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II - The general factor of thermal insulation G

This factor of thermal insulation reflects the sum of all thermal loss trough all the building envelope elements for a thermal difference of 1 Kelvin () plus the losses because of ventilation and air infiltration.

The minimal values GN are given in the following table:

This factor of thermal insulation of the building is calculated with:

G =

A R V m 1

+ 0.34 n


Where: V represents the inside volume of the building V[m3] ; Rm - represents the average corrected thermal resistance of the building element, [m2K/W];

Rm =


Aj ; Aj R


A The area of the element with the specific main thermal resistance Rm; A[m2]; n represents the ventilation rate (the number of volume changes per hour. n=0,7; 0,8; 0,9 [h-1] according to the degree of win exposure of the building); The temperature correction factor

T ( i Tu ) ; T ( i Te )

Ti=+20C Te represents the external temperature and it is in function of the zone. Tu= +5C; Tu represents the temperature for indoor un-wormed spaces;


where: represents the linear coefficient of temperature losses trough thermal bridges and depends on the constructive detail of the linear thermal bridge. l - represents the length of the linear thermal bridge where the specific measure the heat losses (l is determined for one floor and than multiplied with the nr. of similar floors). One requirement for the thermal resistance of each type of envelope element is:

( l ) ;

Ro,ef Rnec
Where the corrected mean resistance for building envelope elements are : Ro,nec= 1.8 for external walls Ro,nec= 3.5 for terrace roof Ro,nec= 1.65 for over basement

The steps to follow in order to determine the general factor of thermal insulation G are: 1. Elaboration of the building plans and the characteristic cross (vertical) section through the building with the specification of the heated spaces perimeter; 2. Estimation of all the specific areas for the elements from the perimeter (envelope) of the building. 3. Calculation of the building envelope area and ( A=Aj) the building heated volume (V); 4. Evaluation of the indoor unheated temperatures (Tu) by the equations of thermal balance (for the case of in the project Tu=+5 C) ; 5. Estimation of temperature correction factor j; 6. Computation of the corrected thermal resistance of the building elements from the eq:
U= R j
1 =

( l )

7. Calculation of the mean thermal resistance of the building elements Rm. j =

8. Estimation of the ventilation rate n in the project will consider n=0,7. . . 0,9; 9. Assessment of the expression 10. Estimation of G =

(Aj /Rj )



Aj R m , j

A R V m 1

+ 0 . 34 n ;

11. Calculation of (A/V) and the resultant GN; 12. Comparison between G and GN

For a simple and a better conduction of the estimation procedure we recommend organizing the data and the results in tables, and we suggest some models for the tables to use in the evaluation process.

Bridge Detail

Building Element

Current number

Linear heat loss

W m*K 4
1 2

Linear bridge length

l m 5 *l W K 6=4*5


Thermal resist.
R m*K W 8 (*l) W K 9=6

Corrected thermal resist.

R' m*K W 11=1/(1/8+7/9)

Temp. Correct. factor

Specific power
(A) R m'

A m 7

_ 3



External Wall _1

2 4 6 5 1 1 2

External Wall _2

2 4 6 5

2 3 4

Floor over the basement Roof Windows & Doors

5 8 5 9 0.5 1 1

Need for G