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Diploma in Primary Teaching in the English Medium

Target Group Those who have passed the G.C.E. Advanced Level Examination and /or Teachers already in service Duration Full Time Programme Part Time Programme Modules Offered Module Module Module Module Module Module Module Module Module 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : : : : : : : : : Fundamentals of Education Educational Psychology Curriculum (Theory and Practice) Development of Mathematical Concepts (from Grades 1 - 5) Environmental Education Techniques of Teaching and Learning (General Methods) Learning Methods Evaluation Methods Practical Sessions Duration : 09 months Duration : 12 months

Practical Components Lesson Preparation Teaching and Learning Materials Teaching - Practical Sessions Project Handbook

Assessment Procedure - Assignments - 08 - Final Examination - Panel Evaluation

Classroom management as time management


In their introductory text on teaching, Kauchak and Eggen (2008)Kauchak, D., and Eggen, P. (2008). Introduction to teaching: Becoming a professional (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. explain classroom management in terms of time management. The goal of classroom management, to Kauchak and Eggen, is to not only maintain order but to optimize student learning. They divide class time into four overlapping categories, namely allocated time, instructional time, engaged time, and academic learning time. Allocated time Allocated time is the total time allotted for teaching, learning, and routine classroom procedures like attendance and announcements. Allocated time is also what appears on a student's schedule, for example "Introductory Algebra: 9:50-10:30 a.m." or "Fine Arts 1:15-2:00 p.m." Instructional time Instructional time is what remains after routine classroom procedures are completed. That is to say, instructional time is the time wherein teaching and learning actually takes place. Teachers may spend two or three minutes taking attendance, for example, before their instruction begins.

Engaged time Engaged time is also called time on task. During engaged time, students are participating actively in learning activitiesasking and responding to questions, completing worksheets and exercises, preparing skits and presentations, etc. Academic learning time Academic learning time occurs when students 1) participate actively and 2) are successful in learning activities. Effective classroom management maximizes academic learning time.

Procedures to Consider
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT has to do primarily with how things are done to make teaching and learning more efficient and effective. Procedures should be taught before teaching content. A major mistake so often made isassuming that students know what to do without first teaching procedures. Process precedesproduct. Chances are that when you walk into a room, you do not pay much attention to the floor. But if it were missing, you would. The analogy works for classroom management. You dont notice it when it is good. However, the lack of it is readily apparent because the teacher spendsunnecessary time with discipline problems. Unless PROCEDURES are explained, practiced, and reinforced, discipline problems will increase. Following is a sampling of procedures to model, teach, practice, and practice again: 1. How to enter the classroom 2. What to do when entering the classroom (Have something that challenges, raises curiosity, peaks interest, or reinforces/reviews. Dead time is deadly time.) 3. How to quickly get the class attention 4. What students do when the teacher is talking 5. How to quiet the class when it gets too noisy 6. When and how to sharpen pencils 7. What to do when it is necessary to use the restroom 8. What to do when an assignment is finished early 9. How to find directions for each class assignment/activity center 10. Where to find the home assignments (homework) after an absence 11. What to do when students have questions or want help 12. How a paper is to be done (size and type of paper, heading, ink? etc.) 13. How papers will be collected and where to put them 14. How to work in groups 15. How to change groups 16. How to smoothly transition from one activity to another 17. How/when to move around the room 18. How to get materials without disturbing others 19. How to use classroom materials and where to find them 20. What to do when tardy 21. What to do when returning from an absence 22. How to listen to and respond to questions 23. How to discard papers without disturbing others 24. How to quietly get another students attention 25. How to get ready for dismiss 26.

Attention Management
A procedure is essential for gaining students attention. Much instructional time is lost and teacher stress is increased without some procedure. A procedure is described below for quickly obtaining students attention. View the visual, Attention Management, and let students know that this is the procedure you will use to get their attention. Raise a hand showing give me five (two eyes on the teacher, two ears listening, and one mouth closed). Consider downloading the visual to print a transparency for use on an overhead projector. Explain that you will continue teaching when ALL hands are raised. If someone has not raised a hand, it is the students responsibility to prompt that person to follow the procedure. Second, when you give the go ahead, ask students to introduce themselves to one other person giving the other person (1) the name they wish to be called (e.g., Archie rather than Archibald) and (2) something personal about themselves (hobby, favorite activity, etc.) After one minute, raise your hand, and TIME in seconds how long it took to have everyone raise a hand to give you their silent attention. DO NOT SAY ANYTHING UNTIL EVERY STUDENT HAS A RAISED HAND AND EVERYONE HAS STOPPED TALKING. Let them know how long it took. Third, challenge them by letting them know that you believe they can follow the procedure in a shorter period of time. Have students introduce themselves to someone with whom they have not yet spoken, and then you say, Lets see if we can do this in a shorter period of time. Give them the go ahead again. After you have allowed a little more time than in the first introductions, raise a hand and start timing. Announce how long it took for everyone to follow the procedure. Congratulate them on how they accomplished the task in a shorter period of time. In order to be consistent, regularly continue to raise a hand to obtain students attention. Remember that rarely can anyone do something once and repeat it exactly as learned at first. In order for the procedure to become a ritual, you will periodically need to repeat the instructions of give me five to have it remain as effective as it was when you first modeled, taught, practiced, and reinforced it.

Counterproductive Approaches
October 27, 2011 By Marvin Marshall 1 Comment Learning requires motivation, but motivation to learn cannot be forced. Highly effective teachers realize this, so they prompt students to want to put forth effort in their learning by creating curiosity, challenge, and interest in meaningful lessons. In addition, however, and especially with youth in poverty, these successful teachers also create positive relationships with their students by practicing positivity, choice, and reflection. These practices are part of the Discipline Without Stress Teaching Model. This teaching model avoids approaches that inhibit motivation for responsibility and learning. Following are 10 counterproductive approaches that are commonly used. Unfortunately, they are so counterproductive that they actually exacerbate the increasing dropout rate of studentsespecially in low economic areas. 1. BEING REACTIVE Teachers too often become stressed by reacting to inappropriate behavior. It is far more effective to employ a proactive approach at the outset to inspire students to want to behave responsibly and then use a non-adversarial response whenever they do not. 2. RELIANCE ON RULES Rules are meant to control, not inspire. Rules are necessary in games but when used between people, enforcement of rules automatically creates adversarial relationships. A more effective approach is to teach procedures and inspire responsible behavior through expectations and reflection. See Rules. 3. AIMING AT OBEDIENCE Obedience does not create desire. A more effective approach is to promote responsibility; obedience then follows as a natural by-product. 4. CREATING NEGATIVES The brain thinks in pictures, not in words. When people tell others what NOT to do, the dont is what the brain images. Example: Dont look at your neighbors paper! Always communicate in positive terms of what you DO want. Example: Keep your eyes on your own paper. 5. ALIENATING STUDENTS Even the poorest salesperson knows not to alienate a customer, but teachers too often talk to students in ways that prompt negative feelings. Negative feelings stop any desire of students to do what the teacher would like them to do. People do good when they feel good, not when they feel bad. 6. CONFUSING CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT WITH DISCIPLINE Classroom management is the teachers responsibility and has to do with teaching, practicing, and reinforcing procedures. Discipline, in contrast, is the students responsibility and has to do with self-control. Having clarity between these two is necessary for both preventing and solving problems. See Classroom Management. 7. ASSUMING Too often, teachers assume students know how to do what is expected of them. A more effective approach is (a) teaching expectations and procedures, (b) having the students

practice, (c) having students visualize the process, and later (d) reinforcing the procedure by having them practice again. This process is necessary in order to have students be successful in performing the activity. 8. EMPLOYING COERCION This approach is least effective in changing behavior. Although teachers can CONTROL students temporarily, teachers cannot CHANGE students. PEOPLE CHANGE THEMSELVES, and the most effective approach for actuating students to change is to eliminate coercion. NOTE: Noncoercion is not to be confused with permissiveness or not using authority. 9. IMPOSING CONSEQUENCES Although consistency is important, imposing the same consequence on all students is the least fair approach. When a consequence is imposedbe it called logical ornatural students are deprived of ownership in the decision. A more effective and fairer approach is to ELICIT a CONSEQUENCE or a PROCEDURE TO REDIRECT IMPULSES that will help each student become more responsible. This can easily be accomplished by asking people if they would rather be treated as a group or as individuals. They will readily have a preference to be treated as individuals and have ownership in the decision that will help them, rather than hurt them. 10. RELYING ON EXTERNAL APPROACHES We want to assist young people to be self-disciplined and responsible. Both traits require internal motivation, but rewarding behavior and imposing punishments are external approaches. They also place the responsibility on someone else to instigate a change and, thereby, fail the critical test: How effective are they when no one is around? The greatest reward comes from the self-satisfaction of ones efforts. In addition, by rewarding kids with something they value (candy, stickers, prizes), we simply reinforce their childish valueswhen what we really hope to do is to teach them about values that will last a lifetime. In contrast to these counterproductive approaches, the DISCIPLINE WITHOUT STRESS TEACHING MODEL uses approaches that eliminate counterwill, the natural response to coercion.

Simple Strategies for Dealing with Difficult Students


P = Send POSITIVE messages.
Notice the number of times you state something negatively that could be stated in positive terms. Promise with the positive by using contingencies, rather than consequenceswhich usually prompt negative feelings. Notice the difference between how the following two are perceived: As soon as you finish your work, you can go to the activity center. (Contingency - stated in the positive) vs. If your work is not done, youre not going to the activity center. (Consequence - stated negatively) C = Offer CHOICES. Choice empowers. Choices give ownership, a critical component for changing behavior. Giving three optionsrather than tworemoves all perceptions of coercion. Be it a situation, a stimulus, or an urge, a person always has a choice regarding the response. Dont accept victim-type thinking that is counterproductive

to fostering responsibility, e.g., He hit me first! I had no choice! and He made me do it. R = Encourage REFLECTION. Ask reflective questions that foster growth and responsibility, e.g., Are you willing to try something different? If you could not fail, what would you do? What would an extraordinary person do? Be cautious of why? questions; they allow the person to give an excuse, be a victim, and avoid responsibility. Besides, young people often do not know or find it difficult to articulate the reason they behave as they do. Have the student practice the procedure for doing the activity/lesson. Be sure that the student knows what and how to do what you have assigned. Rather than telling that the student is off task or telling the student what to do, ask the student to reflect on the level of chosen behavior of the Raise Responsibility Systems hierarchy. See <www.MarvinMarshall.com>. Teach impulse management. The conversation sounds something like, Every time you stick your foot out to trip your friend, you are a victim of your impulses. Do you really want to go through life being a victim? If not, lets establish a procedure so that when you get that impulse, you can redirect it. For example, picture and feel your foot chained to the floor. That image will help you to be in control, rather than be a victim of an impulse. See <www.MarvinMarshall.com/impulsemanagement.html>. No one comes to school to get into trouble. Think of students as lacking skills to handle impulses or that the behavior is the students best effort at the time to handle a frustration. Few students are maliciously disruptive. Reflect on your own goal. You goal will direct how you handle the situation. If your desire is to help the student, then be willing to negotiate. There may be factors involved of which you are unaware. Students with short attention spans have a difficult time getting started on a task. Give clear, concise, starting directions, e.g., feet on the floor, sternum up and out, pencil and paper in proper position. Have students complete the following to themselves, The first thing I see myself doing is. . . . When a student is off task or exhibits inappropriate behavior, be positive by stating what you wantnot what you dont want. Simply inform the student what you would like to see happen. This helps the student understand your desires and stops the student from engaging in one behavior only to engage in another, nonproductive one. Use labeling. Teach students to label any distraction as distraction. Show students how to keep a record of them. Tracking distractions increases the likelihood that students will stop and think about what they are doing. This helps them reflect and make more appropriate choices. Ask for the students help. Put the problem to the student; let the student know that you dont know how to solve the disruptive behavior. Asking for help taps into a natural desire to help others when in need.

Put the person in charge of the activity. It is almost impossible to be in charge of stopping a disruption (e.g. , continually getting off task in a group activity) if the person is in charge of preventing it. Ask four questions that lead to a change in behavior: (1) What do you want? (2) Is what you are choosing to do helping you get what you want? (3) If what you are choosing to do is not getting you what you want, then what is your plan? (4) What are your procedures to implement your plan; specifically, what will you do? Have a classroom meeting and put the topic on the table. See <www.DisciplineWithoutStress.com/sample_chapters.html>. Teach procedures, rather than relying on rules.

Reflective Questions
A Sampling
Are you willing to try something different? Are you willing to look at this in a different way? How is what you are doing helping you? How is this going to get you what you want? How would you like things to be? (Meaning: What do you want?) What can you do to get what you want? Will you? How will you know? Is what youre doing going to move you forwardor backward? What do you want to be like in this situation? What can I do to help you? Are you going to let this (situation, person, problem, setback, disappointment) hold you back? What are you going to do about it? Are you going to be able to rise above this (situation, challenge)? How? Look at _______s face. How is he/she feeling right now as a result of what you have (done/said)? What can you do about it? Are you making a friend or pushing a friend away?

What would a ________ (mature, kind, reliable, responsible, extraordinary) person do now? Now that you have __________, how could you repair the situation? When you _____________, what kind of a relationship are you creating with me? (other kids? other adults?) When you __________, what pictures are you creating about yourself in your mind? (in the minds of your friends? teachers? adults in our school?) What kind of impression are you making on all the people here when you _______? Is this the impression you want to make? Does it feel as if were moving forward here, or does it feel as if were stuck? What would you have to do if you wanted to move forward in this situation? Can you picture yourself doing_______ (a very specific procedure)? Is what youre doing going to make you better in the long run? Is there a better choice? Whats an example of one? How might you feel if someone did that to you? What do you want? Is what you are doing getting you what you want? If not, what is you plan? What are your procedures to implement the plan?

AFTER SOMEONE HAS ACKNOWLEDGED LEVEL B BEHAVIOR:


Do you want to be in charge of you or have someone else be in charge of you? Do you want me to be a Level B teacher? What would a Level B teacher probably do now? Is what youre doing on a high level? What will you do to get on a higher level? Heres an opportunity for you to act on a higher level. What can you do? What will you do?

Think to yourself of someone in your class or someone you know who operates on a high level. What would that person do now in your situation? If you continue on this level, what will likely happen? Is that what you want? What will you do now?