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ATM CARD SYSTEM Introduction

The microcontroller in the ATM machine asks for the confirmation from the user mobile. This user mobile can be changed whenever the user wishes to. As the details are received by the user in his mobile, he has to send the confirmation message to the modem. Thus, the microcontroller receives this message as the confirmation and allows the person to proceed with the further transactions. Thus, the system does not give any scope for any malpractices that can take place in the ATM centers. Even if the user ATM card is lost, the card cannot be misused by any other person because as soon as the card is inserted into the ATM machine, the system sends the details of the card to the user mobile and also asks for the confirmation from the user for the next step to forward. Thus, the user can trace his ATM card very easily.

1.1 Objective of the project

The project aims at providing the security to the ATM card of the user. The project uses the GSM technology and Embedded Systems to design this application. The main objective of this project is to design a system that can provide the security to the ATM card of the user. This can be accomplished by organizing the procedure of sending the message with the card details to the user mobile whenever the card is inserted into the ATM machine by anyone and at any ATM center and also asking for the confirmation from the user. The system does not respond to any of the keys pressed by the user standing in front of the ATM machine unless it receives the confirmation message (or unique code) from the user. This project is a device that collects data whenever the card is inserted into the ATM machine and sends the entire details like time of insertion, place of insertion, name of the card holder etc to the user mobile. The system codes the data into a format that can be understood by the controlling section. This system also collects information from the master device and implements commands that are directed by the master.

The objective of the project is to develop a microcontroller based security system. It consists of a GSM modem, microcontroller, the interfacing unit to allow the communication between the microcontroller and mobile, buzzer circuit, LCD, EEPROM based card. 1.2 Background of the Project The software application and the hardware implementation help the microcontroller read the data whenever the card is inserted into the ATM machine and send these details to the user mobile and also ask for the confirmation from the user in order to proceed further. The system does not allow any kind of operations to take place until it receives the confirmation from the user mobile. The Controlling unit has an application program to allow the microcontroller send the details through the modem to the user mobile and display it on the LCD. The performance of the design is maintained by controlling unit. 1.3 Organization of the Thesis In view of the proposed thesis work explanation of theoretical aspects and algorithms used in this work are presented as per the sequence described below. Chapter 1 describes a brief review of the objectives and goals of the work. Chapter 2 discusses the existing technologies and the study of various technologies in detail. Chapter 3 describes the Block diagram and its description. The construction and description of various modules used for the application are described in detail. Chapter 4 explains the Software tools required for the project, the Code developed for the design. Chapter 5 presents the results, overall conclusions of the study and proposes possible improvements and directions of future research work.

Chapter 2 Overview of the technologies used

Embedded Systems: An embedded system can be defined as a computing device that does a specific focused job. Appliances such as the air-conditioner, VCD player, DVD player, printer, fax machine, mobile phone etc. are examples of embedded systems. Each of these appliances will have a processor and special hardware to meet the specific requirement of the application along with the embedded software that is executed by the processor for meeting that specific requirement. The embedded software is also called firm ware. The desktop/laptop computer is a general purpose computer. You can use it for a variety of applications such as playing games, word processing, accounting, software development and so on. In contrast, the software in the embedded systems is always fixed listed below:

Embedded systems do a very specific task, they cannot be programmed to do different things. . Embedded systems have very limited resources, particularly the memory. Generally, they do not have secondary storage devices such as the CDROM or the floppy disk. Embedded systems have to work against some deadlines. A specific job has to be completed within a specific time. In some embedded systems, called real-time systems, the deadlines are stringent. Missing a deadline may cause a catastrophe-loss of life or damage to property. Embedded systems are constrained for power. As many embedded systems operate through a battery, the power consumption has to be very low. Some embedded systems have to operate in extreme environmental conditions such as very high temperatures and humidity. Following are the advantages of Embedded Systems: 1. They are designed to do a specific task and have real time performance constraints which must be met. 2. They allow the system hardware to be simplified so costs are reduced. 3. They are usually in the form of small computerized parts in larger devices which serve a general purpose. 4. The program instructions for embedded systems run with limited computer hardware resources, little memory and small or even non-existent keyboard or screen. Introduction: The Evolution of Mobile Telephone Systems Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunications applications. Today, it represents a continuously increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world. Currently there are more than 45 million cellular subscribers worldwide, and nearly 50 percent of those subscribers are located in the United States. The concept of cellular service is the use of low power transmitters where frequencies can be reused within a geographic area. The idea of cell based mobile radio service was formulated in the United States at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. Cellular systems began in the United States with the release of the advanced mobile phone service (AMPS) system in 1983. The AMPS standard was

adopted by Asia, Latin America and Oceanic countries, creating the largest potential market in the world for cellular. In the early 1980s, most mobile telephone systems were analog rather than digital, like today's newer systems. One challenge facing analog systems was the inability to handle the growing capacity needs in a cost efficient manner. As a result, digital technology was welcomed. The advantages of digital systems over analog systems include ease of signaling, lower levels of interference, integration of transmission and switching and increased ability to meet capacity demands. The table below shows the worldwide development of mobile telephone systems.

Chapter 3 Hardware Implementation of the Project

This chapter briefly explains about the Hardware Implementation of the project. It discusses the design and working of the design with the help of block diagram and circuit diagram and explanation of circuit diagram in detail. It explains the features, timer programming, serial communication, interrupts of AT89S52 microcontroller. It also explains the various modules used in this project. 3.1 Project Design The implementation of the project design can be divided in two parts. Hardware implementation Firmware implementation Hardware implementation deals in drawing the schematic on the plane paper according to the application, testing the schematic design over the breadboard using the various ICs to find if the design meets the objective, carrying out the PCB layout of the schematic tested on breadboard, finally preparing the board and testing the designed hardware. The firmware part deals in programming the microcontroller so that it can control the operation of the ICs used in the implementation. In the present work, we have used the Orcad design software for PCB circuit design, the Keil v3 software development tool to write and compile the source

code, which has been written in the C language. The Proload programmer has been used to write this compile code into the microcontroller. The firmware implementation is explained in the next chapter. The project design and principle are explained in this chapter using the block diagram and circuit diagram. The block diagram discusses about the required components of the design and working condition is explained using circuit diagram and system wiring diagram.

3.1.1 Block Diagram of the Project and its Description The block diagram of the design is as shown in Fig 3.1. It consists of power supply unit, microcontroller, GSM modem, Serial communication unit, buzzer, EEPROM based card and LCD. The brief description of each unit is explained as follows.

3.2 Power Supply:

The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V from the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier. The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c voltage. So in order to get a pure d.c voltage, the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a.c components present even after rectification. Now, this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage.

Transformer: Usually, DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V, 9V or 12V. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Thus the a.c input available at the mains supply i.e., 230V is to be brought down to the required voltage level. This is done by a transformer. Thus, a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a required level. Rectifier: The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. Filter: Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and

load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.

Voltage regulator: As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, 7805 and 7812 voltage regulators are to be used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05, 12 represent the required output voltage levels.

3.3 Microcontrollers:
Microprocessors and microcontrollers are widely used in embedded systems products. Microcontroller is a programmable device. A microcontroller has a CPU in addition to a fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports and a timer embedded all on a single chip. The fixed amount of on-chip ROM, RAM and number of I/O ports in microcontrollers makes them ideal for many applications in which cost and space are critical. The Intel 8051 is Harvard architecture, single chip microcontroller (C) which was developed by Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems. It was popular in the 1980s and early 1990s, but today it has largely been superseded by a vast range of enhanced devices with 8051-compatible processor cores that are manufactured by more than 20 independent manufacturers including Atmel, Infineon Technologies and Maxim Integrated Products. 8051 is an 8-bit processor, meaning that the CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time. Data larger than 8 bits has to be broken into 8-bit pieces to be processed by the CPU. 8051 is available in different memory types such as UV-EPROM, Flash and NV-RAM.

Features of AT89S52: 8K Bytes of Re-programmable Flash Memory. RAM is 256 bytes. 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range. Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHzs Three-level Program Memory Lock. 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM. 32 Programmable I/O Lines. Three 16-bit Timer/Counters. Eight Interrupt Sources. Full Duplex UART Serial Channel. Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes. Interrupt recovery from power down mode. Watchdog timer. Dual data pointer. Power-off flag. Fast programming time. Flexible ISP programming (byte and page mode). Description: The AT89s52 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of Flash programmable memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industrystandard MCS-51 instruction set. The on chip flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in system or by a conventional non volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89s52 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a highly flexible and costeffective solution to many embedded control applications.

In addition, the AT89s52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

Pin description: Vcc Pin 40 provides supply voltage to the chip. The voltage source is +5V. GND Pin 20 is the ground.

Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during Program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.

Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. The port also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in the following table.

RST (Reset input): A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled.

ALE/PROG (Address Latch Enable) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN (Program Store Enable) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP (External Access Enable) EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier that can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

Special Function Registers A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR) space is shown in the following table. It should be noted that not all of the addresses are occupied and unoccupied addresses may not be implemented on the chip. Read accesses to these addresses will in general return random data, and write accesses will have an indeterminate effect. User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations, since they may be used in future products to invoke new features. In that case, the reset or inactive values of the new bits will always be 0. Timer 2 Registers: Control and status bits are contained in registers T2CON and T2MOD for Timer 2. The register pair (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the Capture/Reload register for Timer 2 in 16-bit capture mode or 16-bit auto-reload mode. Interrupt Registers: The individual interrupt enable bits are in the IE register. Two priorities can be set for each of the six interrupt sources in the IP register.

Dual Data Pointer Registers: To facilitate accessing both internal and external data memory, two banks of 16-bit Data Pointer Registers are provided: DP0 at SFR address locations 82H-83H and DP1 at 84H and 85H. Bit DPS = 0 in SFR AUXR1 selects DP0 and DPS = 1 selects DP1. The user should ALWAYS initialize the DPS bit to the appropriate value before accessing the respective Data Pointer Register. Power off Flag: The Power off Flag (POF) is located at bit 4 (PCON.4) in the PCON SFR. POF is set to 1 during power up. It can be set and rest under software control and is not affected by reset.

Memory Organization MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data Memory. Up to 64K bytes each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed. Program Memory If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches are directed to external memory. On the AT89S52, if EA is connected to VCC, program fetches to addresses 0000H through 1FFFH are directed to internal memory and fetches to addresses 2000H through FFFFH are to external memory.

Data Memory The AT89S52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. The upper 128 bytes occupy a parallel address space to the Special Function Registers. This means that the upper 128 bytes have the same addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from SFR space. When an instruction accesses an internal location above address 7FH, the address mode used in the instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper 128 bytes of RAM or the SFR space. Instructions which use direct addressing access the SFR space. For example, the following direct addressing instruction accesses the SFR at location 0A0H (which is P2). MOV 0A0H, #data The instructions that use indirect addressing access the upper 128 bytes of RAM. For example, the following indirect addressing instruction, where R0 contains 0A0H, accesses the data byte at address 0A0H, rather than P2 (whose address is 0A0H). MOV @R0, #data It should be noted that stack operations are examples of indirect addressing, so the upper 128 bytes of data RAM are available as stack space.

Watchdog Timer (One-time Enabled with Reset-out)

The WDT is intended as a recovery method in situations where the CPU may be subjected to software upsets. The WDT consists of a 14-bit counter and the Watchdog Timer Reset (WDTRST) SFR. The WDT is defaulted to disable from exiting reset. To enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H).

When the WDT is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running. The WDT timeout period is dependent on the external clock frequency. There is no way to disable the WDT except through reset (either hardware reset or WDT overflow reset). When WDT overflows, it will drive an output RESET HIGH pulse at the RST pin. Using the WDT To enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H). When the WDT is enabled, the user needs to service it regularly by writing 01EH and 0E1H to WDTRST to avoid a WDT overflow. The 14-bit counter overflows when it reaches 16383 (3FFFH) and this will reset the device. When the WDT is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running. This means the user must reset the WDT at least for every 16383 machine cycles. To reset the WDT, the user must write 01EH and 0E1H to WDTRST. WDTRST is a write-only register. The WDT counter cannot be read or written. When WDT overflows, it will generate an output RESET pulse at the RST pin. The RESET pulse duration is 98xTOSC, where TOSC = 1/FOSC. To make the best use of the WDT, it should be serviced in those sections of code that will periodically be executed within the time required to prevent a WDT reset. WDT during Power-down and Idle In Power down mode the oscillator stops, which means the WDT also stops. Thus the user does not need to service the WDT in Power down mode. There are two methods of exiting Power down mode: By a hardware reset or By a level-activated external interrupt which is enabled prior to entering Power down mode.

When Power-down is exited with hardware reset, servicing the WDT should occur as it normally does whenever the AT89S52 is reset. Exiting Power down with an interrupt is significantly different. The interrupt is held low long enough for the oscillator to stabilize. When the interrupt is brought high, the interrupt is serviced. To prevent the WDT from resetting the device while the interrupt pin is held low, the WDT is not started until the interrupt is pulled high. It is suggested that the WDT be reset during the interrupt service for the interrupt used to exit Power down mode. To ensure that the WDT does not overflow within a few states of exiting Power down, it is best to reset the WDT just before entering Power down mode. Before going into the IDLE mode, the WDIDLE bit in SFR AUXR is used to determine whether the WDT continues to count if enabled. The WDT keeps counting during IDLE (WDIDLE bit = 0) as the default state. To prevent the WDT from resetting the AT89S52 while in IDLE mode, the user should always set up a timer that will periodically exit IDLE, service the WDT and reenter IDLE mode. With WDIDLE bit enabled, the WDT will stop to count in IDLE mode and resumes the count upon exit from IDLE.

The Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers implement three general purpose, 16-bit timers/ counters. They are identified as Timer 0, Timer 1 and Timer 2 and can be independently configured to operate in a variety of modes as a timer or as an event counter. When operating as a timer, the timer/counter runs for a programmed length of time and then issues an interrupt request. When operating as a counter, the timer/counter counts negative transitions on an external pin. After a preset number of counts, the counter issues an interrupt request. The various operating modes of each timer/counter are described in the following sections. A basic operation consists of timer registers THx and TLx (x= 0, 1) connected in cascade to form a 16-bit timer. Setting the run control bit (TRx) in TCON register turns the timer on by allowing the

selected input to increment TLx. When TLx overflows it increments THx; when THx overflows it sets the timer overflow flag (TFx) in TCON register. Setting the TRx does not clear the THx and TLx timer registers. Timer registers can be accessed to obtain the current count or to enter preset values. They can be read at any time but TRx bit must be cleared to preset their values, otherwise the behavior of the timer/counter is unpredictable. The C/T control bit (in TCON register) selects timer operation or counter operation, by selecting the divided-down peripheral clock or external pin Tx as the source for the counted signal. TRx bit must be cleared when changing the mode of operation, otherwise the behavior of the timer/counter is unpredictable. For timer operation (C/Tx# = 0), the timer register counts the divided-down peripheral clock. The timer register is incremented once every peripheral cycle (6 peripheral clock periods). The timer clock rate is FPER / 6, i.e. FOSC / 12 in standard mode or FOSC / 6 in X2 mode. For counter operation (C/Tx# = 1), the timer register counts the negative transitions on the Tx external input pin. The external input is sampled every peripheral cycle. When the sample is high in one cycle and low in the next one, the counter is incremented. Since it takes 2 cycles (12 peripheral clock periods) to recognize a negative transition, the maximum count rate is FPER / 12, i.e. FOSC / 24 in standard mode or FOSC / 12 in X2 mode. There are no restrictions on the duty cycle of the external input signal, but to ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes, it should be held for at least one full peripheral cycle. In addition to the timer or counter selection, Timer 0 and Timer 1 have four operating modes from which to select which are selected by bit-pairs (M1, M0) in TMOD. Modes 0, 1and 2 are the same for both timer/counters. Mode 3 is different. The four operating modes are described below. Timer 2, has three modes of operation: capture, auto-reload and baud rate generator.

Timer 0 Timer 0 functions as either a timer or event counter in four modes of operation. Timer 0 is controlled by the four lower bits of the TMOD register and bits 0, 1, 4 and 5 of the TCON register.

TMOD register selects the method of timer gating (GATE0), timer or counter operation (T/C0#) and mode of operation (M10 and M00). The TCON register provides timer 0 control functions: overflow flag (TF0), run control bit (TR0), interrupt flag (IE0) and interrupt type control bit (IT0). For normal timer operation (GATE0= 0), setting TR0 allows TL0 to be incremented by the selected input. Setting GATE0 and TR0 allows external pin INT0# to control timer operation. Timer 0 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets TF0 flag, generating an interrupt request. It is important to stop timer/counter before changing mode. Mode 0 (13-bit Timer) Mode 0 configures timer 0 as a 13-bit timer which is set up as an 8-bit timer (TH0 register) with a modulo-32 prescaler implemented with the lower five bits of the TL0 register. The upper three bits of TL0 register are indeterminate and should be ignored. Prescaler overflow increments the TH0 register. Mode 1 (16-bit Timer) Mode 1 is the same as Mode 0, except that the Timer register is being run with all 16 bits. Mode 1 configures timer 0 as a 16-bit timer with the TH0 and TL0 registers connected in cascade. The selected input increments the TL0 register. Mode 2 (8-bit Timer with Auto-Reload) Mode 2 configures timer 0 as an 8-bit timer (TL0 register) that automatically reloads from the TH0 register. TL0 overflow sets TF0 flag in the TCON register and reloads TL0 with the contents of TH0, which is preset by software. Mode 3 (Two 8-bit Timers) Mode 3 configures timer 0 so that registers TL0 and TH0 operate as separate 8-bit timers. This mode is provided for applications requiring an additional 8-bit timer or counter. TL0 uses the timer 0 control bits C/T0# and GATE0 in the TMOD register, and TR0 and TF0 in the TCON register in the normal manner. TH0 is locked into a timer function (counting FPER /6) and takes over use of

the timer 1 interrupt (TF1) and run control (TR1) bits. Thus, operation of timer 1 is restricted when timer 0 is in mode 3. Timer 1 Timer 1 is identical to timer 0, except for mode 3, which is a hold-count mode. The following comments help to understand the differences: Timer 1 functions as either a timer or event counter in three modes of operation. Timer 1s mode 3 is a hold-count mode. Timer 1 is controlled by the four high-order bits of the TMOD register and bits 2, 3, 6 and 7 of the TCON register. The TMOD register selects the method of timer gating (GATE1), timer or counter operation (C/T1#) and mode of operation (M11 and M01). The TCON register provides timer 1 control functions: overflow flag (TF1), run control bit (TR1), interrupt flag (IE1) and interrupt type control bit (IT1). Timer 1 can serve as the baud rate generator for the serial port. Mode 2 is best suited for this purpose. For normal timer operation (GATE1 = 0), setting TR1 allows TL1 to be incremented by the selected input. Setting GATE1 and TR1 allows external pin INT1# to control timer operation. Timer 1 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets the TF1 flag generating an interrupt request. When timer 0 is in mode 3, it uses timer 1s overflow flag (TF1) and run control bit (TR1). For this situation, use timer 1 only for applications that do not require an interrupt (such as a baud rate generator for the serial port) and switch timer 1 in and out of mode 3 to turn it off and on. It is important to stop timer/counter before changing modes. Mode 0 (13-bit Timer) Mode 0 configures Timer 1 as a 13-bit timer, which is set up as an 8-bit timer (TH1 register) with a modulo-32 prescaler implemented with the lower 5 bits of the TL1 register. The upper 3 bits of the TL1 register are ignored. Prescaler overflow increments the TH1 register. Mode 1 (16-bit Timer)

Mode 1 configures Timer 1 as a 16-bit timer with the TH1 and TL1 registers connected in cascade. The selected input increments the TL1 register. Mode 2 (8-bit Timer with Auto Reload) Mode 2 configures Timer 1 as an 8-bit timer (TL1 register) with automatic reload from the TH1 register on overflow. TL1 overflow sets the TF1 flag in the TCON register and reloads TL1 with the contents of TH1, which is preset by software. The reload leaves TH1 unchanged. Mode 3 (Halt) Placing Timer 1 in mode 3 causes it to halt and hold its count. This can be used to halt Timer 1 when TR1 run control bit is not available i.e., when Timer 0 is in mode 3. Timer 2 Timer 2 is a 16-bit Timer/Counter that can operate as either a timer or an event counter. The type of operation is selected by bit C/T2 in the SFR T2CON. Timer 2 has three operating modes: capture, auto-reload (up or down counting), and baud rate generator. The modes are selected by bits in T2CON. Timer 2 consists of two 8-bit registers, TH2 and TL2. In the Timer function, the TL2 register is incremented every machine cycle. Since a machine cycle consists of 12 oscillator periods, the count rate is 1/12 of the oscillator frequency.

In the Counter function, the register is incremented in response to a 1-to-0 transition at its corresponding external input pin, T2. In this function, the external input is sampled during S5P2 of every machine cycle. When the samples show a high in one cycle and a low in the next cycle, the count is incremented. The new count value appears in the register during S3P1 of the cycle following the one in which the transition was detected. Since two machine cycles (24 oscillator periods) are required to recognize a 1-to-0 transition, the maximum count rate is 1/24 of the oscillator frequency. To ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes, the level should be held for at least one full machine cycle. Capture Mode In the capture mode, two options are selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0, Timer 2 is a 16-bit timer or counter which upon overflow sets bit TF2 in T2CON. This bit can then be used to generate an interrupt. If EXEN2 = 1, Timer 2 performs the same operation, but a 1-to-0 transition at external input T2EX also causes the current value in TH2 and TL2 to be captured into RCAP2H and RCAP2L, respectively. In addition, the transition at T2EX causes bit EXF2 in T2CON to be set. The EXF2 bit, like TF2, can generate an interrupt.

Auto-reload (Up or Down Counter) Timer 2 can be programmed to count up or down when configured in its 16-bit auto-reload mode. This feature is invoked by the DCEN (Down Counter Enable) bit located in the SFR T2MOD. Upon reset, the DCEN bit is set to 0 so that timer 2 will default to count up. When DCEN is set, Timer 2 can count up or down, depending on the value of the T2EX pin.

The above figure shows Timer 2 automatically counting up when DCEN = 0. In this mode, two options are selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0, Timer 2 counts up to 0FFFFH and then sets the TF2 bit upon overflow. The overflow also causes the timer registers to be reloaded with the 16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L. The values in Timer in Capture ModeRCAP2H and RCAP2L are preset by software. If EXEN2 = 1, a 16-bit reload can be triggered either by an overflow or by a 1-to-0 transition at external input T2EX. This transition also sets the EXF2 bit. Both the TF2 and EXF2 bits can generate an interrupt if enabled. Setting the DCEN bit enables Timer 2 to count up or down, as shown in Figure 10-2. In this mode, the T2EX pin controls the direction of the count. A logic 1 at T2EX makes Timer 2 count up. The timer will overflow at 0FFFFH and set the TF2 bit. This overflow also causes the 16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L to be reloaded into the timer registers, TH2 and TL2, respectively. A logic 0 at T2EX makes Timer 2 count down. The timer underflows when TH2 and TL2 equal the values stored in RCAP2H and RCAP2L. The underflow sets the TF2 bit and causes 0FFFFH to be reloaded into the timer registers. The EXF2 bit toggles whenever Timer 2 overflows or underflows and can be used as a 17th bit of resolution. In this operating mode, EXF2 does not flag an interrupt.

Baud Rate Generator Timer 2 is selected as the baud rate generator by setting TCLK and/or RCLK in T2CON. Note that the baud rates for transmit and receive can be different if Timer 2 is used for the receiver or transmitter and Timer 1 is used for the other function. Setting RCLK and/or TCLK puts Timer 2 into its baud rate generator mode. The baud rate generator mode is similar to the auto-reload mode, in that a rollover in TH2 causes the Timer 2 registers to be reloaded with the 16-bit value in registers RCAP2H and RCAP2L, which are preset by software. The baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by Timer 2s overflow rate according to the following equation.

The Timer can be configured for either timer or counter operation. In most applications, it is configured for timer operation (CP/T2 = 0). The timer operation is different for Timer 2 when it is used as a baud rate generator. Normally, as a timer, it increments every machine cycle (at 1/12 the oscillator frequency). As a baud rate generator, however, it increments every state time (at 1/2 the oscillator frequency). The baud rate formula is given below.

where (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the content of RCAP2H and RCAP2L taken as a 16-bit unsigned integer. Timer 2 as a baud rate generator is shown in the below figure. This figure is valid only if RCLK or TCLK = 1 in T2CON. Note that a rollover in TH2 does not set TF2 and will not generate an interrupt. Note too, that if EXEN2 is set, a 1-to-0 transition in T2EX will set EXF2 but will not cause a reload from (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) to (TH2, TL2). Thus, when Timer 2 is in use as a baud rate generator, T2EX can be used as an extra external interrupt. It should be noted that when Timer 2 is running (TR2 = 1) as a timer in the baud rate generator mode, TH2 or TL2 should not be read from or written to. Under these conditions, the Timer is incremented every state time, and the results of a read or write may not be accurate. The RCAP2 registers may be read but should not be written to, because a write might overlap a reload and cause write and/or reload errors. The timer should be turned off (clear TR2) before accessing the Timer 2 or RCAP2 registers.

Programmable Clock Out A 50% duty cycle clock can be programmed to come out on P1.0, as shown in the below figure. This pin, besides being a regular I/O pin, has two alternate functions. It can be programmed to input the external clock for Timer/Counter 2 or to output a 50% duty cycle clock ranging from 61 Hz to 4 MHz (for a 16-MHz operating frequency).

To configure the Timer/Counter 2 as a clock generator, bit C/T2 (T2CON.1) must be cleared and bit T2OE (T2MOD.1) must be set. Bit TR2 (T2CON.2) starts and stops the timer. The clock-out frequency depends on the oscillator frequency and the reload value of Timer 2 capture registers (RCAP2H, RCAP2L), as shown in the following equation.

In the clock-out mode, Timer 2 roll-overs will not generate an interrupt. This behavior is similar to when Timer 2 is used as a baud-rate generator. It is possible to use Timer 2 as a baud-rate generator and a clock generator simultaneously. Note, however, that the baud rate and clock-out frequencies cannot be determined independently from one another since they both use RCAP2H and RCAP2L.

The AT89S52 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and INT1), three timer interrupts (Timers 0, 1, and 2) and the serial port interrupt. These interrupts are all shown in the below figure. Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a bit in Special Function Register IE. IE also contains a global disable bit, EA, which disables all interrupts at once. The below table shows that bit position IE.6 is unimplemented. User software should not write a 1 to this bit position, since it may be used in future AT89 products.

Timer 2 interrupt is generated by the logical OR of bits TF2 and EXF2 in register T2CON. Neither of these flags is cleared by hardware when the service routine is vectored to. In fact, the service routine may have to determine whether it was TF2 or EXF2 that generated the interrupt, and that bit will have to be cleared in software. The Timer 0 and Timer 1 flags, TF0 and TF1, are set at S5P2 of the cycle in which the timers overflow. The values are then polled by the circuitry in the next cycle. However, the Timer 2 flag, TF2, is set at S2P2 and is polled in the same cycle in which the timer overflows.

Power saving modes of operation : 8051 has two power saving modes. They are: 1. Idle Mode 2. Power Down mode. The two power saving modes are entered by setting two bits IDL and PD in the special function register (PCON) respectively. The structure of PCON register is as follows. PCON: Address 87H

The schematic diagram for 'Power down' mode and 'Idle' mode is given as follows:

Idle Mode: Idle mode is entered by setting IDL bit to 1 (i.e., IDL=1). The clock signal is gated off to CPU, but not to interrupt, timer and serial port functions. The CPU status is preserved entirely. SP, PC, PSW, Accumulator and other registers maintain their data during IDLE mode. The port pins hold their logical states they had at the time Idle was initialized. ALE and PSEN(bar) are held at logic high levels. Ways to exit Idle Mode: 1. 1. Activation of any enabled interrupt will clear PCON.0 bit and hence the Idle Mode is exited. The program goes to the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). After RETI is executed at the end of ISR, the next instruction will start from the one following the instruction that enabled the Idle Mode. 2. 3. 2. A hardware reset exits the idle mode. The CPU starts from the instruction following the instruction that invoked the Idle mode.

Power Down Mode: The Power Down Mode is entered by setting the PD bit to 1. The internal clock to the entire microcontroller is stopped. However, the program is not dead. The Power down Mode is exited (PCON.1 is cleared to 0) by Hardware Reset only. The CPU starts from the next instruction where the Power down Mode was invoked. Port values are not changed/ overwritten in power down mode. Vcc can be reduced to 2V in Power down Mode. However Vcc has to be restored to normal value before Power down Mode is exited.

Program Memory Lock Bits The AT89S52 has three lock bits that can be left unprogrammed (U) or can be programmed (P) to obtain the additional features listed in the table.

When lock bit 1 is programmed, the logic level at the EA pin is sampled and latched during reset. If the device is powered up without a reset, the latch initializes to a random value and holds that value until reset is activated. The latched value of EA must agree with the current logic level at that pin in order for the device to function properly. Programming the Flash Parallel Mode The AT89S52 is shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array ready to be programmed. The programming interface needs a high-voltage (12-volt) program enable signal and is compatible with conventional third-party Flash or EPROM programmers. The AT89S52 code memory array is programmed byte-by-byte.

Programming Algorithm: Before programming the AT89S52, the address, data and control signals should be set up according to the Flash Programming Modes. To program the AT89S52, take the following steps: 1. Input the desired memory location on the address lines. 2. Input the appropriate data byte on the data lines. 3. Activate the correct combination of control signals. 4. Raise EA/VPP to 12V. 5. Pulse ALE/PROG once to program a byte in the Flash array or the lock bits. The byte write cycle is self-timed and typically takes no more than 50 s. Repeat steps 1 through 5, changing the address and data for the entire array or until the end of the object file is reached. Data Polling: The AT89S52 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a byte write cycle. During a write cycle, an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the written data on P0.7. Once the write cycle has been completed, true data is valid on all outputs, and the next cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin any time after a write cycle has been initiated.

Ready/Busy: The progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal. P3.0 is pulled low after ALE goes high during programming to indicate BUSY. P3.0 is pulled high again when programming is done to indicate READY. Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed, the programmed code data can be read back via the address and data lines for verification. The status of the individual lock bits can be verified directly by reading them back. Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 000H, 100H, and 200H, except that P3.6 and P3.7 must be pulled to a logic low. The values returned are as follows. (000H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel (100H) = 52H indicates AT89S52 (200H) = 06H Chip Erase: In the parallel programming mode, a chip erase operation is initiated by using the proper combination of control signals and by pulsing ALE/PROG low for a duration of 200 ns - 500 ns. In the serial programming mode, a chip erase operation is initiated by issuing the Chip Erase instruction. In this mode, chip erase is self-timed and takes about 500 ms. During chip erase, a serial read from any address location will return 00H at the data output. Programming the Flash Serial Mode

The Code memory array can be programmed using the serial ISP interface while RST is pulled to VCC. The serial interface consists of pins SCK, MOSI (input) and MISO (output). After RST is set high, the Programming Enable instruction needs to be executed first before other operations can be executed. Before a reprogramming sequence can occur, a Chip Erase operation is required. The Chip Erase operation turns the content of every memory location in the Code array into FFH. Either an external system clock can be supplied at pin XTAL1 or a crystal needs to be connected across pins XTAL1 and XTAL2. The maximum serial clock (SCK) frequency should be less than 1/16 of the crystal frequency. With a 33 MHz oscillator clock, the maximum SCK frequency is 2 MHz. Serial Programming Algorithm To program and verify the AT89S52 in the serial programming mode, the following sequence is recommended: 1. Power-up sequence: a. Apply power between VCC and GND pins. b. Set RST pin to H. If a crystal is not connected across pins XTAL1 and XTAL2, apply a 3 MHz to 33 MHz clock to XTAL1 pin and wait for at least 10 milliseconds. 2. Enable serial programming by sending the Programming Enable serial instruction to pin MOSI/P1.5. The frequency of the shift clock supplied at pin SCK/P1.7 needs to be less than the CPU clock at XTAL1 divided by 16. 3. The Code array is programmed one byte at a time in either the Byte or Page mode. The write cycle is self-timed and typically takes less than 0.5 ms at 5V. 4. Any memory location can be verified by using the Read instruction which returns the content at the selected address at serial output MISO/P1.6. 5. At the end of a programming session, RST can be set low to commence normal device operation. Power-off sequence (if needed): 1. Set XTAL1 to L (if a crystal is not used).

2. Set RST to L. 3. Turn VCC power off.

Data Polling: The Data Polling feature is also available in the serial mode. In this mode, during a write cycle an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the MSB of the serial output byte on MISO. Serial Programming Instruction Set The Instruction Set for Serial Programming follows a 4-byte protocol and is shown in the table given below.

Programming Interface Parallel Mode Every code byte in the Flash array can be programmed by using the appropriate combination of control signals. The write operation cycle is self-timed and once initiated, will automatically time itself to completion.

After Reset signal is high, SCK should be low for at least 64 system clocks before it goes high to clock in the enable data bytes. No pulsing of Reset signal is necessary. SCK should be no faster than 1/16 of the system clock at XTAL1.

For Page Read/Write, the data always starts from byte 0 to 255. After the command byte and upper address byte are latched, each byte thereafter is treated as data until all 256 bytes are shifted in/out. Then the next instruction will be ready to be decoded.

3.4 Serial Communication:

The main requirements for serial communication are: 1. Microcontroller 2. PC 3. RS 232 cable 4. MAX 232 IC 5. HyperTerminal When the pins P3.0 and P3.1 of microcontroller are set, UART which is inbuilt in the microcontroller will be enabled to start the serial communication. Timers: The 8051 has two timers: Timer 0 and Timer 1. They can be used either as timers to generate a time delay or as counters to count events happening outside the microcontroller. Both Timer 0 and Timer 1 are 16-bit wide. Since the 8051 has an 8-bit architecture, each 16-bit timer is accessed as two separate registers of low byte and high byte. Lower byte register of Timer 0 is TL0 and higher byte is TH0. Similarly lower byte register of Timer1 is TL1 and higher byte register is TH1. TMOD (timer mode) register: Both timers 0 and 1 use the same register TMOD to set the various operation modes. TMOD is an 8-bit register in which the lower 4 bits are set aside for Timer 0 and the upper 4 bits for Timer 1. In each case, the lower 2 bits are used to set the timer mode and the upper 2 bits to specify the operation.

GATE Every timer has a means of starting and stopping. Some timers do this by software, some by hardware and some have both software and hardware controls. The timers in the 8051 have both. The start and stop of the timer are controlled by the way of software by the TR (timer start) bits TR0 and TR1. These instructions start and stop the timers as long as GATE=0 in the TMOD register. The hardware way of starting and stopping the timer by an external source is achieved by making GATE=1 in the TMOD register. C/T Timer or counter selected. Cleared for timer operation and set for counter operation. M1 Mode bit 1 M0 Mode bit 0 Mode Selection M1 0 0 1 M0 0 1 0 Mode 0 1 2 Operating Mode 13-bit timer mode 8-bit timer/counter THx with TLx as 5-bit prescaler 16-bit timer mode 16-bit timer/counters THx and TLx are cascaded 8-bit auto reload timer/counter THx holds a value that is to be reloaded into TLx each time

it overflows 1 1 3 Split timer mode

The mode used here to generate a time delay is MODE 2. This mode 2 is an 8-bit timer and therefore it allows only values of 00H to FFH to be loaded into the timers register TH. After TH is loaded with the 8-bit value, the 8051 give a copy of it to TL. When the timer starts, it starts to count up by incrementing the TL register. It counts up until it reaches its limit of FFH. When it rolls over from FFH to 00H, it sets high the TF (timer flag). If Timer 0 is used, TF0 goes high and if Timer 1 is used, TF1 goes high. When the TL register rolls from FFH to 0 and TF is set to 1, TL is reloaded automatically with the original value kept by the TH register. Asynchronous and Synchronous Serial Communication Computers transfer data in two ways: parallel and serial. In parallel data transfers, often 8 or more lines are used to transfer data to a device that is only a few feet away. Although a lot of data can be transferred in a short amount of time by using many wires in parallel, the distance cannot be great. To transfer to a device located many meters away, the serial method is best suitable. In serial communication, the data is sent one bit at a time. The 8051 has serial communication capability built into it, thereby making possible fast data transfer using only a few wires. The fact that serial communication uses a single data line instead of the 8-bit data line instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication not only makes it cheaper but also enables two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. Serial data communication uses two methods, asynchronous and synchronous. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time, while the asynchronous method transfers a single byte at a time. With synchronous communications, the two devices initially synchronize themselves to each other, and then continually send characters to stay in sync. Even when data is not really being sent, a constant flow of bits allows each device to know where the other is at any given time. That is, each character that is sent is either actual data or an idle character. Synchronous communications allows faster data transfer rates than asynchronous methods, because additional

bits to mark the beginning and end of each data byte are not required. The serial ports on IBMstyle PCs are asynchronous devices and therefore only support asynchronous serial communications. Asynchronous means "no synchronization", and thus does not require sending and receiving idle characters. However, the beginning and end of each byte of data must be identified by start and stop bits. The start bit indicates when the data byte is about to begin and the stop bit signals when it ends. The requirement to send these additional two bits causes asynchronous communication to be slightly slower than synchronous however it has the advantage that the processor does not have to deal with the additional idle characters. There are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. These chips are commonly referred to as UART(universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter) and USART(universal synchronous-asynchronous receiver-transmitter). The 8051 has a built-in UART. In the asynchronous method, the data such as ASCII characters are packed between a start and a stop bit. The start bit is always one bit, but the stop bit can be one or two bits. The start bit is always a 0 (low) and stop bit (s) is 1 (high). This is called framing. The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated as bps (bits per second). Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. The data transfer rate of a given computer system depends on communication ports incorporated into that system. And in asynchronous serial data communication, this baud rate is generally limited to 100,000bps. The baud rate is fixed to 9600bps in order to interface with the microcontroller using a crystal of 11.0592 MHz. RS232 CABLE: To allow compatibility among data communication equipment, an interfacing standard called RS232 is used. Since the standard was set long before the advent of the TTL logic family, its input and output voltage levels are not TTL compatible. For this reason, to connect any RS232 to a

microcontroller system, voltage converters such as MAX232 are used to convert the TTL logic levels to the RS232 voltage levels and vice versa. MAX 232: Max232 IC is a specialized circuit which makes standard voltages as required by RS232 standards. This IC provides best noise rejection and very reliable against discharges and short circuits. MAX232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. To ensure data transfer between PC and microcontroller, the baud rate and voltage levels of Microcontroller and PC should be the same. The voltage levels of microcontroller are logic1 and logic 0 i.e., logic 1 is +5V and logic 0 is 0V. But for PC, RS232 voltage levels are considered and they are: logic 1 is taken as -3V to -25V and logic 0 as +3V to +25V. So, in order to equal these voltage levels, MAX232 IC is used. Thus this IC converts RS232 voltage levels to microcontroller voltage levels and vice versa.

Interfacing max232 with microcontroller:

SCON (serial control) register: The SCON register is an 8-bit register used to program the start bit, stop bit and data bits of data framing.



Serial port mode specifier Serial port mode specifier Used for multiprocessor communication Set/cleared by software to enable/disable reception Not widely used Not widely used Transmit interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in mode 1. Must be cleared by software.



Receive interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the

beginning of the stop bit in mode 1. Must be cleared by software. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial Mode 0 Serial Mode 1, 8-bit data, 1 stop bit, 1 start bit Serial Mode 2 Serial Mode 3

Of the four serial modes, only mode 1 is widely used. In the SCON register, when serial mode 1 is chosen, the data framing is 8 bits, 1 stop bit and 1 start bit, which makes it compatible with the COM port of IBM/ compatible PCs. And the most important is serial mode 1 allows the baud rate to be variable and is set by Timer 1 of the 8051. In serial mode 1, for each character a total of 10 bits are transferred, where the first bit is the start bit, followed by 8 bits of data and finally 1 stop bit. 8051 Interface with any External Devices using Serial Communication:

3.5 GSM Technology:

Definition of GSM: GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is an open, digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services. GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephone system that is widely used in Europe and other parts of the world. GSM uses a variation of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephone technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. It operates at either the 900 MHz or 1,800 MHz frequency band. It supports voice calls and data transfer speeds of up to 9.6 kbit/s, together with the transmission of SMS (Short Message Service).

GSM Frequencies GSM networks operate in a number of different frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G). Most 2G GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. Most 3G GSM networks in Europe operate in the 2100 MHz frequency band. The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries where these frequencies were previously used for first-generation systems. GSM-900 uses 890915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) and 935960 MHz for the other direction (downlink), providing 124 RF channels (channel numbers 1 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used. In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a larger frequency range. This 'extended GSM', EGSM, uses 880915 MHz (uplink) and 925960 MHz (downlink), adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and 0) to the original GSM-900 band. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel. There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate for all 8 channels is 270.833 Kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms. The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900. GSM operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands in Europe and the 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands in the US. The 850MHz band is also used for GSM and 3G in Australia, Canada and many South American countries. By having harmonized spectrum across most of the globe, GSMs international roaming capability allows users to access the same services when travelling abroad as at home. This gives consumers seamless and same number connectivity in more than 218 countries. Terrestrial GSM networks now cover more than 80% of the worlds population. GSM satellite roaming has also extended service access to areas where terrestrial coverage is not available.

Mobile Telephony Standards

Standard Generation GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS 1G The first generation of mobile telephony (written 1G) operated using analogue communications and portable devices that were relatively large. It used primarily the following standards:

Frequency band Allows transfer of voice or lowvolume digital data. Allows transfer of voice or moderate-volume digital data. Allows simultaneous transfer of voice and digital data. Allows simultaneous transfer of voice and high-speed digital data.

Throughput 9.6 9.6 kbps kbps

2G 2.5G 2.75G 3G

21.4-171.2 kbps48 kbps 171 43.2-345.6 kbpskbps 384 0.144-2 Mbps kbps

AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System), which appeared in 1976 in the United States, was the first cellular network standard. It was used primarily in the Americas, Russia and Asia. This first-generation analogue network had weak security mechanisms which allowed hacking of telephones lines.

TACS (Total Access Communication System) is the European version of the AMPS model. Using the 900 MHz frequency band, this system was largely used in England and then in Asia (Hong-Kong and Japan).

ETACS (Extended Total Access Communication System) is an improved version of the TACS standard developed in the United Kingdom that uses a larger number of communication channels.

The first-generation cellular networks were made obsolete by the appearance of an entirely digital second generation.

Second Generation of Mobile Networks (2G)

The second generation of mobile networks marked a break with the first generation of cellular telephones by switching from analogue to digital. The main 2G mobile telephony standards are:

GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is the most commonly used standard in Europe at the end of the 20th century and supported in the United States. This standard uses the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequency bands in Europe. In the United States, however, the frequency band used is the 1900 MHz band. Portable telephones that are able to operate in Europe and the United States are therefore called tri-band.

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) uses a spread spectrum technique that allows a radio signal to be broadcast over a large frequency range. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) uses a technique of time division of communication channels to increase the volume of data transmitted simultaneously. TDMA technology is primarily used on the American continent, in New Zealand and in the Asia-Pacific region.

With the 2G networks, it is possible to transmit voice and low volume digital data, for example text messages (SMS, for Short Message Service) or multimedia messages (MMS, for Multimedia Message Service). The GSM standard allows a maximum data rate of 9.6 kbps. Extensions have been made to the GSM standard to improve throughput. One of these is the GPRS (General Packet Radio System) service which allows theoretical data rates on the order of 114 Kbit/s but with throughput closer to 40 Kbit/s in practice. As this technology does not fit within the "3G" category, it is often referred to as 2.5G The EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) standard, billed as 2.75G, quadruples the throughput improvements of GPRS with its theoretical data rate of 384 Kbps, thereby allowing the access for multimedia applications. In reality, the EDGE standard allows maximum theoretical data rates of 473 Kbit/s, but it has been limited in order to comply with the IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications-2000) specifications from the ITU (International Telecommunications Union).


The IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications for the year 2000) specifications from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) defined the characteristics of 3G (third generation of mobile telephony). The most important of these characteristics are: 1. High transmission data rate.
2. 144 Kbps with total coverage for mobile use. 3. 384 Kbps with medium coverage for pedestrian use.

4. 2 Mbps with reduced coverage area for stationary use. 5. World compatibility.
6. Compatibility of 3rd generation mobile services with second generation networks.

3G offers data rates of more than 144 Kbit/s, thereby allowing the access to multimedia uses such as video transmission, video-conferencing or high-speed internet access. 3G networks use different frequency bands than the previous networks: 1885-2025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz. The main 3G standard used in Europe is called UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) and uses WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) encoding. UMTS technology uses 5 MHz bands for transferring voice and data, with data rates that can range from 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps. HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) is a third generation mobile telephony protocol, (considered as "3.5G"), which is able to reach data rates on the order of 8 to 10 Mbps. HSDPA technology uses the 5 GHz frequency band and uses WCDMA encoding. Introduction to the GSM Standard The GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) network is at the start of the 21st century, the most commonly used mobile telephony standard in Europe. It is called as Second Generation (2G) standard because communications occur in an entirely digital mode, unlike the first generation of portable telephones. When it was first standardized in 1982, it was called as Group Special Mobile and later, it became an international standard called "Global System for Mobile communications" in 1991. In Europe, the GSM standard uses the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequency bands. In the United States, however, the frequency band used is the 1900 MHz band. For this reason, portable

telephones that are able to operate in both Europe and the United States are called tri-band while those that operate only in Europe are called bi-band. The GSM standard allows a maximum throughput of 9.6 kbps which allows transmission of voice and low-volume digital data like text messages (SMS, for Short Message Service) or multimedia messages (MMS, for Multimedia Message Service). GSM Standards: GSM uses narrowband TDMA, which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency. There are three basic principles in multiple access, FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access), TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). All three principles allow multiple users to share the same physical channel. But the two competing technologies differ in the way user sharing the common resource. TDMA allows the users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots. Each user takes turn in a round robin fashion for transmitting and receiving over the channel. Here, users can only transmit in their respective time slot. CDMA uses a spread spectrum technology that is it spreads the information contained in a particular signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth than the original signal. Unlike TDMA, in CDMA several users can transmit over the channel at the same time. TDMA in brief: In late1980s, as a search to convert the existing analog network to digital as a means to improve capacity, the cellular telecommunications industry association chose TDMA over FDMA. Time Division Multiplex Access is a type of multiplexing where two or more channels of information are transmitted over the same link by allocating a different time interval for the transmission of each channel. The most complex implementation using TDMA principle is of GSMs (Global System for Mobile communication). To reduce the effect of co-channel

interference, fading and multipath, the GSM technology can use frequency hoping, where a call jumps from one channel to another channel in a short interval.

TDMA systems still rely on switch to determine when to perform a handoff. Handoff occurs when a call is switched from one cell site to another while travelling. The TDMA handset constantly monitors the signals coming from other sites and reports it to the switch without callers awareness. The switch then uses this information for making better choices for handoff at appropriate times. TDMA handset performs hard handoff, i.e., whenever the user moves from one site to another, it breaks the connection and then provides a new connection with the new site. Advantages of TDMA: There are lots of advantages of TDMA in cellular technologies.
1. It can easily adapt to transmission of data as well as voice communication. 2. It has an ability to carry 64 kbps to 120 Mbps of data rates. This allows the operator to do

services like fax, voice band data and SMS as well as bandwidth intensive application such as multimedia and video conferencing. 3. Since TDMA technology separates users according to time, it ensures that there will be no interference from simultaneous transmissions.

4. It provides users with an extended battery life, since it transmits only portion of the time during conversations. Since the cell size grows smaller, it proves to save base station equipment, space and maintenance. TDMA is the most cost effective technology to convert an analog system to digital. Disadvantages of TDMA: One major disadvantage using TDMA technology is that the users has a predefined time slot. When moving from one cell site to other, if all the time slots in this cell are full the user might be disconnected. Likewise, if all the time slots in the cell in which the user is currently in are already occupied, the user will not receive a dial tone. The second problem in TDMA is that it is subjected to multipath distortion. To overcome this distortion, a time limit can be used on the system. Once the time limit is expired, the signal is ignored. The concept of cellular network Mobile telephone networks are based on the concept of cells, circular zones that overlap to cover a geographical area.

Cellular networks are based on the use of a central transmitter-receiver in each cell, called a "base station" (or Base Transceiver Station, written BTS). The smaller the radius of a cell, the higher is the available bandwidth. So, in highly populated urban areas, there are cells with a radius of a few hundred meters, while huge cells of up to 30 kilometers provide coverage in rural areas.

In a cellular network, each cell is surrounded by 6 neighbouring cells (thus a cell is generally drawn as a hexagon). To avoid interference, adjacent cells cannot use the same frequency. In practice, two cells using the same frequency range must be separated by a distance of two to three times the diameter of the cell. Architecture of the GSM Network In a GSM network, the user terminal is called a mobile station. A mobile station is made up of a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card allowing the user to be uniquely identified and a mobile terminal. The terminals (devices) are identified by a unique 15-digit identification number called IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity). Each SIM card also has a unique (and secret) identification number called IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity). This code can be protected using a 4-digit key called a PIN code. The SIM card therefore allows each user to be identified independently of the terminal used during communication with a base station. Communications occur through a radio link (air interface) between a mobile station and a base station.

All the base stations of a cellular network are connected to a base station controller (BSC) which is responsible for managing distribution of the resources. The system consisting of the base station controller and its connected base stations is called the Base Station Subsystem (BSS). Finally, the base station controllers are themselves physically connected to the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC), managed by the telephone network operator, which connects them to the public telephone network and the Internet. The MSC belongs to a Network Station Subsystem (NSS), which is responsible for managing user identities, their location and establishment of communications with other subscribers. The MSC is generally connected to databases that provide additional functions:
1. The Home Location Register (HLR) is a database containing information (geographic

position, administrative information etc.) of the subscribers registered in the area of the switch (MSC).
2. The Visitor Location Register (VLR) is a database containing information of users other

than the local subscribers. The VLR retrieves the data of a new user from the HLR of the

user's subscriber zone. The data is maintained as long as the user is in the zone and is deleted when the user leaves or after a long period of inactivity (terminal off).
3. The Equipment Identify Register (EIR) is a database listing the mobile terminals. 4. The Authentication Centre (AUC) is responsible for verifying user identities. 5. The cellular network formed in this way is designed to support mobility via management

of handovers (movements from one cell to another). Finally, GSM networks support the concept of roaming i.e., movement from one operator network to another. Introduction to Modem:

Modem stands for modulator-demodulator. A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over telephone or cable lines. Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. A modem converts between these two forms. Fortunately, there is one standard interface for connecting external modems to computers called RS-232. Consequently, any external modem can be attached to any computer that has an RS-232 port, which almost all personal computers have. There are also modems that come as an expansion board that can be inserted into a vacant expansion slot. These are sometimes called onboard or internal modems.

While the modem interfaces are standardized, a number of different protocols for formatting data to be transmitted over telephone lines exist. Some, like CCITT V.34 are official standards, while others have been developed by private companies. Most modems have built-in support for the more common protocols at slow data transmission speeds at least, most modems can communicate with each other. At high transmission speeds, however, the protocols are less standardized. Apart from the transmission protocols that they support, the following characteristics distinguish one modem from another:
Bps: How fast the modem can transmit and receive data. At slow rates, modems are

measured in terms of baud rates. The slowest rate is 300 baud (about 25 cps). At higher speeds, modems are measured in terms of bits per second (bps). The fastest modems run at 57,600 bps, although they can achieve even higher data transfer rates by compressing the data. Obviously, the faster the transmission rate, the faster the data can be sent and received. It should be noted that the data cannot be received at a faster rate than it is being sent.
Voice/data: Many modems support a switch to change between voice and data modes. In

data mode, the modem acts like a regular modem. In voice mode, the modem acts like a regular telephone. Modems that support a voice/data switch have a built-in loudspeaker and microphone for voice communication.
Auto-answer: An auto-answer modem enables the computer to receive calls in the absence

of the operator.
Data compression: Some modems perform data compression, which enables them to send

data at faster rates. However, the modem at the receiving end must be able to decompress the data using the same compression technique.
Flash memory: Some modems come with flash memory rather than conventional ROM

which means that the communications protocols can be easily updated if necessary.
Fax capability: Most modern modems are fax modems, which mean that they can send

and receive faxes. GSM Modem:

A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless network. A wireless modem behaves like a dial-up modem. The main difference between them is that a dial-up modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line while a wireless modem sends and receives data through radio waves.

A GSM modem can be an external device or a PC Card / PCMCIA Card. Typically, an external GSM modem is connected to a computer through a serial cable or a USB cable. A GSM modem in the form of a PC Card / PCMCIA Card is designed for use with a laptop computer. It should be inserted into one of the PC Card / PCMCIA Card slots of a laptop computer. Like a GSM mobile phone, a GSM modem requires a SIM card from a wireless carrier in order to operate. A SIM card contains the following information:

Subscriber telephone number (MSISDN) International subscriber number (IMSI, International Mobile Subscriber Identity) State of the SIM card Service code (operator) Authentication key PIN (Personal Identification Code) PUK (Personal Unlock Code)

Computers use AT commands to control modems. Both GSM modems and dial-up modems support a common set of standard AT commands. In addition to the standard AT commands, GSM modems support an extended set of AT commands. These extended AT commands are defined in the GSM standards. With the extended AT commands, the following operations can be performed:

Reading, writing and deleting SMS messages. Sending SMS messages. Monitoring the signal strength. Monitoring the charging status and charge level of the battery. Reading, writing and searching phone book entries.

The number of SMS messages that can be processed by a GSM modem per minute is very low i.e., about 6 to 10 SMS messages per minute. Introduction to AT Commands

AT commands are instructions used to control a modem. AT is the abbreviation of ATtention. Every command line starts with "AT" or "at". That's the reason, modem commands are called AT commands. Many of the commands that are used to control wired dial-up modems, such as ATD (Dial), ATA (Answer), ATH (Hook control) and ATO (Return to online data state) are also supported by GSM modems and mobile phones. Besides this common AT command set, GSM modems and mobile phones support an AT command set that is specific to the GSM technology, which includes SMS-related commands like AT+CMGS (Send SMS message), AT+CMSS (Send SMS message from storage), AT+CMGL (List SMS messages) and AT+CMGR (Read SMS messages). It should be noted that the starting "AT" is the prefix that informs the modem about the start of a command line. It is not part of the AT command name. For example, D is the actual AT command name in ATD and +CMGS is the actual AT command name in AT+CMGS. Some of the tasks that can be done using AT commands with a GSM modem or mobile phone are listed below: Get basic information about the mobile phone or GSM modem. For example, name of manufacturer (AT+CGMI), model number (AT+CGMM), IMEI number (International Mobile Equipment Identity) (AT+CGSN) and software version (AT+CGMR). Get basic information about the subscriber. For example, MSISDN (AT+CNUM) and IMSI number (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) (AT+CIMI). Get the current status of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For example, mobile phone activity status (AT+CPAS), mobile network registration status (AT+CREG), radio signal strength (AT+CSQ), battery charge level and battery charging status (AT+CBC). Establish a data connection or voice connection to a remote modem (ATD, ATA, etc). Send and receive fax (ATD, ATA, AT+F*). Send (AT+CMGS, AT+CMSS), read (AT+CMGR, AT+CMGL), write (AT+CMGW) or delete (AT+CMGD) SMS messages and obtain notifications of newly received SMS messages (AT+CNMI). Read (AT+CPBR), write (AT+CPBW) or search (AT+CPBF) phonebook entries.

Perform security-related tasks, such as opening or closing facility locks (AT+CLCK), checking whether a facility is locked (AT+CLCK) and changing passwords(AT+CPWD). (Facility lock examples: SIM lock [a password must be given to the SIM card every time the mobile phone is switched on] and PH-SIM lock [a certain SIM card is associated with the mobile phone. To use other SIM cards with the mobile phone, a password must be entered.]) Control the presentation of result codes / error messages of AT commands. For example, the user can control whether to enable certain error messages (AT+CMEE) and whether error messages should be displayed in numeric format or verbose format (AT+CMEE=1 or AT+CMEE=2). Get or change the configurations of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For example, change the GSM network (AT+COPS), bearer service type (AT+CBST), radio link protocol parameters (AT+CRLP), SMS center address (AT+CSCA) and storage of SMS messages (AT+CPMS). Save and restore configurations of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For example, save (AT+CSAS) and restore (AT+CRES) settings related to SMS messaging such as the SMS center address. It should be noted that the mobile phone manufacturers usually do not implement all AT commands, command parameters and parameter values in their mobile phones. Also, the behavior of the implemented AT commands may be different from that defined in the standard. In general, GSM modems, designed for wireless applications, have better support of AT commands than ordinary mobile phones. Basic concepts of SMS technology 1. Validity Period of an SMS Message An SMS message is stored temporarily in the SMS center if the recipient mobile phone is offline. It is possible to specify the period after which the SMS message will be deleted from the SMS center so that the SMS message will not be forwarded to the recipient mobile phone when it becomes online. This period is called the validity period.

A mobile phone should have a menu option that can be used to set the validity period. After setting it, the mobile phone will include the validity period in the outbound SMS messages automatically. 2. Message Status Reports Sometimes the user may want to know whether an SMS message has reached the recipient mobile phone successfully. To get this information, you need to set a flag in the SMS message to notify the SMS center that a status report is required about the delivery of this SMS message. The status report is sent to the user mobile in the form of an SMS message. A mobile phone should have a menu option that can be used to set whether the status report feature is on or off. After setting it, the mobile phone will set the corresponding flag in the outbound SMS messages for you automatically. The status report feature is turned off by default on most mobile phones and GSM modems. 3. Message Submission Reports After leaving the mobile phone, an SMS message goes to the SMS center. When it reaches the SMS center, the SMS center will send back a message submission report to the mobile phone to inform whether there are any errors or failures (e.g. incorrect SMS message format, busy SMS center, etc). If there is no error or failure, the SMS center sends back a positive submission report to the mobile phone. Otherwise it sends back a negative submission report to the mobile phone. The mobile phone may then notify the user that the message submission was failed and what caused the failure. If the mobile phone does not receive the message submission report after a period of time, it concludes that the message submission report has been lost. The mobile phone may then send the SMS message again to the SMS center. A flag will be set in the new SMS message to inform the SMS center that this SMS message has been sent before. If the previous message submission was successful, the SMS center will ignore the new SMS message but send back a message submission report to the mobile phone. This mechanism prevents the sending of the same SMS message to the recipient multiple times.

Sometimes the message submission report mechanism is not used and the acknowledgement of message submission is done in a lower layer. 4.Message Delivery Reports After receiving an SMS message, the recipient mobile phone will send back a message delivery report to the SMS center to inform whether there are any errors or failures (example causes: unsupported SMS message format, not enough storage space, etc). This process is transparent to the mobile user. If there is no error or failure, the recipient mobile phone sends back a positive delivery report to the SMS center. Otherwise it sends back a negative delivery report to the SMS center. If the sender requested a status report earlier, the SMS center sends a status report to the sender when it receives the message delivery report from the recipient. If the SMS center does not receive the message delivery report after a period of time, it concludes that the message delivery report has been lost. The SMS center then ends the SMS message to the recipient for the second time. Sometimes the message delivery report mechanism is not used and the acknowledgement of message delivery is done in a lower layer.

In the design of all microprocessors-based systems, semiconductor memories are used as primary storage for code and data. Semiconductor memories are connected directly to the CPU and they are the memory that the CPU first asks for information (code and data). For this reason, semiconductor memories are sometimes referred to as primary memory. Important Terminology common to all Semiconductor Memories: Memory capacity: The number of bits that a semiconductor memory chip can store is called chip capacity. It can be in units of Kilobits, Megabits and so on. This must be distinguished from the storage capacity of computer system. While the memory capacity of a memory IC chip is always given in bits, the memory capacity of a computer system is given in bytes.

Memory organization: Memory chips are organized into a number of locations within the IC. Each location can hold 1 bit, 4 bits, 8 bits or even 16 bits, depending on how it is designed internally. The number of bits that each location within the memory chip can hold is always equal to the number of data pins on the chip. i.e., the total number of bits that a memory chip can store is equal to the number of locations times the number of data bits per location.

Speed: One of the most important characteristics of a memory chip is the speed at which its data can be accessed. The speed of the memory chip is commonly referred to as its access time. The access time of memory chip varies from a few nanoseconds to hundreds of nanoseconds, depending on the IC technology used in the design and fabrication process. The different types of memories are RAM, ROM, EPROM and EEPROM. RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the microprocessor. The data, which is an important factor, has to be stored in such a location where it cannot be erased when power fails and also the data should be allowed to make changes in it without the system interface i.e., there should be a provision in such a way that the data should be accessed (or modified) while it is in system board but not external erasure and programming. The flash memory inbuilt in the microcontroller can erase the entire contents in less than a second and the erasure method is electrical. But the major drawback of Flash memory is that when flash memorys contents are erased, the entire device will be erased but not a desired section or byte. For this purpose, we prefer EEPROM in our project. EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read only memory) EEPROM has several advantages over other memory devices, such as the fact that its method of erasure is electrical and therefore instant. In addition, in EEPROM one can select which byte to be erased, in contrast to flash, in which the entire contents of ROM are erased. The main advantage of EEPROM is that one can program and erase its contents while it is in system board. It does not

require physical removal of the memory chip from its socket. In general, the cost per bit for EEPROM is much higher when compared to other devices. The EEPROM used in this project is 24C04 type. Features of 24C04 EEPROM: 1 million erase/write cycles with 40 years data retention. Single supply voltage: 3v to 5.5v for st24x04 versions 2.5v to 5.5v for st25x04 versions Hardware write control versions: st24w04 and st25w04 Programmable write protection. Two wire serial interface, fully i2c bus compatible. Byte and multi byte write (up to 4 bytes). Page write (up to 8 bytes). Byte, random and sequential read modes Self timed programming cycle Automatic address incrementing Enhanced ESD/Latch up performances

Description The 24C04 is a 4K bit electrically erasable programmable memory (EEPROM), organized as 2 blocks of 256 x8 bits. They are manufactured in ST Microelectronics Hi-Endurance Advanced CMOS technology which guarantees an endurance of one million erase/write cycles with data retention of 40 years. Both Plastic Dual-in-Line and Plastic Small Outline packages are available. The memories are compatible with the I2C standard, two wire serial interface which uses a bidirectional data bus and serial clock. The memories carry a built-in 4 bit, unique device identification code (1010) corresponding to the I2C bus definition. This is used together with 2 chip enable inputs (E2, E1) so that up to 4 x 4K devices may be attached to the I2C bus and selected individually. The memories behave as a slave device in the I2C protocol with all memory operations synchronized by the serial clock. Read and write operations are initiated by a START condition generated by the bus master. The START condition is followed by a stream of 7 bits (identification code 1010), plus one read/write bit and terminated by an acknowledge bit.

When writing data to the memory it responds to the 8 bits received by asserting an acknowledge bit during the 9th bit time. When data is read by the bus master, it acknowledges the receipt of the data bytes in the same way. Data transfers are terminated with a STOP condition. Power on Reset: VCC lock out write protect In order to prevent data corruption and inadvertent write operations during power up, a Power on Reset (POR) circuit is implemented. Until the VCC voltage has reached the POR threshold value, the internal reset is active, all operations are disabled and the device will not respond to any command. In the same way, when VCC drops down from the operating voltage to below the POR threshold value, all operations are disabled and the device will not respond to any command. A stable VCC must be applied before applying any logic signal. Signal descriptions Serial Clock (SCL) The SCL input pin is used to synchronize all data in and out of the memory. A resistor can be connected from the SCL line to VCC to act as a pull up. Serial Data (SDA): The SDA pin is bi-directional and is used to transfer data in or out of the memory. It is an open drain output that may be wire-ORed with other open drain or open collector signals on the bus. A resistor must be connected from the SDA bus line to VCC to act as pull up.

Chip Enable (E1 - E2): These chip enable inputs are used to set the 2 least significant bits (b2, b3) of the 7 bit device select code. These inputs may be driven dynamically or tied to VCC or VSS to establish the device select code. Protect Enable (PRE): The PRE input pin, in addition to the status of the Block Address Pointer bit (b2, location 1FFh as in below figure), sets the PRE write protection active.

Mode (MODE): The MODE input is available on pin 7 and may be driven dynamically. It must be at VIL or VIH for the Byte Write mode, VIH for Multibyte Write mode or VIL for Page Write mode. When unconnected, the MODE input is internally read as VIH (Multibyte Write mode). Write Control (WC): An hardware Write Control feature (WC) is offered only for ST24W04 and ST25W04 versions on pin 7. This feature is useful to protect the contents of the memory from any erroneous erase/write cycle. The Write Control signal is used to enable (WC = VIH) or disable (WC =VIL) the internal write protection. When unconnected, the WC input is internally read as VIL and the memory area is not write protected.

Device operation I2C Bus Background The ST24/25x04 supports the I2C protocol. This protocol defines any device that sends data onto the bus as a transmitter and any device that reads the data as a receiver. The device that controls the data transfer is known as the master and the other as the slave. The master will always initiate a data transfer and will provide the serial clock for synchronization. The ST24/25x04 is always slave devices in all communications.

Start Condition START is identified by a high to low transition of the SDA line while the clock SCL is stable in the high state. A START condition must precede any command for data transfer. Except during a

programming cycle, the ST24/25x04 continuously monitor the SDA and SCL signals for a START condition and will not respond unless one is given. Stop Condition STOP is identified by a low to high transition of the SDA line while the clock SCL is stable in the high state. A STOP condition terminates communication between the ST24/25x04 and the bus master. A STOP condition at the end of a Read command, after and only after a No Acknowledge, forces the standby state. A STOP condition at the end of a Write command triggers the internal EEPROM write cycle. Acknowledge Bit (ACK) An acknowledge signal is used to indicate a successful data transfer. The bus transmitter, either master or slave, will release the SDA bus after sending 8 bits of data. During the 9th clock pulse period the receiver pulls the SDA bus low to acknowledge the receipt of the 8 bits of data. Data Input During data input, the ST24/25x04 samples the SDA bus signal on the rising edge of the clock SCL. Note that for correct device operation the SDA signal must be stable during the clock low to high transition and the data must change ONLY when the SCL line is low. Memory Addressing To start communication between the bus master and the slave ST24/25x04, the master must initiate a START condition. Following this, the master sends onto the SDA bus line 8 bits (MSB first) corresponding to the device select code (7 bits) and a READ or WRITE bit. The 4 most significant bits of the device select code are the device type identifier, corresponding to the I2C bus definition. For these memories the 4 bits are fixed as 1010b. The following 2 bits identify the specific memory on the bus. They are matched to the chip enable signals E2, E1. Thus up to 4 x 4K memories can be connected on the same bus giving a memory capacity total of 16 Kilobits. After a START condition any memory on the bus will identify the device code and compare the following 2 bits to its chip enable inputs E2, E1. The 7th bit sent is the block number

(one block = 256 bytes). The 8th bit sent is the read or write bit (RW), this bit is set to 1 for read and 0 for write operations. If a match is found, the corresponding memory will acknowledge the identification on the SDA bus during the 9th bit time.

Write Operations The Multibyte Write mode (only available on the ST24/25C04 versions) is selected when the MODE pin is at VIH and the Page Write mode when MODE pin is at VIL. The MODE pin may be driven dynamically with CMOS input levels. Following a START condition the master sends a device select code with the RW bit reset to 0. The memory acknowledges this and waits for a byte address. The byte address of 8 bits provides access to one block of 256 bytes of the memory. After receipt of the byte address, the device again responds with an acknowledge. For the ST24/25W04 versions, any write command with WC = 1 will not modify the memory content.

Byte Write In the Byte Write mode the master sends one data byte, which is acknowledged by the memory. The master then terminates the transfer by generating a STOP condition. The Write mode is independent of the state of the MODE pin which could be left floating if only this mode was to be used. However it is not a recommended operating mode, as this pin has to be connected to either VIH or VIL, to minimize the stand-by current. Multibyte Write For the Multibyte Write mode, the MODE pin must be at VIH. The Multibyte Write mode can be started from any address in the memory. The master sends from one up to 4 bytes of data, which are each acknowledged by the memory. The transfer is terminated by the master generating a STOP condition. The duration of the write cycle is Tw = 10ms maximum except when bytes are accessed on 2 rows (that is have different values for the 6 most significant address bits A7-A2), the programming time is then doubled to a maximum of 20ms. Writing more than 4 bytes in the Multibyte Write mode may modify data bytes in an adjacent row (one row is 8 bytes long). However, the Multibyte Write can properly write up to 8 consecutive bytes as soon as the first address of these 8 bytes is the first address of the row, the 7 following bytes being written in the 7 following bytes of this same row. Page Write For the Page Write mode, the MODE pin must be at VIL. The Page Write mode allows up to 8 bytes to be written in a single write cycle, provided that they are all located in the same row in the memory: that is the 5 most significant memory address bits (A7-A3) are the same inside one block. The master sends from one up to 8 bytes of data, which are each acknowledged by the memory. After each byte is transferred, the internal byte address counter (3 least significant bits only) is incremented. The transfer is terminated by the master generating a STOP condition. Care must be taken to avoid address counter roll-over which could result in data being overwritten. Note that, for any write mode, the generation by the master of the STOP condition starts the internal memory program cycle. All inputs are disabled until the completion of this cycle and the memory will not respond to any request.

Minimizing System Delays by Polling on ACK During the internal write cycle, the memory disconnects itself from the bus in order to copy the data from the internal latches to the memory cells. The maximum value of the write time (Tw) is given from the AC Characteristics, since the typical time is shorter, the time seen by the system may be reduced by an ACK polling sequence issued by the master.

Data in the upper block of 256 bytes of the memory may be write protected. The memory is write protected between a boundary address and the top of memory (address 1FFh) when the PRE input pin is taken high and when the Protect Flag (bit b2 in location 1FFh) is set to 0. The boundary address is user defined by writing it in the Block Address Pointer. The Block Address Pointer is an 8 bit EEPROM register located at the address 1FFh. It is composed by 5 MSBs Address Pointer,

which defines the bottom boundary address and 3 LSBs which must be programmed at 0. This Address Pointer can therefore address a boundary in steps of 8 bytes. The sequence to use the Write Protected feature is: write the data to be protected into the top of the memory, up to, but not including, location 1FFh; set the protection by writing the correct bottom boundary address in the Address Pointer (5 MSBs of location 1FFh) with bit b2 (Protect flag) set to 0. Note that for a correct functionality of the memory, all the 3 LSBs of the Block Address Pointer must also be programmed at 0. The area will now be protected when the PRE input pin is taken High. While the PRE input pin is read at 0 by the memory, the location 1FFh can be used as a normal EEPROM byte.

Read Operations Read operations are independent of the state of the MODE pin. On delivery, the memory content is set at all "1s" (or FFh). Current Address Read

The memory has an internal byte address counter. Each time a byte is read, this counter is incremented. For the Current Address Read mode, following a START condition, the master sends a memory address with the RW bit set to 1. The memory acknowledges this and outputs the byte addressed by the internal byte address counter. This counter is then incremented. The master does NOT acknowledge the byte output, but terminates the transfer with a STOP condition. Random Address Read A dummy write is performed to load the address into the address counter. This is followed by another START condition from the master and the byte address is repeated with the RW bit set to 1. The memory acknowledges this and outputs the byte addressed. The master has to NOT acknowledge the byte output, but terminates the transfer with a STOP condition. Sequential Read This mode can be initiated with either a Current Address Read or a Random Address Read. However, in this case the master DOES acknowledge the data byte output and the memory continues to output the next byte in sequence. To terminate the stream of bytes, the master must NOT acknowledge the last byte output, but MUST generate a STOP condition. The output data is from consecutive byte addresses, with the internal byte address counter automatically incremented after each byte output. After a count of the last memory address, the address counter will rollover and the memory will continue to output data. Acknowledge in Read Mode In all read modes the ST24/25x04 wait for an acknowledge during the 9th bit time. If the master does not pull the SDA line low during this time, the ST24/25x04 terminate the data transfer and switches to a standby state.


LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. LCD is finding wide spread use replacing LEDs (seven segment LEDs or other multi segment LEDs) because of the following reasons: 1. The declining prices of LCDs.

The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LEDs, which are limited to numbers and a few characters.

3. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. In contrast, the LED must be refreshed by the CPU to keep displaying the data. 4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics.

These components are specialized for being used with the microcontrollers, which means that they cannot be activated by standard IC circuits. They are used for writing different messages on a miniature LCD.

A model described here is for its low price and great possibilities most frequently used in practice. It is based on the HD44780 microcontroller (Hitachi) and can display messages in two lines with 16 characters each. It displays all the alphabets, Greek letters, punctuation marks, mathematical symbols etc. In addition, it is possible to display symbols that user makes up on its own. Automatic shifting message on display (shift left and right), appearance of the pointer, backlight etc. are considered as useful characteristics. Pins Functions There are pins along one side of the small printed board used for connection to the microcontroller. There are total of 14 pins marked with numbers (16 in case the background light is built in). Their function is described in the table below: Pin Number 1 2 3 4 5 Logic State 0 1 0 1

Function Ground Power supply Contrast Control of operating

Name Vss Vdd Vee RS R/W

Description 0V +5V 0 Vdd D0 D7 are interpreted as commands D0 D7 are interpreted as data Write data (from controller to LCD) Read data (from LCD to controller)

0 6 E 1 0 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1

Access to LCD disabled Normal operating LCD Bit 0 LSB Bit 1 Bit 2 Bit 3 Bit 4 Bit 5 Bit 6 Bit 7 MSB

From 1 to Data/commands are transferred to

Data / commands

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

LCD screen: LCD screen consists of two lines with 16 characters each. Each character consists of 5x7 dot matrix. Contrast on display depends on the power supply voltage and whether messages are displayed in one or two lines. For that reason, variable voltage 0-Vdd is applied on pin marked as Vee. Trimmer potentiometer is usually used for that purpose. Some versions of displays have built in backlight (blue or green diodes). When used during operating, a resistor for current limitation should be used (like with any LE diode).

LCD Basic Commands All data transferred to LCD through outputs D0-D7 will be interpreted as commands or as data, which depends on logic state on pin RS: RS = 1 - Bits D0 - D7 are addresses of characters that should be displayed. Built in processor addresses built in map of characters and displays corresponding symbols. Displaying position is determined by DDRAM address. This address is either previously defined or the address of previously transferred character is automatically incremented. RS = 0 - Bits D0 - D7 are commands which determine display mode. List of commands which LCD recognizes are given in the table below: Command Clear display Cursor home Entry mode set Display on/off control Cursor/Display Shift Function set Set CGRAM address Set DDRAM address Read BUSY flag (BF) Write to CGRAM or DDRAM Read from CGRAM or DDRAM I/D 1 = Increment (by 1) 0 = Decrement (by 1) S 1 = Display shift on 0 = Display shift off D 1 = Display on 0 = Display off U 1 = Cursor on RS RW D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 x 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 I/D S 0 0 0 0 0 1 D U B 0 0 0 0 1 D/C R/L x x 0 0 0 1 DL N F x x 0 0 1 CGRAM address 0 1 DDRAM address 1 BF DDRAM address 0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 1 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 R/L 1 = Shift right 0 = Shift left DL 1 = 8-bit interface 0 = 4-bit interface N 1 = Display in two lines 0 = Display in one line F 1 = Character format 5x10 dots Execution Time 1.64mS 1.64mS 40uS 40uS 40uS 40uS 40uS 40uS 40uS 40uS

0 = Cursor off B 1 = Cursor blink on 0 = Cursor blink off LCD Connection

0 = Character format 5x7 dots D/C 1 = Display shift 0 = Cursor shift

Depending on how many lines are used for connection to the microcontroller, there are 8-bit and 4bit LCD modes. The appropriate mode is determined at the beginning of the process in a phase called initialization. In the first case, the data are transferred through outputs D0-D7 as it has been already explained. In case of 4-bit LED mode, for the sake of saving valuable I/O pins of the microcontroller, there are only 4 higher bits (D4-D7) used for communication, while other may be left unconnected. Consequently, each data is sent to LCD in two steps: four higher bits are sent first (that normally would be sent through lines D4-D7), four lower bits are sent afterwards. With the help of initialization, LCD will correctly connect and interpret each data received. Besides, with regards to the fact that data are rarely read from LCD (data mainly are transferred from microcontroller to LCD) one more I/O pin may be saved by simple connecting R/W pin to the Ground. Such saving has its price. Even though message displaying will be normally performed, it will not be possible to read from busy flag since it is not possible to read from display. LCD Initialization Once the power supply is turned on, LCD is automatically cleared. This process lasts for approximately 15mS. After that, display is ready to operate. The mode of operating is set by default. This means that: 1. Display is cleared 2. Mode DL = 1 Communication through 8-bit interface N = 0 Messages are displayed in one line F = 0 Character font 5 x 8 dots 3. Display/Cursor on/off

D = 0 Display off U = 0 Cursor off B = 0 Cursor blink off 4. Character entry ID = 1 Addresses on display are automatically incremented by 1 S = 0 Display shift off Automatic reset is mainly performed without any problems. If for any reason power supply voltage does not reach full value in the course of 10mS, display will start perform completely unpredictably. If voltage supply unit can not meet this condition or if it is needed to provide completely safe operating, the process of initialization by which a new reset enabling display to operate normally must be applied. Algorithm according to the initialization is being performed depends on whether connection to the microcontroller is through 4- or 8-bit interface. All left over to be done after that is to give basic commands and of course- to display messages.

Contrast control: To have a clear view of the characters on the LCD, contrast should be adjusted. To adjust the contrast, the voltage should be varied. For this, a preset is used which can behave like a variable voltage device. As the voltage of this preset is varied, the contrast of the LCD can be adjusted.


Variable resistors used as potentiometers have all three terminals connected. This arrangement is normally used to vary voltage, for example to set the switching point of a circuit with a sensor, or control the volume (loudness) in an amplifier circuit. If the terminals at the ends of the track are connected across the power supply, then the wiper terminal will provide a voltage which can be varied from zero up to the maximum of the supply.

Presets These are miniature versions of the standard variable resistor. They are designed to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only when the circuit is built. For example, to set the frequency of an alarm tone or the sensitivity of a light-sensitive circuit, a small screwdriver or similar tool is required to adjust presets. Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are sometimes used in projects where a standard variable resistor would normally be used. Multiturn presets are used where very precise adjustments must be made. The screw must be turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other, giving very fine control.

LCD interface with the microcontroller (4-bit mode):

3.8 Buzzer: Audio Indication

Digital systems and microcontroller pins lack sufficient current to drive the circuits like relays, buzzer circuits etc. While these circuits require around 10milli amps to be operated, the microcontrollers pin can provide a maximum of 1-2milli amps current. For this reason, a driver such as a power transistor is placed in between the microcontroller and the buzzer circuit.

The operation of this circuit is as follows: The input to the base of the transistor is applied from the microcontroller port pin P1.0. The transistor will be switched on when the base to emitter voltage is greater than 0.7V (cut-in voltage). Thus when the voltage applied to the pin P1.0 is high i.e., P1.0=1 (>0.7V), the transistor will be switched on and thus the buzzer will be ON. When the voltage at the pin P1.0 is low i.e., P1.0=0 (<0.7V) the transistor will be in off state and the buzzer will be OFF. Thus the transistor acts like a current driver to operate the buzzer accordingly.

Buzzer interfacing with the microcontroller:

Chapter 4 Firmware Implementation of the project design

This chapter briefly explains about the firmware implementation of the project. The required software tools are discussed in section 4.2. Section 4.3 shows the flow diagram of the project design. Section 4.4 presents the firmware implementation of the project design. 4.1 Software Tools Required Keil v3, Proload are the two software tools used to program microcontroller. The working of each software tool is explained below in detail.

4.1.1 Programming Microcontroller

A compiler for a high level language helps to reduce production time. To program the AT89S52 microcontroller the Keil v3 is used. The programming is done strictly in the embedded C language. Keil v3 is a suite of executable, open source software development tools for the microcontrollers hosted on the Windows platform. The compilation of the C program converts it into machine language file (.hex). This is the only language the microcontroller will understand, because it contains the original program code converted into a hexadecimal format. During this step there are some warnings about eventual errors in the program. This is shown in Fig 4.1. If there are no errors and warnings then run the program, the system performs all the required tasks and behaves as expected the software developed. If not, the whole procedure will have to be repeated again. Fig 4.2 shows expected outputs for given inputs when run compiled program. One of the difficulties of programming microcontrollers is the limited amount of resources the programmer has to deal with. In personal computers resources such as RAM and processing speed are basically limitless when compared to microcontrollers. In contrast, the code on microcontrollers should be as low on resources as possible.

Keil Compiler:
Keil compiler is software used where the machine language code is written and compiled. After compilation, the machine source code is converted into hex code which is to be dumped into the microcontroller for further processing. Keil compiler also supports C language code.

Proload is software which accepts only hex files. Once the machine code is converted into hex code, that hex code has to be dumped into the microcontroller and this is done by the Proload. Proload is a programmer which itself contains a microcontroller in it other than the one which is to be programmed. This microcontroller has a program in it written in such a way that it accepts the hex file from the Keil compiler and dumps this hex file into the microcontroller which is to be programmed. As the Proload programmer kit requires power supply to be operated, this power supply is given from the power supply circuit designed above. It should be noted that this programmer kit contains a power supply section in the board itself but in order to switch on that power supply, a source is required. Thus this is accomplished from the power supply board with an output of 12volts.


Supports major Atmel 89 series devices Auto Identify connected hardware and devices Error checking and verification in-built Lock of programs in chip supported to prevent program copying 20 and 40 pin ZIF socket on-board Auto Erase before writing and Auto Verify after writing Informative status bar and access to latest programmed file Simple and Easy to use Works on 57600 speed It is simple to use and low cost, yet powerful flash microcontroller programmer for the

Description Atmel 89 series. It will Program, Read and Verify Code Data, Write Lock Bits, Erase and Blank Check. All fuse and lock bits are programmable. This programmer has intelligent onboard firmware and connects to the serial port. It can be used with any type of computer and requires no special hardware. All that is needed is a serial communication ports which all computers have. All devices have signature bytes that the programmer reads to automatically identify the chip. No need to select the device type, just plug it in and go! All devices also have a number of lock bits to provide various levels of software and programming protection. These lock bits are fully programmable using this programmer. Lock bits are useful to protect the program to be read back from microcontroller only allowing erase to reprogram the microcontroller. The programmer connects to a host computer using a standard RS232 serial port. All the programming 'intelligence' is built into the programmer so you do not need any special hardware to run it. Programmer comes with window based software for easy programming of the devices.

Programming Software Computer side software called 'Proload V4.1' is executed that accepts the Intel HEX format file generated from compiler to be sent to target microcontroller. It auto detects the hardware connected to the serial port. It also auto detects the chip inserted and bytes used. Software is developed in Delphi 7 and requires no overhead of any external DLL.

Chapter 5 Results and Discussions

5.1 Results Assemble the circuit on the PCB as shown in Fig 5.1. After assembling the circuit on the PCB, check it for proper connections before switching on the power supply. 5.2 Conclusion The implementation of ATM card Security system using microcontroller is done successfully. The communication is properly done without any interference between different modules in the design. Design is done to meet all the specifications and requirements. Software

tools like Keil Uvision Simulator, Proload to dump the source code into the microcontroller, Orcad Lite for the schematic diagram have been used to develop the software code before realizing the hardware. The mechanism is controlled by the microcontroller. Circuit is implemented in Orcad and implemented on the microcontroller board. The performance has been verified both in software simulator and hardware design. The total circuit is completely verified functionally and is following the application software. It can be concluded that the design implemented in the present work provide portability, flexibility and the data transmission is also done with low power consumption.

WORKING PROCEDURE: This project has been designed as a real time application to provide security to the ATM cards and also trace out the lost ATM cards. The present scenario is like: When any account holder of a particular bank loses his ATM card, he puts a complaint in the bank. The bank blocks the ATM card and the number allotted to that ATM card and then issues a new ATM card to that account holder. The working of this system is a bit different and there is no involvement of any bank to recover the lost ATM card.

The working of the project goes like this: Whenever any user inserts his ATM card at the ATM center, the ATM center immediately sends the card details and the ATM center details like the place where the card is inserted to the user mobile using GSM modem. The system not only sends the card details to the user mobile but also asks for the confirmation from the user to accept the card and proceed with the further operations. The system does not respond to any buttons pressed by the person standing in front of the ATM machine unless the system receives the confirmation from the user. As the system receives the confirmation from the user, then the system allows the user to use the card for the transactions like balance check, money withdrawal etc. The user details will be displayed on the LCD. The buzzer indication is alerted whenever the user inserts the card. The user has to insert the slot provided in the system. The ATM card is an EEPROM based card. The system sends the card details to the user through the GSM modem. Thus, even if the user card is lost, the lost ATM card can be easily found out using this system. This system ensures that no malpractices can take place and the card cannot be accessed by anyone unless the confirmation password is entered by the user from his mobile to the ATM machine. Applications The project can be used to trace the lost ATM cards.
The project can be used to track the emergency patient and other essential equipment in the

hospitals. Advantages The biggest advantage for the consumer is the ability to use the same card in a variety of places, just like a credit card.
The ability of EEPROM cards to contain differentially encrypted data offers the

opportunity for the same card to provide access to multiple applications. Cost effective User friendly