TET 4180 Electric Power System Stability [Year]
IMPACT OF AVR
Linda Aino-Maija Rekosuo 733028
Mamta Maharjan
729299
TET 4180 Electric Power System Stability
1 SUMMARY
The system contains eleven buses and two areas, connected by a weak tie between bus 7 and 9. Totally two loads are applied to the system at bus 7 and 9. The system has the fundamental frequency 60 Hz. The system comprises two similar areas connected by a weak tie. Each area consists of two generators, each having a rating of 9

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Impact of AVR on Stability

TET 4180 Electric Power System Stability [Year]
IMPACT OF AVR
Linda Aino-Maija Rekosuo 733028
Mamta Maharjan
729299
TET 4180 Electric Power System Stability
1 SUMMARY
The system contains eleven buses and two areas, connected by a weak tie between bus 7 and 9. Totally two loads are applied to the system at bus 7 and 9. The system has the fundamental frequency 60 Hz. The system comprises two similar areas connected by a weak tie. Each area consists of two generators, each having a rating of 9

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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IMPACT OF AVR

Mamta Maharjan

729299

1 SUMMARY

The system contains eleven buses and two areas, connected by a weak tie between bus 7 and 9. Totally two loads are applied to the system at bus 7 and 9. The system has the fundamental frequency 60 Hz. The system comprises two similar areas connected by a weak tie. Each area consists of two generators, each having a rating of 900 MVA and 20 kV. In order to analyse this system called KUNDUR two AREA system following steps are carried out. Power-flow calculation Linear Analysis and Modal Analysis Time-domain simulation

For carrying out KUNDUR Two Area system, Simulation software called SIMPOW is used. In part 1, power flow calculation is done by using kundur.optpow file and single line diagram is drawn. By using casefault.dynpow file, dynamic simulation is carried out. At 1s, there is three phase short circuit in bus 8. Assuming fault to be small signal disturbance, linear analysis is carried out and Eigen values are calculated. Linear analysis and the information provided by eigenvalues and eigenvectors are very useful when doing system studies. Time domain simulations (in SIMPOW) using the non-linear models are further used to verify the responses. Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and the field excitation system of the generators have an impact on system stability. In part 2 there is analysis of AVR by changing its gain and time constant. The whole part 2 is analysed by removing Power system Stabilizer (PSS). PSS helps in stability enhancement. In this part also linear analysis is carried out, Eigen values are calculated. The parameters which affect the stability of the system is gain and time constant. So analysis is done to see how these value influence the stability.

Table of Contents

................................................................................................................................................................. 0 1 2 3 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................... 4 BASICS OF POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND SIMPOW (PART 1) .................................................... 5 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 INITIAL POWER FLOW COMPUTATION ................................................................................... 5 LINEAR ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................................... 5 MODAL ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... 7 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................. 8 DATA SCANNING...................................................................................................................... 9 DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF BASE CASE.................................................................................. 10 PREDEFINED PLOT ......................................................................................................... 10 POWER TRANSFER BETWEEN BUS 8 AND BUS 9 ........................................................... 11 Relation between generator power and power angle/generator speed ...................... 12

IMPACT OF AVR ( part 2) ............................................................................................................... 15 4.1 4.2 INSERTION OF EXC_HTC WITH KA=200, TR=0.01S ................................................................ 15 IMAPCT OF CHANGING KA and TR of AVR............................................................................. 18 Changing time constant ................................................................................................. 18 Changing Gain constant................................................................................................. 18

TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS ....................................................................................................... 19 CHANGING TIME CONSTANT ......................................................................................... 19 CHANGING GAIN............................................................................................................ 20

PRE AND POST FAULT STEADY STATE VOLTAGE AND REACTIVE POWER EXCHANGE ........... 22 Steady state voltage ...................................................................................................... 22 reactive power............................................................................................................... 23 EXCHANGE OF REACTIVE POWER .................................................................................. 23

MORE ADVANCED AVR .......................................................................................................... 24 KA=200 TR=0.005 TA=1.0 TB=10.0............................................................................. 25 KA=200 TR=0.005 TA=0.5s TB=10.0 ........................................................................... 25 KA=200 TR=0.005 TA=0.5s TB=5.0 ............................................................................. 26

CONCLUSION: ................................................................................................................................ 28

Appendix 3............................................................................................................................................. 32 APPENDIX 4 ........................................................................................................................................... 33 APPENDIX 5 ........................................................................................................................................... 36 APPENDIX 6 ........................................................................................................................................... 39 Appendix 7............................................................................................................................................. 40 APPENDIX 8 ........................................................................................................................................... 41 APPENDIX 9 ........................................................................................................................................... 42 Appendix 10........................................................................................................................................... 43

2 INTRODUCTION

The KUNDUR two area systems consists of two generating and load areas consisting of 2 generators in each area and is connected by a duplex tie line between bus 7 and 9 as depicted in fig 1. Part 1 is exercise meant to give idea of the simulation tool SIMPOW and some ideas about the dynamics of the power system. Power flow, linear analysis, Eigen values, sensitivity, data scanning, modal analysis are carried out to have better insight of Kundur two area system. There is some slight understanding of stability, inter area mode of oscillation, electromechanical oscillation. In part 2 AVR is introduced to all the generators. Exciter called high transient gain exciter is equipped to the all generators. Parameter like KA, TR of the exciter is changed and its impact on stability is studied. More advance exciter Transient gain reduction is used and its parameters are tuned in order to improve the stability of the system. There is three phase short circuit on bus 8.Pre fault and Post fault values of steady state voltage and reactive power is calculated and analysed. After the fault is removed on bus 8, one of the lines between bus 8 and bus 9 is tripped. The reactive power exchange, before and after fault are also studied and the results are analysed. The results are discussed and tried to associate with the general theory and from the course book Power system Stability.

Figure 1

3 BASICS OF POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS AND SIMPOW (PART 1) 3.1 INITIAL POWER FLOW COMPUTATION

The optimal power flow using SIMPOW is carried out using base case. The figure 1 in the Appendix 1 represents the power flow result of the kundur case in tabular format. This is the total overview of the system. The Kundur two area system consists of ten buses in which bus 1,2,5,6,7 lies in the AREA 1 and rest of the bus lies in AREA 2 except for bus 8 which lies in the tie between AREA 1 and AREA 2 via bus 7 and bus 9. Here bus 3 is swing bus and rest of generator bus 1, 2 and 4 is PV bus. Bus 7 and 9 is the load bus or PQ bus and load is modelled as constant power character. it is done by making MP=MQ=0 in SIMPOW. This result is also displayed in single line diagram in Appendix 2. The voltage of Bus 9 is lower than the permissible value as seen in figure 1 of Appendix 1.. So it has been improved by using the shunt compensation at bus 7 and 9 . The improved power flow is also shown in figure 2 of Appendix 1. The summary of power flow result is tabulated below. BUS 1 (PV) 2 (PV) 3(SW) 4(PV) V (PU) 1.03 1.01 1.03 1.01 TETA (DEG) 20.17 10.41 -6.8 -16.99 P(MW) 700.0 700.0 718.9 700.0 Q(MVAR) 184.8 234.2 175.7 201.4

The summary of power transfer between area 1 and area two via the duplex transmission line is as follows: Merit Power transmitted from Area 1(from Bus 7) Power received at Area 2(at Bus 9) Loss in Tie line P (MW) 400.848 382.316 18.352 Q (MVAR) 16.855 -97.12 113.975

Linear Analysis is done for the small disturbance in the system. Linear analysis reduces the complexity of the power system. The computation of eigenvalues, and performing frequency scanning, data scanning and modal analysis is carried out in linear analysis which can be done easily in SIMPOW. The alter command features to connect and disconnect the power components, the connection and disconnection time as per the requirement in analysis of the system. The figure 1 in Appendix 3 shows the eigen values of the kundur 2 area system before the 3 phase fault occurs at bus 8. All the eigen values have negative real part indicating the stable system. But of all the eigen values, only one of those eigen values whose imaginary part in the range of 0.2-2Hz are chosen as only the electromechanical mode is studied. The eigen value (-0.599,0.66) is chosen as the initial value and the eigen values are improved. It is done because for the numerical method problem the initial value matters which is shown in figure 2. 5

0.60

0.40

0.20

-1.40

-1.20

-1.00

-0.80

-0.60

-0.40

-0.20

0.20

-0.20

-0.40

Job casefault

Simpow 11.0.008

The filtered eigen values are tabulated as below in table 3. Only those eigen values which has frequency in the range 0.2-2Hz is taken into consideration. It is because these values represent the electromechanical mode which is the interest of this project.

Real parts 21 22 23 24 29 30 35 36 -2.258673 -2.58675 -2.202345 -2.202345 -0.599853 -0.599853 -1.758968 -1.758968 Imaginary parts 1.366046 -1.366046 1.315472 -1.315472 0.660476 -0.660476 0.216461 -0.216461

As all the eigen values lie in the negative half plane the system is stable before the fault occurs. The

If the Eigen values have negative real part then damping ratio is positive and the system is stable.

Modal analysis means the eigen vector of any given eigen value. The figure 3 shows the modal analysis for the Eigen value no. 29. For the particular Eigen value the eigen vector of 4 different generator is plotted in this figure. For the eigen vector no. 29,(-0.59985, 0.66048) the generator 1 and 2 which is of the AREA1 is oscillating against AREA 2. This is called inter area interaction and is a positive quality for an integrated large network. And figure2 in Appendix 3 shows the model analysis for eigen value no. 21.

Eigenvalue: -0.599852 1/s + j0.660476 Hz at Time=0 seconds 1,00 1 SYNCG3 2 SYNCG4 3 SYNCG1 4 SYNCG2 3 4 -1,00 -0,50 0,50 21 1,00

-1,00 STRI Softw are DATE 9 APR 2011 TIME 15:54:42 Job casefault Simpow 11.0.009

Sensitivity analysis means how much sensible the eigen values are to the control parameters like Inertia Constant, Damping ratio. By changing these control parameters, sensitivity analysis shows how the eigen values are changed. Hence this gives idea about how these control parameters effect on the stability of the system. It is seen from the sensitivity table 4 that if inertia constant of synchronous generator is increased then there is increase in real part and decrease in imaginary part because the sensitivity is positive for real part and negative for imaginary part. Assuming initially, the eigen value is in negative half plane, For 1 pu change in inertia constant the eigen value change by 0.03484 1/s in positive direction bringing it near to the origin so the stability decreases. In contradiction increase in pu of damping constant of synchronous generator 3, there is decrease of real part of eigen value taking it more far from the origin so the stability increase. Taking the second order model of synchronous generator the eigen value are represented by

Where , so the result is compatible with the formula. The equation says that if inertia constant is increased real part comes closer to origin. i.e the system would be less stable. And if Damping Constant is increased then eigen values move far away from the origin and system increase stability. parameter Sync gen 3, H Sync gen 3, D Eigen value -0.599 1/s, 0.66 Hz -0.599 1/s, 0.66 Hz

Table 4. sensitivity for H=6.175

3.5 DATA SCANNING

Data Scanning is the graphical approach of verifying the sensitivity analysis. Here also eigen values are initially in negative half plane. From the graph obtained by data scanning of H from 4 to 8 in step of 0.5 in figure 4, it is seen that increase in inertia constant decrease the imaginary part and increase the real part of eigen value. The real part determines the state of stability. The system is stable if the eigen value is located far away from the origin in negative x axis. But increase in H is taking the eigen value nearer to the origin so the stability is decreasing on increase in H. If it is done for damping constant D then it looks as in figure 5

Figrue 5 shows that increase in D is taking the eigen value away from the origin in negative x axis so stability margin is increasing. Data scanning shows the exact value of eigen value on increasing or decreasing of system parameter but Sensitivity analysis shows only the slope of eigen value with respect to system parameters.

With casefault.dynpow file, additional file called casefault.dynpost is also attached. This dynpost file consists of some predefined plot which are listed below . 3.6.1 PREDEFINED PLOT

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. NODE BUS8 U POS. p.u. 230.000/ SQRT[3] kV

1,00

0,80

0,60

0,40

0,20

0,00 0,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 TIME SECONDS 6,0 7,0 8,0 9,0 10,0

STRI Software

JOB casefault

Diagram :1

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. SYNC G1 SPEED SYNC G2 SPEED SYNC G3 SPEED SYNC G4 SPEED 1,00200 1,00200 1,00200 1,00200 p.u. p.u. p.u. p.u.

1,00150

1,00150

1,00150

1,00150

1,00100

1,00100

1,00100

1,00100

1,00050

1,00050

1,00050

1,00050

1,00000

1,00000

1,00000

1,00000

0,99950

0,99950

0,99950

0,99950

0,99900

0,99900

0,99900

0,99900 0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50 2,00 2,50 3,00 TIME SECONDS 3,50 4,00 4,50 5,00 5,50 6,00

STRI Software

JOB casefault

Diagram :2

10

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. SYNC G1 P POWER SYNC G2 P POWER SYNC G3 P POWER SYNC G4 P POWER 1,000 0,950 0,850 0,900 0,900 0,900 1,000 p.u. 900.000 MW p.u. 900.000 MW p.u. 900.000 MW p.u. 900.000 MW

0,850

0,800

0,800

0,800 0,750

0,800

0,600

0,600

0,500

0,500 0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50 2,00 2,50 3,00 TIME SECONDS 3,50 4,00 4,50 5,00 5,50 6,00

STRI Software

JOB casefault

Diagram :3

Figure 8. : plot of power output(MW) of generators during outage of line 1 at base case

The dynpow file casefault.dynpow shows that there is three phase fault at bus 8 at 1s and the fault is removed at 1.05 s. In figure 6 the voltage of bus 8 is zero during the fault and regained after fault is removed. Figure 7 is speed response of the all generator which shows that there is oscillation in all the generator after fault but the system finally became stable after the removal of fault. It is also seen that during fault, generator 1 and 2 of AREA 1 is oscillating against generator 3 and 4 of AREA 2. This is called inter area mode of interaction. The same type of oscillation is also felt by power output of generators which is shown in figure 8. 3.6.2 POWER TRANSFER BETWEEN BUS 8 AND BUS 9

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. LINE LINE LINE LINE 400 0 0 BUS8 BUS8 BUS8 BUS8 BUS9 BUS9 BUS9 BUS9 1 P1 POWER 1 P2 POWER 2 P1 POWER 2 P2 POWER MW MW MW MW

350

-50 150

300

-100

-50

250

-150 100

200

-200 -100

0.4, -195

150

-250 50

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-300 -150

50

-350 0

-400

0.0

1.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0 Diagram :4

STRI Software

Figure 9: power flow between bus 8 and bus 9 of line 1 and line 2

LINE 1 11

LINE 2

Initial (MW) Final (MW) AREA 1 -195 0 AREA 2 191 0 AREA 1 -195 -395 AREA 2 191 367

With simpow, some graphs can be plotted manually. The figure 9 consists of graph which represents the exchange of active power between the bus 8 and bus 9. There are duplex line between bus 8 and bus 9. After the fault, line 1 is cut off so the active power transfer by the line 1 after the fault is zero. So all the power must be exchanged by line 2.Line 2 is exchanging the same power as line 1 before fault 3.6.3 Relation between generator power and power angle/generator speed

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. SYNC G3 P POWER p.u. 900.000 MW 1.07104 1.11612 1.05715 0,850 1.36339 1.39158 1.41977 2.70674 2.5668 1.44796 2.49684 2.42687 4.3717 4.58956 3.17346 2.3569 1.47615 2.28694 4.15384 5.3406 10 3.28239 3.50025 3.39132 1.50434 3.71811 1.53253 1.58892 1.77495 1.68193 1.63542 1.32024 1.27537 1.23049 1.18562 1.142

1.05002

0,700

0,650

0,600

1.04916

1.00002

-0,850

-0,800

-0,750 SYNC G3

-0,700 TETA

-0,600

-0,550

-0,500

STRI Software

JOB casefault

Diagram :6

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. SYNC G3 P POWER MW 800

750

0 700

10

650

600

550

0.99940

0.99960

0.99980

1.00000

1.00060

1.00080

1.00100 Diagram:10

STRI Software

Power versus power angle and speed is plotted for the swing bus G3. Because of fault, both the speed and angle increase and after some time it is seen to be stabilized because of removal of fault. 12

3.7 EIGEN VALUE AFTER FAULT

The figure 12 represents the eigen value after the fault. But all the eigen values do not represent the electromechanical mode of oscillation. Only those eigen values which have 0.2-2 Hz is considered as the electromechanical mode.

Eigenvalues at time=10 seconds

1.00

0.50

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-1.00

Eigenvalue no Eigenvalue no Eigenvalue no Eigenvalue no Eigenvalue no Eigenvalue no Eigenvalue no Eigenvalue no 21: -2.19124 22: -2.19124 23: -2.24210 24: -2.24210 29: -0.570887 30: -0.570887 35: -1.76428 36: -1.76428 1/s , 1.29966 1/s , -1.29966 1/s , 1.34514 1/s , -1.34514 1/s , 0.528683 1/s , -0.528683 1/s , 0.216604 1/s , -0.216604 Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz

From the figure 13, the period of oscillation is T=1.8 sec i.e. frequency f = 1/1.8 s = 0.55 Hz which is very close to the frequency of oscillation computed by SIMPOW in eigenvalue no. 29. And from the real part of the same eigenvalue, the damping period is T=1/0.57091 =1.75 seconds. Practically, it takes around 5 cycles to decay the oscillations that equals to 5*1.75 s = 8.75 seconds which can also be observed in the figure 13.

13

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. SYNC G4 TETA -0,650 RADIANS RELATIVE TO G1

-0,700

-0,750

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-0,950

2,0, -1,102

-1,100 0,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 TIME SECONDS 6,0 7,0 8,0 9,0 10,0

STRI Software

JOB

Diagram :11

By inspection of the Eigen value also the stability of the system can be found out. But after converting to the time domain it is seen that due to fault at 1s, rotor angle swings and after some oscillation it final settles down to another equilibrium value. The system is stable.

14

4 IMPACT OF AVR ( part 2)

Before the effect of AVR in stability is discussed, it is useful to explain some theory regarding the control system. For the control system as shown below

, Damping constant =

system to be stable damping constant must be high. i.e T(time constant) must be less and K(gain) must be less. Automatic voltage regulator is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level usually by varying the field voltage. Part 2 is the analysis of regulated system so every generator is equipped with the AVR. When any disturbance occurs for instant the short circuit then voltage of the node goes down, AVR maintains the voltage of the generator terminals constant by adjusting the value of the excitation voltage. If AVR is fast then it tries to maintain the generator stable despite the occurrence of the fault. Stability means ability to come in the original position even after disturbance. So the parameters of AVR have huge impact on generator stability. Exciter EXC_HTG is introduced to all the generators. It is thyristor static exciter with a high transient gain which is shown in figure 15

This type of exciter is called static exciter. High value of KA is desirable from the viewpoint of overall excitation control design and performance. KA=200 is chosen. All the analysis is done by disconnecting PSS. PSS is power system stabilizer. Part 1 is analyzed with PSS. PSS is a device which provides additional supplementary control loops to the AVR system. System stabilizes faster when PSS is used. It is one of the most cost effective methods of enhancing power system stability. PSS is removed in SIMPOW by making SWS=0.

Inserting the EXC_HTG for all the generators, casefault.dynpow is analysed linearly and the eigen values are calculated which is shown in figure 16.. All the generator has KA=200, TR=0.01s 15

Eigenvalues at time=55 seconds

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-1.00 STRI Softw are DATE 27 APR 2012 TIME 10:55:24 Job casefault Simpow 11.0.008

Eigenvalue 17 (-0.74222 1/s , 1.1186 Eigenvalue 18(-0.74222 1/s , -1.1186 Eigenvalue 19 (-0.73589 1/s , 1.1495 Eigenvalue 20 (-0.73589 1/s , -1.1495 Eigenvalue 21 (-0.87935E-01 1/s , 0.52029 Eigenvalue 22 (-0.87935E-01 1/s ,-0.52029 Eigenvalue 34: ( -1.3541 1/s , 0.12096 Eigenvalue 35 ( -1.3541 1/s ,-0.12096 Hz) Hz) Hz) Hz) Hz) Hz) Hz) Hz)

All the eigen values are in negative half plane which means that the system is stable. Any eigen values has real part and imaginary part. Real part indicates the damping nature of the disturbance while the imaginary part indicates the oscillation of disturbance. So the negative real part of eigen value means that oscillation is decreasing and the system is stable. The eigen values analysis is frequency domain analysis. The system behaviour is more illustrative in time domain analysis which is shown below in figure 17.

cas e fault - A thre e -phas e fault clos e to BUS8 w ith dis conne ction of a line . SYNC G1 SYNC G2 SYNC G3 SYNC G4 1,00200 1,00200 1,00200 1,00200 SPEED SPEED SPEED SPEED p.u. p.u. p.u. p.u.

1,00150

1,00150

1,00150

1,00150

1,00100

1,00100

1,00100

1,00100

1,00050

1,00050

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1,00000

1,00000

1,00000

1,00000

0,99950

0,99950

0,99950

0,99950

0,99900

0,99900

0,99900

0,99900 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0

TIM E SECONDS

ST RI Software

Diagram :2

16

Figure 17: Speed Response

This graph shows there is disturbance at 1s and after it is cleared the disturbance dies out gradually and after around 40s the system is stable again but in the different value than the pre fault condition. It can also be seen that the generator 1 and 2 of area 1 is oscillating against generator 3 and 4. The initial value, final value and settling time is tabulated below. G1 1 pu 1.00056 pu 41s G2 1 pu 1.00056 pu 41s G3 1 pu 1.00056 pu 46s G4 1pu 1.00056 pu 46s

All the generators are oscillating in 1pu before fault. After the fault, all the generator settles down in another value 1.00057 but it happens in different settling time. G1,G2 of area 1 settles down in 41s while generator G3,G4 of area 2 settles down in 46s.

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. SYNC G1 U POS. SYNC G2 U POS. SYNC G3 U POS. SYNC G4 U POS. kV kV kV kV

12,50

12,00

12,00

12,00

27,7, 11,66

10,50

10,00 10,50

9,50

10,50 10,00

11,00

9,00 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0

TIME SECONDS

STRI Software

JOB

Diagram :4

Figure 18 shows the voltage analysis in time domain. The voltage of all the generator goes down to zero during fault at 1s and after the fault is cleared the voltage is again risen and finally becomes stable. The initial, final values are as indicated below. G1 11.89 11.89 G2 11.66 11.66 G3 11.89 11.89 G4 11.66 11.66

Table 6: initial and final steady state voltage for KA=200, TR=0.01s

17

Here it is seen that the initial and final value is same because the gain is very high KA=200 and the steady state error is zero.

In this section, value of KA and TR of generators are change one by one and to all the generator at the same time. In this way it can be seen how the stability of generator is affected by these parameter. Originally the value of KA=200 and TA=0.01 s. This figures 1 to 4 in Appendix 4 shows how the Eigen values change, when TR is change from 0.01s to 1s one by one in all four generator keeping KA constant at 200.Fig 1 to fig 4 is the result of data scanning. Data scanning is done for the eigen value (-0.87935E-01 1/s ,-0.52029 Hz). This particular eigen value is chosen because the time response of figure 17 shows that Time period of oscillation is 2s which means frequency of oscillation is nearly 0.5Hz. 4.2.1 Changing time constant

It is seen that when TR of generator 1 and 2 is changed then eigen values are moving towards origin decreasing stability and finally lie in right half plane if TR is further increased making the system unstable. On contrary, eigen values of generator 3 and 4 of area 2 are moving away from the origin increasing stability. And the figure 5 in appendix 4 shows the effect on Eigen values when TR is changed in all generator at the same time. TR is voltage transducer time. It is seen that when TR is increased the Eigen values are tilting more and more to the origin. That means the stability is decreased when TR is increased. From the table 1 in appendix 5, it can be seen that when TR is increased to 0.5s and more than that, then the eigen value lie in right half plane making it unstable. Increasing TR means that the AVR is getting slow. It is mentioned in the textbook in 5.5.1.2 (pg 199) that if AVR is slow acting i.e it has large time constant then it may be assumed that following a small disturbance the AVR will not react during the transient state and the regulated and unregulated systems will behave in a similar manner. It means that if AVR cannot respond when disturbance occurs then there is no meaning of keeping AVR, as the system will get unstable as the unregulated system. 4.2.2 Changing Gain constant Now TR is made constant and gain is decreased from KA=200 to KA=10 one by one in all the generator and at last in all the generator at the same time. The result of data scanning are plotted in appendix 5. Fig 1 and fig 2 represents the gen 1 and gen 2 respectively which shows that when gain is decrease from 200 to 50 then eigen values are moving near to origin. If further decreased then eigen values are moving away from the origin. While opposite is happening in gen 3 and gen 4. From fig5 in appendix 5, it is seen that when KA decrease then stability is decreased by shifting the eigen value to the origin but when it is decreased more than 50, then stability increased.

18

4.3 TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS

4.3.1 CHANGING TIME CONSTANT To illustrate more, time domain analysis is done. The figure 1 and figure 2 in appendix 6 below represent speed for all the generators by changing TR=0.01 to TR=0.1 s of generator 1 and on all generator at same time respectively. This is done by keeping gain KA constant at 200. In the table below, Initial value, final value and settling time of the speed response is presented by changing TR=0.1 s one by one in all the generator. KA=200 TR,G1=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.01s TR,G2=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.01s TR,G3=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.01s TR,G4=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.01s G1 1 1.00056 43 1 1.00056 56 1 1.00056 39 1 1.00056 41 G2 1 1.00056 43 1 1.00056 53 1 1.00056 40 1 1.00056 38 G3 1 1.00056 48 1 1.00056 60 1 1.00056 44 1 1.00056 42 G4 1 1.00056 48 1 1.00056 58 1 1.00056 44 1 1.00056 41

Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s)

Table 7: Initial value, final value and settling time for all generator one by one

Settling time is the measure of stability. It means the time system takes to come to final value. Stable system will have less settling time. In this case TR is increased more than 0.01s. Table5 above shows the case for TR=0.01s.If this table7 is compared with table 5, it is seen that if TR of generator 1 and generator 2 is increased then the system is decreasing stability. On contrary, if TR of generator 3 and 4, is increased then system is increasing stability. This result is well matched with eigen value analysis done before IN IMPACT OF CHANGING TR. Generator 3 and 4 of area 2 act oppositely to generator 1 and 2 of area 1. Now, TR of all the generator is changed and the effect is seen which is shown in table 8. All gen has TR=0.1s All gen has TR=0.2s All gen has TR=0.3s Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) 1 1.00056 53 1 1.00056 76 1 1.00056 unstable 1 1.00056 50 1 1.00056 73 1 1.00056 unstable 1 1.00056 56 1 1.00056 80 1 1.00056 unstable 1 1.00056 54 1 1.00056 79 1 1.00056 unstable

Table 8: Initial value, final value and settling time for all generator

Increase in TR means AVR is slow so it takes longer time to settle down the disturbance or it is relatively becoming less stable. The instability increases with increase in TR. Below is the example

19

given the figure 19, when TR=0.5s. The speed response shows that the system is unstable because the oscillation is growing.

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. SYNC G1 SPEED SYNC G2 SPEED SYNC G3 SPEED SYNC G4 SPEED p.u. p.u. p.u. p.u.

1,0150

1,0150

1,0150

1,0150

1,0100

1,0100

1,0100

1,0100

1,0050

1,0050

1,0050

1,0000

1,0000

1,0000

1,0000

0,9950

0,9950

0,9950

0,9950

0,9900

0,9900

0,9900

0,9900

0,0

5,0

10,0

15,0

20,0

25,0

30,0

35,0

40,0

45,0

50,0

55,0

TIME SECONDS

STRI Software

JOB casefault

Diagram :2

If frequency analysis is also done in this case then eigen values will lie in positive half plane as shown in figure 20

Eigenvalues at time=55 seconds

1.00

0.50

-1.50

-1.00

-0.50

0.50

1.00

-0.50

-1.00 STRI Softw are DATE 27 APR 2012 TIME 11:53:50 Job casefault Simpow 11.0.008

4.3.2 CHANGING GAIN The time domain analysis is done. The figure 1 and figure 2 in appendix 7 represent speed for all the generators by changing KA=200 to KA=60 of generator 1 and on all generator at same time respectively. This is done by keeping gain TR constant at 0.01s.

20

In the table below, Initial value, final value and settling time of the speed response is presented by changing KA=60 one by one in all the generator. TR=0.01 G1 G2 G3 G4 KA,G1=60 Initial (pu) 1 1 1 1 All other gen Final (pu) 1.00057 1.00057 1.00057 1.00057 has KA=200 Settling time (s) 60 59 62 65 KA,G2=60 Initial (pu) 1 1 1 1 All other gen Final (pu) 1.00065 1.00065 1.00065 1.00065 has KA=200 Settling time (s) 115 113 118 120 KA,G3=60 Initial (pu) 1 1 1 1 All other gen Final (pu) 1.00058 1.00058 1.00057 1.00057 has KA=200 Settling time (s) 39 37 41 42 KA,G4=60 Initial (pu) 1 1 1 1 All other gen Final (pu) 1.00066 1.00066 1.00066 1.00066 has KA=200 Settling time (s) 36 33 38 40 Table 9: Initial value, final value and settling time for all generator one by one Settling time is the measure of stability. It means the time, system takes to come to final value. Stable system will have less settling time. In this case KA is decreased less than 200 which is the default . table 5 above shows the case for KA=200.If this table 9 is compared with table 5, it is seen that if KA of generator 1 and generator 2 is decreased then the system is decreasing stability. On contrary, if KA of generator 3 and 4, is decreased then system is incresing stability. This result is well matched with eigen value analysis done before that generator of Area 2 act oppositely to generator of Area 1. Now, KA of all the generator is changed and the effect is seen which is shown in table 10 All gen has KA=200 All gen has KA=100 All gen has KA=60 All gen has KA=30 All gen has KA=10 Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) Initial (pu) Final (pu) Settling time (s) 1 pu 1.00056 pu 41 1 pu 1.00058 pu 76 1 1.00059 125 1 1.00069 94 1 1.0008 15 1 pu 1.00056 pu 41 1 pu 1.00058 pu 73 1 1.00059 120 1 1.00069 90 1 1.00079 12 1 pu 1.00056 pu 46 1 pu 1.00058 pu 80 1 1.00059 128 1 1.00069 97 1 1.00078 18 1pu 1.00056 pu 46 1pu 1.00058 pu 82 1 1.00059 130 1 1.00069 100 1 1.00078 20

Table 10: Initial value, final value and settling time for all generator

It is seen that from the table that if KA of all the generator is decreased from 200 to 60 then the system is decreasing stability by having larger settling time. But if KA is further decreased then instead of being unstable the system slowly increases stability. This is exactly the result received from the topic IMPACT OF CHANGING KA as shown in figure 5 of appendix 5. Another thing that should is noticed here is that when the KA is decreasing then final steady state value is increasing bringing more steady state error in the system.

21

4.4 PRE AND POST FAULT STEADY STATE VOLTAGE AND REACTIVE POWER EXCHANGE

4.4.1 Steady state voltage The casefault.dynpow consists of three phase short circuit fault occurring at 1s on bus 8 and the fault is removed at 1.05s and at the very instant line 1 between bus 8 and bus 9 is removed. Actually there is two lines between bus 8 and bus 9. So after the fault if one of the line is removed then obviously, the power flowing between area 1 and area 2 is changed. In the following section, the change in voltage and reactive power of all the generator bus is analysed. In addition the reactive power exchange between bus 8 and bus 9 before and after fault is also studied. 4.4.1.1 Changing time constant KA=200 TR,G1=0.1s All other Before fault gen has TR=0.01s After fault TR,G2=0.1sS All other Before fault gen has TR=0.01s After fault TR,G3=0.1S All other Before fault gen has TR=0.01s After fault TR,G4=0.1S All other Before fault gen has TR=0.01s After fault All gen has TR=0.1s Before fault After fault

G1 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV

G2 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV

G3 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV

G4 11.66 kV 11.65 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV

In this table , before and after fault voltage is studied in all the generator with constant KA=200 and by changing TR=0.1s one by one in all generator and on all generator at the same time. It is seen that voltage is constant before and after fault. But not much difference is seen in all the five case above. It means that pre and post fault voltage is independent of time constant of AVR until the system is stable. From the appendix8, FIG 1 it is seen that the system is stable. Obviously there is change in settling time by varying TR of the generator but in this section, the concern is not about the stability in this section but the concern in the voltage before and after fault by changing TR. 4.4.1.2 CHANGING GAIN TR=0.01s KA,G1=10 All other Before fault gen has KA=200 After fault KA,G2=10 All other Before fault gen has KA=200 After fault KA,G3=10 All other Before fault gen has KA=200 After fault KA,G4=10 All other Before fault gen has KA=200 After fault All gen has KA=10 Before fault After fault

G1 11.89 kV 11.88 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.87 kV

G2 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.60 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.60 kV

G3 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.89 kV 11.87 kV 11.89 kV 11.86 kV

G4 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.66 kV 11.58 kV

In this table, before and after fault voltage is studied in all the generator with constant TR. Those generator which has reduced KA , has less voltage. And in the last case all the generator has reduced KA, so every generator has reduced voltage level than pre fault voltage. When one of the line is 22

tripped then the impedance of the line is increased so the voltage level of each generator is also decreased. 4.4.2 reactive power

4.4.2.1 changing time constant reactive power by changing TR=0.1s of each generator one by one and on all generator at same time KA=200 TR,G1=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.01s TR,G2=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.01s TR,G3=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.01s TR,G4=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.01s All gen has TR=0.1s G1 185 206 185 205 185 205 185 204 185 204 G2 234 286 234 285 234 285 234 284 234 284 G3 176 200 176 200 176 200 176 199 176 199 G4 201 262 201 261 201 261 201 261 201 261

Initial (MvaR Final (Mvar) Initial (Mvar) Final (Mvar) Initial (Mvar) Final (Mvar) Initial (Mvar) Final (Mvar) Initial (Mvar) Final (Mvar)

Here not much difference is seen in five cases. Only the result that can be concluded is that after the fault, there is weak tie between Area 1 and Area 2. So to compensate, generator must generate more reactive power. 4.4.2.2 CHANGING GAIN Reactive power by changing KA=10 of each generator one by one and on all generator at same time TR=0.01 KA,G1=10 All other gen has KA=200 KA,G2=10 All other gen has KA=200 KA,G3=10 All other gen has KA=200 KA,G4=10 All other gen has KA=200 All gen has KA=10 G1 185 MVar 203 MVar 185 MVar 215 MVar 185 MVar 205 MVar 185 MVar 204 MVar 185 MVar 210 MVar G2 234 MVar 288 MVar 234 MVar 278 MVar 234 MVar 284 MVar 234 MVar 283 MVar 234 MVar 279 MVar G3 176 MVar 200 MVar 176 MVar 201 MVar 176 MVar 197 MVar 176 MVar 209 MVar 176 MVar 206 MVar G4 201 MVar 262 MVar 201 MVar 264 MVar 201 MVar 264 MVar 201 MVar 249 MVar 201 MVar 256 MVar

Initial value Final value Initial value Final value Initial value Final value Initial value Final value Initial value Final value

As it is seen in the section 4.4.1.2 that those generator which has less KA has less voltage it is because generator is inducing less reactive power as seen in this section. 4.4.3 EXCHANGE OF REACTIVE POWER

4.4.3.1 CHANGING TIME CONSTANT KA=200 TR,G1=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.02s TR,G2=0.1S All other 23 LINE 1 AREA 1 24.3 0 24.3 AREA 2 -53 0 -53 LINE 2 AREA 1 24,3 -8,9 24,3 AREA 2 -53 -180 -53

gen has TR=0.02s TR,G3=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.02s TR,G4=0.1S All other gen has TR=0.02s All gen has TR=0.1s Final (Mvar) Initial (Mvar) Final (Mvar) Initial (Mvar) Final (Mvar) Initial (Mvar) Final (Mvar) 0 24.3 0 24.3 0 24.3 0 0 -53 0 -53 0 -53 0 -8,9 24,3 -8,9 24,3 -8,9 24,3 -8,9 -179 -53 -180 -53 -180 -53 -181

After the fault, line 1 is cut off so the reactive power transfer by the line 1 after the fault is zero. So all the power must be exchanged by line 2, which was exchanging the same power as line 1 before fault. But not much difference can be made from the five cases because KA is same in all the case. 4.4.3.2 Changing gain TR=0.01 KA,G1=10 All other Initial (Mvar) gen has KA=200 Final (Mvar) KA,G2=10 All other Initial (Mvar) gen has KA=200 Final (Mvar) KA,G3=10 All other Initial (Mvar) gen has KA=200 Final (Mvar) KA,G4=10 All other Initial (Mvar) gen has KA=200 Final (Mvar) All gen has KA=10 Initial (Mvar) Final (Mvar)

G3 24,3 -8,8 24,3 -7,7 24,3 -9,1 24,3 -10,6 24,3 -9,7

G4 -53 -180 -53 -185 -53 -179 -53 -175 -53 -179

Here also after fault , line 2 carries more reactive power than the pre fault condition because line 1 is tripped.

In this section more advanced AVR called EXC_TGR is used. It means Thyristor excitor with transient gain reduction.

The default value given to us was KA=200 , TR=0.01, TA=1.0, TB=10.0. One of the task is to tune the parameters so that stability can be improved.

24

Before tuning, the default value gives the eigen value as shown in figure 1, time domain analysis in figure 2 in appendix 9 and the result of time domain analysis is tabulated in table just below. G1 1 pu 1.00056 pu 115s G2 1 pu 1.00056 pu 108 G3 1 pu 1.00056 pu 133 G4 1pu 1.00056 pu 128

it is seen that the disturbance takes long time to settle down. It was seen in the previous examples that stability can be improved by decreasing TR so in the next step TR is decreased to 0.005s 4.5.1 KA=200 TR=0.005 TA=1.0 TB=10.0 The eigen values, time domain anlaysis is shown in fig 1and fig2 respectively in appendix 10. And the result is tabulated in table just below. G1 1 pu 1.00056 pu 109 G2 1 pu 1.00056 pu 108 G3 1 pu 1.00056 pu 122 G4 1pu 1.00056 pu 123

Settling time is little bit improved. So in next case TA is decreased from 1 to 0.5s 4.5.2 KA=200 TR=0.005 TA=0.5s TB=10.0 Again the eigen values and time domain analysis is plotted in fig 22 and fig 23 respectively.

25

G1 1 pu 1.00056pu 22

G2 1 pu 1.00056 pu 21

G3 1 pu 1.00056 pu 33

G4 1pu 1.00056 pu 32

In this case there is huge improvement in stability. The settling time is much lesser which means that system comes to stabilise much faster than in previous two cases. But in the fig 22 it is seen that one of the eigen value is nearly touching origin. So this must be the point to stop. But further analysis is done to confirm this in next section. 4.5.3 KA=200 TR=0.005 TA=0.5s TB=5.0

26

So this case is unstable. So in order to tune this exciter case 4.5.2 is the better option. So the parameters for EXC_TGR is chosen as KA=200 TR=0.005 TA=0.5s TB=10.0 in order to tune this excitor to improve the stability properties. All the final value is same 1.00056 pu because in all the cases KA=200. To improve steady state, high gain is needed. When KA=300 is made but it increased settling time to a very large value. Again KA=250 is used but it did not much affected the final value. So ultimately, KA is chosen 200. So the parameters chosen is KA=200 TR=0.005 TA=0.5s TB=10.0 to tune both steady state and stability properties.

27

5 CONCLUSION:

Frequency domain analysis and time domain analysis can be done to check the stability. In frequency domain, Eigen values indicates if the system is stable or not. For the system to be stable all the eigen values must be located in negative half plane. By changing any system parameters, if the eigen values are moving away from origin in negative axis, then stability is improved. Among all the eigen values only those eigen values whose imaginary part is 0.2-2 Hz is taken because here the concern is only the electromechanical mode. Linear analysis can be carried out only when the disturbance is small. On increasing inertia constant, system is becoming less stable whereas the stability is increased if Damping constant is increased. Also if the time constant of AVR is increased system would be less stable. And if the gain of AVR is reduced then there is steady state error in the system. Increasing time constant of AVR means it is slow acting i.e it has large time constant then it may be assumed that following a small disturbance the AVR willnot react during the transient state and the regulated and unregulated systems will behave in a similar manner

28

APPENDIX 1

29

Load flow result after increasing the compensation at bus 7 to improve the voltage at bus 8.

30

APEENDIX 2

BUS8 U = 1.03 p.u. BUS1 U = 1.03 p.u. FI = -6.8 degrees BUS5 U = 1.03 p.u. FI = -6.8 degrees BUS6 U = 1.03 p.u. FI = -6.8 degrees BUS7 U = 1.03 p.u. FI = -6.8 degrees P = -2.00391E-012 MW Q = -4.06686E-013 Mvar 0 P = -2.4978E-013 MW Q = 9.37993E-012 Mvar 0 0 P = -2.00391E-012 MW G1 P = -8.1755E-013 MW Q = 9.74869E-014 Mvar P = 6.81291E-013 MW Q = -8.12391E-014 Mvar P = -6.81291E-013 MW Q = 8.12391E-014 Mvar P = 7.88828E-013 MW Q = 3.55534E-012 Mvar P = -7.88828E-013 MW Q = -3.55534E-012 Mvar P = -6.49913E-013 MW Q = -5.45033E-012 Mvar G3 P = -2.4903E-012 0 0 0 P = 0 MW Q = -0 Mvar 0 P = 0 MW P = 6.49913E-013 MW BUS2 U = 1.03 p.u. FI = -6.8 degrees Q = 5.45033E-012 Mvar 0 P = 0 MW Q = -0 Mvar Q = -0 Mvar 0 P = 0 MW Q = -0 Mvar BUS4 U = 1.03 p.u. FI = -6.8 degrees P = 7.1267E-013 MW Q = -5.61281E-012 Mvar MW Q = 6.93034E-012 Mvar Q = -4.06686E-013 Mvar P = 2.4978E-013 MW Q = -9.37993E-012 Mvar 1 P = 2.00391E-012 MW Q = 4.06686E-013 Mvar 1 P = -2.03599E-012 MW P = 2.03599E-012 Q = -2.95135E-012 Mvar MW Q = 2.95135E-012 Mvar P = -7.1267E-013 MW Q = 5.61281E-012 Mvar 2 P = 2.00391E-012 MW Q = 4.06686E-013 Mvar 2 P = -2.03599E-012 MW Q = -2.95135E-012 Mvar P = 2.03599E-012 MW Q = 2.95135E-012 Mvar P = -2.7213E-012 MW Q = 1.92529E-011 Mvar 0 P = 2.7213E-012 MW Q = -1.92529E-011 Mvar P = -5.67742E-012 MW Q = -2.4707E-012 Mvar 0 P = 5.67742E-012 MW Q = 2.4707E-012 Mvar P = -3.40646E-012 MW Q = 4.06195E-013 Mvar P = 3.40646E-012 MW Q = -4.06195E-013 Mvar FI = -6.8 degrees BUS9 U = 1.03 p.u. FI = -6.8 degrees BUS11 BUS10 U = 1.03 p.u. FI = -6.8 degrees 0 U = 1.03 p.u. FI = -6.8 degrees BUS3 U = 1.03 p.u. FI = -6.8 degrees

31

Appendix 3

Eigenvalues at time=0 seconds

0.60

0.40

0.20

-1.40

-1.20

-1.00

-0.80

-0.60

-0.40

-0.20

0.20

-0.20

-0.40

Job casefault

Simpow 11.0.008

Eigenvalue: -2.25867 1/s + j1.36605 Hz at Time=0 seconds 1.00 1 SYNCG4 2 SYNCG3 3 SYNCG2 4 SYNCG1

0.50

2 -1.00 -0.50

3 4 0.50

1 1.00

-0.50

Job casefault

Simpow 11.0.008

32

APPENDIX 4

Eigen values: by changing TR=0.1 s of each generator one by one and on all generator at same time

Eigenvalue: -0.087935 1/s+/-j-0.520292 Hz at Time=55 seconds EXC G1 2 0.01 TR (0.01) -0.5210

-0.5220

-0.5230 1 -0.5240

Imag. Hz

-0.5250

-0.5260

-0.5270

0.91

-0.5300 0.71 -0.080 -0.060 -0.040 -0.020 0.000 Real 1/s Job casefault 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080

Simpow 11.0.008

Eigenvalue: -0.087935 1/s+/-j-0.520292 Hz at Time=55 seconds EXC G2 3 1 TR (0.01) -0.5100

-0.5150

0.91

Imag. Hz

-0.5200 0.01

0.81

-0.5250 0.21

0.41 0.51 -0.050 STRI Softw are DATE 27 APR 2012 TIME 10:57:11 0.000 0.050 0.100 Real 1/s Job casefault

0.61

0.150

0.200

0.250

0.300

Simpow 11.0.008

Eigenvalue: -0.087935 1/s+/-j-0.520292 Hz at Time=55 seconds EXC G4 6 1 TR (0.01) -0.4950

-0.5000

0.91

0.81

Imag. Hz

-0.5050 0.71

-0.5100

0.61

0.51

-0.5150 0.31

-0.5200 -0.350 STRI Softw are DATE 27 APR 2012 TIME 10:57:11 -0.300 -0.250 Real 1/s Job casefault -0.200 -0.150 -0.100

0.01

Simpow 11.0.008

-0.51400

0.81

-0.51500

0.71

Imag. Hz

-0.51600

0.61

-0.51700

-0.51800

0.41

-0.51900

-0.52000 0.01 -0.1500 STRI Softw are DATE 27 APR 2012 TIME 10:57:11 -0.1400 -0.1300 -0.1200 Real 1/s Job casefault -0.1100 -0.1000 -0.0900

Simpow 11.0.008

34

CRITICAL EIGEN VALUE (-0.87935E-01 1/s ,-0.52029 Hz) (-0.75659E-01 1/s ,-0.52195 Hz) -0.38646E-01 1/s ,-0.52635 Hz ( 1.108 1/s , 0.000 Hz) ( 3.292 1/s , 0.000 Hz) ( 3.379 1/s , 0.000 Hz)

35

APPENDIX 5

Eigen values by changing KA=10 of each generator one by one and on all generator at same time

Eigenvalue: -0.0879347 1/s+/-j-0.520292 Hz at Time=55 seconds EXC G1 -0.5060 2 10 KA (200) 20 -0.5080

-0.5100

30

Imag. Hz

-0.5120

-0.5140

-0.5160

70

-0.5180 130 -0.5200 200 170 -0.0850 STRI Softw are DATE 27 APR 2012 TIME 11:26:12 -0.0800 -0.0750 Real 1/s Job casefault

100

-0.0700

-0.0650

-0.0600

Simpow 11.0.008

Eigenvalue: -0.0879347 1/s+/-j-0.520292 Hz at Time=55 seconds EXC G2 3 10 KA (200) -0.4800 20

-0.4850 30 -0.4900 40

Imag. Hz

-0.4950 50 -0.5000

-0.5050

70

-0.5100 110 -0.5150 150 -0.5200 -0.1200 STRI Softw are DATE 27 APR 2012 TIME 11:26:12 -0.1100 -0.1000 200 190 -0.0900 170 -0.0800 Real 1/s Job casefault -0.0700 -0.0600 -0.0500 130

90

-0.0400

-0.0300

Simpow 11.0.008

36

Eigenvalue: -0.0879347 1/s+/-j-0.520292 Hz at Time=55 seconds EXC G3 5 200 -0.52050 100 -0.52100 140 KA (200)

-0.52150

70

-0.52200

-0.52250

Imag. Hz

-0.52300

-0.52350

-0.52400

-0.52450

20

-0.52500

10 -0.1020 STRI Softw are DATE 27 APR 2012 TIME 11:26:12 -0.1000 -0.0980 -0.0960 Real 1/s Job casefault -0.0940 -0.0920 -0.0900 -0.0880

Simpow 11.0.008

Eigenvalue: -0.0879347 1/s+/-j-0.520292 Hz at Time=55 seconds EXC G4 6 170 150 -0.5220 110 -0.5240 90 130 190 200 KA (200)

-0.5260

70

Imag. Hz

-0.5360

20

10 -0.1100 STRI Softw are DATE 27 APR 2012 TIME 11:26:12 -0.1050 -0.1000 -0.0950 Real 1/s Job casefault -0.0900 -0.0850 -0.0800

Simpow 11.0.008

37

EIGEN VALUE (-0.87935E-01 1/s ,-0.52029 Hz) (-0.72947E-01 1/s ,-0.51867 Hz) (-0.50837E-01 1/s ,-0.51131 Hz) (-0.2829E-01 1/s ,-0.4834 Hz) (-0.1409 1/s , 0.000 Hz) Table 1: change in eigen value

38

APPENDIX 6

speed:: by changing TR=0.1 s of each generator one by one and on all generator at same time

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. SYNC G1 SPEED SYNC G2 SPEED SYNC G3 SPEED SYNC G4 SPEED 1,00200 1,00250 1,00200 p.u. p.u. p.u. p.u.

1,00150 1,00150

1,00100

1,00100

1,00000 1,00000

1,00050

1,00050

0,99950

0,99950

1,00000

1,00000 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0

TIME SECONDS

STRI Software

JOB casefault

Diagram :5

39

Appendix 7

speed:: by changing KA=60 each generator one by one and on all generator at same time

40

APPENDIX 8

case fault - A three-phase fault close to BUS8 w ith disconnection of a line. SYNC G1 U POS. SYNC G2 U POS. SYNC G3 U POS. SYNC G4 U POS. kV kV kV kV

12,50

12,00

12,00

12,00

11,50 11,00

11,50

10,50

9,50

10,50 10,00

11,00

9,00 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 TIME SECONDS 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0

STRI Software

JOB casefault

Diagram :1

41

APPENDIX 9

42

Appendix 10

43

- Google Ems EnglishEnviado porHomero Ruiz Hernandez
- Marine and Offshore Power SystemEnviado porMannat Mrjn
- Power System Analysis in GridEnviado porMannat Mrjn
- Marine and Offshore Report FinalEnviado porhasalad
- Development of a New Model of IPFC for Power Flow in Multi Transmission LinesEnviado porSuresh Babu D
- SolvingEq.psEnviado porsstuparus
- DC Drive System for EscalatorEnviado porMannat Mrjn
- Edsa PaladinEnviado porIulian Pârjoleanu
- Ar 4101248255Enviado porAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- System StudyEnviado pormehrbloor@gmail.com
- (09)Tunnelling Machine p115-125Enviado porAlex Ferrari
- Load Flow Gauss SeidalEnviado porTalluriSatyam
- HDS_LIFEEnviado porjokanov
- ELEC4612-12 Exp 2 Power FlowEnviado porDavid Vang
- 13012012_IntegrationPowerPlantsMediumVoltageGridEnviado porGyanendra Neupane
- SMA Tripower 5000-8000TLEnviado porvmramakrishnan
- EJSR_49_1_11Enviado porshehnozmohd
- Applications of Eigenvalues and EigenvectorsEnviado porRajaVictory
- Influence of TcscEnviado porsreenivasreddi_b
- 22157_aliran Beban 2015Enviado porrizqi
- Capacitor Placement in Unbalanced Power SystemsEnviado porFabio Nob
- 06758908Enviado porArinder Singh
- 04 FDA 2004 Use of Phasor MeasurementsEnviado porKléberVásquez
- Data Sheets for Ieee 14 Bus System 19_appendixEnviado pordarrel coolins
- 259Enviado porvims1248993
- T4900Enviado porkylegaze
- Acc. No. DC 59Enviado porpragatinaresh
- APEC UploadEnviado porDulal Manna
- Markov ChainEnviado porAmitava Manna
- HW1_Group_3Enviado porPriyanshu Agarwal

- Switchgear and Protection.pptEnviado porAhad Silve
- PTGC - PresentationEnviado porSamarth Kumar
- High Voltage DC Lab 300V-5000VEnviado porapjohn222
- Supply Application Contractor FormEnviado porPujayantha Kumar
- Brochure-Energy-Storage.pdfEnviado poraderitodomingos1531
- 3rd PresentationEnviado porAhsan Abbas Mazari
- LR-35-XS power supplyEnviado portoppower
- E1YMEnviado porathanas08
- TEXLIM P-A - Section of Surge Arrester Buyers Guide - Edition 11 2014-05 - English - 1HSM 9543 12-00en.pdfEnviado porAnonymous rAFSAGDAEJ
- COSMOTOREnviado porChaitanya Majalukodi
- SBGD-200-3HEnviado porHaze Garcia Hechanova
- katalog Mitsubishi acb8.pdfEnviado porseagat
- X3-Hybrid-User-Manual.pdfEnviado porEduardo García
- Variador User HandyEnviado porDavid S. Valenzuela Portillo
- ESP_Price_List_06.08.2012Enviado porManisankar Dhabal
- Daftar Perusahaan Pembangkit (Dari Angkatan 2015)Enviado porFadli
- Hv MotorEnviado porjaikolangaraparambil
- AxeraD06_T8.pdfEnviado porPeet
- Ocean EnergyEnviado porConnielyn Bautista
- TPR SDR-120-XSEnviado portoppower
- 5mw 200rpm Pmg GreefEnviado porAbrahamNdewingo
- McbEnviado porChandrakumar T
- A1500_Flyer_E.pdfEnviado porMohamed Taleb
- Comprehenisve viva bits-Electrical Machines 1 & 2.docxEnviado porKavya Shetty
- manual 77240-20.pdfEnviado pormarceloestimulo
- Reliability Using Reclosers and SwitchesEnviado porNguyen Hoang Tin
- EE3601-07Enviado porMegha Patil
- View Bill_ 3002981474Enviado porGaurav Vij
- STP60-10-DEN1721-V25webEnviado porXavier Pastor Pàmies
- Module on ElectrictyEnviado porJoni M. Albarico