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Contents

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ?
Introduction 5 The learners licence test 6 Vehicle controls 7 The test-yourself system 9 The defensive driving system (K53) 10 Rules of the road 11 Road traffic signs and markings 26 Regulatory road signs 27 Warning road signs 43 Guidance and information road signs 58 Traffic signals 67 Road markings 70 Test-yourself answers 79

2
6

The learners licence test

The licence To obtain a learners licence you must pass a knowledge test covering traffic rules, road traffic signs and the controls of the type of vehicle you intend to drive. requiremenTs You will not be able to obtain a learner's licence if: you have been previously disqualified by a court of law and this disqualification is still in force, or you already have a licence for the same class of vehicle, or your licence has been suspended temporarily and the suspension has not yet expired. When you apply to write the test, you must produce two passport-size photographs, which may be black-and-white or colour. When you pass the test, you will be issued with a learners licence. This will allow you to drive a motor vehicle on a public road subject to certain conditions: You must drive under the supervision of a person in possession of a valid drivers licence for the same category vehicle as that which you intend to drive. The person should be seated right next to you, or directly behind you only if he/she cannot sit next to you. In the case of a motorcycle without a sidecar, you may not carry a passenger and therefore may not be accompanied by your instructor. The minimum age for obtaining a learners licence is: For a motorcycle without a sidecar and with an engine cylinder capacity not exceeding 125 cm: 16 years. For light motor vehicles with a mass not exceeding 3 500 kg: 17 years. For all other vehicles: 18 years. Your learners licence will be valid for 24 months. Before you can make a booking for the written test, you must pass an eye test to make sure that your vision is good enough for driving on public roads. The testing centre will give you all the details and fees involved. vehicle licence The vehicle clearance certificate (licence disc) is valid for 12 months, and must be renewed annually. The TesT The written theory test is not an easy test to pass. It is therefore important that you study everything in this book thoroughly before you make your booking for the test. The test is given in a multiple-choice format, and each question has three possible answers. In some cases only one option is correct, in others more than one option is correct, and in some cases one option is more correct than the others. Make sure you select the most appropriate option. When you write the official test you will be given a book of questions, an answer sheet, a chart of road signs and a book containing pictures of the vehicle controls and various road layouts. The use of these will be explained to you before you write the test. Be sure to listen carefully to the instructions. It will be useful to take your own pencil and suitable eraser, just in case.

noTe: Cheating during the official test is an offence. If convicted, a candidate will be disqualified from writing the test for at least 12 months.

PAss mArKs requireD You need to pass each of the three sections of the test. If you fail one section, you will fail the entire test. The required pass marks are: rules of the road: road signs: vehicle controls: 22 out of 28 23 out of 28 6 out of 8

Rules of the road

Always comply with the following rules of the road unless otherwise directed by a traffic officer, a police officer or a road sign.

On divided roads, dont drive

Drivers control
The driver must have full control of the vehicle and have a clear view of the road ahead.

over the dividing space or barrier, except at an intersection or opening where it is not prohibited by a road sign or traffic officer.

Keep left, pass right


The rule of the road is: Drive

on the left side of the roadway.


Dont endanger oncoming traffic

by encroaching onto the righthand side of the road.


Overtake other vehicles on their

right-hand side only if it is safe to do so; it is not prohibited by a road sign or marking.

general speeD limits on public roaDs


(Unless otherwise indicated by a regulatory road sign) urban (town or city roads)
60 km/h: all vehicles

other roads
100 km/h: rural and national roads 120 km/h: freeways

Exceptions for Other roads:


80 km/h: Vehicles/combinations

over 9 000 kg
You may drive on the right-hand 100 km/h: Buses and minibuses

side of a one-way road. note: Drivers of medical and fire-fighting response vehicles, and persons specifically authorised to do so, are permitted to exceed the speed limit and to disregard road signs during the execution of their duties.

conveying passengers

R2010100

80 km/h

11

overtaKing safely
First make sure it is safe to

When passing a stationary bus,

Dont drive to the left of the

keep a lookout for people moving away from the bus.

edge line marking to overtake on the left.

overtake.
Pass to the right of the vehicle

you are overtaking.


Dont endanger oncoming traffic.

overtaking on freeways:
In the far right lane you may flash

Dont overtaKe
When approaching the crest

Dont pass too close to the

your headlights at the vehicle in front of you to show that you want to overtake it, and it should move over to the next lane to the left.

of a hill or rise.
On a curve. If your view of the road ahead

other vehicle.
Make sure you are safely clear of

overtaKing on the left


You may pass on the left when

is obstructed or restricted.

the other vehicle before returning to the left-hand side of the road.

it is safe to do so: on a one-way urban road wide enough for two or more vehicles to drive abreast;

R4 .1

The above three rules dont apply if:

the road is wide enough to overtake without encroaching onto the right-hand side of the roadway; the road is a one-way road. if the vehicle you are passing is-turning right; on a two-way urban road with more than one traffic lane going in the same direction (with or without painted lane lines).
Dont drive on the verge or If it will create a hazard to any

vehicles, people or property.

shoulder to overtake on the left. 12

A vehicle stopped at a pedestrian

being overtaken on a freeway:


If you are driving in the far

crossing or scholar patrol. right-hand lane and the driver behind indicates that he wants to overtake, carefully move over to the next lane on the left, and dont accelerate until the other vehicle has passed.

intersections
Stop for pedestrians on or entering

a pedestrian crossing.
Dont block the traffic flow when

entering an intersection; crossing a traffic lane.

traffic lanes
Keep within the lane lines. Dont straddle the lane lines.

By crossing a solid white line.

being overtaKen
Keep as far to the left as possible. Dont accelerate while being

overtaken.
If you are driving in the

turning left
Keep as far to the left as possible

right-hand lane and the driver behind indicates his intention to overtake, carefully move over to a left-hand lane.

when preparing to turn.


Adjust your speed to merge into Change lanes only when

the traffic flow safely.

necessary and when safe to do so.


Signal early enough before

turning right
Give way to approaching traffic

changing lanes.
The last action before changing

when about to turn. lanes is to check the blind spot to ensure it is still safe to change lanes.
Keep as far as possible to the right of

your half of the road so that vehicles can pass safely on your left. While waiting to turn, keep the vehicle facing straight ahead, with the wheels straight, to avoid being bumped from behind into the path of oncoming traffic.
Turn across the centre line only

You may drive on the left-hand

shoulder of a single-lane road between sunrise and sunset to allow other vehicles to overtake, provided it is safe to do so and people and vehicles are clearly visible for 150 metres ahead. This is not permitted where there is more than one lane in each direction (e.g. freeways).

remember: When about to turn or change direction, the last action before moving to the right or left is, with the front wheels still straight, ALWAYS to check in the blind spot on the side to which you are about to move.

when there is a clear space in the flow of oncoming traffic.

13

Keep to the left of any traffic island

in the intersection and comply with any road signs.

hanD signals

freeways
vehicles not allowed on freeways:
Animal-drawn vehicles. Pedal cycles. Motorcycles 50 cm or less.

Stop or sudden reduction in speed

Left turn Electrically powered pedal and

motorcycles.
Motor tricycles and quadrucycles. Tractors, except when doing Right turn Slowing down

freeway maintenance.
Special vehicles 230 kg or less,

Cross the centre line of the

designed for people with disabilities. not allowed on freeways:


Overtake Animals, except inside a vehicle

cross street before turning right, except when turning into another one-way street.

passengers on trucKs
Passengers are permitted on the

or within a designated stopping or parking area. (The following rules dont apply to traffic officers on duty, or persons involved with emergency, rescue, salvage, construction, maintenance, civil protection or essential public service work, or where directed otherwise by a road sign or traffic officer, or for a reason beyond your control.)
Stopping a vehicle, except in a

back of a truck or van only if the sides of the rear body are for seated passengers: 350 mm above the seating surface; for standing passengers: 900 mm above the standing surface.

alcohol anD Drugs


Dont drive or sit in the driver's

designated stopping area.


Hand signals, except in emergencies.

rules for signals


Always signal your intention,

using hand signals, electric or mechanical indicators or stop lamps, before: stopping; suddenly reducing speed; turning to the left or the right; changing lanes; moving to the left or the right of the road.

seat with the engine running if you are under the influence of intoxicating liquor or a narcotic drug, or medication that can affect your attention and reactions.
Alcohol levels in grams per 100 ml

of blood must be less than: 0.05 for ordinary drivers 0.02 for professional drivers
Alcohol levels in milligrams per

1 000 ml of breath must be less than: 0.24 for ordinary drivers 0.10 for professional drivers
Alighting from the vehicle, except

Allow enough time to warn others

so that they can react if necessary.


Make sure your signals can

be clearly seen. 14

when acting in an emergency; within a designated stopping or parking area.

test yourself
1
what is the general speed limit on national roads? a 60 km/h b 120 km/h c 100 km/h

2
to overtake safely, you must a Pass on the left-hand side of the vehicle if it is safe to do so. b Change gear before overtaking. c Make sure you are safely clear of the other vehicle before returning to the left-hand side of the road.

3
you can overtake on the left if a You are overtaking a bus or a truck. b The other driver is turning right. c You are driving a left-hand drive vehicle.

4
when overtaking, which of the following can you do? a Exceed the speed limit. b Overtake a vehicle that has stopped at a pedestrian crossing. c Pass on the left in a one-way street that is wide enough for two vehicles to drive abreast.

5
when overtaking, which of the following must you do? a Look out for people getting on or off a stationary bus. b Exceed the speed limit to get past quickly. c Give a courteous wave to the driver of the vehicle you are overtaking.

6
when another vehicle is overtaking you, which of the following statements applies? a Hoot and wave. b Check your speed. c Dont accelerate.

7
when driving on roads with traffic lanes, which of the following should you not do? a Change lanes. b Keep in your lane. c Straddle the lines of the lanes.

8
when is it permissible to change lanes? a When it is safe to do so. b When you have given clear indication early enough to warn other persons. c Both of the above.

9
you can overtake on the left if a You are in a one-way street that is wide enough for two or more vehicles to drive abreast. b You are directed to do so by a traffic officer. c Both of the above.

15

7
Road signs 26

Road traffic signs and markings

In order to prevent confusion on the roads, a system of road traffic signs and road markings has been devised to help direct and guide the traffic flow. Signs may be mounted on poles or overhead structures, or may be painted on the road surface. These signs have been divided into three basic categories: 1 Regulatory signs control and direct traffic flow. 2 Warning signs warn of potential hazards. 3 Guidance and information signs serve as navigational aids.
Road markings

Regulatory

Warning

Guidance

Each set of signs has its own shape and colour-coding system. The different categories of road signs are covered in the following chapters. It is important to study all the examples given at the beginning of each chapter, and to use the test sections to check your understanding of those signs specially selected for these trial tests. Temporary signs have a yellow background to attract attention and indicate a change from normal circumstances. These may require a higher degree of driver attention. Temporary signs take precedence over permanent signs. Road markings dont have the same colour coding as signs. These are explained in detail in chapter 12.

R2

155/R107+R511

R109

Compulsory right turn ahead*

Maximum height limit


449

132/R3150P

Parking for construction vehicles

Warning: Road workers 400 m ahead

239/W335

Warning: Falling rocks ahead*

Stop line

Painted island

Bus lane

Loading zone

Kerbface marking

No stopping

Lane to airport

Extra lane ahead

Regulatory road signs

Regulatory signs regulate traffic flow. They have permanent and temporary versions. They must always be obeyed and failure to do so can result in a heavy fine. There are different categories of regulatory signs and each conveys a specific type of message to the motorist. Understand each category and you will understand every variation of these signs more easily. noTe: Drivers of medical and fire-fighting response vehicles, and persons specifically authorised to do so, are permitted to exceed the speed limit and to disregard road signs during the execution of their duties.

ConTRol siGns

Examples:

(Control the flow of traffic.) They tell you when to stop, go, yield, not enter, and which direction to travel in. They are white on a red background, except the temporary go sign. Drivers response: Obey each sign as explained later in this chapter.
R1

Stop

Stop/Go

R1.4

4-way stop

R1.2

Stop-yield

Yield
R2

R2.1

Yield to pedestrians

R2.2

Yield at minicircle

R5

Pedestrian priority

CommanD siGns

Examples:

(Give commands as to what actions you must take and which class of road user must act or use a certain portion of the roadway.) They are round signs with a white symbol on a blue background, and a white border, unless they are the yellow temporary versions. Drivers response: Always comply with the command given and, if you are driving the class of vehicle indicated on the sign, make sure you stick to the lane or road portion governed by the sign.
Minimum speed
R103

Keep left*

40/R112

R101

Cyclists and pedestrians must use

Buses must use

R133

Switch on headlights

59/R127

Abnormal vehicles must use

60/R124

Vehicles over 10 t must use

27

PRohibiTion siGns

Examples:

(Prohibit certain actions or certain classes of road users.) They are also round signs but have a black symbol on a white background with a red border, unless they are the yellow temporary versions. Except for the limit signs, they usually have a red line across them to represent that they are not allowed. Drivers response: Dont contravene any prohibition indicated on the sign.

Speed limit

61/R20302

R201060

Maximum axle load limit

67/R206

No hooting or noise

76/R209

No left turn ahead*

No overtaking by goods vehicles


91/R215

No stopping
R217

86/R228

No delivery vehicles

ReseRvaTion siGns

Examples:

(Indicate that a road, road portion or a parking area is reserved exclusively for the class of vehicle indicated on the sign. No other vehicles may use that portion of the road or parking area.) They are rectangular in shape and have a white symbol on a blue background with a white border, unless they are the yellow temporary versions. Drivers response: If you are not driving the class of vehicle indicated on the sign, stay out of the reserved lane or road portion and comply with any other reservation indicated.
Parking for buses
118/R3010P 96/R302

Bus lane
100/R309

Reserved for taxis

Bus stop for specified buses

97/R303

Beginning of bus lane

132/R3150P

Parking for construction vehicles

Reserved for parking


126

ComPRehensive siGns

Examples:

(Indicate that a comprehensive set of rules applies to that particular situation. These rules are detailed further on in this chapter for each of these signs.) These signs are rectangular and have a white symbol on a blue background with a red border. Drivers response: Comply with all the rules applicable to the sign until the cancelled version of the sign is displayed.
Dual-carriage freeway begins Single-carriage freeway begins
139/R402 142/R403

140/R401

Residential area

28

CommanD siGns
(Indicate what must be done by the road user.)

minimum sPeeD
You must travel at or faster than the speed indicated.

R101 R101

58
a b C D e Maximum speed allowed. Recommended maximum speed. Minimum speed allowed. Road only 50 m wide. 50 km to next town.
a b C D e

vehiCles oveR This mass: DRive only heRe


Vehicles with a gross vehicle mass more than that indicated, must use only the section of the road designated by this sign. The sign may indicate any mass, according to the condition of the road.

59
R102

a Vehicles exceeding 10 t GVM may not proceed beyond the sign. b Vehicles with a GVM of 10 t or more must use only this portion of the road. C Parking for heavy vehicles only. D Parking for only 10 trucks. e C and D.
a b C D e

R102

sPeCifieD RoaD useRs: DRive only heRe


If you are driving the class of vehicle shown on the sign, you must use only this lane or portion of the roadway. These signs can show any vehicle class symbol.

54/R121

42/R111

60
a Buses permitted. b Parking reserved for buses only. C Buses must use only this lane or roadway. D Buses prohibited. e Bus passenger loading zone.
a b C D e

KeeP lefT*

Keep left

Keep right

R103

R104

Usually at a traffic island or obstruction. You must drive to the side of the sign indicated by the arrow.

61
a b C D e One-way traffic. Road curves to the right. Overtake on the right in this section. Drive to the right of the sign. Steep downhill to the right.
a b C D e

33

sHaRp cuRve aHead*

To the right
189/W204

To the left
402W/981

90
189/W204

189/W204

The road takes a sharp curve ahead in the direction of the arrow. Slow down substantially and comply with any speed advisory plates.

a b c d e

Intersection ahead. Hairpin bend ahead. Sharp curve ahead. No right turn ahead. Caution: Vehicles passing on your right.
a b c d e

gentle cuRve aHead*

To the right
188/W202

To the left
202W/881

188/W202

The road takes a gentle curve ahead in the direction of the arrow. Approach with caution and look out for approaching vehicles that may be overtaking.

188/W202

91
a b c d e Dangerous curve ahead. Gentle curve ahead. Sharp curve ahead. Detour ahead. Steep uphill ahead.
a b c d e

tRaffic ciRcle aHead


There is an intersection with a minicircle or roundabout ahead. Slow down and look out for any regulatory signs. If there are none, give way to traffic already in the circle, approaching from the right.

92
a b c d e

195/W201

195/W201

Traffic circle ahead. Multiple U-turns ahead. Detours ahead: slow down. Danger: whirlwinds ahead. No through road; turn back.
a b c d e

HaiRpin bend aHead*

To the right
193/W206

To the left
602W/391

193/W206

93

193/W206

The road makes a very sharp bend ahead. Slow down substantially and comply with any speed recommendations and regulatory signs. Ensure a firm control of the steering.

a U-turns permitted at this point. b Slow down; vehicles make U-turns on this road. c Turn back; no through road ahead. d Turn back; road closed. e Hairpin bend ahead.
a b c d e

46

cul-de-sac*

264/IN4
265/IN5 269/IN6 264/IN4

138
a b c d e Tearoom ahead. T-junction ahead. Turning prohibited. Cul-de-sac. Lane reserved for trucks.
a b c d e

The road leads to a dead end and there is no through road.

fReeway diRecTion
Shows the direction to a freeway. The turn-off to regional route R33 to Nylstroom and Marble Hall is 1 km ahead, at exit number 272. The road ahead leads to the N1 freeway which is a toll road.

139
a Nylstroom is 272 km from the next turn off. b The turn-off to the R33, which leads to Nylstroom, is 1 km further on. c The road ahead leads to the N1 freeway, which is a pay toll road. d A and B. e B and C.
a b c d e

advance diRecTion
At the next junction the crossroad is the regional route R45, leading to Hopefield and Vredenburg to the right, and to Malmesbury to the left. The road straight ahead is the national route N7 to Cape Town.

140
a The road ahead is the N7 freeway to Cape Town. b The road ahead is the national route N7 to Cape Town. c The road ahead leads to the N7 to Cape Town. d The road ahead leads to the N7, the national route freeway to Cape Town. e None of the above.
285/GD1

TRaffic movemenT
The right-hand lane ends 500 m ahead and traffic merges into the next lane to the left. Approach with caution and expect traffic to merge from the right.
285/GD1

141
a Construction vehicles entering the road from the right. b There are three traffic lanes ahead, 500 m from this point. c The right-hand lane ends 500 m ahead. d There is a traffic island 500 m ahead. e None of these.
a b c d e

65

11
FLASHING SIGNAL
Lane reserved for oncoming traffic only

Traffic signals

Traffic signals are used to regulate the flow of traffic and pedestrians. They take the form of traffic lights (robots), flag-signals and hand signals, or overhead signals.

Traffic light signals

Flag signals

Overhead signals

Red: Regard this as a stop sign. Proceed only when safe to do so. At a railway crossing proceed only when the signal stops flashing. Amber: Warns of a hazard or traffic control device ahead.

146
A B C D E Stop as for a yield sign. Stop as for a 4-way stop. Slow down and proceed carefully. Stop as for a stop sign. Yield to traffic and pedestrians.
A B C D E

OVERHEAD LANE DIRECTION CONTROL SIGNAL

147
Leave the lane in the direction of the arrow

The lane beneath this sign is reserved for oncoming traffic only. Dont use this lane. Leave the lane in the direction of the amber arrow.

A Lane reserved for oncoming traffic only. B Railway crossing ahead. C Crossroad ahead. D No entry to traffic. E Freeway ends here.
A B C D E

OVERHEAD LANE DIRECTION CONTROL SIGNAL


The lane beneath this sign is reserved for traffic proceeding ahead. You may use this lane safely.

148
A Steep downhill ahead. B Lane for oncoming traffic only. C Lane safe to be used in the direction in which you are travelling. D One way traffic straight ahead. E Hazard below this structure.
A B C D E

67

12
DiviDing line
70

Road markings are painted on the surface of the roadway in white, red or yellow paint. Like road signs, road markings must be obeyed. Failure to do so could result in a serious collision or a traffic fine, or both.

Road markings
Bicycle Painted island Disabled persons Minicircle

No parking line

Kerbface marking

Indicates that traffic on either side of the marking is travelling in opposite directions. Keep to the left of the line. You may cross over if you wish to overtake another vehicle and if it is safe to do so.

157
a B C D e Centre island. Barrier line. Lane line. Dividing line. Broken barrier line.
a B C D e

no overtaking line
A solid white line separating two lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions. Keep to the left of it. Dont cross this line with any wheel of the vehicle except to access private property or to avoid an obstruction on the roadway.

158
a You may cross this line to overtake. B You may not cross this line to overtake. C No overtaking line. D A and C. e B and C.
a B C D e

no overtaking line next to DiviDing line


A solid white line next to a dividing line separating two lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions. Dont cross the barrier line where it is to the left of the centre line. You may cross the no overtaking line to access private property, to avoid an obstruction on the roadway, or if it is on the right of the dividing line.

159
a Double barrier line. B Overtake only if it is safe to do so. C Traffic on the same side as the solid line may cross it if safe to do so. D Traffic on the same side as the solid line may not cross it. e No traffic may cross the solid line.
a B C D e

Acknowledgements
We wish to thank the Department of Transport for the cooperation given us during the compilation of this book in its original edition and for their continued assistance. Our special thanks go to Fleming Meyer for so kindly agreeing to read through that original manuscript, and for his comments on the technical content of the book at that time. Our thanks also go to the Port Elizabeth Traffic Department. Their enthusiastic response to our initial ideas and concepts, and their suggestions in those early days, inspired us to go ahead with the book. Their ongoing support since the first edition is much appreciated too. Finally, we acknowledge the outstanding response from the public, who have made this book the leader in its field through word-of-mouth advertising of the book that has helped many of our citizens to pass their learners easily. Clive Gibson, Gavin Hoole, Bata Passchier Port Elizabeth, 1997

Struik Lifestyle (an imprint of Random House Struik (Pty) Ltd) Company Reg, No. 1966/003153/07 Wembley Square, Solan Road, Gardens 8001 PO Box 1144, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa www.randomstruik.co.za First published in 1984 by Struik Publishers Second edition 1985 (reprinted 17 times) Third edition 1995 (reprinted 4 times) Fourth edition 1997 Fifth edition 1999 (reprinted 4 times) Sixth edition 2000 (reprinted 5 times) Seventh edition 2003 Reprinted 2003, 2004 (twice), 2005 (twice), 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Eighth edition in 2012 by Struik Lifestyle Copyright in published edition: Random House Struik (Pty) Ltd 1984, 1985, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2012 Copyright in text and illustrations: Engage the Brain Training Systems 1984, 1985, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers and the copyright holders. Publisher: Linda de Villiers Editor: Joy Clack Designer: Beverley Dodd Editorial assistant: Zulfa Orrie

ISBN 978-1-43230-074-6 (Print) ISBN 978-1-43230-075-3 (ePub) ISBN 978-1-43230-076-0 (PDF) Extracts from Road Ordinance are reproduced under Government Printers Copyright Authority 7975 of 25 June 1983. The National Road Traffic Act, Regulations and test requirements are revised by the authorities from time to time. This book is constantly updated to incorporate such changes, and every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy and current validity of the information provided in this book. Nevertheless, the Publishers and the Authors shall not be held responsible or liable in any way whatsoever for any omissions or errors contained herein, whether due to timing of the release of the updated editions or for any other reason.