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Community Voice

Perspective BANGLADESH

ON AIR

ON AIR Community Voice


Perspective BANGLADESH

ON AIR Community Voice


Perspective BANGLADESH

Editor Rafiqul Islam Khokan Editorial Team Saifuddin Sabuj M A Halim Sumon Francis Gomes Cover Design Salahuddin Swapon Date of Published June 14, 2012 Published by RUPANTAR 14/1, Farazipara lane, Khulna-9100, Bangladesh. Phone : 88-041-731876 Fax : 880-41-810747 E-mail : radio@rupantar.org info@rupantar.org Web : www.rupantar.org Printed at Mina Printing Works, 1 K.G. Gupta lane, Luxmibazar, Dhaka-1100 ISBN NO : 978-984-33-5365-8

ON AIR Community Voice


Perspective BANGLADESH

Foreword
As the out going Director of Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia, New Delhi, it is gives me pleasure to see that the our efforts to support the community radio movement in Bangladesh has borne fruit. Besides India, in the Commonwealth Asia region, Bangladesh is the only other country to have actually developed a policy to licence community radio stations. Being passionate about radio, I have always felt that its vast potential has been underutilised. In developing economies with uneven IT access especially in rural areas, radio provides quick and low cost access to people, more so for them arginalised by bringing them into the fold of using ICT and media for learning and development. In India, CEMCA has made significant contributions to the community radio sector, emerging as the preferred partner both for the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting as well as other International agencies working in this sector. We have been working with Rupantar in Bangladesh, through a wide range of activities that my Programme Officer, Rukmini Vemraju has been implementing. We envisage for Rupantar a catalytic role in helping the sector move from strength to strength. Starting with awareness workshops in 2007, over the years, CEMCA has conducted capacity building workshops, facilitated exposure visits to India and more recently focussed on bringing together functional community radio stations of Bangladesh on a common platform to discuss issues of sustainability. As the movement matures and more stations come up, I believe a couple of aspects need more attention. One is it promote greater use of digital technology by this sector and encouraging CRS to be on line , as web radios. This will not only expand access but also double up as a content sharing and networking solution. CEMCA has already initiated this in Bangladesh by bringing with two community radio stations and Rupantar's own programmes online. The other important aspect would be for practitioners to come together and form a community of practice to share and learn from each other. I congratulate Rupantar for documenting the growth of this sector and acknowledging the contribution of CEMCA and wish the movement a great success.

Dr. R. Sreedher
Director, CEMCA

ON AIR Community Voice


Perspective BANGLADESH

Foreword
Community Radio is a medium that serves as an important development tool for creating awareness, spreading information and facilitating communication to the voiceless and marginalized people of a country. It's a radio service for geographically bound communities in areas with poor infrastructure where people do not have access to the mainstream media. Rupantar is taking preparation to set up Community Radio Station to build up community based program on Community Radio since 2004. Rupantar broadcasted a Weekly Radio Program on Local Government 'Amader Union' (Our Local Government) funded by USAID, from Bangladesh Betar (State owned Radio) Medium Wave, Commercial Service as a pre-preparation of Community Radio activities. The program was produced by the participatory way. Interviews of UP chairmen, citizen leaders & villagers, songs, opinions & other materials are collected from the rural village area. Editing and production was only done in the studio. Near about 128 theatre artists of 'Rupantar Institute of Folk Theatre' performed dramas, popular folk song, and music on various social issues in this programme. Rupantar organized and conducted several training workshops with support from COL and CEMCA on Community Radio Programme Content Development, Production, Station Management, Sustainability etc. from 2009 and onwards. Rupantar also organizes study tours in India with the support from CEMCA from 2008. 10 representatives from Krishi Radio, Community Radio Chilmari, Padma, Mahananda, Jhinuk, Sagor Giri and Rupantar took part and visited community radio stations in different parts of India. Bangladesh is frequently hit by disasters, particularly cyclones, floods, mud slides, and drought. As a result people of southwestern coastal belt is living a distress livelihood. In addition, the country's approximately 600 kilometers of coastline leave huge tracts of land open to the destructive effects of cyclones and storm surges. Besides, human made disasters are more hazardous than the natural calamity. As example, the Aila was more vulnerable only for the man made reasons. Community radio can play a vital role to aware people of disaster and its effect. Besides, Community Radio in the coastal area will effectively advocate and teach people on Disaster preparedness, risk reduction, management, mitigation and cyclone signal system. We thank CEMCA, COL and all community radio initiator of Bangladesh for their support towards strengthening community radio activities in Bangladesh. We believe community radio will truely become the voice of the community. With regards,

Swapan Guha

Executive Director, Rupantar, Khulna, Bangladesh

ON AIR Community Voice


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Preface
Radio is a strong and powerful mass medium. The majority of the people of our highlypopulated country still live in the villages and remote areas, including inaccessible hilly areas, islands and coastal areas. It is needless to talk of the importance of radio to this vast population who usually do not have access to television and newspapers due to lack of electricity and strong communication system. We believe that the agriculturists, fishermen, day-labourers, ethnic community groups and others living in remote areas do have sufficient access to information. The only and best way to provide these people with information is radio, which is popular, but low-cost and portable. Community radio is a terminal edition of this popular media. This radio is run by the people of a community for the benefits of the people around them. Bangladesh government has provided broadcasting permission for the coverage of 17-kilometer area. As the program me of the community radio involves the community people starting from the planning stage to the broadcasting phase, they consider it of their own product and take it in their heart. Community radio can bring multi-dimensional benefits, including recreations, to the community people. At the primary stage, the government has approved 14 community radio stations, which have already started broadcasting. Rupantar is involved with the community radio movement from the beginning. It realized that community radio stations may face difficulties in terms of its management and skilled manpower, as it experienced producing some programs named "Amader Union" broadcasted by Bangladesh Betar. Therefore, it has been conducting training for the entrepreneurs of community radio to develop skills and capacity of those involved in the sector. Commonwealth Education Media Centre for Asia (CEMCA) organizes practical training sessions in Khulna in every year on community radio and technical aspects of a radio station. The sessions are also joined by Commonwealth of Learning (COL) on Open Distance Learning and Community Learning. It was a series of training courses. Rupantar organized six such courses for six community radio stations and developed one series of radio programs for each station. Realizing its importance, the participants in a review meeting in Dhaka suggested organizing more training on community learning and technical issues. With support from CEMCA, Rupantar has already sent four teams to India to get acquainted with the role of the volunteers, the process and techniques used for radio production and broadcasting. While writing this report, three persons from Rupantar, Jhinuk and SagorGiri are staying in Delhi and Rajasthan to get practical idea on community radio. Some members from the community radio -- Padma, Mahananda and Chilmari - visited India where a practical

ON AIR Community Voice


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training was organized by the Community Radio Jadavpur University of West Bengal for 14 persons from Bangladesh. Out of 14 community radio stations, 13 are sponsored by private sector and one by Agriculture Information Services, Ministry of Agriculture of Bangladesh Government. However, community radio stations have already expressed their anxiety over regular expenses. Owing to this, CEMCA, Radio Mahananda and Rupantar organized a workshop in Chapai Nawabganj and discussed on the sustainability of the community radio stations. Considering the realities, the Commonwealth of Learning and CEMCA organized training sessions, workshops and exposure visits. Recently, all the community radio stations have been provided with Internet access. Radio Padma has successfully arranged Internet live telecast of the programs. Radio Mahananda will also do the same soon. This was completed by CEMCA from Delhi. There is a scheme to bring all the 14 radio stations under a platform gradually. The training workshop is praised by many, especially by the sponsors, a fact that inspired us. We are determined to keep the process going. Community radio has started its journey, but it needs to move faster to get them established and stand on their feet. This is a big challenge for the promoters and we believe that we will be able to tackle the challenge as we did in the cases of many other challenges of the country. We thank Dr. R. Sreedher, the pioneer of community radio movement in India, for his support to capacity building of the entrepreneurs and the people working on the community radio in Bangladesh. Dr. R. Sreedher will be retiring from CEMCA's directorship very soon and on the eve of his departure we convey our heartiest gratitude, love, regards and thanks. We all of Bangladesh's community radio sector will ever remember his contributions to the community radio movement in the region. The contribution of Rukmini Vemraju, Programme Officer of CEMCA, is endless. This lady from Hyderabad considers Bangladesh as her second home. All the community radio stations of Bangladesh are indebted to her. We expect her continued support. Thanks to Ian Pringle and thanks to COL. We thank all for their cooperation and support, especially those related to the community radio and working behind the scene devotedly supporting all the programs. Finally, we would also like to thank those who supported us with their write-ups and advice and assisted for the publications. With best regards to all, Rafiqul Islam Khokan
Executive Director Rupantar Khulna, Bangladesh

ON AIR Community Voice


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Enabling media access through community radio: A snapshot of CEMCA interventions in the region
D. Rukmini Vemraju

n oft repeated maxim about community radio is that it is "of the community, for the community and by the community." Clearly inclusion is, or should be the raison detre, the very reason for existence of a community radio. However, while the first two aspects of engagement are achieved by most stations, the last part, "by the community" is more often said than achieved. The very nature of setting up a radio station demands an interlocutor a mediator, a licence holder who man acts in the interest of the community. Field experience shows that often somewhere in the process of setting up and making the radio station sustainable, operational concerns override others, creating more institutional than community rooted entities. While community engagement is evident in terms of listenership and content creation, their presence in station management and ownership is still low. Again, the notion of community itself is not always easy to define. Given the low powered transmitters in use, the first level if delineation is geographic, so loosely put those falling within the signal reach area, become identified as the community for a given community radio. However, in order to provide meaningful access, harness this as a means to give voice to the voiceless, a more nuanced definition of community needs to be arrived at. Community radio, as the saying goes, comes in all shapes and sizes and world over, regulations, dynamics and indeed the economics of setting up and running a

community radio varies greatly. Nevertheless, in recent years, the idea has gained momentum and in the subcontinent, where India leads with over a 125 community radio stations (CRS) on air and nearly ten times that number at various stages of the somewhat complex and multi-tiered licensing process. Educational and agricultural institutions and non-government organisations (NGOs) are eligible to apply. The Indian policy does provide several checks and balances like a stipulation that '50 per cent of the content is community generated' to ensure that it remains a community-centric operation regardless of who owns and operates it. The only other country in Commonwealth Asia that has a defined policy for licencing community radios is Bangladesh. While countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan have some commendable examples of how communities have used radio, either by acquiring time from the national broadcaster or narrow casting and sometimes in conjunction with other ICT tools for development, they do not as such have a policy in place that allows setting up of a radio station. Leading from the front With a motto of 'learning for development' the Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (CEMCA) and its parent organisation, Commonwealth of Learning (COL) have been engaged in helping communities across the Commonwealth leverage community radio in all its avatars as a tool for their own development.

ON AIR Community Voice


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Working with the policy provisions, over the past five years, CEMCA has initiated a wide range of activities to strengthen both policy and practice. As it happens with any emerging not-for-profit initiative, the interest and demands are high and many areas need continued consultations and augmentation. In India today CEMCA has emerged as a preferred partner not only of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB), the nodal Ministry for licencing community radio (CR), but also other government departments and international agencies investing in this sector. A large part of the success is driven by the passion and vision of its present Director, R.Sreedher, a pioneer in this field who set up the first community radio station in the Campus of Anna University under the Department of Communication that he was then heading then. This paper tries to capture contribution that CEMCA has made to the development of this sector in India and more recently in Bangladesh and in the Commonwealth Asia region. Advocacy and Policy Guidance Functioning as the nodal agency for CR Advocacy, CEMCA, on behalf of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB) over the past five years has organized over 30 consultations at National, Regional and State levels. At each consultation, fifty to hundred institutions eligible and desirous of setting up a CRS are walked through the entire process with an expert panel providing detailed information about the policy guidelines, the application process as well as the technical and financial requirements. Consultations are usually held at a functional CRS, so participants get a hands-on feel of how a CRS is run. In recent times, the government has also taken the consultations to hitherto unreached areas like the north eastern parts of the country like Assam, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, Andaman and Nicobar islands, and insurgency affected State of Chhattisgarh. CEMCA proposes to decentralise these further and hold them at

district level in the coming years. CEMCA is also a member of the National Screening Committee for applicants, and has helped MIB in making the application and tracking process transparent online process in a build-operate-transfer mode. Today applicants can apply as well as track their status online. With a view to provide financial sustainability, the government of India permits five minutes of commercials per hour of broadcast. CEMCA has been part of the policy discussions to determine rates for government advertising and helping CRS to empanel with the Directorate of Audio Visual Publicity (DAVP), the department that disburses government advertisements. Help Desk to facilitate new entrants As logical follow-up to the Consultations, CEMCA has been providing support to applicants guiding them right from the making an application through signing the final grant of permission. The service is provided cost free and has been availed by 85 % of the stations functioning in the country today. Last year, CEMCA received a grant from Ford Foundation to set-up a full-fledged facilitation centre- with a fulltime dedicated team. The CEMCA Community Radio Facilitation Centre (CCFC) http://www.ccfcindia.net/ re-establishes contact with the participants of the consultations, tries to motivate them to apply and then speed tracks the setting up process. CCFC also runs an internship programme that trains CR enthusiasts to become facilitators and provide similar services in different parts of the country. Fostering exchange of ideas On behalf of MIB, CEMCA conducts an annual meet of all existing and soon-to-be CR practitioners. The high profile three-day event is graced by the Union and State Ministers of Information and Broadcasting, top bureaucrats, various line ministries and other development ministries with a potential to use

ON AIR Community Voice


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community radio for last mile coverage like the Health and Family Welfare, Rural Development, Panchayat Raj and so on. In this festive and high energy environment, CRS display their work at an exhibition, good practices are recognised and awarded and practitioners interact with each other and senior government officials and international agencies working in this space. Building community capacities To help generate locally relevant content in participatory and interactive formats, CEMCA conducts hands-on workshops both for CRS personnel as well as community members-with a focus on women, trying to bridge the gap between content producers and listeners. CEMCA is also the implementing agency for a large scale programme of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India called Science for Women (Health and Nutrition). Into its third phase, the programme provides about 30 CRS project partners, to run a daily broadcast for women on health and nutrition. This is probably the largest public funded community radio content creation programme anywhere in the world under which CRS receive an annual grant of 14 lacs. Designed like an informal learning programme, the radio content is supported by other learning opportunities like face-to-face interactions with doctors, health delivery personnel, and nutritionists, events like competitions, debates, print collaterals , posters and so on. Convergence and content exchange In recent times, partnering with an organisation called Newzstreet, CEMCA has enabled about 15 CRS in India and Bangladesh to go live, online . This not only expands reach of the audience beyond the terrestrial boundaries but also doubles up as a content exchange platform where CRS can listen to each other's programmes. A component of digital story telling is also being added. The work in progress can be viewed at

http://newzstreet.tv/ns/cemca/ Another effort in fostering content exchange is in partnership with OneWorld Foundation where a portal Ek Duniya.Anek Awaaz (One World, Many Voices) has been launched for CRS upload their content. A searchable data base by language and theme provides quick and convenient access. This can be viewed at http://www.edaa.in/ Knowledge sharing CEMCA publishes a compendium of functional community radio stations in the country that is updated annually which provides a valuable resource to anyone looking at the spread of CRS in the country. With support from UNICEF, CEMCA has also published case studies on sustainability aspects of a CRS titled Abiding Voices. With the Ford Foundation grant CEMCA is developing an Ethical Practices Guidebook and a Self Assessment Toolkit , which will be available soon on CEMCA and CCFC websites.

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Initiatives in the region In the Maldives and Malaysia, CEMCA has helped launched Internet radio for educational uses, as these countries do not yet have civil society based initiatives to use radio in place. In Sri Lanka, CEMCA has supported policy dialogues with the government and other stake holders to encourage creation of a policy. CEMCA has been partnering with Tel Radio, run by persons associated with the well-known Kothmale and Uva community radio projects to set-up internet based radio and digital story telling sites. CR in Bangladesh Seeing the value addition a nodal agency like CEMCA can make, CEMCA has been working in Bangladesh to nurture Rupantar to play a key role in the growth of the sector. In collaboration with Rupantar, CEMCA has organised a series of workshops on content development, station management and sustainability issues for the functioning CRS in Bangladesh. Annual exposure visits are also organised for small teams of CR practitioners to visit different CRS in India. CEMCA through Rupantar is keen to encourage a community of practice that will help consolidate thought and action for further development of the sector. End Note Community radio , about a decade old in India is still at its infancy in the region and a lot remains to be done. As Immanual Kant said Theory without practice is empty; Practice without theory is blind. As a trend-setter, a special responsibility vests on India. Currently, community radio sector needs a revisiting of both- a policy review to enable better practice, taking into consideration the changing technology environment and the changing socio-political contexts, a simplification of the licensing process, and by practitioners, a sincere reexamining of the goals of inclusion and equitable access

to ensure their grass -rootedness and resist the temptation of "mainstreaming" the community radio itself, rather than trying to bring the communities into the mainstream of development. Few scientific studies on community engagement, social audits, listenership surveys and impact analysis are currently available to assess the state of affairs. Sustainability of CRSinstitutional, social and financial need to be better informed. And it is in these directions that CEMCA will try to work so that community radio emerges as a powerful tool of people's participation in civic life.
The Author: Programme Officer, Livelihoods and Health, CEMCA
The views expressed are the author's own and do not necessarily reflect those of her organisation

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Community Learning through Community Radio


Ian Pringle
vehicle for this type of learning for at least two reasons: The first is scale. Media, especially broadcast media, reach very large audiences in specific geographic and culturallinguistic contexts, often in remote areas largely unserved by other media and often lacking in other public services and infrastructure. The second is participation and the opportunity community media provide to engage with audiences in meaningful ways throughout the planning, design, deliver and evaluation of learning programmes. Community media - far more so than national broadcasters and international online media - prioritise the participation of local populations in determining the most appropriate content and formats and in sharing their experiences as part of programme content. Community media function in local languages and are relatively accessible, both in terms of the knowhow required and the costs involved. Ideally, they also model their communication on traditional cultural forms rather than mainstream state or commercial media. It is for these reasons that community media have a special place in the Commonwealth of Learning's programme strategies. These characteristics, particularly importance of traditional cultural forms, also underlie the

ommunity learning may refer to nonformal learning that takes place outside of classrooms and formal education systems and in which the focus is on local development priorities, e.g. community health issues, environmental concerns, etc. The need for this type of nonformal education - whether it concerns malaria prevention, avoiding diabetes or learning about farm and fishing livelihoods - is significant and growing. Innovative solutions are needed, particularly cost-effective ones. Community media, particularly radio, are an important
Perspective BANGLADESH

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ON AIR Community Voice

collaboration between COL and Rupantar in promoting participatory learning programmes using community radio in Bangladesh. COL's approach to nonformal learning through local media - what COL refers to as community learning programmes - has developed through collaboration with a variety of partners and joint fieldwork in different areas of the Commonwealth, including Rupantar. Although learning programmes and the processes involved in designing and evaluating them vary from place to place, according to local contexts, community learning programmes using local have the following general characteristics: 1. Local focus, generally 1-2 districts or sub-districts 2. Involvement of local stakeholders from the outset in decision-making about topics, messages, and programme design and execution 3. Collaboration among different groups, specifically community associations; media/ICT outlets, especially radio stations; health and development (public) authorities and experts in programme design, management and evaluation 4. Prioritisation of citizens' stories and experience of health and development issues as learning content, combined with "expert" information and verification 5. Emphasis on traditional cultural forms, such as storytelling, drama, music and other folk media, as models for engaging with audiences 6. Dynamic and interactive media formats such as drama, folk songs, field interviews and vox-pop, phone-in programmes, quizzes, etc. to ensure that programmes are both attractive for audiences and

effective in achieving results 7. Multichannel and blended approaches, for example combining radio with mobile telephones, and mixing media-based learning content with face-to-face interaction and community mobilisation Community radio stations are natural partners for this type of approach to participatory nonformal learning; however that does not mean it is easy to do or that participatory communication and education practices among community media are necessarily widespread. In addition to its strengths and potential, the bottom-up approach to development communication suggested by community media has limitations and challenges. Running media at the community level raises problems associated with human resource capacity and know-how across a range of knowledge and skills areas. Challenges include developing knowledge of genuine participatory processes; maintaining human resources skilled in programme design and field-based production; facilitating and sustaining collaboration among the different groups at the local level; and, of course, mobilising the resources necessary to sustain programming in difficult (often dire) financial circumstances.
The Author: Education Specialist, Media Commonwealth of Learning - COL

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Evaluation

Longitudinal study on CEMCA facilitation of community radio in Bangladesh 2008-2011


Ipshita Chanda
fully dedicated for the various grass root communities and ethnic groups. Community Radio stations may be established and operated in the oral languages of these marginalized communities as well as their full participation and management which will reflect their hopes and aspirations, the indigenous knowledge, resource and culture of local communities and will combine modern knowledge and technologies. CEMCA's objective was initiating and fostering the Community Radio movement in Bangladesh through awareness building and training in collaboration with local nodal agency Rupantar in preparing associated agencies with a mind-set and skills for establishment and running of community radio in Bangladesh. This was done in a systematic and an incremental way. CEMCA has played a major role in preparing associated agencies with a mind-set and resources for establishment and running of CEMCA support to CR activity in Bangladesh, rendered through Rupantar in Khulna, Bangladesh identified as the lead partner in this activity. Local partner Rupantar has with the collaboration of CEMCA built up a network of community radio licensees in Bangladesh and provided them with technical training and expert support since 2008. conducted a field trip in June 2011 to assess the status of the beneficiaries of CEMCA-Rupantar activities for training, facilitating and study of technical, production, management aspects and sustainability of a community

ommunity Radio can play a supportive role in achieving the targets of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in Bangladesh, ensuring environmental sustainability and also empowering the marginalized and the voiceless with skills and capabilities for articulating their demands and insights through radio as a medium contributing to broadening the base of development by increasing the number of responsible stake holders and giving them an active participatory role. Bangladesh Community Radio Policy, March 12, 2008, states -No radio has yet been formed in our country that is

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radio set-up. The trip was undertaken to Dhaka and from there to Rajshahi and Chapai-Nawabganj for visiting radio stations, communities and personnel involved in setting up the operations to go on air according to the government deadline. Studying the activities and interventions it appeared that Rupantar with the aid of CEMCA has undertaken in the last two years to create awareness about community radio and build local capacities. CEMCA has played a constructive role in supporting the development and establishment of a large number out of the 14 organisations that were granted licenses by the government in February 2010, the brief being that 14 community radio stations were to be set up. Along with Community Radio team members of Rupantar based both in Dhaka and Khulna I visited CCD Bangladesh, Rajshahi and Proyas, Chapai Nawabganj, and spent time with station personnel. At Radio Mahananda, being run by the organisation Proyas in Chapai Nawabganj, I had the opportunity to participate in community meetings in different localities of the town as well as in the outskirts. I was also present for studio visits and workshops conducted to build up a community resource base as well as create awareness about the potential and technique of the community radio amongst local populations from different social. In Dhaka I visited the offices of Massline Media Centre, Agricultural Information Services and RDRS. Besides, I had telephone conversations with members of Srizony Bangladesh and ACLAB. Through questionnaires, personal interviews and group discussions, it emerged that licensees have, with the mediation of Rupantar, - got first hand exposure to CR management with its special emphasis like community engagement; mobilisation, field programmes, - Strengthened their technical skills in general (e.g.,

recording techniques) and with special reference to station management (e.g., scheduling programmes, FPA). Had first-hand experience through visiting functioning CRS. Rupantar has now been structured into a nodal agency in Bangladesh, working with the licensees for maintaining community learning training programmes and networking between licensees. Besides, emphasis has been laid on sustainability and hence on the building of a resource base of community people, technical personnel and programming. Study tours and field visits to functioning community radio stations of various types have enhanced this learning. Beneficiaries have shown through their organisation, production and training activities in the preparation for going on air, that they are ready to meet the challenge of a sustainable community radio set up. The initiatives taken by CEMCA, in partnership with Rupantar have the following results - Prepared beneficiaries to plan, set up and operate their own units. - Involve the community and its various interests in the process of setting up the station, and receive training and learning for this purpose The initiatives taken by CEMCA-Rupantar have covered managerial, technical and production aspects of the station. Rupantar's special role has been to build an informal network among the individual organisations holding licenses, which has the potential to grow into a fullfledged community radio network for sharing of content, skills and act as medium for forming community radio policy and implementation in the country, in accordance with the basic philosophy of the community radio.
The Author: Professor, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India

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Small Community Radio Stations (CRS) bring big benefits for local communities through CEMCA & NBS
hile providing all kind of support to different communities in the commonwealth countries, CEMCA has joined hand with "NBS", Newzstreet Broadcast services P. Ltd for a bigger goal and vision. As a technology and content partner, NBS has been extending all kind of support to NBS to make the CRS, successful venture. With their best effort, CEMCA and NBS have brought about 20 CRS in the single platform which are available for the listeners across the globe. This has been possible through the newer and advanced technology of "Web or iradio" concept. Internet radio, also web radio is an audio service transmitted via the Internet. Content streaming on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means. Normally, internet radio involves streaming media, presenting listeners with a continuous stream of audio that cannot be paused or replayed, much like traditional broadcast media; in this respect, it is distinct from ondemand file serving. However, NBS and CEMCA have

CRS & WEB PLATFORM

M. Sidheswar
designed a new system through which, the CRS can be LIVE 24 hours. There are two different kind of facilities which are being provided to different stations. One is the "LIVE RADIO" and the other is "RADIO ON DEMAND". The stations if want can upload their content in the internet platform and can allow listeners to pick and choose the content and then make their own play list and listen on internet platform or they can simply stream their content as they run in their respective radio stations and people can listen as per the program schedule of the station. Internet radio is also distinct from podcasting, which involves downloading rather than streaming. Through internet radio, one can give the option to the listeners to download or can restrict the download facility as well. Many Internet radio services are associated with a corresponding traditional (terrestrial) radio station or radio network. Internet-only radio stations are independent of such associations. Internet radio services are usually accessible from anywhere in the world-for example, one could listen to a Bangladesh station from Europe or America. Some major networks like Radio Mahananda and Radio Padma in the Bangladesh are now growing with their popularity quotient. Internet radio remains popular among expatriates and listeners with interests that are often not adequately served by local radio stations. Internet radio services offer news, sports, talk, and various genres of

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music-every format that is available on traditional radio stations and people get the information immediately across the Globe. NBS has got adequate strength to support at least 1000 radio stations in the internet platform. NBS provides all kind of support including Technology, Manpower, and Maintenance through CEMCA. A station needs to only concentrate on the content generation and rest would be taken care by NBS & CEMCA jointly. With the joint effort by CEMCA & NBS, a platform www.iradioindia.com has been created where so far 20 radio stations are available. Any one, depending on their choice, can click on "Radio Station" and can listen to it. NBS uses very user friendly and simple, but very robust and modern technology for the same. So far the concept has got international acclamation. CEMCA & NBS iRadio One does not need to invest much to run the i-radio or web radio. The things which are available are very simple as mentioned below: normal desktop, laptop that can be used to stream audio to web radio platform same computer can be used for broadcast on web and Radio Equipment's uninterrupted power supply adequate bandwidth, a normal DSL with 1 MBPS strength is fine The technology that NBS uses will have: very low latency/delay high level of audio quality archive of all past radio programs audio on demand

Through the internet radio platform, CEMCA & NBS give the opportunity to any CRS to create content and can store with NBS archive so that they can retrieve the content at any point of time. This would enhance the programming quality and will help the respective station to reduce their cost burden as well. Benefits of Online CRS / Web Radio 24 x 7 radio available User's from community can listen their favourite CRS from anywhere, no restriction of distance Some of the latest mobiles can play direct Web Community Radio Users are not tied to a broadcast schedule where listeners have to tune in at the time Their program is being broadcast: they can listen to archived files whenever they choose. Web audio files can be listened to at anytime regardless of when they were first "aired." radio programs and newscasts can be stored on servers available to listeners anytime Net casts can be heard from anywhere in the world regardless of the place of origin. Online users can not only listen to radio, but they can also see some aspects of it. News can be seen via text, graphics, or video, opening up a wide range of possibilities never before available to traditionally delivered radio stations.
The Author : COO, NBS News, India

Rupantar Internet Radio

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Sustainability of Community Radios in Bangladesh in line with policy guidelines


Faroha Suhrawardy
Community Radio Installation, Broadcasting and Operation Policy 2008 is a unique document for Bangladeshi CR operators for enjoying policy support toward the development of community radio. This is the second policy on community radio in this sub-continent. Still Bangladesh does not have a comprehensive broadcasting policy. Compare to this CR policy is an advance and detail policy guideline for the new tier of broadcasting (CR). Initially all the CR operators have two years test period for proving their capacity and efficiency. Based on the performance government will allow them to continue the broadcasting (CR Policy 2008, 4.1.6.)

resently in Bangladesh there are 14 community radios have been broadcasting their programmes and few more are waiting for government permission. The community broadcasting as par recent observations is healthy and prosperous. In addition, the supply and demand sides of community radio movement both are raising questions about the sustainability of the community radio stations around the country. At different consultation meeting and gathering of CR activists the sustainability issue comes frequently.
Perspective BANGLADESH

From beginning to the end of the policy, it emphasizes on community participations in true sense. This is the best thing, which will ensure the sustainability of the CR stations. In the same time, it is an obligation, and performance matrix as well for CR initiators. Using local dialect and content strongly recommended in the policy, and this could be another important consideration for CR stations' in terms of sustainability. In the introduction of the policy it states that CR is kind of miniature of national public service broadcaster with local flavors. In the policy, CR considers as a tool for strengthening democratic polity. These policy guidelines give certain indicators to

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the CR stations' for capturing the local audiences reasonably, and ensure the local assistances for smooth operation of the CR. There are few committees mentioned in the policy for getting supports from different corners of the locality. The Advisory Committee, the Management Committee and the Local Monitoring Committee are the support bodies at the local level. At the national level, there are the National Regulatory Committee, the Technical SubCommittee and the Central Monitoring Committee for ensuring the smooth operation of CR. In the policy, each committee has its role to support CR broadcasting. The Advisory Committee has assignment to encourage authorities for providing development advertisements to the CR stations in addition with its regular job. For broadcasting commercial at CR, the policy stands for development advertisement. It also warns that fund provider should not control the broadcasting (CR Policy 2008, 7.9.2.). This is a safeguard for CR station to protect its interest against corporate aggression. Restriction against political campaign is also another safety measure

for the CR station to get rid of political influences during election time, and other crisis moments. Bangladesh Betar is the largest public radio network in the country. In the policy, there are open-ended opportunities for the CR stations for receiving broadcasting content from local public radio network free of cost (CR Policy 2008, 7.5). The most promising recommendation of the policy is to establish a Community Radio Development Fund by the government for capacity building, technological research and monitoring purpose (7.17). Therefore, the things left for the CR sustainability in Bangladesh is the efficient management of CR stations in line with CR policy, and uphold the spirit of community broadcasting.
The Author: Regional Director, Bangladesh Betar (state own radio), Rajshahi, Bangladesh

CEMCA-Rupantar team visited Community Radio Jhenuk 99.2 MHz Jhenaidah, Bangladesh 1 April, 2012 19
ON AIR Community Voice
Perspective BANGLADESH

Using Training & Study Tour experience in establishing CRS, Bangladesh

Journey of Community Radio Chilmari


Nurunnabi Shanto
knowledge and culture? Or, what will be the forms of simple management and administration methodology? How the contents will be developed and in what forms? Keeping all these questions in mind, Rupantar, a south based NGO of Bangladesh with the active support of Commonwealth Educational Media Center for Asia (CEMCA), India series of training and exposure visit was organized both in Bangladesh and India providing not only technical support but also financial assistance to organize all these training programmes. I would also like to mention the School of Media Communication and Culture of Jadavpur University, Kolkata which in association with CEMCA has been giving us training to capacity of operating community radio. I also visited two other stations, LalitLokvani in Uttar Pradesh and Gurgaonkiawaz in Haryana., but it is Chanderikiawaz that made a lasting impression on me. It showed that if the youth from the community put their mind to it, they can mobilise the community , involve it and give it voice. Heartiest thanks and gratitude to CEMCA for they have given us opportunity of seeing community radio movement in India which can be an effective guideline for us to operate our radio stations. we want to see community Radio where people can listen to their own language, own voice and reflect their own opinion.
The Author: Education & Traning Co-ordinator, RDRS Bangladesh

ommunity Radio is the only media where direct participation of the people of particular community is possible. The inhabitants of the specific geographic area can air the programme of their own interest through their own Radio station for their own sake, which is well neigh impossible in the national Radio or any other commercial Radio station. Community Radio is also an effective tool for inter-personal and mass communication among the people of a community. But, do we have enough capacity to operate community for reaching its objective of educating rural people and institutionalizing local

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Using Training & Study Tour experience in establishing CRS, Bangladesh

Radio Padma 99.2 MHz


CD Bangladesh is a Communication and Journalism based nonprofit, nong o v e r n m e n t knowledge centre working in Rajshahi, the northern region of Bangladesh. Since the time of its inception, CCD Bangladesh has been working to strengthen marginalize people using information and

G. M. Mourtoza

(www.radiopadma.fm) from 7 October 2011. In order to operate and continue the broadcasting of Radio Padma successfully, CCD started building up skilled manpower through various training with support from different organization like. UNESCO, CEMCA etc. In association with the Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for AsiaCEMCA, a good number of young volunteers have been trained up who are closely involved in operation and broadcasting of Radio Padma. The trained-up volunteers are producing different issue-based programs. Personnel from Radio Padma have already received training on community radio programme content development, production, operation held in Khulna, Bangladesh and India. Besides, broadcast manager of Radio Padma joined a workshop organized by CEMCA & Rupantar in India that helped a lot to gain technical knowledge in operating a CRS.CCD could use the knowledge of these workshops, study tours in operating and broadcasting of Radio Padma. Another new outlook for Radio Padma is to broadcast live programme through Internet. In order to develop a web form, once again CEMCA provided technical support to Radio Padma. As a result, we are now on Web (http://www.newzstreet.tv/ns/cemca/ccd/). People can listen to live programme of Radio Padma from any part of the world. CCD is grateful to CEMCA and Rupantar for their continuous support in developing Community Radio activities.
The Author: Director, CCD Bangladesh Chief Coordinator, Community Radio Padma, Rajshahi

communication media.

Community Radio could be able to play effective role in amplifying the voices of marginal and disadvantaged people and their information empowerment. To establish a community radio station at Rajshahi CCD started its first training on Radio Journalism & Production in 2005 with the support from British council. The participants used to produce programme on women and broadcast through Bangladesh Betar, Rajshahi (state own radio). Later on, after the declaration of CR policy CCD has started working towards establishing Community Radio station. Getting the approval and frequency (FM 99.2) from Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) CCD started broadcasting its Community Radio Padma

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Using Training & Study Tour experience in establishing CRS, Bangladesh

Radio Mahananda 98.8 MHz The voice of Chapai-Nawabgonj


Md. Hasib Hossain
It was not very easy to catch up the popularity to entire community. Radio Mahananda has to face a lot of challenges. Most was programme content, station management and others. At that time, training workshops on these subjects organized by Rupantar, Khulna, Bangladesh with support from Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia-CEMCA, India was very much supportive to develop and prepare skilled manpower for CR Mahananda. Staffs and volunteers of CR Mahananda also participated in international exposures at India. The learning and experiences attained from different CRS of India like: Chanderi Ke Awaj, Lalit Lok-Wani Community Radio Station, Gurgaon Ki Awaaz Community Radio Station, Radio JU of Jadavpur University really accelerate our confidence in broadcasting the station. The way forward of Radio Mahananda does not halt here. The new age of Media 'Internet' is introduced and we are very much closer to be online. The technical support from CEMCA once again widen up the broadcasting of this radio. Radio Mahananda conveys heartfelt thanks to CEMCA and Rupantar for their support in developing the CR activities of our station. Radio Mahananda is working for the welfare of the community and will continue to empower by bridging them to mainstream communication media.
The Author: Chief Executive, Community Radio Mahananda Chapai Nawabgonj, Bangladesh

A meaningful way to give voice to those missing from the mainstream is community radio. The push for community radio to give the many Bangladeshi who do not have a voice has an interesting origin and a group of dedicated activists who have been laying the groundwork for it for well over a decade. Radio Mahananda 98.8 fm: The voice of Chapai-Nawabgonj is established to empower its community. After starting broadcasting, the station could draw attention the people for its programme content. After the beginning of the journey it is gradually becoming the third alternative to fulfill the needs of the marginalized and rural communities that are not served by either public or commercial radio. The programme content is produced based on real life of the community; that reflects their aspect as well as influences the lives.

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Using Training & Study Tour experience in establishing CRS, Bangladesh

Fragrance of Training: Theatre for Community Development


s much as capacity will be build the disaster proneness will be reduced so that the risk will be minimized with same rate", it was heard in the opening ceremony of training program on Theatre for Community Development which was conducted from March 7 - 14, 2011 at Rupantar Conference Hall, Khulna. I was one of the participants of that training program with other representatives from different community radios within Bangladesh. It was most enjoyable training program in my life which I still cherish in my memory. The training program was designed to help participants to improve skills in communication by using drama format and to provide background knowledge and experience theatre a development communication tool to be built within organization to provide different message and instruction at grass root level. Theatre has been used in community development in various ways. Governments and NGOs may use theatre to deliver messages in participatory approach. Although this can be an effective way of passing on information about an issue, it will not be effective if it ignores the local situation, culture and the knowledge and experience of the audience. First of all problem should be identified. Cause of the problem is necessary to find out. Single problem can be generated from many reasons. So that, for perfect eradication of that problem root cause identification is must. Then possible and easy

"A

Sharif Iqbal
solution should be found out. After that, comprehensive instructions should be given step by step to get best result. We use these learning in our organization. I can site an example from our Krishi Radio context. Whenever we try to deliver messages on cultural practices of any crop production or on food security or climate change issues, first we select the problem with the help of local people. Then we talk with agriculturist for possible solutions and we prioritize them. Then we go for script. In drama format we encourage the active participation of the local people which help the local audience to understand the instruction properly. I learned some techniques to develop openness of participants like storytelling, drawing picture and explaining it, passing of single ideas one by one (murmur in ear) and so on which can be used in any kind of DevCom training. We were shown how we can stage a drama without exclusive sound systems, makeup or any other sophisticated equipment. We learned how sensitive issues, which may be too delicate or dangerous to discuss openly, can be explored through the use of drama. We were introduced practically in playing the role of a different character which allows people to say things that would not be possible in their own voices. We saw how humour can sometimes help to share difficult or sensitive issues in ways that do not cause offence. This training encourages me to think and research in providing messages to our target audience for achieving Krishi Radio's objective.
The Author: Station Manager, Krishi Radio, AIS Ministry of Agriculture, Bangladesh

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International Experience

First Study Tour of CRS in India Opened a new horizon


asundhara Vahini, a community radio station, is located on the second floor of a community centre of Vidya Pratishthan's campus entrance where there is a cafeteria, a bookshop and some other useful shops. The students and other people visit these from the campus frequently. The station is run under the Vasundhara Vahini 90.4 MHz supervision of Vidya Pratishthan Baramathi, Pune, Maharastra Institute of Information Technology-VIIT. Programme Ms. Dipali R. Jadhav, its station in-charge informed that the station started broadcasting programmes from 1 April, 2004 in Marathi mainly focuses on farming such as, traditional and modern farming techniques, marketing policy for the produces, forecasting of weather, information on seasonal farming, care for seedlings. It transmits the programme twice a day. The morning session starts from 6.00 am and ends at 10.00 am, while the evening session is from 5.00pm to 9.00pm. The station repeats the same programme in the evening. The call sign of Vasundhara and signature tunes of the programmes are made by traditional and local musical instruments. Everyday they start airing the programme with a devotional music. Vanashri Patil, 20, from Khandala of Satara district started job there as a volunteer and now works as an announcer, editor and sound engineer. Since she had to attend the classes only

Saifuddin Sabuj

for 2/3 hours, she thought of making use of leisure time and started working in Vasundhara Vahini. College student Varsha is also volunteering to work as an announcer. After a three-day training, Ms. Vandaned Sanjay Kate (Community presentations) now became capable of interviewing the women from the villages. She can also edit and make the programmes in the studio in the absence of the technicians. She is doing this after completing her household works. Most of the staffs of this station are technically skilled and performing their job as announcer, editor, scriptwriters and recordist. Field Visit We went on a field visit to Matachi Wadi, an agriculture village of Satar district, which is about 25 Kms off the station. Project in-charge Sanjay Jagatap of Vasundhara CR accompanied us during the visit. Main occupations of the people there are cultivation and dairy farming. They have farmer clubs, which are well organized and connected to the Vasundhara Vahini. Sheeti-pathsala is an exceptional radio programme where Vasundhara Vahini directly goes to the field land and records farmers' voice. A senior farmer answers the question asked by other farmers standing on their own land. The idea is villagers usually feel shy to talk in the well-equipped studio. But, if they are in the field, which is very familiar to them, they feel easy to talk. Bhumiputra is also a successful programme where success stories of farmer are broadcasted. Vishnu Jaganath Ranamani, a farmer, said he listens to 'Vasundhara Vahini' regularly and that the contents of the

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programmes are very effective for him. Housewife Sheetal Amorsingh Gorpade informed Phone-in-Programme is very influential. She suggested broadcasting more interviews of the local people in various programmes. Kallayni power, a college student suggested that information on competitive examinations should be aired more to inspire the students for higher education. Nila CR 90.4 MHz, Pundecherry, Union Territory The station is situated at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Engineering College. The management also runs a medical college, which works directly with the CR station. The station went on air more than 3 years ago. Nila CR covers the area of radial distance of 15 kms and includes communes (panchayats) of Bhaghur, Nettapakkam, Manadipet of Pundicherry state where most of the audiences are farmers. Programmes The focused area of Nila CRS is to create awareness on health e issues among people of various diseases. It also broadcasts programmes on legal rights of women, new agricultural technologies, health and nutrition, higher education opportunities, self employment, formation of self help groups, entrepreneurship, development programme, scientific training prospects of home management, environmental awareness, narcotic / alcoholic problems etc. The target audiences are farmers, women, students of the nearby villages and students of their college. Programmes are broadcasted in Tamil from 9.30 am to 11.30 am in the morning and from 4.00 to 6.00 pm in the evening. Field Visit We had a field visit in Kumalam, eight kms away from the station. The main occupation of these people is cultivation. A health camp in Kumalam created a great awareness among people. 'Nila Penne' (Moon Lady) is broadcasted everyday, focusing on science and health issues of women, funded by the Science for Women programme. A competition on food and

nutrition is regularly organized here. In the competition, teams from the villages prepared nutritious dishes with the local resources of their villages. The best dishes and recipes are given prizes and broadcasted in the following days for the other community. Nila CRS also organizes herbal medicine camp titled 'Herbal Plants Awareness'. The motto of this camp is to create awareness among people about importance of herbal medicine.

Namma Dhawani, Budhikote, Bangalore, Karnataka The station is located in Jagruti Resource Centre supported by Mysore Resettlement and development Agency- MYRADA and Voices. The 'Namma Dhawani' CR started as a project in collaboration between MYRADA and Voices. MYRADA is producing and narrow-casting the programmes for the local community using the concept of community radio. The main beneficiaries of 'Namma Dhawani' are women's Self Help Groups, farmers, students and children. The radial coverage area of the station is around 10 kms.
Other Team Members: Sohel Awrangzeb, Technical Consultant, BNNRC, Bangladesh, Ashraf Abir, Deputy Director, DNet, Bangladesh, Nirnay J Chettri, One World South Asia, Delhi, India, Satish N., One World South Asia, India

Author: Director, Radio programme Rupantar,Bangladesh

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Study Tour in India

Visit CRS to understand their functioning, programming and community engagement processes

Sumon Francis Gomes


Eastern India. This Community Radio Station is being set up to promote community interactions and dissemination of all kinds of knowledge. This CRS provides a new platform for students, teachers and local people to showcase their creativities. The Radio Station not only addresses the needs of the campus population but also those who are outside the university and are part of the community. The main objectives of Radio JU are empowerment, information and entertainment. Radio JU 90.8 MHz has two paid staff and one permanent RJ. There are almost 60 volunteers working in the station, including 20 as regular. Programmes Radio JU 90.8 MHz has the programmes that entertains and enlightens its listeners. On one end of the spectrum, programmes like 'Alochana' which brings together the experts from various fields to offer their views on various topics, especially contemporary issues, such as, the political condition of different countries. Radio JU is instrumental in the revival of 'Shruti natak' or radio drama, which go on air once a week. Children's Programme which is conspicuous by its absence in

Radio JU 90.8 MHz, Kolkata Radio JU 90.8 Mhz is located at the campus of Jadavpur University, Kolkata. It has two recording studios (one is used as transmitting room), one editing room and a lobby. The station is equipped with standard editing panel and transmitting machineries. Mr. Abhisek Das informed us, on April 14, 2008, Jadavpur University has launched its own Community Radio Station, Radio JU 90.8 MHz. It's the first of its kind in

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commercial radio finds pride of place in 90.8 MHz, seven days a week. The popular programme is 'Shishu Tirtha', produced by the participation of the children. The Station also has career counselling programmes and programmes for people with special needs. It also airs programmes for special days; for example, Rabindranath Tagore's birthday, Puja etc. 'Sanskriti', a cultural programme includes music for all tastes like ranging from Indian Classical to Western Classical, Band numbers, Instrumental music. Most of the programmes are in Bengali since the majority of listeners are more comfortable in Bengali. Field Visit We had a field visit in Jadavpur Railway Colony, located adjacent to the Radio JU station. There we recorded poems, songs and aims of the colonial children for the programme 'Shishutirtha'. A 30 minutes programme based on it was produced for Radio JU. Vasundhara Vahini 90.4 MHz, Baramati, Pune We started our journey towards Pune to visit another community radio station 'Vasundhara Vahini 90.4 MHz' on early hours of June 27, 2009 and reached there by afternoon. Programmes Station manager Mr. Bhausaheb Aher informed us that the station first started broadcasting as 'Vasundhara Krishi Vahini 90.4 MHz', a community radio for agriculture information dissemination. Later it started to provide communication support for the social, economic and cultural development of the community within the geographical location (30 km radius) and renamed Vasundhara Vahini 90.4 MHz'.

Field Visit We had separate filed visits in the Satara and Pune. There we met with the farmers, housewives, teachers, students and businessmen, who listens the Vasundhara Vahini regularly and are being benefited by getting information related to their jobs. Live Phone in Programme We had the opportunity to be present at Live Phone in Programme. One is taken in the studio of the CRS, where Sayali Jarasdhar Choudhar, a student, who has just showed her extra ordinary merit in Central Board Secondary Education examination. She got 89% marks in all subject including 97% in Marathi. Another programme was taken at Dorlewadi, Baramati, Pune at the office the Panchayet. The live interviews of Sarpanch Kalyani Manumant Kolkute (Head of the Panchayet) and two other Panchayet members aired for the listeners. The subject was Drug and how this community was able stopped producing local alcohol in their area.
Team Members Rafiqul Islam Khokan, Executive Director & Sumon Francis Gomes, Programme Officer, Rupantar, Sabrina Sharmin, Communication Manager, RDRS Bangladesh, Pallabi Dey, Programme Coordinator, CCD Bangladesh, Abhishek Das, In-charge, Radio JU 90.8 MHz, Kolkata, India

The Author: Programme Officer, (June 24-30, 2009)

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Workshop on Setting up Internet Radio and Technical Study Tour on Community Radio Station
workshop on Setting up Internet Radio during and Technical Study Tour on Community Radio Station was held from 23 February - 2 March, 2011 at Lalitpur, UP, Chanderi, MP, Gurgaon, Hariana and New Delhi in India. 6 representatives from 5 organizations (Rupantar, RDRS Bangladesh, Ministry of Agriculture, Proyas Manobik Unnayan Society and CCD Bangladesh) of Bangladesh attended the Workshop. The tour was organized by Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for AsiaCEMCA. Internet Radio Workshop A two-day workshop on Setting up Internet Radio at Reliance Web World Centre, South Extension, Delhi, was organized by CEMCA on 24 - 25 February, 2011. Pema Eden Samdup from CEMCA coordinated the workshop along with two facilitators (experts) Kalinga Athulathmudali from Srilanka and Khor Kok Yeow, Senior Instructor, IT department of Wawasan Open University,

M A Halim
Indonesia. Community Radio Representatives from different states of India also joined the workshop. The sessions delivered practical knowledge of streaming audio/video through internet. Such as, the compressed format like MP3 is the most popular, besides any kind of files can be delivered through a website or an FTP site. Audio/Video files flow from the internet directly to the user's sound card. Streaming makes it possible to deliver a continuous broadcast over the internet. The workshop provided hands on training using http://techkatha.com and http://www.archive.org to air programmes. BES EXPO 2011 On 24 Feb evening the team visited BES EXPO 2011 on Terrestrial & Satellite Broadcasting (India's biggest broadcast technology show) at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi. Visit of CRS Bangladesh team visited Chanderi Ke Awaz 90.4 MHz of Lalitpur of Northern Pradesh, Lalit Lok-Wani Community Radio Station 90.4 Mhz at Lalitpur and Gurgaon Ki Awaaz Community Radio Station located at Udyog Vihar, Gurgaon. Satish Nagaraji and Tej Prokahs Jadav from India accompanied the team for this visit. The team went to One World South Asia accompanied by Rukmini Vemraju and Monica Sharma of CEMCA. One

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World South Asia has audio content exchange bank for community radio named Ek Duniya Anek Awaaz (One World Many Voices). Demonstration at CEMCA, Delhi On 28 February, Mr. Zahir Koradia from Gram Vaani conducted a demonstration about transmission software (Grins Automation Software). Later, there was a discussion with Dr. R. Sreedher, Director of CEMCA and Rukmini Vemraju, Programme Officer about the visit and made

some remarks about establishing Community Radio Station at Bangladesh.

Name of Perticepants
Mr. M A Halim, Programme Officer & Mr. Anthony Gomes, Technical Expert, Rupantar, Khulna, Dr. Md. Nazrul Islam Sikder, Station Manager, Agriculture Information Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Mr. Nurunnabi Shanto, Education Coordinator, RDRS Bangladesh, Mr. Md. Hasib Hossain, Executive Director, Radio Mahananda, Chapai-Nawabgonj & Mr. Rafiqul Alam, Broadcast Manager, Radio Padma, Rajsbahi.

The Author: Programme Officer, RUPANTAR

n international workshop was jointly organized by Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for AsiaCEMCA and School of Media Communication & Culture, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India in association with Rupantar, Bangladesh from September 21 to 24, 2010 at Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. 14 Participants joined the workshop from 8 Community Radio Stations of Bangladesh. Knowledge about Broadcasting) Equipment (Recording and

International workshop on Managerial and Operational Aspects of a Community Radio Station


by 3 types of frequencies- low, mid and high. Men's voice can be listened to 100 hrtz to 15 Kilo hrtz. Women's voice is 800 hrtz to 3.3 Kilo hrtz. It is sweet to listen. He also discussed about CR studio equipment and about the 'Aspect Ratio' of a studio. September 22, 2010 Mr. Abhishek Das, Programme Coordinator of Jadavpur University Community Radio discussed about various software which can be used by the Community Radio for recording and editing. He told that some software is costly, but everyone can use open source software. Dr. Manas Pratim Das of All India Radio-AIR conducted session on Pre and Post Production. He said that since 1995 AIR, Kolkata centre started to broadcast FM Radio. Before the broadcast of a programme, every Community Radio houses has to reach for public opinion. After the

Mr. Biddhyayak Bannerjee of WEBEL discussed about the audio sound. He mentioned that audio sound is divided

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broadcast one could survey through the listeners about your program. One can also get feedback for further development of the production. Dr. Das emphasized on the needs to make a rich data bank for community radio. Every kind of information, interviews of various level stakeholders, sound effect, background music, soft copy of important sound need to be used in the program. Mr. Kaushik Sen of All India Radio (AIR) explained about the console and how it works. He discussed about the use of fader; how and why fade out, fade in and cross fade are used. He discussed about Pre Fade Listen-PFC. He also discussed about how a radio programme is received by a listener. September 23, 2010 The third day was an exciting day for the participants. After a day long journey and two days of training, the participants went for a field visit. At 6:15am in the morning they started for Bolepur by a bus to visit All Iindia Radio Bolepur (FM Radio station) and the world famous Vishwa Bharati University, established by the great poet Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore. September 24, 2010 The session was conducted by Dr. Manas Pratim Das of All India Radio (AIR). He started his session with the importance of fixed point chart and survey for a community radio station. He said that Radio is a non penetrated media. One has to understand who will be the listeners of your programme? You have to broadcast your programme for them. You will consider your listener's leisure time, their availability, their needs and their choice.

He told that every radio station will make 2 (two) FPC. One is for summer and another for winter. FPC and daily program chart is a different thing. He said that the station whose FPC is reach is a more powerful station. Mr. Sen also discussed about Survey. He mentioned that there are many method of survey. Some methods are: Diary Method (It is most important for a Community Radio), Door to Door survey, Letters, Phone calls, SMS, EMails, Comments on Website etc. He emphasized on prelaunch survey for any new programme. Community Involvement Prof. Dr. Nilanjana Gupta, Dean of Arts Faculty of Jadavpur University emphasized that Community Radio must work for a community's education, awareness building. CR conserves their culture, give them current news. When a community thinks this radio station is mine then that CR station will keep going smoothly. Participants:
Sabrina Sharmin & Md. Nurunnabi,RDRS Bangladesh, Allaya Ferdous Jebbanu Begum & Md.Shah Azad Iqbal, Proyas Manobik Unnayan Society, G M Mourtoza &R. I. M. Golam Rabbani, CCD Bangladesh, Md. Nazrul islam, Agriculture Information Service(AIS), Ministry of Agriculture, Romim Rayhan, Naogaon Human Rights Development Somity, Dr. M. Harun-ur-Rashid, Srizony Bangladesh, Mohammad Shahadat Kamal, EC Bangladesh, Saifuddin Sabuj, M. A. Halim, Banani Dashgupta Basanty & Stanely Rozario, Rupantar

September 21 to 24, 2010

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Aap Ki Aawaz

Exposure visit to CRS in India 2012

Shyamashree Das
Ladies Club & Little Star focused on Women Health & Rights and Child talent hunting etc. Radio Mewat 90.4 has initiated a membership card for listeners against nominal yearly charge. The membership packages are for individual, family, organization, self-help groups, hospital, school-colleges, Department etc. Regarding the financial concern Alfaz-e Mewat has been supported by Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA), Ministry of Agriculture, Gol. Radio Tilonia is awarded 5 Lakhs rupees from Vodafone. Radio 7 has been managing by the International School of Informatics & Management (formerly International Institute of Informatics and Management), Jaipur, India. Radio Mewat has been supported by Local Advertisement and Local Government. Radio Aap ki Aawaz has been managing by Bharati Shisa Somity is an NGO. It was a great experience for Bangladesh Team to learn about the CRS & their Programming, Financial Strategy in India which can be replicable in Bangladesh Community Radio Stations. Team Members
Ms. Parvin Nahar, Station Manager, Radio Jhenuk, Srizony Bangladesh, Mr. Salahuddin Swapon, Rupantar and Ms. Shyamashree Das, Program Officer, Radio Sagor Giri 99.2 FM, Young Power in Social Action (YPSA), Mr. Amit Kumar Sagha, Digital Empowerment Foundation, New Delhi Veneta Khatri, CEMCA and Mr. Desh Raj Singh, Radio Mewat, SMART.

three member team from Bangladesh visited five Community Radio Stations in India during 11 to 16 June, 2012. The visited CRS are Radio alfaz-e-Mewat 107.8 FM and Radio Mewat 90.4 FM in Mewat, Radio Tiloniya 90.4 FM in Ajmer, Radio 90.4 FM in Jaipur and Radio Aap Ki Aawaz 90.8 FM in Agra, Delhi. These CRS broadcasts programmes like: Story-telling, Gift of Nature, Village Profile, Program on Finance Inclusion, Employment News, Tutoring program for School kids, Histories of Village & Culture, Folk Songs and Lesson Based Program for Local College & University Student. Besides,

The Author: Program Officer, Community Radio Sagor Giri, Chittagong

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Training workshop on Community Radio Programme Production Development


training workshop was organized by Rupantar with support from CEMCA. The workshop held from 19-22 January 2009 at Hotel Western Inn, Khulna. The workshop aimed at d e v e l o p i n g Community Radio Production for e f f e c t i v e communication as part of Open Distance Learning. The programme was inaugurated Mr. Bazlur Rahman, CEO of BNNRC, Mr. Swapan Guha, & Mr. Rafiqul Islam Khokan, Executive Director of Rupantar and Dr. Rukmini Vemraju, Program Officer of CEMCA. As this is the first workshop on CR programme Dr. Rukmini Vemraju narrated the goal and objectives of CEMCA and the initiative of COL as steps for ODL. She expressed her firm determination that with the use of community radio Bangladesh will be benefited by disseminating information to all people at all communities and will lead to national development. The workshop was of continuous sessions for three days aiming to introduce participants about Community Radio

in South Asia, Characteristics of Community radio, Radio programming schedule session, individual responsibility of Producer and Announcer of the Community Radio Community Radio Production Technique: Equipment for Community Radio & Recording. The workshop facilitators are Dr. Rukmini Vemraju, CEMCA, Mr. Abhishek Das, Programme Coordinator, Radio JU, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, Mr. Abu Nowsher, former Deputy Director of Bangladesh Betar (state own radio), Mr. Sohel Aurangzeb, BNNRC, Mr. Ashraf Abir of D-net and Mr. Saifuddin Sabuj. The closing session was presided over by Mr. Swapan Guha, Executive Director of Rupantar. Mr. Liaquat Ali, President of Khulna WASA was present as Chief Guest. Mr. A.K. Heru President of Khulna Press Club was also present as Special Guest. Mr. Swapan Guha, Executive Director of Rupantar thanked CEMCA to start a new venture toward promoting CR movement in Bangladesh through Ruupantar.

Participants:
Md. Abdus Sobur, Nalta Hospital, Satkhira, Syed Hafizur Rahman, BARSA, Satkhira, Ashafa Salim, RDRS, Rangpur, Tahsin Islam, NHRDS, Naogaon, Shahida Sikder, DORP, Satkhira, A.K.M Khairul Alam,SOUL, Dhaka , Md. Rajwanul Haque, Proyas, Chapai-Nawabganj, Pallabi Dey, CCDB, Rajshahi, Kazi Nazmul Hasan, Shabolombi, Narail , Md. Ashraful Alam, SETU, Kushtia, Nasiur Rahaman Shipu, COAST, Barisal, Moiunul Huda, STEPS, Mathebaria, Md Abul Hossain, Shirajum Salakin, Shariful Bashar, Bikash Kund and Banani Das Gupta of Rupantar, Khulna.

19-22 January 2009

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Advance Training workshop on Community Radio Programme Production


The course aimed to develop programme content and produce radio programme as part of practical training. The participants were divided into 4 groups and each group was given task to develop content on which they would produce programme. The facilitators discussed about radio jargons, sound effects, modulation, presentation style, script writing and other important issues related to programme production. At the end of the course participants could successfully produce four (4) programmes on their own and judges appreciated it a lot as most was new and raw to the radio programme. dvance training workshop on Community Radio Programme Production held from 8 - 11 June, 2009 at Hotel Western Inn, Khulna. The workshop was the continuation of CEMCA activities towards developing Community Radio Production for effective communication as part of Open Distance Learning in Bangladesh. The workshop was facilitated by Rukmini Vemraju, CEMCA, Mr. Abhishek Das, Programme Coordinator, Radio JU, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, Mr. Abu Nowsher, former Deputy Director of Bangladesh Betar (state own radio), Abdus Sobur Khan Chowdhury, Bangladesh Betar and Mr. Saifuddin Sabuj.

The programme closed in presence of Mr. Swapan Guha & Mr. Rafiqul Islam Khokan, Executive Director, Rupantar, Md. Abul Hossain & Abus Sobur Khan Chowdhury of Bangladesh Betar with other guests.

Participants:
Sabrina Sharmin & Nurunnabi Shanto, RDRS Bangladesh, AKM Shahidul Islam & Md. Abu Aslam, Nalta Hospital, GM Mourtoza, Pallabi Dey, Abu Hena Mostofa Kamal & Md. Mostafijur Rahman, CCD Bangladesh, Monirul & Nahida Khatun, Proyas Manobik Unnayan Society, Mehedi Hasan & Joynab Khatun, BRAC, Israt Jahan Momtaj, Steps towards Development, Shipu Faraji, Coast Trust, Syed Hafijur Rahman, Barsha, Sirajus Salekin, M A Halim, Banani Dasgupta Bashanty & Sumon Gomes, Rupantar.

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Training Workshop on Community Radio Programme Content Development & Production


t r a i n i n g workshop was organized from December 7-10, 2009 at Hotel Royal, Khulna, Bangladesh. The workshop aimed for developing the CR organizations on Community Radio Programme Content Development and Production. The training workshop was inaugurated on December 7, 2009 through an inaugural ceremony. Mr. Liakot Ali, editor & publisher of Daily Purbanchal (a renowned regional daily newspaper of the country) was present as the chief guest. The session was presided over by Mr. Rafiqul Isalm Khokan, Executive Director of Rupantar was present. Abhishek Das of Jadavpur University explained the different types of radio programs by showing difference between traditional radio and community radio. He emphasized that community radio is directed for the community and by the participation of community people. Saifuddin Sabuj detailed the format of radio programme, such as, Educative, Informative, Entertainment, Interviews,

Songs and Drama etc. He also told that radio programme should be produced based on easy language so that people from all walks of life can understand it. Mr. Abhishek Das discussed various aspects of recording system and equipment. He also explained the techniques of editing and producing a simple radio programme using audio editing software. Mr. Rumon Reza and Mr. Monir Hossain Kamal, Journalists from renowned dailies of the country shared the types and difference between national and community news. Emphasizing on broadcasting accurate news, they told that a CR station must be careful of it, so that community people can rely on it. Otherwise false news can easily help to lose its credibility. Then they described how to write and edit news.

participants:
Md. Abu Aslam ,Nalta Hospital, Md. Al-Amin, BRAC Monir Hossain Kamal, Mass Line Media Centre-MMC, A K M Mostafizur Rahman CCD Bangladesh, Prof. Shadhan Ghosh, Shanto Mariam Foundation Dipankar Sarkar Paritran Debabrata Kumar Bokshi Solidarity Parvin Nahar SRIZONY Bangladesh Lutfun Nahar Bithee Alliance For Cooperation And Legal Aid Bangladesh-ACLAB Mirza Shahidul Islam Khaled Sangkalpa Trust Nahid Parvin Astha Social Development Organization Debesh Chandra Sarker SETU Md. Showkat Ali Astha Social Development Organization, Rumon Reza PROKIRTI Raihan Ahmed Talukder TMSS Dr. Sirajus Salikin RUPANTAR Md. Khairul Alam ,RUPANTAR Sabrina Sharmin Programme Manager-Communications, RDRS, Bangladesh Pallabi Dey CCD Bangladesh.
December 7-10, 2009

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Workshop on Using Internet to Deliver Audio Content


Objective! :! To give hands and knowledge on how to use internet to Deliver Audio Content and stream audio (live) for Community Radio Broadcasters in Bangladesh.
played & Interaction is carried through text messages, email, forums and chat. Internet radio websites offers live and on demand audio programs. It offers a great variety of music and the clarity of signal is also far better than the terrestrial radio. Facilitators demonstrated technical requirement and showed how to setup a work station for Internet radio practically. Live Stream All the workshop participants were divided into four groups and produced four programmes for live streaming. Later, they broadcasted live programme using U Stream. The demo I Radio can be listening at www.kalingasblog.com/rupantar. Bangla Radio Forum Mr. Arpan proposed of forming I Bangla Radio Forum (Internet based) so that Bengali people can listen to Bangla programme worldwide. He also told that it would be a platform for bringing together people of the same language at one base. The proposed website was agreed to be www.banglawave.org. participants
Dr. Zahangir Alam & Sharif Iqbal, Agriculture Information Service(AIS), Ministry of Agriculture, Rezaul Karim & Tanver Ahmed Riyad, Proyas Manobik Unnayan Society, Himadri Ray Shubhra, BRAC, Animesh Mukherjee, Nalta Hospital, Mosharaf Hossain, CCD Bangladesh, Md. Hasan, Md. Aminul Islam, Md. Mushfiqur Rahman, NSS, Atikul Alam Polash, Coast Trust, Refat Uddin Ahmed, Broadcasting Asia, Mr. Imaran Hossain, Mass line Media Cetre (MMC), Shahida Khan, Prokirti, Rosemary Joydhar, JICA, Mahmud Hassan, Srizony Bangladesh, Mizanur Rahman Panna, Sumon Francis Gomes, Anthony Gomes , Suvro Islam, Salahuddin Swapan & Hasan Tareq, Rupantar

n internet based workshop titled 'Using Internet to Deliver Audio Content' from June 24-26, 2011 was organized at Caritas Development Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 23 participants from 13 organizations (Community Radio broadcaster) joined the workshop. Kalinga Athulathmudali, a specialist on Internet Radio from Sri Lanka facilitated the workshop along with Mr. Arpan Guha Thakurata, technical expert on audio from Delhi, India. Kalinga said unlike the traditional radio station which depends upon the power of the station's transmitter and the available broadcast spectrum, Internet Radio is not limited to any geographical location or power. The sessions delivered practical and technical knowledge of streaming audio/video through internet. It can be done in two ways. First & easiest way is to make Audio files ready to upload. The compressed format like MP3 is the most popular, but any kind of files can be delivered through a website or an FTP site. Facilitators discussed that being interactive, web radio allows listener's to control and choose the content being

June 24-26, 2011

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Training Workshop on Community Radio Station Management & Sustainability Measures for Functional Stations
he Workshop held from March 2830, 2012 at Community Radio Mahananda FM 98.8, Chapai Nawabgonj, Bangladesh, jointly organized by Rupantar and Mahananda FM 98.8 with the assistance of Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia-CEMCA. The workshop was designed to develop skill on CR Station Management to help the organizations to run their radio stations smoothly. A total of 21 persons from 10 Community Radio Stations in Bangladesh participated in the workshop. The facilitators of the workshop were Ms. Rukmini Vemraju, CEMCA, India, Ms. Amolina Ray, Community Radio JU 90.8 MHZ, Jadabpur University, India, Mr. M. Sideswar, India, Mr. Faroha Suharwardy, Regional Director, Bangladesh Betar & Mr. Saifuddin Sabuj, Director, Radio program, Rupantar, Khulna, Bangladesh and Mr. Toufiq Maruf, Senior Reporter, daily Kaler Kantha, Dhaka, Bangladeh. The training workshop was inaugurated by Ms. Rukmini Vemraju, Programme Officer, CEMCA in a short ceremony. She presented the CR policy of Indian Government to the participants. In her presentation she said that there are 95

CR members of CEMCA all over the country. She also discussed on CEMCA's role to promote CR in India and Bangladesh. Each radio station shared experience in operating their CR station highlighting broadcasting time, duration, challenges and initiatives taken to face those challenges. Mr. Faroha Suhrawardy, Regional Director, Bangladesh Betar (state own radio), Rajshahi discussed about the CR Policy of Bangladesh and clarify the participants inquiry. The workshop talked about the Sustainability of a Community Radio, Challenges faced by Community Radio, Aspects of sustainability, Programme, Station Management, Technological, equipment, financial management and using of local resources. Mr. M. Sidheswar, COO of NBS News, India conducted the session on Web Radio/ Internet Radio. He discussed on how to air the community radio through internet and showed the benefits of internet radio. participants
Md. Aminul Islam, Station Manager & Khondokar Shafiqul Islam, Coordinator Radio Naf, Teknaf, Cox's Bazar, Shirin Sultana, Station Manager, Radio Mukti, Bogura, Md. Mahfujul Haque, Borendro Radio, Naogaon, Raisuddin Ahmed, Add. Station Officer, Radio Sundarban, Koira, Khulna, Panchanon Barmon, Junior Producer, Radio Chilmari, Kurigram Masuduzzaman, Radio Jhinuk, Jhenaidah, Sanjoy Choudhury, Radio Sagorgiri,Chittagong, Md. Sharif Iqbal, Station Manager & Md. Taufique Arefin, Project Coordinator of Krishi Radio, AIS, Amtali, Barguna, Allaya Ferdous, Station Manager, Md. Anwar Hossain Choudhury, Producer (Program & News)Md. Shariful Islam Shobuj, Program Associate, Md. Razaul Karim, Technical Officer & Ashok Kumar Shaha, Technical Associate, Radio Mahananda, Chapainawabganj, M.A. Halim, Subol Ghosh, Susmita Anwar Dyuti & Dhananjoy Saha Bappi, Trainer of Rupantar, Khulna. March 28-30, 2012

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Training Workshop on Developing E-content


workshop titled 'Developing Econtent' was organized from March 31 to April 2, 2012 at Rupantar Conference Hall, Khulna, Bangladesh. A total of 20 participants from different organizations along with Community Radio Stations joined the workshop. The facilitators of the workshop were Dr. Savitri Singh, Principal of Acharia Narendra Dev College, Delhi, India and Mr. Naimul Haque Zoarder Titu, D-Net, Dhaka, Bangladesh. On the very first day facilitators discussed on Wiki-educator (wikieducator.org) and opening an account on this website. They discussed in detail and asked each participant to create an individual account on Wikieducator. They also demonstrated editing options on how to set up the account. Dr. Savitri Singh discussed on creating and editing on website development. She provided necessary software of the open source and Mr. Naimul Haque helped to install and work with the software such as Notepad, Word document, PDF, HTML, Converting word document to html, Preparing html documents directly, Audio Recording using Audacity, Lame, Streaming Slide show with Windows Movie Maker and Open-office/Microsoft-office for

preparing presentation, Video Editing by windows movie maker or any video converter (AVG). Dr. Savitri Singh discussed on how to record, edit sound, make movie with music, edit music, convert to the appropriate format (website, MP3), converting the movie for website & mobile and how to record the Power-point presentation and narration. She assisted participants to create a demo e-content website in which audio and video were put into. The workshop ended with the closing session where Mr. Rafiqul Islam Khokan, executive director of Rupantar, Mr. Naimul Haque Zoarder Titu, D-Net, Dr. Savitri Singh, principal of Acharia Narendra Dev College, Delhi, India, Ms. Rukmini Vemraj, programme officer, CEMCA, Mr. A. K. Hiru, member secretary of Khulna Divisional Journalist Union and Mr. Swapan Guha, executive director of Rupantar delivered their closing speech and all of them emphasized on practice of learning and requested all participants to follow. Besides, participants of the workshop also shared their opinions on what they learn in the workshop and received certificates from the honourable guests.
Participants
Khan Zahid Hassan, Amader Gram, Mahmud Hasan Sohel, Khulna News.com, Khokan Paul Chowdhury, UNICEF, Md. Kabir Hossain Unannyan Probah, Narayanganj, Dr. Md. Zahangir Alam, CRRP, AIS, Ministry of Agriculture Md. Estiaq Hossain, Agriculture Information Service , Abdur Razzaque, AIS, Boshir Ahmed, Radio Chilmari, RDRS Bangladesh, A. K. M. Khairul Bashar Bulbul, NSS, Amtali, Barguna,, Mostafizur Rahman, Dr. Sirajus Salekin Rupantar, Subol Ghosh Rupantar Manju Ara Parvin, Nazmun Hasin Ripa, Akhtarunnessa Nisha, Banani Dash Gupta Basanty, M. A. Halim, Prabir Kumar Biswas, Shahidul Islam and Sumon Gomes of Rupantar March 31 to April 2, 2012

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Community Learning

RUPANTAR - COL Activities In Bangladesh


ommonwealth of Learning-COL implemented its first phase in partnership with Rupantar in Bangladesh under project Advocacy, training and program d e ve l o p m e n t concerning non-formal open and distance learning and development education in Bangladesh and at the Sixth Pan Commonwealth Forum (PCF6) on Open Learning (Reference: CA11-088). The project duration was November 2010 to June 2011. Objective of the project is to To create advocacy materials, conduct training concerning non-formal ODL and culturallyappropriate development education, and to develop educational program development skills among community media and local health and development groups. The implemented activities are: Training in message development, planning learning outcomes, and participatory (story-based) content creation. Training Workshop for Master Trainers The training workshop for Master Trainers held from 4 - 5 December, 2010 at Rupantar Conference Hall in Khulna,

Bangladesh. Four participants from Rupantar (Saifuddin Sabuj, Sumon Francis Gomes, M A Halim and Banani Das Gupta) attended the workshop. At the conclusion of the two-day workshop, a Master Trainer Team was formed. Training workshop on Community Learning Programmes The Training Workshop on Community Learning Programs held from 6 - 8 December, 2010 at Rupantar Conference Hall, Khulna, Bangladesh. 18 participants from five organizations (Ministry of Agriculture, RDRS Bangladesh, Proyas Mannobik Unnayan Society, Rupantar and BNNRC) were trained in message development, planning learning outcomes, and participatory (story-based) content creation. A program development guide on Developing Community Learning Programs in Bangladesh was developed in this workshop. 4 high-potential community radio licensees in Bangladesh were selected as primary participating organizations. Pot Song about Community Radio A Pot Song about community radio (and other participatory and culturally appropriate learning technologies and development communication) was conceptualized and produced. This pot song will be used as a unique tool for building awareness on community radio in Bangladesh. Involvement in developing community learning programmes about health A total of 32 persons (8 from each organization) from four organizations are engaged to develop community learning

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programs on health from 4 different districts (Kurigram, Barguna, Chapai Nawabganj and Bagerhat) of Bangladesh. Training in the use of theatre for development A training course on Theatre for Community Development was conducted from March 7 - 14, 2011 at Rupantar Conference Hall, Khulna. A total of 14 executive director/director/decision makers attended on the first day (7 March, 2011) of the training. (See Annexure 3 for participants list). 29 participants from 15 organizations participated in the second phase - a 7-day (8 -14 March, 2011) of the training. The training course gave an orientation to the participants about how to use Theatre as a development communication tool demonstrating the use of Rupantar's own folk dramas, pot songs and other cultural formats as examples. Rupantar designed and developed a training module on Theatre for Community Development covering folk theatre, folk songs and other indigenous forms of entertainment as a basis for work with media and other information and communication technologies for development. Local Site Visit and Training Workshop on Community Learning Programmes Rupantar Master Trainer Team provided necessary training facilitation to six community radio advocates in different geographical locations. The workshop facilitated message development, planning learning outcomes, and participatory (story-based) content creation. A total of 83 participants attended the workshops. The developed local content of the Community Learning Programmes are: Maternal Healthcare: Nutrition for Pregnant Women, Radio Chilmari, RDRS Bangladesh, HIV/AIDS, Radio Mahananda, Proyas Manobik Unnayan society, Rice Farming in Aman Season, Krishi Radio, Agriculture Information Service, Reproductive Health of

Adolescences, Rupantar, Drug, Radio Padma, CCD Bangladesh, Early Marriage, Radio Jhenuk, Srizony Bangladesh Review workshop on Community Learning Programmes Review Workshop on Community Learning Programmes was held on 30 June, 2010 at AIS Conference Hall, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 17 participants from five organizations (Ministry of Agriculture, RDRS Bangladesh, Proyas Mannobik Unnayan Society, CCD Bangladesh and Rupantar) were present in the workshop. Mr. Nazrul Islam, Director, Agriculture Information Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Bangladesh was present as Chief Guest and officially inaugurated the workshop. The special guest was Dr. Zahangir Alam, National Project Director, Community Rural Radio of AIS. Two renowned journalists (Taufiq Maruf and Rumon Reza) from the leading daily newspaper (Kaler Kantha and Janakantha) of Bangladesh were invited to participate and review the Community Learning Programmes. They are involved in community radio and its content since inception. The workshop explored the experiences of the participating organizations on CLP. Participants discussed and shared their experiences attained during developing content, message, planning and producing a programme. Rupantar is very encouraged with the progress of work so far and to see the interest and commitment of various stakeholders to the community learning program. It has been observed that participants who were already experienced in the development and awareness-building activities have now developed the knowledge and skills to formulate content for Community Learning Programmes. Rupantar is grateful to COL for their support and looks forward to further collaboration with COL.

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Community Radio in Bangladesh


Barendra Radio
99.2 MHz Naogaon Human Rights Deve Development Association Uk Ukilpara, Naogaon Date of Air : 8 Mar, 2012

Radio Chilmari
99.2 MHz RDRS Bangladesh Chilmari, Kurigram Date of Air : 5 Jan, 2012

Radio Mukti
99.2 MHz LDRO Sherpur Road, Bogra Sh Date of Air : 31 Oct, 2011

Radio Mahananda
fm

98.8 MHz Proyas manobik Unnayan Society Balepukur, Chapainawabgong Date of Air : 28 Oct, 2011

Radio Pallikantha

Radio Padma

99.2 MHz BRAC Mathar Kapon, Chandnight Moulvi Bazar Sadar Date of Air : 12 Jan, 2012

99.2 MHz Centre for Communation & Development (CCD) Monafer More, Rajshahi Date of Air : 7 Oct, 2011

Radio Bikrampur
99.2 MHz EC Bangladesh Dewvogh, Munshiganj

Radio Jhenuk
99.2 MHz Srizony Bangladesh Pabahati, Jhenidha Date of Air : 17 Dec, 2011

Radio Sagor Giri Radio Nalta


99.2 MHz Nalta Hospital & Community He Health Foundation K Kaliganj, Satkhira Date of Air : 13 May, 2011 99.2 MHz YPSA Sitakunda, Chittagong Date of Air : 24 Nov, 2011

Radio Sundarban
98.8 MHz Broadcasting Asia of Bangladesh Koyra, Khulna Date of Air : 15 Feb, 2012

Lokobetar
99.2 MHz Mass-line Media Centre West Sadar Road, Barguna We Date of Air : 27 May, 2010 D

Krishi Radio

98.8 MHz Agriculture Information Service Ministry of Agriculture Amtali, Barguna Date of Air : 1 Jan, 2012

Radio NaF
99.2 MHz ACLAB Teknaf, Cox's Bazar Te Date of Air : 1 Apr, 2012 D

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14/1, Farazipara Lane, Khulna-9100, Bangladesh Phone : 88-041-731876, Fax : 880-41-810747 E-mail : radio@rupantar.org, info@rupantar.org Web : www.rupantar.org

ISBN : 978-984-33-5365-8