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CAB2012: HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Tutorial 2 - SOLUTION

Instructions: Answer all questions. While group discussion is encouraged, this tutorial should be done on an individual basis and will be graded accordingly.

MCQ Questions: 1. ____________ pollutants are emitted directly from identifiable source. A. Tertiary B. Primary C. Secondary D. Observable Any activity that causes pollutants to be emitted into the air is known as _____________. A. Source B. Vehicle C. Nuisance D. Plant Methods A to D are hazard control methods. Method A costs RM 100 and has an effectiveness of 40%. Method B costs RM 75 and has an effectiveness of 50%. Method C costs RM 50 and has an effectiveness of 40%. Method D costs RM 50 and has an effectiveness of 30%. Which method gives the most desirable cost-benefit ratio? A. Method A B. Method B C. Method C D. Method D Which of the following is NOT likely a direct source of groundwater contamination? A. Chemical spills B. Industrial effluents C. Underground leaks D. Landfill leachate Which of the following is a permanent solution to treating soil contaminated by chemical spills? A. Landfilling B. Solidification C. Bioremediation D. Coagulation What is the primary purpose of a hazard analysis? A. To comply with environmental legislation B. To identify and control risk and liability C. To plan and prepare for emergencies D. To state the companys commitment to safety Which of the following is not a primary air pollutant? A. lead B. water vapour C. suspended particulate matter D. carbon monoxide

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Emissions from a power plant, which uses high-nitrogen fuel, contain unacceptable levels of nitrogen dioxide, which negatively affects those living in the surrounding area. Of the possible solutions to the above problem as listed below, which is the most ideal? A. Pay full compensation to those negatively affected. B. Modify existing laws to hold the power company accountable. C. Replace the high-nitrogen fuel with low-nitrogen fuel. D. Install devices to remove the nitrogen dioxide in the emissions. Which of the following statements DOES NOT reflect a good urban air quality management? A. Driving alone into cities during peak hours. B. Structural planning of township, residential and industrial area. C. Park cars at the edge of city and use public transport. D. Companies encourage car pooling among employees. Which of the following is a point source of water pollution? A. City streets in an urban area. 2. A sewage treatment plant C. Lawns and gardens in a suburban area D. An area of farmlands Which of the following statements is the CORRECT sequence of pollution prevention priorities? A. Residual disposal, treatment, reuse and recovery, recycle, reduce generation and eliminate generation. B. Reuse and recovery, recycle, eliminate generation, reduce generation, residual disposal. C. Reduce generation, treatment, residual disposal, reuse and recovery, recycle, eliminate generation. D. Eliminate generation, reduce generation, Recycle, reuse and recovery, treatment and residual disposal. What are the primary causes of acid deposition? A. Sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide B. Chloroform compounds C. Chlorinated hydrocarbons D. Heavy metals Which of the following statement is FALSE? A. Hazardous material storage facilities should be located nearest to the process area. B. Siting of chemical plants away from populated residential area minimizes risk to the community. C. Understanding road traffic pattern would minimize catastrophic incident involving the transportation of hazardous chemicals. D. Storage vessels should be constructed in such a way to minimize the movement of spill to other equipment in process area. Which of the following pollutant level indicate the parameter of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in water? A. Heavy metals B. Degradable organics C. Bacteria D. Nutrients Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an important measure of A. a measure of the biological activity of water and wastewater. B. oxygen content of water and wastewater. C. an organisms natural level of oxygen requirement. D. the oxygen-using potential of water and wastewater. Which of the following is NOT an air pollutant?

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Radioactive substances Cinders Mist Soil

Which of the following should IDEALLY be the first priority in air pollution abatement for nonmobile sources? A. The reduction of air emission at the source through process redesign and equipment modification B. The elimination of air pollution at the source through relocation plant to nonpopulated areas C. The reduction of air pollution at the source through implementation of downstream pollution control devices D. The elimination of air pollution at the source by phasing out polluting industries and closing down plants that does not comply with regulations 18. Which of the following statements indicate air pollution episodes? I. Diminish visibility due to smog II. Increase chronic lung illness III. Bad odours from public water supply IV. Increase concentration of hydrogen sulphide in the air A. B. C. D. I, II and III only II, III and IV only I,II and IV only All of the above

Essay/Short Answer Questions: 1. There are two approaches in hazard analysis. Identify and briefly explain both types. i. Preliminary Hazards Analysis provide initial list or inventory of potential hazards. Ad-hoc approach analysis and useful on project or scope which require quick analysis and decision on hazard. ii. Detailed hazard Analysis comprehensive analysis and may be extended based on the preliminary analysis. Apply analytical approach for system consists of multiple layer of process and safety protection. [6 marks] In a chemical laboratory located on the fourth floor of a heavily populated building, several bottles of chemicals are stored in wood cabinets. There are 18 students at a time to perform their chemistry experiments in the laboratory, which has dimensions of 25 x 25 x 15 ft. During a recent inspection it was discovered that nitric acid (an oxidiser and corrosive), methyl ethyl ketone (an organic peroxide) and a petroleum derivative with a flash point of 25oF are stored together in one of the cabinets. By performing a preliminary hazard analysis (PHA),

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Identify THREE (3) possible hazards that are present in the laboratory. Fire hazard flammable liquid (petroleum derivative) & oxidiser (nitric acid) Toxic hazards peroxide is harmful Explosion hazard oxidiser & peroxide if mixed will explode [3 marks]

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Describe the effects of each hazard identified in part (b)(i). Fire hazard cause severe burn on skin & even fatality plus damage to assets. Toxic cause vomiting, eye & respiratory irritation and even fatality. Explosion fatality plus damage to assets. [6 marks]

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Recommend procedures, equipment and/or instrumentation to minimise risks of hazards in part (b)(i). Procedure separation of incompatible chemicals or separate/store chemical based on the properties. Equipment proper chemical storage cabinet with ventilation to be used rather than wood cabinet. Safety equipment fire sprinkler & fire extinguisher. Other limit on number of people in the lab. [7 marks] The quality of rivers in Malaysia today is worse than it was 25 years

3. ago due to pollution. a.

Discuss how the present situation arises by identifying out sources of pollution and their effects to human and environment. Water pollution: Sources - Improper discharge of waste (without treatment) to the surface water - Leachate/liquid waste leached out from landfill entering the groundwater Water Pollution: Effect - Poor quality of fresh water supply affecting the health - Aquatic life destroyed reduction in food resources Air pollution: Source - Discharge of pollutants (without treatment) from industrial plants - Large scale open burning Air pollution: Effect - Health diseases: respiratory problems-related - Visual problem Soil pollution: Sources - Dumping of non-biodegradable waste to the landfill Soil pollution: Effect - Reduce quality of soil for other beneficial use [10 marks]

b. As a responsible citizen, what would be the possible actions that you could recommend to overcome this pollution problem? Consider the 1E 4Rs concept 1. Eliminate discharge do not produce or discharge any pollutants 2. Reduce generations optimise product quality or optimum use of resources 3. Recycle treat waste to enable for other use 4. Reuse for other use 5. Recovery collect parts that can be reuse or recycle [5 marks]