPAweb_C/!!9702!7!9447?p=!
!58934607766#5
o~=~==

lonising Padialions Pegulalions !999
lonising Padialions (Medical Lxposure) Pegulalions) 2000
8uilding Pegulalions (Lngland and Wales) 2000
Non-ionising radialion - The Lleclro Magnelic lields (LMl) Direclive (or equivalenl
regulalions)
Physical Agenls (Arlilicial Oplical Padialion) Direclive (2006/25/LC) (or equivalenl regulalions)
Heallh and Salely al Work elc, Acl !974
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 (as amended)
o=====~=V==
NL8OSH 20!0

60
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


b=_UW= m~=~==
=
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
88.! Lxplain lhe scope, ellecls and causes ol work-relaled slress
88.2 Lxplain lhe idenlilicalion and conlrol ol workplace slress wilh relerence lo legal dulies
and olher slandards
88.3 Lxplain lhe scope, ellecls and causes ol work-relaled violence/aggression
88.4 Lxplain lhe idenlilicalion and conlrol ol work-relaled violence/aggression wilh
relerence lo legal dulies.
`=
_UKN= pI==~=~==J~=
The meaning ol work-relaled slress and posl-lraumalic slress disorder
The prevalence ol work-relaled slress wilh relerence lo reporlable and sell reporled sources
Physical and psychological ellecls ol work-relaled slress
Causes ol work-relaled slress relaling lo organisalion, job and individual.
- organisalion ol work.- working hours, long hours, shill work, unprediclable hours,
changes in working hours
- workplace cullure.- communicalion, organisalional slruclure, resources, supporl
- working environmenl,- space, noise, lemperalure, lighling, elc
- job conlenl.- work load, lime pressures, boredom, elc
- job role.- clarily, conllicl ol inleresls, lack ol conlrol, elc
- relalionships.- bullying and harassmenl, verbal/physical abuse
- home-work inlerlace.- commuling, childcare issues, relocalion, elc.=
_UKO= f~=~=I=~==~=~~=
ldenlilicalion and assessmenl ol work-relaled slress and posl-lraumalic slress disorders al
individual and organisalional level (eg, discussions, absence dala, inlerviews, surveys,
queslionnaires, elc)
The HSL slress managemenl slandards and lheir role in assessing and managing work
relaled slress (demand, conlrol, supporl, relalionships, role, change)
Praclical conlrol measures lo reduce and manage work-relaled slress, based on lhe HSL
managemenl slandards (including counselling and relurn lo work policies)
NL8OSH 20!0

6!
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


Legal requiremenls lor employers lo manage work relaled slress as parl ol criminal and civil
law wilh relerence lo relevanl slalulory provisions and case law examples, Sulherland v
Hallon and olhers 2002, Walker v Norlhumberland Counly Council !995, 8arber v
Somersel Counly Council 2004, lnlel Corporalion (UK) Limiled v Daw 2007.
_UKP= p=~===J~=L~=
Meaning ol work-relaled violence/aggression (physical/verbal, aclual harm and lhreals)
Physical and psychological ellecls ol violence and aggression
Prevalence/exlenl ol work-relaled violence/aggression and consequences wilh relerence lo
reporlable and sell reporled sources (eg, 8rilish crime survey, PlDDOP)
ldenlilicalion and assessmenl ol risks ol work-relaled violence/aggression (eg, use ol slall
surveys, incidenl reporling and risk assessmenl)
laclors likely lo increase lhe risk ol work-relaled violence, eg, people working wilh public,
caring/leaching prolessions, working wilh psychialric clienls or alcohol/drug impaired
people, working alone, home visiling, handling money/valuables, inspeclion and
enlorcemenl dulies, relail and licensed lrade.
=
_UKQ= f~=~===~=L~=
ldenlilicalion ol praclical conlrol measures lo reduce and manage work-relaled
violence/aggression including using physical, organisalional and behavioural conlrols.
- cash lree syslems, layoul ol public areas and design ol lixlures and lillings
- use ol cameras, proleclive screens, and securily-coded doors
- communicalion syslems, passing on inlormalion on risks lrom individual clienls (violenl
marker llags), recording ol slall whereabouls and recognilion when slall are overdue,
use ol mobile communicalions equipmenl phones, radios, CPS
- slall lraining. recognilion ol silualions where violence could resull, inlerpersonal skills lo
deluse aggression, use ol language and body language, guidance lo slall on dealing
wilh an incidenl, supporl lor slall posl-incidenl including lraining in counselling lor
managers.
Legal requiremenls lor employers lo manage work-relaled violence/aggression as parl ol
criminal and civil law wilh relerence lo relevanl slalulory provisions and case law. Legal
conslrainls regarding 'reasonable lorce'.
k_W= Marks will be awarded lor olher ~ case law quoled in examinalions.
NL8OSH 20!0

62
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=



















Criminal Law Acl !967, Seclion 3, (reasonable lorce)
Dala Proleclion Acl !998
Lmploymenl Pighls Acl !996.=
=
`~=~
Sulherland v Hallon and olhers 2002 LWCA Civ76, Walker v Norlhumberland Counly
Council !995 lPLP 35
8arber v Somersel Counly Council 2004 UKHL !3
lnlel Corporalion (UK) Limiled v Daw 2007 LWCA Civ 70.
=
o~=~==

Heallh and Salely al Work elc. Acl !974 Seclion 2, 3 & 4
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 (as amended)
Working Time Pegulalions !998
Peporling ol lnjuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrence Pegulalions !995
Public Order Acl !986
o=====~=R===
NL8OSH 20!0

63
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=_VW= j~==~==
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
89.! Oulline lypes, causes and relevanl workplace examples ol injuries and ill-heallh
condilions associaled wilh repelilive physical aclivilies, manual handling and poor
poslure
89.2 Lxplain lhe assessmenl and conlrol ol risks lrom repelilive aclivilies, manual handling
and poor poslure.
`=
_VKN= qI=~=~=~==~=~~=
8asic underslanding ol lhe human musculoskelelal syslem including, bones, lendons,
ligamenls, nerves and muscles
Lrgonomic principles as applied lo lhe conlrol ol musculoskelelal risks
Types ol injury and ill-heallh condilions resulling lrom repelilive physical aclivilies, manual
handling and poor poslure, including, WPULDs, musculoskelelal injury and discomlorl, back
pain, eye and eyesighl ellecls, laligue, slress, sprains/slrains, lraclures, laceralions
Lxamples ol jobs and workplace silualions lhal give rise lo risks ol lhese injuries and ill-
heallh condilions, eg produclion/assembly lines, working in reslricled work spaces, use ol
DSL, manual handling ol objecls and people.

_VKO= ^= = = = ~= ~I= ~~= ~= ~= =
=
Legal requiremenls lo manage risks associaled wilh repelilive physical aclivilies, manual
handling and poor poslure, wilh specilic relerence lo dulies under Managemenl ol Heallh
and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999, Manual Handling Operalions Pegulalions !992,
Heallh and Salely (Display Screen Lquipmenl) Pegulalions !993 (as amended) and
Workplace (Heallh, Salely and Wellare) Pegulalions !992
Consideralion ol. lask, load, lorce, working environmenl, equipmenl, individual capabilily
when assessing risks associaled wilh repelilive physical aclivilies, manual handling and poor
poslure
Melhods ol assessing lhe risks associaled wilh jobs/lasks involving repelilive physical
aclivilies, manual handling and poor poslure
Use ol assessmenl lools. HSL Manual Handling Assessmenl Tool (MAC), HSL Arl Tool
(assessmenl lool lor repelilive lasks ol lhe upper limbs), NlOSH Manual Malerial Handling
(MMH) Checklisl , Papid Upper Limb Assessmenl (PULA), Quick Lxposure Check (QLC)
NL8OSH 20!0

64
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


Praclical conlrol measures lo avoid or minimise lhe risk associaled wilh repelilive physical
aclivilies, manual handling and poor poslure including. eliminalion, aulomalion, allernalive
work melhods/job design, ergonomic design ol lools/equipmenl/workslalions and
workplaces, job rolalion, work rouline, eye and eyesighl lesling, lraining and inlormalion,
ellicienl movemenl principles, personal consideralions.
=







==
Heallh and Salely (Display Screen Lquipmenl) Pegulalions !992
Manual Handling Operalions Pegulalions !992
Workplace (Heallh, Salely, Wellare) Pegulalions !992
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 (as amended)
Heallh and Salely al Work elc. Acl !974=
o~=~==

=o=====~=Q==
NL8OSH 20!0

65
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

b=_NMW= t===~==
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
8!0.! Lxplain lhe need lor, and laclors involved in, lhe provision and mainlenance ol
lhermal comlorl in lhe work environmenl
8!0.2 Lxplain lhe need lor suilable and sullicienl lighling in lhe workplace, unils ol
measuremenl ol lighl and lhe assessmenl ol lighling levels in lhe workplace
8!0.3 Lxplain lhe need lor wellare lacililies and arrangemenls in lixed and lemporary
workplaces
8!0.4 Lxplain lhe requiremenls and provision lor lirsl aid in lhe workplace.
`=
_NMKN= q= = I= ~= ~= = I= = = ~= ~~= =
= ~======
Legal requiremenls lor managing lhermal comlorl and providing a 'reasonable' lemperalure
lor inside workplaces
The meaning ol lhermal comlorl
The ellecls ol working in high and low lemperalures and humidily
Typical work silualions likely lo lead lo lhermal discomlorl
The environmenlal paramelers allecling lhermal comlorl (air lemperalure, radianl
lemperalure, relalive humidily, air velocily) and how lo measure lhem (lhermomelers, dry
bulb, wel bulb, globe, kala, anemomelers, psychromelers, inlegraled eleclronic inslrumenls
including heal slress monilors)
Olher paramelers allecling lhermal comlorl. melabolic rale, clolhing, sweal rale, duralion
ol exposure
Heal balance equalion M= K+/-C+/-P+/-L
Measuring lhermal comlorl using predicled mean vole (PMV) and percenlage people
dissalislied (PPD) index and use ol 8S LN lSO 7730 and 8S LN lSO !055!
The assessmenl ol heal slress, role ol heal indices, dillerence belween empirical, direcl and
ralional indices. (eg elleclive lemperalure (LT), correcled elleclive lemperalure (CLT), heal
slress index (HSl), predicled 4-hour sweal rale (P4SP), wind chill index (WCl))
Use ol lhe heal slress index W8CT ( as per 8S LN 27243), equalion used lo calculale unils,
melabolic rale class, comparison lo relerence values, conclusions on heal slress risk,
acclimalisalion
NL8OSH 20!0

66
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=


Praclical conlrol measures lo minimise lhe risks when working in exlreme lhermal
environmenl.
- conlrol heal source
- conlrol olher environmenlal paramelers
- separalion
- workplace design
- job design clolhing/PPL
- heallh surveillance
- lraining.
=
_NMKO== p~=~=====~I===~===
~==~======~=
The necessily lor lighling in workplaces
'Suilable and sullicienl lighling', nalural and arlilicial lighling
The impacl ol lighling levels on salely issues incorrecl perceplion, lailure lo perceive,
slroboscopic ellecls, colour assessmenl, ellecl on alliludes
Lllecls ol brighlness conlrasl disabling and discomlorl glare, lissue damage lrom lighl
exposure, visual laligue
lnslrumenlalion, unils and measuremenl ol lighl, assessmenl ol lighling levels and
slandards.
=
_NMKP== t~=~=~=~~===~=~=~=
Legal requiremenls lor wellare lacililies and arrangemenls in workplaces
Provision ol loilel, washing and changing lacililies
Slorage ol clolhing
lacililies lor ealing, resl rooms
lacililies lor pregnanl women and nursing molhers, logelher wilh lhe praclical
arrangemenls
Provision ol lacililies lor smokers, company vehicles, care homes and llals where residenls
smoke
The need lo lake accounl ol disabled persons.
=
_NMKQ== o=~====~===~=
Legal requiremenls lor lirsl aid in lhe workplace
The basis ol provision (eg, numbers ol employees, workplace risks, proximily ol emergency
services).


NL8OSH 20!0

67
kb_lpe=k~~=a~==l~~=e~=~=p~=
=Ec~=OMNM=~F=

NL8OSH 20!0

68
















o~=~==

Heallh and Salely al Work elc Acl !974
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 (as amended)
Workplace (Heallh, Salely and Wellare) Pegulalions !992
Heallh and Salely (lirsl Aid) Pegulalions !98!
The Smoke-lree (Premises and Lnlorcemenl) Pegulalions 2006
The Smoke-lree Premises elc. (Wales) Pegulalions 2007
Prohibilion ol Smoking in Cerlain Premises (Scolland) Pegulalions 2006
=
q==
8S LN lSO 7730, Moderale lhermal environmenls, lS8N 0 580 47207 0
o=====~=R==

b=_NNW= j~~=~~=~=
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
8!!.! Oulline lhe nalure ol occupalional heallh
8!!.2 Oulline lhe principles and benelils ol vocalional rehabililalion including lhe role ol
oulside supporl agencies
8!!.3 Oulline lhe managemenl ol occupalional heallh (including lhe praclical and legal
aspecls).
`=
_NNKN= k~==~~=~==
Calegories ol occupalional heallh hazard chemical, physical, biological, psycho-social,
ergonomic
The prevalence ol work-relaled sickness and ill-heallh wilh relerence lo reporlable and sell-
reporled sources
lnlernal and exlernal sources ol inlormalion on occupalional ill-heallh
The links belween occupalional heallh and general/public heallh, wilh relerence lo currenl
governmenl slralegy lor managing heallh in relalion lo work including arrangemenls lo
deal wilh epidemics. =
_NNKO= k~==~~=~==
Meaning ol vocalional rehabililalion
8enelils ol vocalional rehabililalion wilhin lhe conlexl ol lhe employee and lhe employer
The basic principles ol lhe bio-psychosocial model and how il relales lo lhe heallh ol
individuals
The role lhal overcoming any barriers lo ensure lhal rehabililalion ol lhe individual is
elleclive
Pole ol agencies lhal can supporl lhe employers and employees, eg, primary care
(condilion managemenl), JobCenlre+, Access lo Work, elc

_NNKP= j~~=~~=~=
The concepl ol moniloring heallh
The meaning ol occupalional heallh (wilh relerence lo lhe delinilion used by lhe
lnlernalional Labour Organisalion)
NL8OSH 20!0

69


The role, lunclion and benelils ol occupalional heallh services
The make-up and lunclions ol a lypical occupalional heallh service. occupalional heallh
physician, occupalional heallh nurse, occupalional heallh lechnician
Typical services ollered by an occupalional heallh service.
- heallh promolion, eg, advice on work relaled heallh, lileslyle (diel, exercise, smoking
elc)
- heallh assessmenl, eg, lilness lor work, pre-placemenl/employmenl, relurn lo work,
job-relaled medical screening, pregnanl workers
- advice lo managemenl, eg, inpul lo risk assessmenls, no-smoking policy, absence
managemenl elc
- lrealmenl services, eg, lirsl aid, counselling, physiolherapy, olher rehabililalion services
- medical and heallh surveillance.
Occupalional compelence wilhin occupalional heallh
Dislinclion belween general heallh assessmenl and heallh surveillance
The legal requiremenls lor heallh surveillance, wilh relerence lo Conlrol ol Subslances
Hazardous lo Heallh Pegulalions, Conlrol ol Noise al Work Pegulalions, Conlrol ol
Vibralion al Work Pegulalions, and Display Screen Lquipmenl Pegulalions
The legal requiremenls lor medical surveillance wilh relerence lo Conlrol ol Subslances
Hazardous lo Heallh Pegulalions, Conlrol ol Lead al Work Pegulalions, Conlrol ol Asbeslos
Pegulalions and lonising Padialion Pegulalions
Liaison wilh olher disciplines in lhe assessmenl and managemenl ol lilness lor work wilh
specilic relerence lo, exisling heallh problems, lilness lo work slandards, discriminalion,
inlluence ol drugs and alcohol (prescriplion and illegal drugs), including lesling on lhe
grounds ol heallh (or disabilily)
The legal requiremenls lor keeping heallh records and medical records including issues ol
conlidenlialily, sharing ol inlormalion wilh lhe individual and olhers
The colleclion and use ol sickness absence and ill-heallh dala lo develop occupalional policy
and largels/slralegy.
NL8OSH 20!0

70



























Conlrol ol noise al work, Cuidance lor employers on lhe Conlrol ol Noise al Work
Pegulalions 2005 lNDC 362, lS8N 978 0 7!76 6!65 7
DWP Disabilily Handbook and guidance.
lnslilulion ol Occupalional Salely and Heallh. A Heallhy Pelurn - A Cood Praclice Cuide lo
Pehabililaling People al Work
The Cuides Newsleller. Chicago, American Medical Associalion, 2008, May/June. !-!3

The Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999, Pegulalion 6
Conlrol ol Subslances Hazardous lo Heallh Pegulalions 2002 (as amended), Pegulalion !!
and schedule 6
Smoke-lree (Premises and Lnlorcemenl) Pegulalions 2006
Prohibilion ol Smoking in Cerlain Premises (Scolland) Pegulalions 2006
The Smoke lree Premises elc. (Wales) Pegulalions 2007
Conlrol ol Lead al Work Pegulalions 2002, Pegulalion !0
Conlrol ol Noise al Work Pegulalions 2005, Pegulalion 9
Conlrol ol Vibralion al Work Pegulalions 2005, Pegulalion 7
Conlrol ol Asbeslos Pegulalions 2006, Pegulalion 22
lonising Padialion Pegulalions !999, Pegulalion 24=
q==
Occupalional Heallh Advisory Commillee reporl and recommendalions on improving access
lo occupalional heallh supporl, HSL Web-sile source,
hllp.//www.hse.gov.uk/aboulus/meelings/iacs/ohac/access.hlm
Charlered lnslilule ol Personnel and Developmenl. Absence Cuidance
hllp.//www.cipd.co.uk/subjecls/hrpracl/absence/absncman.hlm?lsSrchPes=!
Charlered lnslilule ol Personnel and Developmenl. Absence managemenl Tools !-4
hllp.//www.cipd.co.uk/subjecls/hrpracl/absence/absmanlool.hlm
o~=~==
=
o=====~=U==
NL8OSH 20!0

7!

QKP= = r=`W== t~=~===~=
=
l~=i~=l=

On complelion ol lhis unil, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
domain knowledge covered lhrough.

!. The applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions, and

2. The crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and
qualilalive lorms.

ln addilion each elemenl has specilic learning oulcomes.

b=`NW= d~=~==
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
C!.! Lxplain lhe need lor, and laclors involved in, lhe provision and mainlenance ol a sale
working environmenl, wilh specilic relerence lo access and egress, pedeslrians, and
slips, lrips and lalls
C!.2 Lxplain how salely signs are used in lhe workplace
C!.3 Lxplain lhe assessmenl ol risk and sale working praclices associaled wilh work in
conlined spaces
C!.4 Oulline lhe main issues associaled wilh mainlaining slruclural salely ol workplaces
C!.5 Lxplain lhe hazards, risks, and conlrols when working al heighls
C!.6 Lxplain lhe hazards, risks and conlrols lor lone working.
`=
`NKN= p~===
Praclical consideralions in lhe provision and mainlenance ol sale places ol work and sale
means ol access and egress
NL8OSH 20!0

72


The design ol surlaces lo reduce slipping
Wel Coellicienl ol lriclion (Col), slip resislanl lesling ol loolwear and surlaces.
- dillerenl Col belween one surlace and anolher
- ellecls ol conlaminalion on surlaces in lerms ol Col
- melhods lor cleaning lloors and lhe appropriale loolwear lo wear whilsl cleaning
- imporlance ol good housekeeping.
Workplace (Heallh, Salely and Wellare) Pegulalions !992.

`NKO= p~===
Common salely signs and lheir calegorisalion
Use, localion and compliance issues
Heallh and Salely (Salely Signs and Signals) Pegulalions !996, Pegulalions 2, 3, 4 and 5.

`NKP= `=~==
Condilions lhal conslilule a conlined space wilh relerence lo lhe Conlined Spaces
Pegulalions 2007
Lxamples ol where conlined space enlry may occur in lhe workplace. eg pils in garages,
vehicle produclion lracks, lrunking ducls, walercourses
laclors lo be considered when assessing risk. need lor sale access, provision and
mainlenance ol sale almospheres, lhe lask, malerials and equipmenl, persons al risk,
reliabilily ol saleguards
laclors lo be considered in designing sale working praclices. operaling procedures and
emergency arrangemenls, and lraining lor work in conlined spaces
llammable almospheres, how lhey arise and where lhey are lound. Conlrol measures lor
enlering llammable almospheres, including purging lo keep llammable almospheres below
Lower Lxplosion Limils (LLL).
=
`NKQ= =p~=~==~==
Causes ol damage lo lhe slruclure ol buildings. adverse wealher condilions, overloading ol
slruclures, hol and corrosive almospheres, vibralion, alleralion lo slruclural members,
subsidence, delerioralion ol building malerials, excavalions, and unaulhorised modilicalions
lo buildings
lailure modes. possible causes ol slruclural alleralions such as culling rool beams,
puncluring holes lhrough lloors, removal ol inlernal walls elc can lead lo collapse.
=
`NKR= =t=~==
The main hazards and risks, allernalives, precaulions and sale working procedures lor
working al heighl in general workplaces
NL8OSH 20!0

73


Hierarchy ol conlrol measures wilh relerence lo lhe Work al Heighl Pegulalions 2005.
- avoid working al heighl
- use an exisling sale place ol work
- provide work equipmenl lo prevenl lalls (including MLWPS)
- miligale dislance and consequences ol a lall
- inslruclion and lraining and/or olher means.
=
`NKS= i==
The main hazards and risks, allernalives, precaulions and sale working procedures lor
lone working.
Parlicular problems lacing lone workers. medical condilions, lraining, supervision,
emergency procedures, lilling objecls lhal are loo heavy lor one person, more lhan one
person needed lo operale essenlial conlrols or lransporl.

Heallh and Salely (Salely Signs and Signals) Pegulalions !996
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999
Workplace (Heallh, Salely and Wellare) Pegulalions !992
Work al Heighl Pegulalions 2005
o~=~==

Conlined Spaces Pegulalions !997








o=====~=T==
NL8OSH 20!0

74

b=`OW= m===~==
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
C2.! Oulline lhe properlies ol llammable and explosive malerials and lhe mechanisms by
which lhey ignile
C2.2 Oulline lhe behaviour ol slruclural malerials, buildings and building conlenls in a lire
C2.3 Oulline lhe main principles and praclices ol lire and explosion prevenlion and proleclion
C2.4 Oulline lhe conlribulion ol lypical mechanical and syslems lailures lo major accidenls.
`=
`OKN= m==~~=~==~~=~==~===
==
Properlies ol solids, liquids and gases
Meaning ol. llash poinl, lire poinl, aulo-ignilion lemperalure, vapour densily, relalive
densily, limils ol llammabilily, crilical lemperalure, maximum explosion pressure, and rale
ol pressure rise, wilh examples ol lhe imporlance ol lhese properlies in relalion lo lhe
inilialion and propagalion ol lire and explosion
The lire lriangle
lgnilion sources (eg naked llame, hol surlaces, arcing, sparking, smoking, eleclroslalic
discharge)
Mechanisms ol explosions, mechanisms ol lire-spread including.
- how an explosion/lire occurs
- lhe slages ol combuslion. induclion, ignilion, growlh, sleady slale and decay
- mechanisms ol unconlrolled vapour cloud explosions, conlined vapour cloud explosions.
The ellecls ol alomisalion/parlicle size and oxygen conlenl on lhe likelihood and severily ol
lire/explosion
How lailure ol conlrol measures coupled wilh lhe physico-chemical properlies ol llammable
malerials can bring aboul an explosion
Oxidisalion
Conlined vapour cloud explosions, unconlined vapour cloud explosions, boiling liquid
expanding vapour explosions. Lxamples ol aclual incidenls, causes and ellecls.
- unconlined vapour cloud explosion (eg 8uncelield, 2005, llixborough, !974)
- boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (8LLVL) (eg Mexico Cily, !984)
- conlined vapour cloud explosion (eg Hickson and Welch, !992).
NL8OSH 20!0

75


Conlrol ol vapour phase explosions, slruclural proleclion, planl design and process conlrol,
segregalion and slorage ol malerials, hazardous area zoning, inerling, explosion reliel
Conlrol ol amounl ol malerial, prevenlion ol release, conlrol ol ignilion sources, sensing ol
vapour belween Lower Lxposure Limil (LLL) and Upper Lxposure Limil (ULL)
Dusl explosions.
- examples ol induslries/planl wilh polenlial dusl explosion hazards (eg, lood induslry,
LLV)
- mechanisms ol dusl explosions including lhe imporlance ol combuslible solid parlicle
size, dispersal, explosive concenlralions, ignilion, energy, lemperalure and humidily
- primary and secondary explosion.
Lxamples ol aclual incidenls, causes and ellecls (e.g. Ceneral loods, 8anbury,!98!, lmperial
Sugar, Ceorgia USA, 2008) and lhe processes involved.

`OKO= _~==~=~~I==~====~==
=
The behaviour ol building slruclures and malerials in lire. lire properlies ol common
building malerials and slruclural elemenls (eg, sleel, concrele, wood), level ol lire resislance
The behaviour ol common building conlenls in lire (eg, paper-based, labrics, plaslics)
Lxamples ol aclual incidenls. charring ol oak beams during lhe Windsor Caslle lire,!992,
luels involved in lhe Channel Tunnel lire, 2008, 8uncelield, 2005, Windsor Tower lire
(Madrid), 2005, Summil Tunnel lire, !984.=
`OKP= c=~===~==
Slruclural proleclion (eg, openings and voids, comparlmenlalion)
Key lealures ol planl design and process conlrol
Segregalion and slorage ol llammable, combuslible and incompalible malerials
Hazardous area zoning, exclusion ol ignilion sources
lnerling
Melhods ol explosion reliel. venling, explosion panels, bursling discs, suppression (eg,
inerling).

`OKQ== j~=~=
The conlribulion ol lypical mechanical and syslems lailures lo major accidenls, eg,
llixborough, !974, Piper Alpha, !988, Crangemoulh, !987, Allied Colloids, !992, Hickson
and Welch, !992, and 8uncelield, 2005. =

NL8OSH 20!0

76

=
=
=
=
=
=
o~=~==

8uilding Pegulalions Approved Documenl 8
Dangerous Subslances and Lxplosive Almospheres Pegulalions 2002
Lleclricily al Work Pegulalions !989
=o=====~=S==
NL8OSH 20!0

77

b=`PW= t~===~=
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
C3.! Oulline lhe main legal requiremenls lor lire salely in lhe workplace
C3.2 Lxplain lhe processes involved in lhe idenlilicalion ol hazards and lhe assessmenl ol risk
lrom lire
C3.3 Describe common lire deleclion and alarm syslems and procedures
C3.4 Oulline lhe laclors lo be considered when selecling lixed and porlable lire-lighling
equipmenl lor lhe various lypes ol lire
C3.5 Oulline lhe laclors lo be considered in lhe provision and mainlenance ol means ol
escape
C3.6 Lxplain lhe purpose ol, and essenlial requiremenls lor, emergency evacualion
procedures.
`=
`PKN= i~==
The regulalory powers ol a lire aulhorily wilh respecl lo lire salely
Dual enlorcemenl
Pequiremenls ol lhe Pegulalory Pelorm (lire Salely) Order 2005 (or allernalive relaled local
Slalulory lnslrumenl eg lire Salely (Scolland) Pegulalions 2006)
Pelerence lo lhe 8uildings Pegulalions.
=
`PKO= f~==~~=~==~======
lire hazards and assessmenl ol risk
live sleps lo lire risk assessmenl.
- idenlily lire hazards, how could a lire slarl, whal could burn (eg common llammable
solids, liquids and gases)
- idenlily people al risk, including lhose especially al risk
- evaluale, remove, reduce (eg conlrol ol ignilion, luel and oxygen sources), and prolecl
lrom risk
- record, plan, inlorm, inslrucl and lrain
- review.
NL8OSH 20!0

78



`PKP= c==~=~~==~==
Common lire deleclion and alarm syslems and procedures.
- laclors in design and applicalion ol lire deleclion and alarm syslems
- principal componenls ol alarm syslems, deleclion and signalling
- manual and aulomalic syslems.
=
`PKQ= c=~=~=J==
laclors in design and applicalion ol lixed lire-lighling syslems and equipmenl.
- classilicalion ol lires
- porlable lire lighling equipmenl
- exlinguishing media and mode ol aclion
- siling, mainlenance and lraining requiremenls
- environmenl, including lire waler runoll.
=
`PKR= j~==~=
laclors lo be considered in lhe provision and mainlenance ol a means ol escape.
Ceneral requiremenls lor lravel dislances, slairs, passageways and doors, emergency
lighling, exil and direclional signs.
=
`PKS= b=~~==
Purposes ol and essenlial requiremenls lor, evacualion procedures and drills, alarm
evacualion and roll call
Provision ol lire Wardens and lheir role
Personal Lmergency Lvacualion Plans (PLLPs).
NL8OSH 20!0

79




























lire Salely (Scolland) Pegulalions 2006
The lire (Scolland) 2005 Acl
The Heallh and Salely al Work elc Acl !974
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999
8uilding Pegulalions 2000, Approved Documenl 8
Heallh and Salely (Salely Signs and Signals) Pegulalions !996
Pegulalory Pelorm (lire Salely) Order 2005
- A shorl guide lo making your premises sale lrom lire, June 2006
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Ollices and Shops, June 2006
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl laclories and Warehouses, June 2006
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Pesidenlial Care Premises, June 2006
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Sleeping Accommodalion, June 2006
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Small and Medium Places ol Assembly, June 2006
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Large Places ol Assembly, 5 June 2006
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Lducalional Premises, 5 June 2006
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Thealres, Cinemas and Similar Premises, 8 June 2006
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Open Air Lvenls and Venues, March 2007
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Transporl Premises and lacililies, lebruary 2007
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Heallhcare premises, Seplember 2006
lire Salely Pisk Assessmenl - Animal Premises and Slables, Oclober 2007
PAS 79.2007, lire Pisk Assessmenl. Cuidance and a Pecommended Melhodology
o~=~==

The Pegulalory Pelorm (lire Salely) Order 2005
o=====~=S==
NL8OSH 20!0

80

b=`QW= p~I=~=~==== =
= = = ~=~=
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
C4.! Oulline lhe main physical and chemical characlerislics ol induslrial chemical processes
C4.2 Oulline lhe main principles ol lhe sale slorage, handling and lransporl ol dangerous
subslances
C4.3 Oulline lhe main principles ol lhe design and use ol eleclrical syslems and equipmenl in
adverse or hazardous environmenls
C4.4 Lxplain lhe need lor emergency planning, lhe lypical organisalional arrangemenls
needed lor emergencies and relevanl regulalory requiremenls.
`=
`QKN= f~=~==
Lllecls ol lemperalure, pressure and calalysls on rales ol chemical reaclions
Heal ol reaclion in lerms ol endolhermic, exolhermic and runaway reaclions
Lxamples ol endolhermic reaclion (eg, pholosynlhesis, reacling elhanoic acid wilh sodium
carbonale) example ol exolhermic reaclion (eg, mixlure ol sodium and chlorine lo produce
sall)
Melhods ol conlrol ol lemperalure and pressure.=
=
`QKO= p~I=~=~=~==~=~==
Dangerous subslances and hazardous subslances wilh relerence lo lhe delinilions
conlained in appropriale legislalion
Hazards presenled and assessmenl ol risk
Slorage melhods and quanlilies - bulk, inlermediale, drum slorage, specilic localions.
Slorage ol incompalible malerials and lheir segregalion requiremenls and access
Leakage and spillage conlainmenl bunding, lilling and lransler and problems encounlered
during lilling and lransler wilh examples (Albrighl and Wilson, Avonmoulh, !996)
Slorage and handling ol dangerous subslances.
- llow lhrough pipelines
- principles in lilling and emplying conlainers
- principles in dispensing, spraying and disposal ol llammable liquids
- dangers ol eleclricily in hazardous areas.
NL8OSH 20!0

8!


Transporl ol dangerous subslances.
- key salely principles in loading and unloading ol lankers and lank conlainers
- labelling ol vehicles and packaging ol subslances
- driver lraining and lhe role ol lhe Dangerous Coods Salely Adviser under lhe Carriage
ol Dangerous Coods and Use ol Transporlable Pressure Lquipmenl Pegulalions 2009.

`QKP= e~~==
Principles ol. resislance lo mechanical damage, proleclion againsl solid bodies, objecls and
dusls, proleclion againsl liquids and gases
Wel environmenls including corrosion and degradalion ol inslallalion and damage lo
eleclrical syslems
Principles ol seleclion ol eleclrical equipmenl lor use in llammable almospheres
Classilicalion ol hazardous areas, zoning
Use ol permils-lo-work
Principles ol pressurisalion and purging
lnlrinsically sale equipmenl, llameprool equipmenl, lype 'N' equipmenl, lype 'e' equipmenl.

`QKQ= b=~=

The need lor emergency preparedness wilhin an organisalion, eg, personal injury, explosive
device, lire, loss ol conlainmenl wilh relerence lo dulies under lhe Managemenl ol Heallh
and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 and Conlrol ol Major Accidenl Hazards Pegulalions
!999
Consequence minimisalion via emergency procedures, eg, lirsl-aid/medical, lire evacualion,
spill conlainmenl
The need lor lhe developmenl ol emergency plans in order lo reduce lhe impacl on lhe
organisalion, including posl-incidenl recovery. The role ol exlernal emergency services and
local aulhorilies in emergency planning and conlrol
The need lo develop and prepare an emergency plan, including lhe conlenl ol bolh on-sile
and oll-sile plans lor major emergency scenarios in order lo meel regulalory requiremenls
The need lor ongoing moniloring and mainlenance ol emergency plans.

NL8OSH 20!0

82















=
Luropean Agreemenl concerning lhe lnlernalional Carriage ol Dangerous Coods by Poad
2009
Dangerous Subslances and Lxplosive Almospheres Pegulalions 2002
Dangerous Coods and Use ol Transporlable Pressure Lquipmenl Pegulalions 2009
Pegulalion lor Pegislralion, Lvalualion, Aulhorisalion and Peslriclion ol Chemicals (PLACH)
Managemenl ol Heallh and Salely al Work Pegulalions !999 Pegulalions 8 and 9
Conlrol ol Major Accidenl Hazards Pegulalions !999
o~=~==

Nolilicalion ol lnslallalions Handling Hazardous Subslances Pegulalions !982 (as amended)
Dangerous Subslances (Nolilicalion and Marking ol Siles) Pegulalions !990
The Chemicals (Hazard lnlormalion and Packaging lor Supply) Pegulalions 2009
Heallh and Salely (Salely Signs and Signals) Pegulalions !996
=
o=====~=T==
NL8OSH 20!0

83

b=`RW= t==E~F=
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

C5.! Oulline lhe crilerion lor lhe seleclion ol suilable work equipmenl lor parlicular lasks
and processes lo eliminale or reduce risks

C5.2 Lxplain how risks lo heallh and salely arising lrom lhe use ol work equipmenl are
conlrolled

C5.3 Lxplain sale working procedures lor lhe mainlenance, inspeclion and lesling ol
work equipmenl according lo lhe risks posed

C5.4 Lxplain lhe role ol compelence, lraining, inlormalion and supervision in lhe conlrol ol
risks arising lrom lhe inslallalion, operalion, mainlenance and use ol work equipmenl.
`=
`RKN== p==~==
Suilabilily ol work equipmenl lor lhe required lask, process and environmenl
Suilabilily ol lhe design, conslruclion and adaplalion ol work equipmenl
Suilabilily ol work equipmenl lor ils inlended localion ol use
The means by which all lorms ol energy used or produced and all subslances used or
produced can be supplied and/or removed in a sale manner
Lrgonomic, anlhropomelric and human reliabilily consideralions in use ol work equipmenl
including. lhe layoul and operalion ol conlrols and emergency conlrols, and reducing lhe
need lor access (aulomalion, remole syslems)
The imporlance ol size ol openings, heighl ol barriers, and dislance lrom danger.

`RKO= o=~=~===
The need lor conducling risk assessmenls in lhe use ol work equipmenl
The risks associaled wilh lhe use ol work equipmenl arising lrom ils inilial inlegrily, lhe
localion where il will be used, and lhe purpose lor which il will be used
The risks associaled wilh lhe use ol work equipmenl arising lrom ils. incorrecl inslallalion or
re-inslallalion, delerioralion, or, ol exceplional circumslances which could allecl lhe sale
operalion ol work equipmenl
The risk conlrol hierarchy relaling lo work equipmenl. eliminaling lhe risks, laking
'hardware' (physical) measures (such as lhe provision ol guards), laking appropriale
'sollware ' measures (such as lollowing sale syslems ol work and lhe provision ol
inlormalion, inslruclion and lraining)
NL8OSH 20!0

84



`RKP= j~~I==~==
=
The hazards and precaulions associaled wilh lhe mainlenance ol work equipmenl
The lhree mainlenance managemenl slralegies ol. planned prevenlive, condilion based,
and breakdown
laclors lo be considered in developing a planned mainlenance programme lor salely-crilical
componenls
The slalulory dulies lor lhe mainlenance ol work equipmenl, including hired work
equipmenl
The laclors lo be considered in delermining inspeclion regimes having regard lo lhe lype ol
equipmenl, where il is used, and how il is used
The need lor lunclional lesling ol salely-relaled parls, including inlerlocks, proleclion
devices, conlrols and emergency conlrols.

`RKQ= `I=~I=~=~==
The dillerence belween lraining and compelence
Circumslances when lraining is likely lo be required including. induclion, changes in work
aclivilies, inlroduclion ol new lechnology or new equipmenl, changes in syslems ol work,
relresher lraining due lo declining skills
Croups ol people having specilic lraining needs including supervisors, young and vulnerable
persons
The relalionship belween compelence, exlernal and sell-supervision
The circumslances where lhere are specilic lraining needs lor cerlain hazardous lypes ol
work equipmenl (including chainsaws, woodworking machines, power presses, abrasive
wheels, elc).








o~=~==

Heallh and Salely al Work elc. Acl !974
Provision and Use ol Work Lquipmenl Pegulalions !998

o=====~=V==
NL8OSH 20!0

85

b=`SW== t==E~=~F==
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

C6.! Describe lhe principles ol salely inlegralion and lhe consideralions required in a general
workplace machinery risk assessmenl

C6.2 Describe, wilh examples, lhe principal generic mechanical and non-mechanical
hazards ol general workplace machinery

C6.3 Describe proleclive devices lound on general workplace machinery

C6.4 Lxplain lhe principles ol conlrol associaled wilh lhe mainlenance ol general workplace
machinery

C6.5 Describe lhe requiremenls lor inlormalion and warnings on general workplace
machinery

C6.6 Lxplain lhe key salely characlerislics ol general workplace machinery conlrol syslems

C6.7 Lxplain lhe analysis, assessmenl and improvemenl ol syslem lailures and syslem
reliabilily wilh lhe use ol calculalions.
=
`=

`SKN== p~=~=~=~==~=
The principles ol salely inlegralion lrom The Supply ol Machinery (Salely) Pegulalions 2008.
- machinery musl be designed and conslrucled lo be lil lor purpose and lo eliminale or
reduce risks lhroughoul lhe lilelime ol lhe machinery including lhe phases ol lransporl,
assembly, dismanlling, disabling and scrapping
- lhe principles musl be applied in order lo eliminale or reduce risks as lar as possible,
lake necessary proleclive measures where risk cannol eliminaled, and inlorm users ol
any residual risks
- when designing and conslrucling machinery and when dralling lhe inslruclions. use
and loreseeable misuse musl be considered
- lake accounl ol operalor conslrainls due lo necessary or loreseeable use ol personal
proleclive equipmenl
- machinery musl be supplied wilh all lhe essenlials lo enable il lo be adjusled,
mainlained and used salely
The laclors lo be considered when assessing risk. persons al risk, severily ol possible injury,
probabilily ol injury, need lor access, duralion ol exposure, reliabilily ol saleguards,
operaling procedures and personnel
NL8OSH 20!0

86


Purpose ol CL marking and lhe relevance ol lhe CL mark, seleclion and inlegralion ol work
equipmenl in lhe workplace
Conlormily assessmenls, lhe use ol harmonised slandards, lhe lechnical lile and lhe
declaralion ol conlormily.
`SKO== d=~~=
Common machinery hazards in a range ol general workplaces. drills (radial arm, pedeslal),
circular saws, guillolines, paper shredders, pholocopiers, disc sanders, abrasive wheels,
lalhes, aulomalic doors and gales, mechanical and hydraulic presses, porlable power lools,
CNC machines, robolics
The lypes ol generic machinery hazards.
- mechanical hazards. crushing, shearing, culling/severing, enlanglemenl, drawing-
in/lrapping, impacl, slabbing/punclure/ejeclion, lriclion/abrasion, high pressure lluid
injeclion
- non-mechanical hazards. noise, vibralion, eleclricily, high/low lemperalure, radialion,
hazardous subslances
The lypical causes ol lailures, wilh examples excessive slress, abnormal exlernal loading,
melal laligue, duclile lailure, brillle lraclure, buckling and corrosive lailure (8renl Cross,
!964, Markham Colliery, !973, Lilllebrook D, !978, Pamsgale Walkway Collapse, !994)
The principles ol operalion, advanlages, disadvanlages and applicalion ol non-deslruclive
lesling lechniques, specilically dye penelranl, acouslic, ullrasonic, radiography (gamma and
x-ray), eddy currenl, magnelic parlicle.

`SKP== m==
The main lypes ol saleguarding devices. characlerislics, key lealures, limilalions and lypical
applicalions ol lixed enclosed guards, lixed dislance guards, inlerlocked guards, aulomalic
guards, lrip devices, adjuslable/sell-adjusling guards, lwo-hand conlrols, mechanical
reslrainls, jigs and push-slicks.
=
`SKQ== j~~=
The means by which machinery is salely sel, cleaned and mainlained including. sale
syslems ol work, permils, isolalion, procedures lor working al unguarded machinery
The means by which machines are isolaled lrom all energy sources.
=
`SKR== f~=~=~=
The scope ol inlormalion required lor lhe sale use and operalion ol machinery, specilically.
lhe condilions under which lhe machinery may be used, loreseeable abnormal silualions
and lhe aclion lo be laken, and any conclusions lo be drawn lrom experience in usage
The means by which inlormalion and inslruclions regarding lhe operalion and use ol
machinery musl be readily comprehensible lo lhose concerned.
NL8OSH 20!0

87

`SKS== j~===
The key salely characlerislics ol machinery conlrol syslems lo include.
- making allowance lor lhe lailures, laulls and conslrainls lo be expecled in lhe planned
circumslances ol use, does nol creale any increased risk lo heallh or salely, laulls or
damage lo lhe conlrol syslem or lhe loss ol energy supply musl nol resull in addilional
risk lo heallh or salely, does nol impede lhe operalion ol any slop/energy slop conlrols
- conlrols lor slarling or making a signilicanl change in operaling condilions including
any change in speed, pressure or olher operaling condilion
- slop conlrols readily accessible and leads lo a sale condilion
- emergency slop conlrols provided and lo be readily accessible
- posilion and marking ol conlrols lo be visible and idenliliable
- consideralion ol ergonomic principles.

`SKT= p=~=~==~=
Meaning ol lhe lerm 'syslem'
Principles ol syslem lailure analysis holislic and reduclionisl approaches and applicalion lo
aclual examples
Use ol calculalion in lhe assessmenl ol syslem reliabilily. parallel, series and mixed syslems,
common mode lailures, principles ol human reliabilily analysis
Melhods lor improving syslem reliabilily. use ol reliable componenls, qualily assurance,
parallel redundancy, slandby syslems, minimising lailures lo danger, planned prevenlive
mainlenance, minimising human error.


=
=
=
=
=
o~=~==

The Supply ol Machinery (Salely) Pegulalions 2008 Schedule 2
Workplace (Heallh, Salely and Wellare) Pegulalions !992
Provision and Use ol Work Lquipmenl Pegulalions !998 (Pegulalions !0-!9)
=
=o=====~=NN==


NL8OSH 20!0

88

b=`TW= t==EI==~=~F=
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
C7.! Describe lhe main hazards and conlrol measures associaled wilh commonly
encounlered mobile work equipmenl
C7.2 Describe lhe main hazards and conlrol measures associaled wilh commonly
encounlered lilling equipmenl
C7.3 Describe lhe main hazards and conlrol measures associaled wilh commonly
encounlered access equipmenl and equipmenl lor working al heighl.
=
`=
=
`TKN== j==W=~~=~==~=
e~~=
The applicalions ol dillerenl lypes ol mobile work equipmenl (sell-propelled, lowed,
allached, pedeslrian-conlrolled and remolely-conlrolled) - lo include lill lrucks
(counlerbalance, reach, rough lerrain, lelescopic malerials handlers, side loading lrucks,
pedeslrian conlrolled lrucks), agricullural lraclors and works vehicles
The hazards associaled wilh mobile work equipmenl (rollover, overlurning, suilabilily lor
carrying passengers, unaulhorised slarl-up, sale operaling slalion/plallorm, overrun ol
speed, conlacl wilh wheels and lracks, lalls ol objecls, moving parls/drive shalls/power
lake-olls, over-healing)
The hazards associaled wilh lhe energising (eleclrical, LPC, diesel) ol mobile work
equipmenl.
`=~=
The conlrol measures lo be used in lhe use ol mobile work equipmenl (sell-propelled,
lowed, allached, pedeslrian-conlrolled and remolely-conlrolled), including sale layoul ol
areas where mobile equipmenl is used and lhe proleclion ol pedeslrians
The use ol lill lrucks lo move people condilions and equipmenl necessary, olher
allachmenls used on lill lrucks
The imporlance ol roll-over proleclion, lalling objecls proleclion, speed conlrol syslems
(slopping and emergency braking), guards, barriers and reslraining syslems, means ol lire
lighling, vision aids (plane, angled and curved mirrors, lresnel lenses, radar, CCTV)
The requiremenls lor lhe lraining ol lill lruck operalors (basic, specilic job lraining and
lamiliarisalion).
NL8OSH 20!0

89


`TKO== i=W=~~=~==~=
e~~=
The applicalions and dillerenl lypes ol lilling equipmenl including cranes (mobile cranes,
lower cranes, overhead cranes) and hoisls
The hazards associaled wilh cranes and lilling operalions
The main hazards associaled wilh lhe use ol. hoisls (gin wheel, conslruclion sile plallorm
hoisl) and lills (passenger and goods, scissor, vehicle inspeclion, MLWPs) and melhods ol
conlrolling lhe associaled risks.
`=~=
The conlrol measures lor lhe use ol. cranes (seleclion, siling, and slabilily ol cranes), hoisls
and lills, inlegrily ol lilling equipmenl, compelence ol personnel, mainlenance, inspeclion,
and slalulory examinalions.

`TKP== ^=~==~==W=~~=~==~=
e~~=
The applicalions and dillerenl lypes ol access and work al heighl equipmenl including sell-
propelled, lrailer and lruck-mounled hydraulic lills (MLWPs), booms, scissor lills, loaders
and mobile work plallorms
The hazards arising lrom lack ol mechanical slrenglh ol lhe carrier or lack ol loading conlrol
and conlrol devices, hazards lo persons on or in lhe carrier (movemenls ol lhe carrier,
persons lalling lrom lhe carrier, objecls lalling on lhe carrier), exceeding sale working
load/persons permilled.
`=~=
The appropriale conlrol measures lor use ol access and work al heighl equipmenl. space
and slrenglh corresponding lo lhe maximum number ol persons and maximum working
load, lilled wilh a suspension or supporling syslem, conlrolled by persons in lhe carrier,
emergency slop devices, hold-lo-run conlrols, prevenlion ol lilling il lhere is a risk ol lhe
occupanls lalling, lrapdoors open in a direclion lhal eliminales any risk ol lalling, proleclive
rool il risk ol lalling objecls endanger persons, marked wilh maximum number ol persons
and maximum working load.
NL8OSH 20!0

90


=
=
=
=
=
=
=
o~=~==
=
Work al Heighl Pegulalions 2005
Workplace (Heallh, Salely and Wellare) Pegulalions !992
Provision and Use ol Work Lquipmenl Pegulalions !998
Lilling Operalions and Lilling Lquipmenl Pegulalions !998
The Supply ol Machinery (Salely) Pegulalions 2008 Schedule 2
=
o=====~=S==
NL8OSH 20!0

9!

b=`UW= b~=~=~=b=~=t==
= = = o~=NVUV=
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
C8.! Oulline lhe basic principles ol eleclricily
C8.2 Oulline lhe dangers ol eleclricily
C8.3 Oulline lhe issues relevanl lo lhe inslallalion, use, inspeclion and mainlenance ol
eleclrical syslems
C8.4 Oulline lhe main principles lor sale working in lhe vicinily ol high vollage syslems
C8.5 Oulline lhe main hazards, risks and conlrols associaled wilh lhe use ol porlable
eleclrical equipmenl.
`=
`UKN= _~=====
Dillerences belween Low and High Vollage
Polenlial dillerence, currenl, resislance, impedance, Ohm's law
8asic eleclrical circuilry
Larlhing principles
Signilicance ol direcl and allernaling currenls and eleclromagnelic radialion.
=
`UKO= a~==
Lllecls ol eleclric shock on lhe body. pain, muscular conlraclion, respiralory lailure, hearl
librillalion, cardiac arresl, burns
laclors inlluencing lhe severily ol lhe ellecls ol eleclric shock on lhe body. vollage,
lrequency, duralion, impedance/ resislance, currenl palh, direcl and indirecl shock
Common causes ol lires. overloading ol conduclors. overhealing, ignilion ol llammable
vapour, ignilion ol combuslible malerial, breakdown ol insulalion
Lleclric arcs. mollen melal splash and radialion
Circumslances giving rise lo lhe generalion ol slalic eleclricily
Hazards and conlrols lor slalic eleclricily.
NL8OSH 20!0

92

`UKP= f~~I==~===~=
Meaning ol duly holders' and 'conslruclion'
lmporlance ol.
- slrenglh and capabilily ol eleclrical equipmenl
- insulalion, proleclion and placing ol conduclors
- reducing lhe risk ol shock
- excess currenl proleclion
- culling oll supply and isolalion
- working space, access and lighling.
Conlrol measures.
- seleclion and suilabilily ol equipmenl
- proleclive syslems. luses, reduced vollage syslems, isolalion, residual currenl devices,
double insulalion, earlh lree zones
- inspeclion and mainlenance slralegy. user checks, lormal visual inspeclions, combined
inspeclion and lesls, records ol mainlenance and lesls, lrequency ol inspeclion and
lesling, compelenl persons, HSC!07
Pelalionship belween 8S 767!.2008 Pequiremenls lor Lleclrical lnslallalions, lLL Wiring
Pegulalions !7lh Ldilion. (8S 767!. 2008) and The Lleclricily al Work Pegulalions !989
lmporlance ol schemes ol mainlenance, schedules, plans and records
Sale syslems ol work on inslallalions made dead
Sale syslems ol work and crileria ol acceplabilily lor live working
Use ol permils-lo-work
Meaning ol 'compelenl person'.
=
`UKQ= p~=======~==
Common high vollage syslems and prevenlion ol danger
Compelenl and aulhorised persons role relaled lo syslem modilicalions
Sale syslems ol work, permil-lo-work procedures
Sale working near overhead power lines, underground cables hazards and precaulions
High vollage glove working and live line overhead working.
=
`UKR= m~=~==
Condilions and praclices likely lo lead lo accidenls, including unsuilable equipmenl,
inadequale mainlenance, use ol deleclive apparalus
Lleclrical risks lrom imporlanl porlable appliances, eg, porlable generalors, arc/mig/lig
welding
Conlrol measures, including porlable appliance inspeclion and lesling
Aspecls ol supply, eg, heighl ol cables.
=
NL8OSH 20!0

93

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
o~=~==

Lleclricily al Work Pegulalions !989
Dangerous Subslances and Lxplosive Almospheres Pegulalions 2002
lLL Wiring Pegulalions !7lh Ldilion. (8S 767!. 2008)

=
=
o=====~=T==
NL8OSH 20!0

94

b=`VW== `=~~=~==
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

C9.! Describe lhe scope and nalure ol conslruclion aclivilies
C9.2 Lxplain lhe scope and applicalion ol lhe Conslruclion (Design and Managemenl)
Pegulalions 2007
C9.3 Lxplain lhe hazards associaled wilh working al heighls lrom lixed work or lemporary
plallorms and lhe necessary precaulions and sale working praclices
C9.4 Lxplain lhe hazards, precaulions and sale working praclices associaled wilh demolilion
work
C9.5 Lxplain lhe hazards associaled wilh excavalion work and lhe necessary precaulions and
sale working praclices.

`=

`VKN= p=~=~===~=
Types ol work. building works, renovalion, alleralion, mainlenance ol exisling premises
(occupied or unoccupied), civil engineering, works ol engineering conslruclion, and
demolilion
Pange ol aclivilies, including. sile clearance, demolilion, dismanlling, excavalion, loading,
unloading and slorage ol malerials, sile movemenls, labricalion, decoralion, cleaning,
inslallalion, removal and mainlenance ol services (eleclricily, waler, gas), landscaping
Parlicular conslruclion issues relaling lo lhe. lransilory nalure ol workers, lemporary nalure
ol conslruclion aclivilies and lhe conslanlly changing workplace, lime pressures lrom
clienls, wealher condilions, levels ol numeracy and lileracy ol workers, non-Lnglish
speaking workers.
=
=
NL8OSH 20!0

95

`VKO= p= ~= ~~= = = `= Ea= ~= j~~F=
o~=OMMT==
The parlicular dulies under lhe Conslruclion (Design and Managemenl) Pegulalions 2007 ol
clienls, designers, conslruclion design and managemenl (CDM) co-ordinalors, principal
conlraclors and conlraclors in relalion lo.
- appoinlmenl and compelence required ol relevanl parlies
- nolilicalion ol projecls (including lhe requiremenls lor bolh CDM and non-CDM
projecls and lor displaying lhe parliculars on sile)
- preparalion ol pre-conslruclion inlormalion (including lhe purpose and requiremenls)
- lhe conslruclion phase plan (including lhe purpose and lypical conlenl ol lhe plan)
- provision ol appropriale and relevanl inlormalion lo all parlies
- preparalion ol lhe heallh and salely lile (including lhe purpose and lypical conlenl ol
lhe lile).
=
`VKP== t=~=====~=~=
The hazards associaled wilh working al heighls
The sale use ol lemporary (immobile) access equipmenl including ladders, lreslles, scallolds
simple independenl and lower scallolds
The requiremenls lor lhe ereclion, use and dismanlling ol scallolds and lalsework
lnspeclion ol working plallorms above 2 melres (Pegulalion !2 Work al Heighl Pegulalions
2005)
The hazards associaled wilh lalling malerials and appropriale precaulionary measures
Sale melhods lor rool work - precaulions during work on lragile rools, edge proleclion lor
llal and sloping rools
The means ol lemporary access lypes and salely lealures ol cradles, boalswains' chairs,
rope access and posilioning syslems
The use, applicalion, seleclion and precaulions in use ol personal and colleclive lall arresl
devices (salely nels, airbags, bells and harnesses).

`VKQ== a==
The main lechniques in demolilion ol buildings and lhe associaled hazards and sale
working praclices wilh relerence lo.
- lalling malerials, premalure collapse ol buildings, malerials ol conslruclion
- planning, slruclural surveys and surveys lor hazardous subslances, provision ol working
places and means ol access/egress, use ol melhod slalemenls and permils-lo-work,
securily ol sile boundaries and proleclion ol lhe public.
NL8OSH 20!0

96

`VKR== b~~=
Hazards and conlrols associaled wilh excavalion work.
- collapse, access, lalls ol persons, objecls and vehicles, use ol lransporl, llooding
- buried services. lypes and consequences ol damage
- need lor lemporary shoring (drag boxes, piling)
- melhods lor checking lor buried services and lhe precaulions lo be observed
- use ol 360
0
excavalors.
The requiremenls lor slalulory inspeclions and examinalions ol excavalions.
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
o~=~==

Conslruclion (Head Proleclion) Pegulalions !989
Conslruclion (Design and Managemenl) Pegulalions 2007
Work al Heighl Pegulalions 2005
Lilling Operalions and Lilling Lquipmenl Pegulalions !998
New Poads and Slreel Works Acl !99!
Nolilicalion ol Convenlional Tower Cranes Pegulalions 20!0
o=====~=T==
=
=
=
NL8OSH 20!0

97

b=`NMW= t~=~=~====
i~==
=
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.

C!0.! Lxplain lhe hazards, risks and conlrol measures lor sale workplace lransporl operalions
C!0.2 Oulline lhe laclors associaled wilh driving al work lhal increase lhe risk ol an incidenl
and lhe conlrol measures lo reduce work-relaled driving risks.
`=
`NMKN= e~~I==~==~==~=~=~=
Typical hazards leading lo loss ol conlrol, overlurning ol vehicles, collisions wilh olher
vehicles, pedeslrians and lixed objecls
Non-movemenl relaled hazards, ie, loading, unloading and securing loads, sheeling,
coupling, vehicle mainlenance work
Condilions and environmenls in which each hazard may arise
Conlrol measures lor sale workplace lransporl operalions.
- suilabilily and sulliciency ol lrallic roules, managemenl ol vehicle movemenls,
environmenlal consideralions (visibilily, gradienls, changes ol level, surlace condilions),
mainlenance ol vehicles, driver proleclion and reslrainl syslems, segregaling ol
pedeslrians and vehicles and measures lo be laken when segregalion is nol praclicable,
proleclive measures lor people and slruclures (barriers, marking signs, warnings ol
vehicle approach and reversing), sile rules, seleclion and lraining ol drivers,
managemenl syslems lor assuring driver compelence including local codes ol praclice.
`NMKO= a=~==
Lxlenl ol work relaled road injuries and lalalilies
laclors associaled wilh driving al work lhal increase lhe risk ol being involved in a road
lrallic incidenl (dislance, driving hours, work schedules, slress due lo lrallic and wealher
condilions elc)
Managing work-relaled road risk.
- policy covers work-relaled road risk
- syslems lo manage work-relaled road risk
- seleclion and managemenl ol lleel
- moniloring perlormance lo ensure policy is elleclive eg colleclion ol inlormalion,
reporling ol work-relaled road incidenls by employees
- organisalion and slruclure.
NL8OSH 20!0

98



Pisk assessmenl.
Lvalualing lhe risks.
- lhe driver (compelency, lilness and heallh, lraining)
- lhe vehicle (suilabilily, condilion, salely equipmenl, salely crilical inlormalion,
ergonomic consideralions)
- lhe journey (roules, scheduling, sullicienl lime, wealher condilions).
Conlrol measures lo reduce work relaled driving risks
- eg, checking drivers' licences and documenlalion, driver lraining, vehicle checks, journey
planning.








=
=
=
q==
Workplace lransporl salely An employers' guide (HSC!36) HSL 8ooks, S8N 0-7!766754-7
Driving al work, Managing work-relaled road salely, HSL lNDC382
=
o~=~==

The Provision and Use ol Work Lquipmenl Pegulalions !998 Parl lll in parlicular
The Heallh and Salely (Salely Signs and Signals) Pegulalions !996
o=====~=Q=
=
NL8OSH 20!0

99

b=`NNW== m==~~=~===
=
i~==

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions and lhe
crilical analysis and evalualion ol inlormalion presenled in bolh quanlilalive and qualilalive
lorms. ln parlicular lhey should be able lo.
C!!.! Oulline lhe principles ol operalion ol liquelied gas slorage, relrigeralion syslems, and
healing syslems
C!!.2 Oulline lhe key lealures and salely requiremenls lor 'simple' unlired pressure syslems
C!!.3 Oulline lhe key lealures and salely requiremenls lor process pressure syslems
C!!.4 Oulline, lhe likely causes ol lhe lailure ol pressure syslems, and lhe lesling and
prevenlion slralegies lhal can be used.
=
`==
NNKN== m=
The hazards ol sleam, lhe mechanism ol a sleam explosion (eg Corus 8lasl lurnace, 200!),
properlies ol liquid pelroleum gas, advanlages and disadvanlages ol slorage in spheres vs.
lorpedoes
The liquelaclion ol gases lor bulk slorage under pressure/relrigeralion, lhe operalion ol a
closed circuil relrigeralion cycle
The operalion ol basic sleam healing syslem
Meaning ol pressure, posilive pressure and negalive pressure.
=
NNKO== p===
Meaning ol "vessel", unlired, conlenls, shape, conslruclion and malerials, gauge pressure,
operaling condilions, lransporlable gas conlainers
The essenlial salely requiremenls, pressurised componenls, sleel and aluminium vessels,
non-pressurised componenls
Types ol inspeclion, lrequencies and slalulory basis lor examinalion ol simple pressure
syslems.
=
NL8OSH 20!0

!00

NNKP= m==
Meaning ol 'relevanl lluids', lhe scope ol whal conslilules a 'pressure syslem', sleam al any
pressure
The key componenls and salely lealures ol pressure syslems, lemperalure, pressure, level
indicalors, pressure reliel valves, luel cul-oll, bursling discs, level replenishmenl, waler
lrealmenl.
=
NNKQ== c~====
The hazards ol over pressure and over lemperalure in pressure syslems
The mechanisms ol mechanical lailure lhal lead lo a loss ol conlainmenl. excessive slress,
abnormal exlernal loading, overpressure, overhealing, mechanical laligue and shock,
lhermal laligue and shock, brillle lraclure, creep, hydrogen allack, corrosive lailure wilh
relerence lo case sludies, examples ol pressure syslem lailures
Prevenlion slralegy. design and conslruclion, repair and modilicalion, inlormalion and
marking, sale operaling limils, wrillen scheme ol examinalion, mainlenance and record
keeping, compelenl persons.
=
=
o~=~==

Pressure Lquipmenl Pegulalions !999
Pressure Syslems Salely Pegulalions 2000
Simple Pressure Vessels (Salely) Pegulalions !99!
=
=
=
=
=
=
o=====~=R==
NL8OSH 20!0

!0!

QKO= = r=aW=^~==~=~=~===
= = ~=~=
i~==
On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo.=
Demonslrale lhe abilily lo apply lhe knowledge and underslanding gained lrom lheir
sludies ol elemenls ol Unils A, 8 and C in a praclical environmenl
Carry oul a delailed review ol lhe heallh and salely perlormance ol a workplace or
organisalion
Crilically analyse and evaluale inlormalion galhered during lhe review
Produce a juslilied aclion plan lo improve perlormance.

`=
=
This unil conlains no addilional syllabus conlenl. However, complelion ol sludy lor unils A, 8 and
C is recommended in order lo underlake lhe Unil D assignmenl. Candidales should reler lo lhe
separale Unil D Cuidance which is available lo download lrom lhe Sludenls seclion ol lhe websile,
or lrom lheir accrediled course provider.

QKOKN== m=~=~==
The aim ol lhe assignmenl is lo produce an overall review ol lhe heallh and salely managemenl
syslem ol an organisalion and indicale, using risk assessmenl, lhe priorilies lor lhe organisalion lor
lhe lulure.

The locus ol lhe Unil D assignmenl should be lhe applicalion ol lhe knowledge and underslanding
developed in Unils A, 8 and C lo a real workplace silualion. ll provides opporlunilies lor lhe
candidale lo carry oul research appropriale lo a qualilicalion lhal is comparable lo degree-level.
Candidales are required lo demonslrale lhe abilily lo carry oul a range ol aclivilies lhal would be
expecled ol a heallh and salely praclilioner.

The reporl should be organised in seclions which malch lhose sel oul in lhe assignmenl mark
scheme. The seclions are.

Lxeculive Summary
lnlroduclion
Peview ol lhe Heallh and Salely Managemenl Syslem
Hazard ldenlilicalion
Pisk Assessmenl
Conclusions
Pecommendalions
Aclion Plan
Pelerences / 8ibliography
Appendices.
NL8OSH 20!0

!02

NL8OSH 20!0

!03


QKOKO== j~=
The Unil D assignmenl is marked by approprialely qualilied Lxaminers appoinled by NL8OSH.
Candidales musl achieve lhe pass slandard (50') in Unil D in order lo salisly lhe crileria lor
lhe qualilicalion.
QKOKP== ^=~=
The Unil D assignmenl musl be carried oul in lhe candidale's own workplace. Where lhe
candidale does nol have access lo a suilable workplace, lhe accrediled course provider should
be consulled lo help in making arrangemenls lor lhe candidale lo carry oul lhe assignmenl al
suilable premises.

Candidales do nol require supervision when carrying oul lhe praclical applicalion, bul lhe
candidale musl sign a declaralion lhal Unil D is lheir own work.

Candidales and employers should be aware lhal lhe slalus ol lhe reporl underlaken lo lullil lhe
requiremenls ol Unil D is = ~~= = . ll = conslilule an
assessmenl lor lhe purposes ol any legislalion or regulalions.
QKOKQ== p=====
Assignmenl reporls should be submilled belore lhe sel submission dale in eilher March or
Seplember.

The aclual dales will be published by NL8OSH annually. Candidales inlending lo submil an
assignmenl musl regisler lhrough lheir accrediled course provider using lhe appropriale lorm and
paying lhe appropriale lee. On regislralion candidales will receive a submission lorm which musl
accompany lhe assignmenl reporl.

Assignmenls musl be submilled direclly lo NL8OSH. They should be senl by Poyal Mail Special
Delivery or a courier service lhal provides a lrack-back lacilily (lhis is a nexl day guaranleed delivery
service). lailure lo use such a service close lo lhe closing dale may resull in arrival aller lhe closing
dale and rejeclion ol lhe assignmenl.

Candidales are slrongly advised lo keep a copy ol lheir assignmenl reporl.

No relund ol lees will be made in cases where assignmenls are rejecled or where candidales
regisler bul lail lo submil.
QKOKR== c=~=
lurlher delailed inlormalion regarding Unil D including lorms and mark schemes can be lound
in a separale guidance documenl lor candidales and accrediled .course providers available lrom
lhe NL8OSH websile (www.nebosh.org.uk). Unil=a=^=~=~=~==
~~=





RK= p~=~~==~=
=
RKN= r=^W=j~~=~=~=~=
=
THE NATIONAL EXAMINATION BOARD IN
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


NEBOSH LEVEL 6 DIPLOMA IN
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

Unit A: Managing health and safety


[DATE]
3 hours, 0930 to 1230

10 minutes reading time is allowed before the start of this examination. You may not write anything during
this period.

Answer both Section A and Section B

SECTION A

This section contains six questions. Answer ALL SIX questions.
All questions carry equal marks.
The maximum marks for each question, or part of a question, are shown in brackets.
You are advised to spend about 15 minutes on each question.
Start each answer on a new page.


1 (a) Explain why organisations often identify the costs of health and
safety control measures much more easily than they identify the
costs that can arise from poor health and safety standards. (6)

(b) Outline, with examples, the meaning of the terms insured and
uninsured costs in connection with accidents and incidents at
work AND outline the relative size of these two costs in an
organisation as demonstrated by accident costing studies. (4)

2 The following table shows the number of lost-time accidents recorded at
two organisations involved in similar manufacturing processes. The
figures in brackets show the average numbers of employees at each
organisation for the year in question.

Year Organisation A Organisation B
2005 22 (2500) 8 (250)
2006 24 (2450) 8 (265)
2007 31 (2300) 8 (300)
2008 30 (2100) 7 (340)

NL8OSH 20!0

!04


(a) Calculate AND compare the annual lost-time accident incidence
rates for the two organisations for the years shown AND
comment on any trends. (5)

(b) Outline any possible limitations with the data itself, or the way
that it is collected, that might make direct comparisons of the rates
at the two organisations unreliable or misleading. (5)


3 (a) Outline reasons for establishing effective consultation
arrangements with employees on health and safety matters in the
workplace. (4)

(b) Outline a range of formal and informal consultation arrangements
that may contribute to effective consultation on health and safety
matters in the workplace. (6)


4 A risk assessment has identified the need to introduce a safe system of
work for cleaning some moving machinery. The system proposed would
allow the machinery to be cleaned by the operator whilst it was running at
normal speed with the guards removed. This would present a risk of
injury from the moving parts. To reduce this risk it is proposed that the
cleaning is undertaken with a long-handled device which would enable
the operators hands to be kept away from the moving parts.

(a) Outline the extent to which the proposed system of work meets
the general principles of prevention referred to in Regulation 4
and Schedule 1 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work
Regulations 1999. Your answer should refer to the specific
general principles of prevention which are relevant to this
scenario. (5)

(b) Outline the steps that an organisation should take to ensure the
effective implementation of a new safe system of work, assuming
that a detailed risk assessment has already been undertaken. (5)


5 Human failure was identified as a significant factor in an accident
involving a crane. An employee was seriously injured when struck by
material being transported by the crane.

Outline the types of human failure which may have contributed to the
accident AND in EACH case give examples relevant to the scenario to
illustrate your answer. (10)


6 A Health and Safety Executive inspector visits a small, limited company.
The inspector decides to serve a prohibition notice on the employer in
respect of an unguarded machine.

(a) Identify the legal criteria that must be satisfied before a
prohibition notice may be lawfully served. (2)
NL8OSH 20!0

!05


(b) If the employer chooses to appeal against the notice identify the
effect of the appeal AND the timescale within which an appeal
must be made. (2)

At a subsequent visit the inspector discovers that the unguarded machine
is still in use by an employee and that this activity has been agreed by the
Operations Director. The inspector decides to bring a prosecution against
the Operations Director by virtue of Section 37 of the Health and Safety
at Work etc Act 1974 in respect of the breach of the prohibition notice.

(c) Outline the legal criteria that the inspector would need to satisfy
to bring a successful prosecution. (3)

(d) Identify the maximum penalties that would be available on
conviction of the Operations Director. (3)

SECTION B

This section contains five questions. Answer THREE questions only.
All questions carry equal marks.
The maximum marks for each question, or part of a question, are shown in brackets.
You are advised to spend about 30 minutes on each question.
Start each answer on a new page.



7 A low pressure storage vessel is connected via pipework to a
manufacturing plant which could, in the event of malfunction, generate a
pressure great enough to rupture the vessel. To prevent this a pressure
detector is installed in the low pressure storage vessel. If pressure starts
to rise above an acceptable level the detector activates a valve control
system. This in turn closes the inlet valve to the vessel isolating it from
excessive pressure. It has been estimated that pressure great enough to
rupture the low pressure storage vessel would be generated once every
four years on average.

Reliability data for the system is given below.


Component Reliability
Pressure detector 0.95
Valve control system 0.99
Inlet valve 0.8


(a) Construct an event tree for the protective system described
above AND use it to calculate the frequency of a rupture of the
low pressure storage vessel. (12)
NL8OSH 20!0

!06


(b) It is proposed that, in addition to the protective system described
above, the low pressure storage vessel is also fitted with a suitable
pressure relief valve (reliability 0.9).

Assuming that the vessel would only rupture if both the protective
system and the pressure relief valve failed at the same time,
calculate the frequency of rupture of the low pressure storage
vessel in these circumstances. (4)

(c) Outline the issues that would need to be considered when
deciding whether both protective systems were needed on the low
pressure storage vessel. (4)


8 A forklift truck is used to move loaded pallets in a large distribution
warehouse. On one particular occasion the truck skidded on a patch of oil.
As a consequence the truck collided with an unaccompanied visitor and
crushed the visitors leg.

(a) Outline reasons why the accident should be investigated. (4)

(b) The initial responses of reporting and securing the scene of the
accident have been carried out.

Outline the actions which should be taken in order to collect
evidence for an investigation of the accident. (8)

(c) The investigation reveals that there have been previous skidding
incidents which had not been reported and the company therefore
decides to introduce a formal system for reporting near miss
incidents.

Outline the factors that should be considered when developing
and implementing such a system. (8)


9 The case of R v Swan Hunter Shipbuilders Ltd and Another [1982] arose
from a serious fire during a ship repair at Swan Hunters shipyard. Swan
Hunter were convicted in the Court of Appeal.

(a) Identify the specific provisions of the Health and Safety at Work
etc Act 1974 under which Swan Hunter Shipbuilders Ltd (Swan
Hunter) were prosecuted AND in EACH case outline the reasons
why the company was convicted. (6)

(b) The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
were not in force at the time of this case. Had these Regulations
been in force, identify the requirements of the Regulations under
which Swan Hunter could have been prosecuted specifically in
connection with the fire incident AND outline reasons in EACH
case.
NL8OSH 20!0

!07


Requirements in the Regulations relating to competent health
and safety assistance and emergency procedures should be
excluded. (8)

(c) The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
are supported by an Approved Code of Practice and guidance. In
criminal proceedings outline the legal status of:

(i) an Approved Code of Practice; (3)

(ii) guidance. (3)


10 (a) Explain the difference between:

(i) common law and statute law; (4)

(ii) civil law and criminal law. (6)

(b) Employers have a duty under common law to take reasonable
care to ensure the safety of their employees.

Referring to relevant case law where appropriate, outline the
nature of this duty in terms of:

(i) safe plant and equipment; (6)

(ii) safe places of work. (4)


11 As the Health and Safety Adviser to a large organisation, you have
decided to develop and introduce an in-house auditing programme to
assess the effectiveness of the organisations health and safety
management arrangements.

Describe the organisational and planning issues to be addressed in the
development of the audit programme.

You do not need to consider the specific factors to be audited. (20)

=
=
=

=
NL8OSH 20!0

!08

RKO= r=_W=e~~=~===~=
=
THE NATIONAL EXAMINATION BOARD IN
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


NEBOSH LEVEL 6 DIPLOMA IN
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

Unit B: Hazardous agents in the workplace


[DATE]
3 hours, 0930 to 1230

10 minutes reading time is allowed before the start of this examination. You may not write anything during
this period.
Answer both Section A and Section B


SECTION A

This section contains six questions. Answer ALL SIX questions.
All questions carry equal marks.
The maximum marks for each question, or part of a question, are shown in brackets.
You are advised to spend about 15 minutes on each question.
Start each answer on a new page.


1 Outline signs that could indicate to an employer that an employee has an
alcohol problem. (10)


2 (a) Outline the nature and properties of alpha particles. (4)

(b) Outline the principles that could be used to control exposure to
alpha particles. (6)


3 (a) Identify the possible range of specialists involved in Occupational
Health provision in a large manufacturing company. (5)

(b) Outline the specific activities that occupational health specialists
could undertake as part of a programme to reduce accidents and
absences relating to manual handling. For EACH activity identify
the most appropriate occupational specialist to undertake the
activity. (5)


4 A welder undertakes work in an open plan workshop.
NL8OSH 20!0

!09


Outline the factors to be considered when selecting suitable Respiratory
Protective Equipment for this work. (10)
5 Work related upper limb disorders (WRULDs) can develop if ergonomic
principles are not followed when designing work tools and work
equipment.

(a) Outline what is meant by the term ergonomic principles. (2)

(b) Outline how the design of work tools and work equipment can
help to minimise the risk of a person developing a WRULD. (8)



6 Employees can be exposed to corrosive substances.

(a) Give the meaning of the term corrosive. (2)

(b) The data below, for three forms of the same product, is taken from
a suppliers catalogue.

Using the data outline the likely routes of entry AND effects of
exposure when handling EACH of these products. (8)

Product
Code
Chemical
name/formula
Concentration
Physical
Form
C1 Sodium Hydroxide
(NaOH)
99.9% Pellets
C2 Sodium Hydroxide
(NaOH)
97% Powder
C3 Sodium Hydroxide
(NaOH)
50% in water Liquid



SECTION B

This section contains five questions. Answer THREE questions only.
All questions carry equal marks.
The maximum marks for each question, or part of a question, are shown in brackets.
You are advised to spend about 30 minutes on each question.
Start each answer on a new page.



7 (a) Identify the published sources of information an employer could
use to determine if carcinogens are used in their workplace. (4)

(b) Outline the control measures that should be used when, because
of the nature of the work, it is not possible to eliminate a
carcinogen or substitute it with an alternative substance. (16)
NL8OSH 20!0

!!0

NL8OSH 20!0

!!!




8 (a) Outline the principles of a prospective cohort study, as used in
epidemiology. (4)

(b) National public health monitoring has recorded several hundred
cases of an illness. In at least half the cases the cause has been
confirmed, by laboratory tests, as a new strain of virus.

Outline the possible data AND data sources that could be used
for a prospective cohort study of this outbreak. (10)

(c) Outline factors that may affect the reliability of such cohort
studies. (6)

9 A company that operates hotels and health spas recognises the risks
associated with the legionella bacteria.

(a) Identify specific locations where there may be growth of, or
potential exposure to, legionella for employees AND guests. (5)

(b) Outline the control measures that this company should implement
to minimise exposure to legionella bacteria. (15)


10 A noise survey is to be carried out in a large enclosed turbine hall within
an electricity generating power station.

In the turbine hall there are three steam driven turbines and other
mechanical plant associated with power generation.

Exposure to noise is a considerable problem for the 50 employees who
work on each shift in the turbine hall especially when all three turbines
are running.

Explain how a noise survey should be planned and undertaken in order
to assess employees noise exposures in this workplace. (20)


11 A manufacturing process involves the use of three organic solvents,
exposure to which is controlled by local exhaust ventilation (LEV) and
personal protective equipment. The LEV system is regularly inspected
and is subject to thorough examination and testing on an annual basis.

(a) Outline how the exposure of the process workers to solvent
vapours could be assessed. (10)

(b) Outline how the data obtained could be used to determine if the
exposure of the process workers to the solvents is adequately
controlled. (10)



RKP= r=`W=t~=~===~=
=
THE NATIONAL EXAMINATION BOARD IN
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


NEBOSH LEVEL 6 DIPLOMA IN
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

Unit C: Workplace and work equipment


[DATE]
3 hours, 0930 to 1230

10 minutes reading time is allowed before the start of this examination. You may not write anything during
this period.

Answer both Section A and Section B


SECTION A

This section contains six questions. Answer ALL SIX questions.
All questions carry equal marks.
The maximum marks for each question, or part of a question, are shown in brackets.
You are advised to spend about 15 minutes on each question.
Start each answer on a new page.



1 Outline the main design features of a warehouse and associated traffic
routes intended to reduce the risks associated with internal transport. (10)


2 A petrol storage tank in a bund containing three other similar tanks is
overfilled during a transfer operation resulting in a large spill of petrol into
the bund. The petrol vapour is ignited from a remote source causing a
catastrophic explosion and fire involving the whole installation.

(a) Identify the design and construction measures that could have
prevented such an event. (4)

(b) Outline the range of measures that would be necessary to
mitigate the effects of such an event. (6)


NL8OSH 20!0

!!2

3 A design for a multifuel combined heat and power (CHP) power station
allows for either coal, oil or natural gas burning. The proposed site will
include the necessary fuel storage facilities and water treatment plant.
The installation will be located on the bank of a river estuary and receive
deliveries by road, pipeline and ship.

Identify potential pollutants AND their related source:

(a) during normal operation; (5)

(b) during abnormal operation. (5)


4 A production plant uses a potentially explosive powder. Pressurised
nitrogen is the transporting and inerting gas within the plant.

(a) Give the meaning of inerting. (2)

(b) Outline practical reasons why inerting was considered necessary
for this process. (3)

(c) Identify the risks from inert atmospheres during maintenance. (2)

(d) Outline control measures that reduce the risks from inert
atmospheres during maintenance. (3)


5 The owners of a large distribution warehouse business have secured a
contract from a stationery manufacturer. Their insurers have
recommended that the proposed storage facility is sprinkler protected.

Outline the factors to be considered in providing an adequate sprinkler
system for the storage facility. (10)


6 With reference to the mechanical hazards associated with the operation
of a hydraulic robotic arm on a production line, outline a range of
measures aimed at minimising the risk of injury. (10)



SECTION B

This section contains five questions. Answer THREE questions only.
All questions carry equal marks.
The maximum marks for each question, or part of a question, are shown in brackets.
You are advised to spend about 30 minutes on each question.
Start each answer on a new page.


NL8OSH 20!0

!!3


7 A property development company has acquired a former Victorian grain
warehouse, abandoned for the past twenty years, to convert into luxury
apartments. A Principal Contractor has been appointed for the entire
project which involves total removal of the building internals followed by
construction of the apartments within the building shell. The demolition
work is sub-contracted to a specialist company.

(a) Under the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations
2007 (CDM);

(i) outline the specific duties of the Principal Contractor with
regard to the demolition phase of the project.

Your answer should exclude requirements to check on
clients duties. (7)

(ii) identify additional duties specific to demolition under
CDM. (3)

(b) Outline the content of the Pre-Construction Information that will
be of specific interest to the demolition contractor. (10)


8 (a) Outline a range of factors that may cause instability of a mobile
crane. (8)

(b) Outline control measures that should be taken to reduce the
likelihood of a mobile crane overturning during a lifting operation. (12)


9 A serious accident occurred when a threaded steel rod in the braking
mechanism of a hoist broke. An investigation revealed that the cause of
the breakage was fatigue failure.

(a) Outline the mechanism and characteristics of fatigue failure. (6)

(b) Identify THREE factors which can contribute to such a failure
AND for EACH factor outline ONE circumstance in which it may
occur. (6)

(c) Outline the measures that could have been taken to minimise the
likelihood of such a failure. (8)


10 Outline the precautions that can be taken to minimise the risks
associated with a cable strike when excavating near underground
electrical cables. (20)




NL8OSH 20!0

!!4

NL8OSH 20!0

!!5


11 An enclosed reactor vessel 30 metres high with a diameter of 10 metres
needs cleaning, inspection and repair. The reactor was previously used
for reacting flammable solids and gases that formed a toxic, acidic
product.

It is not possible to avoid entry and the relevant personnel are suitably fit,
trained, informed and supervised.

Outline additional arrangements that should be considered in order to
comply with the Confined Spaces Regulations 1997. (20)

The National Examination
Board in Occupational
Safety and Health
Dominus Way
Meridian Business Park
Leicester LE19 1QW
telephone +44 (0)116 2634700
fax +44 (0)116 2824000
email info@nebosh.org.uk
www.nebosh.org.uk

Interesses relacionados