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07-08-2012

1

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Basic Gas Cycles &
Vapour Compression
Refrigeration
Advanced Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning
M. Tech. Thermal Engineering
ME 0611 SEM - I
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Outline
Applications of Refrigeration.

Bell Coleman Cycle.

COP and Power Calculations

Vapour Compression Refrigeration System.

Presentation on T-S and P-h diagram.

Cascade Refrigeration System.
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
2

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Refrigeration
REFRIGERATION Science of producing and maintaining temperature below that of
surrounding / atmosphere.
REFRIGERATION Cooling of or removal of heat from a system.
Refrigerating System Equipment employed to maintain the system at a low temperature.
Refrigerated System System which is kept at lower temperature.
Refrigeration 1) By melting of a solid,
2) By sublimation of a solid,
3) By evaporation of a liquid.
Most of the commercial refrigeration production : Evaporation of liquid.
This liquid is known as Refrigerant.
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Refrigeration Circuit
Refrigeration Circuit
Evaporator
Compressor
Condenser Expansion
Valve
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
3

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Refrigeration - Elements
Compressor
Condenser
Evaporator
Expansion
Valve
Wnet, in
Surrounding Air
Refrigerated Space
Q
H

Q
L

High Temp
Source
Low Temp
Sink
Q
H

Q
L

Wnet, in
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Refrigeration - Applications
1. Ice making.
2. Transportation of food items above and below freezing.
2. Industrial Air Conditioning.
4. Comfort Air Conditioning.
5. Chemical and related industries.
6. Medical and Surgical instruments.
7. Processing food products and beverages.
8. Oil Refining.
9. Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing.
10. Manufacture and treatment of metals.
11. Freezing food products.
12. Manufacturing Solid Carbon Dioxide.
13. Production of extremely low temperatures (Cryogenics)
14. Plumbing.
15. Building Construction.
Applications :
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
4

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Refrigeration Systems
1. Ice Refrigeration System.
2. Air Refrigeration System.
2. Vapour Compression Refrigeration System.
4. Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System.
5. Adsorption Refrigeration System.
6. Cascade Refrigeration System.
7. Mixed Refrigeration System.
8. Thermoelectric Refrigeration System.
9. Steam Jet Refrigeration System.
10. Vortex Tube Refrigeration System.
Refrigeration Systems :
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Performance - COP
COP Ratio of Heat absorbed by the Refrigerant while passing through the Evaporator
to the Work Input required to compress the Refrigerant in the Compressor.
Performance of Refrigeration System :
- Measured in terms of COP (Coefficient of Performance).
If; R
n
= Net Refrigerating Effect. W = Work required by the machine.

Then;
W
R
COP
n
=
COP l Theoretica
COP Actual
COP lative = Re
Actual COP = Ratio of R
n
and W actually measured.
Theoretical COP = Ratio of Theoretical values of R
n
and W obtained by applying
Laws of Thermodynamics to the Refrigerating Cycle.
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
5

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Performance - Rating
Rating of Refrigeration System :
- Refrigeration Effect / Amount of Heat extracted from a body in a given time.
Unit :
- Standard commercial Tonne of Refrigeration / TR Capacity
Definition :
- Refrigeration Effect produced by melting 1 tonne of ice from and at 0 C in 24 hours.

Latent Heat of ice = 336 kJ/kg.
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Air Refrigeration System
One of the earliest method.
Obsolete due to low COP and high operating cost.
Preferred in Aircraft Refrigeration due to its low weight.
Characteristic :
- Throughout the cycle, Refrigerant remains in gaseous state.
Air Refrigeration
Closed System Open System
Air refrigerant contained within
piping or components of system.
Pressures above atm. Pr.
Refrigerator space is actual room to be cooled.
Air expansion to atm. Pr. And then
compressed to cooler pressure.
Pressures limited to near atm. Pr. levels..
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
6

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Air Refrigeration System
1. Suction to compressor in Closed System may be at high pressures. Hence,
the size of Expander and Compressor can be kept small.
Closed System Vs. Open System :
2. In Open Systems, air picks up the moisture from refrigeration chamber. This
moisture freezes and chokes the valves.
3. Expansion in Open System is limited to atm. Pr. Level only. No such restriction
to Closed System.
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Reverse Carnot Cycle
3
2
1
4
Isotherms
Adiabatic
T
2
Expansion
Compression
T
1
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Volume
P V Diagram
3 2
1 4
T
1
Expansion Compression
T
2
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

Entropy
1 4
T s Diagram
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
7

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
3 2
1 4
T
1
Expansion Compression
T
2
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

Entropy
1 4
Operation :
3 4 : Adiabatic Expansion.
Temp. falls from T
2
to T
1.

Cylinder in contact with Cold Body at T
1.

4 1 : Isothermal Expansion.
Heat Extraction from Cold Body.

1 2 : Adiabatic Compression.
Requires external power.
Temp. rises from T
1
to T
2.
Cylinder in contact with Hot Body at T
2
2 3 : Isothermal Compression.
Heat Rejection to Hot Body.

Reverse Carnot Cycle
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
3 2
1 4
T
1
Expansion Compression
T
2
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

Entropy
1 4
Heat extracted from cold Body : Area 1-1-4-4
= T
1
X 1-4
Work done per cycle : Area 1-2-3-4
= (T
2
T
1
) X 1-4
1 2
1
1 2
1
) 4 1 ( ) (
) 4 1 (
4 3 2 1
4 ' 4 ' 1 1
T T
T
X T T
X T
Area
Area
Done Work
Extracted Heat
COP

=


=


=
=
Reverse Carnot Cycle
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
8

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 1
A Carnot Refrigerator requires 1.3 kW per tonne of refrigeration to maintain a region at
low temperature of -38 C. Determine:
i) COP of Carnot Refrigerator.
ii) Higher temperature of the cycle.
iii) Heat delivered and COP, if the same device is used Heat Pump.
99 . 2
) sec/ 3600 ( ) 3 . 1 (
/ 000 , 14
3 . 1
1
= = = =
hr kW
hr kJ
kW
tonne
done Work
absorbed Heat
COP
refrig
.ANS
K T
K T
K
T T
T
COP
refrig
6 . 313
235
235
99 . 2
1
2 1 2
1
=

=
.ANS
Heat Delivered as Heat Pump ;
sec / 189 . 5 3 . 1
3600
/ 000 , 14
3 . 1 1 kJ
hr kJ
kW tonne
done Work absorbed Heat
= + = + =
+ =
.ANS
99 . 3
3 . 1
sec / 189 . 5
= = =
kW
kJ
done Work
delivered Heat
COP
HP
.ANS
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 2
A refrigerating system works on reverse Carnot cycle. The higher temperature in the
system is 35 C and the lower temperature is -15 C. The capacity is to be 12 tonnes.
Determine :
i) COP of Carnot Refrigerator.
ii) Heat rejected from the system per hour.
iii) Power required.
18 . 5
258 308
258
1 2
1
=

=
K K
K
T T
T
COP
refrig
.ANS
hr kJ Input Work
Input Work
hr kJ X
Input Work
tonne
Input Work
Effect frig
COP
refrig
/ 32558
/ 000 , 14 12 12
16 . 5
. Re
=
= = =
.ANS kW
hr kJ hr Input Work
Power 04 . 9
3600
/ 32558
3600
/
= = =
Heat Rejected / hr = Refrig. Effect / hr + Work Input / hr
= 12 x 14,000 (kJ/hr) + 32,558 (kJ/hr) = 2,00,558 kJ/hr. .ANS
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
9

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 3
Ice is formed at 0 C from water at 20 C. The temperature of the brine is -8 C. Find out
the kg of ice per kWh. Assume that the system operates on reversed Carnot cycle. Take
latent heat of ice as 335 kJ/kg.
46 . 9
265 293
265
1 2
1
=

=
K K
K
T T
T
COP
refrig
Heat to be extracted per kg of water ( to from ice at 0 C)

R
n
= 1 (kg) x C
pw
(kJ/kg.K) x (293 273) (K) + Latent Heat (kJ/kg) of ice
= 1 (kg) x 4.18 (kJ/kg.K) x 20 (K) + 335 (kJ/kg)
= 418.6 kJ/kg.
Also, 1 kWh = 1 (kJ) x 3600 (sec/hr) = 3600 kJ.

kg m
kJ
kg kJ X kg m
kJ done Work
kJ Effect frig
W
R
COP
ice
ice
n
refrig
35 . 81
3600
) / ( 6 . 418 ) (
46 . 9
) (
) ( . Re
= =
= =
.ANS
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Bell Coleman / Reverse Bryaton Cycle
Elements of this system :
1. Compressor.
2. Heat Exchanger.
3. Expander.
4. Refrigerator.
Work gained from Expander is used
to drive Compressor.

Hence, less external work is required.
Heat Exchanger
Cooling
Water
Refrigerator
Compressor Expander
Cold Air
Very Cold Air
Warm Air
Hot Air
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
10

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Bell Coleman / Reverse Bryaton Cycle
3
2
1
4
Isobars
Adiabatic
Expansion
Compression
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Volume
P V Diagram
3
2
1
4
Expansion
Compression
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

Entropy
Isobars
Adiabatic
T s Diagram
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Bell Coleman / Reverse Bryaton Cycle
3
2
1
4
Expansion
Compression
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

Entropy
Isobars
Adiabatic
Heat Absorbed in Refrigerator :
) (
4 1
T T C m Q
P added
=
Heat Rejected in Heat Exchanger :
) (
3 2
T T C m Q
P rejected
=
If process changes from Adiabatic to Polytropic;
( )
1 1 2 2
1
V P V P
n
n
Q
comp

=
( )
4 4 3 3 exp
1
V P V P
n
n
Q
n

=
We know,
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

1
P
C R
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
11

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Bell Coleman / Reverse Bryaton Cycle
Net Work Done :
( )
( )
( )
1 2 3 4
4 3 1 2
4 4 3 3 1 1 2 2
exp
1
1
1
1
T T T T C m
n
n
T T T T R m
n
n
V P V P V P V P
n
n
W W W
P
n comp
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+

=
+

=
=

For Isentropic Process :


( )
1 2 3 4
exp
T T T T C m
W W W
P
n comp
+ =
=
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Bell Coleman / Reverse Bryaton Cycle
COP :
( )
1 2 3 4
4 1
1
1
) (
T T T T C m
n
n
T T C m
W
Q
Q Q
Added Work
COP
P
P
net
added
added rejected
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
=

( )
1 2 3 4
4 1
1
1
) (
T T T T
n
n
T T
COP
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I


07-08-2012
12

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Air Refrigeration Cycle - Merits / Demerits
Merits :
1. No risk of fire (as in case of NH
3
); as air is non flammable.
2. Cheaper (than other systems); as air is easily available.
3. Weight per tonne of refrigeration is quite low (compared to other systems).
Demerits :
1. Low COP (compared with other systems).
2. Weight of air (as Refrigerant) is more (compared to other systems).
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Example 4
A Bell Coleman refrigerator operates between pressure limits of 1 bar and 8 bar. Air is
drawn from the cold chamber at 9 C, compressed and then cooled to 29 C before
entering the expansion cylinder. Expansion and compression follow the law PV
1.35
= Const.
Calculate the theoretical COP.
For air, take = 1.4 and C
p
= 1.003 kJ/kg.
Polytropic Compression 1-2 :
K
bar
bar
K
P
P
T T
n
n
2 . 482
1
8
) 282 (
35 . 1
1 35 . 1 1
1
2
1 2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

Polytropic Expansion 3-4 :
K T
bar
bar
T K
P
P
T T
n
n
6 . 176
1
8
) 302 (
4
35 . 1
1 35 . 1
4
1
4
3
4 3
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

3 2
1
4
PV
1.35
=C
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Volume
P
2
= 8 bar
P
1
= 1 bar
282 K
302 K
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
13

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Heat Extracted from Cold Chamber :
kg kJ K K X kg kJ T T C
P
/ 7 . 105 ) 6 . 176 282 ( ) / ( 003 . 1 ) (
4 1
= = =
Example 4.cntd
Heat Rejected to Heat Exchanger :
kg kJ K K X kg kJ T T C
P
/ 7 . 180 ) 302 2 . 482 ( ) / ( 003 . 1 ) (
3 2
= = =
Net Work Done :
( )
( )
kg kJ W
K K K K kg kJ W
T T T T C m
n
n
W
net
net
P net
/ 8 . 82
282 2 . 482 302 6 . 176 ) / 003 . 1 (
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
1 35 . 1
35 . 1
1
1
1 2 3 4
=
+ |
.
|

\
|

=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

27 . 1
/ 8 . 82
/ 7 . 105
= = =
kg kJ
kg kJ
done Work
absorbed Heat
COP
refrig
.ANS
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
Example 5
An air refrigeration open system operating between 1 MPa and 100 kPa is required to
produce a cooling effect of 2000 kJ/min. temperature of the air leaving the cold chamber is
-5 C, and at leaving the cooler is 30 C. Neglect losses and clearance in the compressor
and expander. Determine :
i) Mass of air circulated per min. ii) Compressor Work, Expander Work, Cycle Work.
ii) COP and Power in kW required.
3 2
1
4
PV

=C
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Volume
P
2
= 1 MPa
P
1
= 100 kPa
268 K
303 K
Polytropic Expansion 3-4 :
K T
MPa
MPa
T K
P
P
T T
9 . 156
1 . 0
1
) 302 (
4
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
4
1
4
3
4 3
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

Refrig. Effect per kg :


kg kJ
K K X kg kJ
T T C
P
/ 66 . 111
) 9 . 156 268 ( ) / ( 003 . 1
) (
4 1
=
=
=
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
14

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 5.cntd
min / 91 . 17
/ 66 . 111
min / 2000
. Re
. Re
kg
kg kJ
kJ
kg per Effect frig
Effect frig
= = =
Mass of air circulated per min :
.ANS
Polytropic Compression 1-2 : K
kPa
kPa
K
P
P
T T 4 . 517
100
1000
) 268 (
4 . 1
1 4 . 1 1
1
2
1 2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

.ANS
Compressor Work :
( )
( )
min / 85 . 4486
268 4 . 517 ) / 287 . 0 ( min) / 91 . 17 (
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
1
1 2
kJ W
K K kg kJ kg W
T T R m W
comp
comp
comp
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

.ANS
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Expander Work :
( )
( )
min / 42 . 2628
9 . 156 303 ) / 287 . 0 ( min) / 91 . 17 (
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
1
exp
exp
4 3 exp
kJ W
K K kg kJ kg W
T T R m W
=
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

.ANS
Example 5.cntd
Cycle Work = W
cycle
= W
comp
W
exp
= 4486.85 kJ/min 2628.42 kJ/min = 1858.43 kJ/minANS
076 . 1
min / 43 . 1858
min / 2000 . Re
= = =
kJ
kJ
required Work
Effect frig
COP
refrig
.ANS
Power required :


kW
kJ
time
W
P
cycle
97 . 30
min sec/ 60
min / 43 . 1858
= = = .ANS
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
15

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Vapour Compression System
Elements of this system :
1. Compressor.
2. Condenser.
3. Expansion Valve.
4. Evaporator.
Vapour @ Pr. and Temp. (State 1)
Isentropic Compression :
Pr. and Temp. (State 2)
Condenser : Pr. Liquid (State 3)
Throttling : Pr. Temp. (State 4)
Evaporator : Heat Extraction from surrounding;
Pr. vapour (State 1).
1
2
3
4
1
2 3
4
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Vapour Compression System
Merits :
1. High COP; as very close to Reverse Carnot Cycle.
2. Running Cost is 1/5
th
of that of Air Refrigeration Cycle.
3. Size of Evaporator is small; for same Refrigeration Effect.
Demerits :
1. Initial cost is high.
2. Inflammability.
4. Evaporator temperature adjustment is simple; by adjusting Throttle Valve.
3. Leakage.
4. Toxicity.
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
16

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Vapour Compression System : T-s Diagram
Case A. Dry and Saturated Vapour after Compression :
Work done by Compressor
= W = Area 1-2-3-4-1
Heat Absorbed
= W = Area 1-4-g-f-1
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

Condensation
Compression
Evaporation
Expansion
T
2
T
1
3
4
2
1
Compressor Work,
(W)
Net Refrig. Effect,
(R
n
)

Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
1 2
4 1
1 4 3 2 1
1 4 1
h h
h h
Area
f g Area
Done Work
Absorbed Heat
COP

=


=
=
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Vapour Compression System : T-s Diagram
Case B. Superheated Vapour after Compression :
Work done by Compressor
= W = Area 1-2-2-3-4-1
Heat Absorbed
= W = Area 1-4-g-f-1
1 2
4 1
1 4 3 ' 2 2 1
1 4 1
h h
h h
Area
f g Area
Done Work
Absorbed Heat
COP

=


=
=
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

Condensation
Compression
Evaporation
Expansion
T
2
T
1
3
4
2
1
Compressor Work,
(W)
Net Refrig. Effect,
(R
n
)

Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
NOTE : h
2
= h
2
+ C
p
(T
sup
T
sat
)
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
17

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Vapour Compression System : T-s Diagram
Case C. Wet Vapour after Compression :
Work done by Compressor
= W = Area 1-2-3-4-1
Heat Absorbed
= W = Area 1-4-g-f-1
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

Condensation
Compression
Evaporation
Expansion
T
2
T
1
3
4
2
1
Compressor Work,
(W)
Net Refrig. Effect,
(R
n
)

Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
1 2
4 1
1 4 3 2 1
1 4 1
h h
h h
Area
f g Area
Done Work
Absorbed Heat
COP

=


=
=
NOTE : h
2
= (h
f
+ x.h
fg
)
2

Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Vapour Compression System : P-h Diagram
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

I
s
o
t
h
e
r
m
a
l
,


T

=

C
o
n
s
t

I
s
e
n
t
h
a
l
p
i
c
,

h

=

C
o
n
s
t
.

Isobaric,
P = Const
Sub-cooled
Liq. region
2 phase
region
Superheated
region
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
18

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Vapour Compression System : P-h Diagram
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

1
2
3
4
Evaporation
Condensation
E
x
p
a
n
s
i
o
n

1 2
4 1
h h W
h h R
n
=
=
1 2
4 1
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n

= =
}
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Factors Affecting Vapour Compression System
A. Effect of Suction Pressure :
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

1
2
3
4
1 4
2
P
1
P
2
1 2
4 1
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n

= =
COP of Original Cycle :
COP when Suction Pr. decreased :
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 ' 2 ' 1 1 1 2
' 1 1 4 1
' 1 ' 2
' 4 ' 1
h h h h h h
h h h h
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
+ +

=

= =
Thus,
Refrig. Effect
Work Input

COP
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
19

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Factors Affecting Vapour Compression System
B. Effect of Delivery Pressure :
1 2
4 1
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n

= =
COP of Original Cycle :
COP when Delivery Pr. increased :
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 ' 2 1 2
4 ' 4 4 1
1 ' 2
' 4 1
h h h h
h h h h
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
+

=

= =
Thus,
Refrig. Effect
Work Input

COP
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

1
2
3
4
3
4
2
P
1
P
2
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Factors Affecting Vapour Compression System
C. Effect of Superheating :
1 2
4 1
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n

= =
COP of Original Cycle :
Thus,
Refrig. Effect
Work Input or

COP or
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

1
2
3
4
1
2
P
1
P
2
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 ' 1 2 ' 2 1 2
1 ' 1 4 1
' 1 ' 2
4 ' 1
h h h h h h
h h h h
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
+ +
+
=

= =
COP when Delivery Pr. increased :
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
20

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Factors Affecting Vapour Compression System
D. Effect of Sub-cooling :
1 2
4 1
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n

= =
COP of Original Cycle :
Thus,
Refrig. Effect
Work Input : SAME

COP

( ) ( )
( )
1 2
' 4 4 4 1
1 2
' 4 1
h h
h h h h
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n

+
=

= =
COP when Delivery Pr. increased :
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

1
2
3
4
1
3
P
1
P
2
4
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Factors Affecting Vapour Compression System
E. Effect of Suction & Condenser Temperatures :
Now, Condenser Temp.
Evaporator Temp.
( )
( )
1 2
4 1
' 1 ' 4 ' 3 ' 2 ' 1
1 ' 4 4 ' 1 1
h h
h h
Area
f g Area
Done Work
Absorbed Heat
COP

>


=
+
|
=
COP of Modified Cycle :
COP of Original Cycle :
1 2
4 1
1 4 3 2 1
1 4 1
h h
h h
Area
f g Area
Done Work
Absorbed Heat
COP

=


=
=
COP
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

Condensation
Compression
Evaporation
Expansion
T
2
T
1
3
4
2
1
f g
1
4
2
3
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
21

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Vapour Compression System Mathematical Analysis
A. Refrigerating Effect :
( ) ) / (
4 1
kg kJ Heat d Superheate Heat Latent h h Q
evap
+ + =
= Amount of Heat absorbed in Evaporator.
B. Mass of Refrigerant :
= Amount of Heat absorbed / Refrigerating Effect.
( )
) sec / (
3600
000 , 14
4 1
tonne kg
h h
m

=
1 TR = 14,000 kJ/hr
C. Theoretical Piston Displacement :
= Mass of Refrigerant X Sp. Vol. of Refrigerant Gas (v
g
)
1
.
( )
( ) ) sec / (
3600
000 , 14
. .
3
1
4 1
tonne m v
h h
Displ Piston Th
g
-

=
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Vapour Compression System Mathematical Analysis
( )
( ) ) (
) / (
1 2
1 2
kW h h m P
kg kJ h h W
theor
comp
=
=
a) Isentropic Compression :
D. Theoretical Power Required :
( )
( ) ) (
1
) / (
1
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
kW V P V P
n
n
m P
kg kJ V P V P
n
n
W
theor
comp

=
a) Polytropic Compression :
E. Heat removed through Condenser :
( ) ) / (
3 2
kg kJ h h m Q
cond
=
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
22

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 7 Example 6
A refrigeration machine is required to produce ice at 0 C from water at 20 C. The
machine has a condenser temperature of 298 K while the evaporator temperature is 268
K. The relative efficiency of the machine is 50 % and 6 kg of Freon-12 refrigerant is
circulated through the system per minute. The refrigerant enters the compressor with a
dryness fraction of 0.6. Specific heat of water is 4.187 kJ/kg.K and the latent heat of ice is
335 kJ/kg. Calculate the amount of ice produced on 24 hours. The table of properties if
Freon-12 is given below:
Temperature
(K)
Liquid Heat
(kJ/kg)
Latent Heat
(kJ/kg)
Entropy of Liquid
(kJ/kg)
298 59.7 138.0 0.2232
268 31.4 154.0 0.1251
h
f1
= 31.4 kJ/kg
h
fg1
= 154.0 kJ/kg
h
f2
= 59.7 kJ/kg
h
fg2
= 138.0 kJ/kg
h
f3
= h
4
= 59.7 kJ/kg
m = 6 kg/min

rel
= 50 %
x
2
= 0.6
C
pw
= 4.187 kJ/kg.K
Latent Heat of ice

= 335.7 kJ/kg
}
Given :
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 6.cntd
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

298 K

268 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
kg kJ h x h h
fg f
/ 8 . 123 0 . 154 ) 6 . 0 ( 4 . 31
1 1
1
= + = + =
kg kJ h x h h
fg f
/ 2 . 133 0 . 138 ) 5325 . 0 ( 7 . 59
2 2
2 2
= + = + =
( )
5325 . 0
268
0 . 154
6 . 0 1251 . 0
298
0 . 138
2232 . 0
2
2
1
1
1 1
2
2
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
1 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
- + = - +
=
x
x
T
h
x s
T
h
x s
s x s s x s
s s
fg
f
fg
f
fg f fg f
Isentropic Compression : 1-2
kg kJ h h
f
/ 7 . 59
3
4
= =
COP of Original Cycle :
( )
( )
82 . 6
/ 8 . 123 2 . 133
/ 7 . 59 8 . 123
1 2
4 1
=

= =
kg kJ
kg kJ
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
23

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 6.cntd
Actual COP =
rel
X COP
theor
= 0.5 X 6.82 = 3.41
Heat extracted from 1 kg of water at 20 C to form 1 kg of ice at 0 C :
kg kJ
kg kJ
C X K kg kJ X kg
/ 74 . 418
) / ( 335
) ( ) 0 20 ( ) . / ( 187 . 4 ) ( 1
=
+
=
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

298 K

268 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
Now;
.ANS
( )
( )
hrs in tonne
X X
kg
kg kJ
kg kJ X kg
m
h h m
X m
W
R
COP
ice
ice
actual n
actual
24 661 . 0
1000
24 60 459 . 0
min / 459 . 0
41 . 3
/ 74 . 418
) / ( 8 . 123 2 . 133 ) ( 6
74 . 418
41 . 3
1 2
) (
= =
=
-

= = =
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 7
28 tonnes of ice from and at 0 C is produced per day in an ammonia refrigerator. The
temperature range in the compressor is from 25 C to -15oC. The vapour is dry and
saturated at the end of compression and an expansion valve is used. Assuming a
co-efficient of performance of 62% of the theoretical, calculate the power required to
drive the compressor. Take latent heat of ice = 335 kJ/kg.
Temp
(C)
Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Entropy of
Liquid
(kJ/kg.K)
Entropy of Vapour
(kJ/kg.K)
Liquid Vapour
25 100.04 1319.22 0.3473 4.4852
-15 -54.56 1304.99 -2.1338 5.0585
h
f1
= -54.56 kJ/kg
h
g1
= 1304.99kJ/kg
h
f2
= 100.04 kJ/kg
h
g2
= 1319.22 kJ/kg
h
f3
= h
4
= 100.04 kJ/kg
T
cond
= 25 C
T
evap
= -15 C
x
2
= 1.dry saturated vapour
COP
actual
= 0.62 (COP
theor
)
Latent Heat of ice

= 335.7 kJ/kg
}
Given :
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
24

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
( )
( )
91 . 8
23 . 1196 22 . 1319
04 . 100 23 . 1196
1 2
4 1
=

=
h h
h h
COP
l theoretica
COP of the Cycle :
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

298 K

258 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
Example 7.cntd
process c Isenthalpi kg kJ h h ..... / 04 . 100
4 3
= =
| |
kg kJ
h x h h
fg f
/ 23 . 1196
) 56 . 54 ( 99 . 1304 ) 92 . 0 ( ) 56 . 54 (
) (
1 1 1 1
=
+ =
+ =
( ) ( ) | |
92 . 0
1338 . 2 0585 . 5 ) 1338 . 2 ( 4852 . 4
2
1
1 1 1 2
1 2
=
+ =
- + =
=
x
x
s x s s
s s
fg f g
Isentropic Compression : 1-2
kg kJ h h
g
/ 22 . 1319
2 2
= =
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 7.cntd
Actual COP =
rel
X COP
theor

= 0.62 X 8.91
= 5.52
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

298 K

258 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
Actual R
n
= COP
actual
X Work done


= 5.52 X (h
2
h
1
)
= 5.52 X (1319.22 1196.23)
= 678.9 kJ/kg
Heat extracted from 28 tonnes of water at 0 C to form ice at 0 C :
) ( sec / 56 . 108
) (sec/ 3600 ) ( 24
) / ( 335 ) / ( 1000 ) ( 28
kW kJ
hr X hr
kg kJ X tonne kg X kg
=
=
Mass of refrigerant : kg
kg kJ
kJ
1599 . 0
) / ( 9 . 678
sec) / ( 56 . 108
= =
Total Work done by Compressor :
( )
) ( sec / 67 . 19
/ ) 23 . 1196 22 . 1319 ( ) ( 1599 . 0
1 2
kW kJ
kg kJ X kg h h X m
refrig
=
= =
.ANS
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
25

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 8
In a standard vapour compression refrigeration cycle, operating between an evaporator
temperature of -10 C and a condenser temperature of 40 C, the enthalpy of the
refrigerant, Freon-12, at the end of compression is 220 kJ/kg. Show the cycle diagram on
T-s plane. Calculate:
1. The C.O.P. of the cycle.
2. The refrigerating capacity and the compressor power assuming a refrigerant flow
rate of 1 kg/min.
You may use the extract of Freon-12 property table given below:
Temp (C) Pr (MPa) h
f
(kJ/kg) h
g
(kJ/kg)
-10 0.2191 26.85 183.1
40 0.9607 74.53 203.1
h
f1
= 26.85 kJ/kg
h
g1
= h
1
= 183.1 kJ/kg
h
f2
= 74.53 kJ/kg
h
g2
= 203.1 kJ/kg
h
f3
= h
4
= 74.53 kJ/kg
T
cond
= 40 C
T
evap
= -10 C
x
1
= 1.dry saturated vapour
h
2
= 220 kJ/kg
}
Given :
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 8.cntd
COP of Original Cycle :
( )
( )
94 . 2
/ 1 . 183 0 . 220
/ 53 . 74 1 . 183
1 2
4 1
=

= =
kg kJ
kg kJ
h h
h h
W
R
COP
n
.ANS
Refrigerating Capacity :
( ) ( )
min / 57 . 108
/ 53 . 74 1 . 183 ) ( 1
4 1
kJ
kg kJ X kg h h m
=
= =
.ANS
Compressor Power :
( ) ( )
kW
kJ
kg kJ X kg h h m
615 . 0
min / 9 . 36
/ 1 . 183 0 . 220 ) ( 1
1 2
=
=
= =
.ANS
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

40 C
-10 C
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
26

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 9
A Freon-12 refrigerator producing a cooling effect of 20 kJ/sec operates on a simple
cycle with pressure limits of 1.509 bar and 9.607 bar. The vapour leaves the evaporator
dry saturated and there is no undercooling. Determine the power required by the
machine. If the compressor operates at 300 rpm and has a clearance volume of 3% of
stroke volume, determine the piston displacement of the compressor. For compressor
assume that the expansion following the law PV
1.3
= Constant.
Temp
(
o
C)
P
s
(bar)
v
g

(m
3
/kg)
Enthalpy
h
f

(kJ/kg)
Enthalpy
h
g

(kJ/kg)
Entropy
s
f

(kJ/kg)
Entropy
s
g

(kJ/kg)
Specific
heat
(kJ/kg.K)
-20 1.509 0.1088 17.8 178.61 0.073 0.7082 ---
40 9.607 --- 74.53 203.05 0.2716 0.682 0.747
h
f1
= 17.8 kJ/kg
h
g1
= h
1
= 178.61 kJ/kg
h
f2
= 74.53 kJ/kg
h
g2
= 203.05 kJ/kg
h
f3
= h
4
= 74.53 kJ/kg
T
cond
= 40 C
T
evap
= -20 C
x
1
= 1.dry saturated vapour
h
2
= 220 kJ/kg
}
Given :
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 9.cntd
Refrigerating Capacity : ( ) ( )
sec / 192 . 0
/ 53 . 74 61 . 178 20
4 1
kg m
kg kJ X m kW h h m
=
= =
-
- -
( )
K T
T
T
T
C s s
s s
P
2 . 324
313
ln 747 . 0 682 . 0 7082 . 0
ln
2
2
' 2
2
' 2 1
2 1
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
Isentropic Compression : 1-2
( )
( ) ( )
kg kJ
K K kg kJ kg kJ
T T C h h
P
/ 4 . 211
0 . 313 2 . 324 . / 747 . 0 ) / ( 05 . 203
' 2 2 ' 2 2
=
+ =
+ =
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

313 K
253 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
27

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 9
.ANS
Power Required : ( ) ( )
kW
kg kJ X kg h h m
29 . 6
/ 61 . 178 4 . 211 sec) / ( 192 . 0
1 2
=
= =
-
Vol. Efficiency :
% 6 . 87
509 . 1
607 . 9
03 . 0 03 . 0 1
1
13 . 1 / 1
/ 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
bar
bar
P
P
k k
n
S
d
vol
q
Vol of Refrigerant
at Intake :
sec / 02089 . 0
) / ( 1088 . 0 sec) / ( 192 . 0
3
3
m
kg m X kg
v m
g
=
=
- =
-
Piston Displ. Vol. :
( )
3
3
00477 . 0
) ( 300 876 . 0
min) (sec/ 60 sec) / ( 02089 . 0
) (
.
m
rpm
m
rpm
Vol Actual
vol
=
-
-
=
-
=
q
.ANS
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

313 K
253 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 10
A food storage locker requires a refrigeration capacity of 50 kW. It works between a
condenser temperature of 35 C and an evaporator temperature of -10 C. The refrigerator
is ammonia. It is sub-cooled by 5 C before entering the expansion valve by the dry
saturated vapour leaving the evaporator. Assuming a single-cylinder, single-acting
compressor operating at 1000 rpm with stroke equal to 1.2 times the bore, determine :
1. The power required.
2. The cylinder dimensions.
Properties of ammonia are :
Sat.
Temp.
(
o
C)
Pr.

(bar)
Enthalpy
(kJ/kg)
Entropy
(kJ/kg)
Sp. Vol.
(m
3
/kg)
Sp. Heat
(kJ/kg.K)
Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
-10 2.9157 154.056 1450.22 0.82965 5.7550 --- 0.417477 --- 2.492
35 13.522 366.072 1488.57 1.56605 5.2086 1.7023 0.095629 4.556 2.903
h
1
= 1450.22 kJ/kg
h
2
= 1488.57 kJ/kg
h
f3
= 366.072 kJ/kg
T
cond
= 35 C
T
evap
= -10 C
x
1
= 1.dry saturated vapour
State 3 = Sub-cooled by 5 C
}
Given :
ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
07-08-2012
28

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 10.cntd
( )
( )
kg kJ
kg kJ kg kJ
T T C h h h
subcool sat liq P f
/ 29 . 343
) / ( 303 308 56 . 405 ) / ( 07 . 366
3 4 ' 3
=
=
= =
( )
K T
T
T
T
C s s s s
P
8 . 371
308
ln 903 . 2 2086 . 5 755 . 5
ln
2
2
' 2
2
' 2 1 2 1
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
Isentropic Compression : 1-2
( )
( ) ( )
kg kJ
K K kg kJ kg kJ
T T C h h
P
/ 8 . 1673
0 . 308 8 . 371 . / 903 . 2 ) / ( 57 . 1488
' 2 2 ' 2 2
=
+ =
+ =
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

308 K
263 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
3
303 K
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 10.cntd
( ) ( )
sec / 04517 . 0
/ 29 . 343 22 . 1450
) ( 50
/
) ( 50
4 1
kg
kg kJ
kW
kg kJ h h
kW
m
=

=

=
-
Mass of Refrigerant :
Compressor Power :
( )
( )
kW
kg kJ X kg
h h m
1 . 10
/ 22 . 1450 8 . 1673 ) ( 04517 . 0
1 2
=
=
=
-
.ANS
Cylinder Dimensions :
( )
m m L
m D
kg m
rpm
D D
v
N
L D
kg m
g
228 . 0 ) 19 . 0 ( 2 . 1
19 . 0
/ 417477 . 0
60
) ( 1000
) 2 . 1 (
4 60 4
sec) / ( 04517 . 0
3
2 2
= - =
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
-
t t
.ANS
.ANS
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

308 K
263 K
3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
3
303 K
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
29

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Comparison of Carnot Vs. VCC
Assumption : STATE 1 and STATE 3 are
common for both cycles.
A
1
A
1
: Additional Work required due to
superheated section
A
2
A
2
: Additional Work required, as no work
is recovered during expansion. A
3
A
3
: Loss in cooling effect due to throttling
as compared to isentropic expansion.
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
4
4
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Comparison of Carnot Vs. VCC
on J/kg basis :
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
4
4
( ) ( )
' 2 1 3 ' 2 2 1
s s T h h A =
A
1
( )
' 4 3 2
h h A =
A
2
( )
' 4 4 3
h h A =
A
3
Areas A
2
and A
3
are EQUAL.
Throttling causes identical dual loss..!!!.
2 1 2 1
A A W W
comp
+ + =
3 1 4
A Q W
comp
=
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
( )
C
C
rev
R
W
A A
Q A
COP
COP
2 1
3
1
/ 1
+
+

= = q
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
30

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Example 11
A refrigerant 12 theoretical single stage cycle operates between a condensing temperature
of 32.2 C and an evaporating temperature of -17.78 C. Assume a Carnot cycle operating
between the same temperatures. Determine :
1. Carnot cycle work of compression.
2. Carnot cycle refrigerating effect.
3. Excess work of compression due to superheat section.
4. Excess work of compression due to throttling.
5. Loss in refrigeration effect due to throttling.
6. Refrigeration efficiency.
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

3
4
2
1
Sat. Vapour Line
Sat. Liq. Line
f g
2
A
1
A
2
A
3
4
4
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Example 11.cntd
1. ( )( )
( ) { } ( )
kg kJ
s s T T W
C
/ 986 . 22
033 . 247 7656 . 706 78 . 17 22 . 32
3 1 1 2
=
=
=
ANS.
2. ( )
( ) ( )
kg kJ
s s T Q
C
/ 332 . 117
033 . 247 7656 . 706 22 . 255
3 1 1
=
=
=
ANS.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
kg kJ
s s T h h A
/ 1483 . 0
667 . 684 7656 . 706 22 . 305 43 . 200 33 . 207
' 2 1 3 ' 2 2 1
=
=
= 3.
ANS.
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
31

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Example 11.cntd
( )
2653 . 0
889 . 80 7656 . 706
889 . 80 033 . 247
" 4 1
" 4 3
' 4
" 4 1 ' 4 " 4 ' 4 3
=

=
+ = =
s s
s s
x
s s x s s s
4. To evaluate A
2
, the value of h
4
is to be calculated.
ANS.
( )
( )( )
kg kJ
h h x h h
/ 242 . 62
817 . 19 73 . 179 2653 . 0 817 . 19
" 4 1 ' 4 " 4 ' 4
=
+ =
+ =
( )
( )
kg kJ
h h A
/ 438 . 4
242 . 62 78 . 66
' 4 3 2
=
=
=
ANS.
5. Since, A
3
= A
2
, we have A
3
= 4.438 kJ/kg.
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
6. Refrigerating efficiency can be calculated in 2 different ways :
Example 11.cntd
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
8 . 0
22 . 255 61 . 27
50 95 . 112
1 1 2
1 3 4 1
=
=


=
T h h
T T h h
R
q
ANS.
( ) ( )
8 . 0
986 . 22
438 . 4 1483 . 0
1
332 . 117 / 438 . 4 1
1
/ 1
2 1
3
=
+
+

=
+
+

=
C
C
R
W
A A
Q A
q
ANS.
OR by Equation :
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
32

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Multistage Vapour Compression Cycle
To overcome the limitations of the single stage cycle.
At low Evaporator Temperatures, staging of Compressor is necessary
due to Vol. Efficiency in single stage cycles.
Compressor staging and vapour intercooling
to excessive discharge temperatures.
Also helps for COP.
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Multistage Vapour Compression Cycle
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

1
2
3
9
Evaporation
Condensation
E
x
p
a
n
s
i
o
n

4
5 6
7
8
Evaporator
LP
Compressor
1
2
HP
Compressor
4
5
Condenser
6
7
8
9
NOTE : Typical for AMMONIA and R12
__________


Flash
Intercooler
3
Water
Intercooler
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
33

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 12
Calculate the power needed to compress 10 kg/min of Ammonia from saturated vapour at
1.4 bar to a condensing pressure of 10 bar :
(a) by single stage compression
(b) by two stage compression with intercooling by liquid refrigerant at 4 bar.
Assume saturated liquid to leave condenser and dry saturated vapour to leave evaporator.
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
4
7
8
__________


2
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

1
2
3
8
E
x
p
a
n
s
i
o
n

4
5 6
7
-27 C
-2 C
25 C
1.4 bar
10 bar
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 12.cntd
From P h Chart for Ammonia, we get :
SINGLE STAGE :
h
6
= h
7
= -645.0 kJ/kg h
1
= 464.5 kJ/kg h
3
= 753.5 kJ/kg
h
5
= 623.5 kJ/kg.K h
2
= 602.5 kJ/kg h
4
= 498.0 kJ/kg
Higher stage compressor must compress 10 kg/min plus
the quantity of liquid which evaporates to de-superheat
the gas at 2.

The rate of Ammonia compressed can be computed by
making a heat and mass balance about intercooler.
4
(h
4
= 498 kJ/kg)
(0.9142 kg/min)
7
(h
6
= h
7
= -645 kJ/kg)
8
__________


2
(h
2
=602.5 kJ/kg)
(10 kg/min)
ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
07-08-2012
34

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
1. Heat Balance :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 498 5 . 602 min / 10 645
4 6
- = - + - m kg m
2. Mass Balance :
( )
4 6
10 m m = +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4980 498 5 . 602 6025 645
6 6
+ - = - + - m m
Example 12.cntd
Property W/o Intercooling With Intercooling
1 2, 2 3 1 2, 2 4, 4 5
h
2
h
1
, kJ/kg 602.5 464.5 = 138 602.5 464.5 = 138
h
3
h
2
, kJ/kg 753.5 602.5 = 151 ---
h
5
h
4
, kJ/kg --- 623.5 498.0 = 125.5
Kg/min from 1 2 10 10
Kg/min from 2 3 10 ---
Kg/min from 4 5 --- 10.91426
Power (kJ/min), 1 2 10 X 138 = 1380 10 X 138 = 1380
Power (kJ/min), 2 3 10 X 151 = 1510 ---
Power (kJ/min), 4 5 --- 125.5 X 10.91426 = 1369.7
Total Power, (kJ/min) 2890 2747.7
ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Example 12.cntd
Thus,

Power requirement without liquid refrigerant intercooling = 2890 kJ/min
Power requirement with liquid refrigerant intercooling = 2747.7 kJ/min
ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
07-08-2012
35

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Multistage Vapour Compression Cycle
Evaporator
LP
Compressor
Water
Intercooler
__________


HP
Compressor
Condenser
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Flash
Intercooler
Flash Intercooler :
Tank with fixed liquid level.
Liquid level maintained by a Float Valve
= Expansion Valve also.
Sat. Liquid at intermediate pressure is
expanded to Evaporator pressure.
Flash vapour @ Throttling is given as
suction to HP Compressor.
Vapour @ 3 is bubbled through orifices in
the Flash Intercooler and de-superheated
by evaporation of liquid.
Vapour @ suction to HP Compressor :
1. Flash Vapour.
2. Refrigerant in evaporator
3. Vapour due to evaporation of
liquid in intercooler.
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Multistage Vapour Compression Cycle
Evaporator
LP
Compressor
Water
Intercooler
__________


HP
Compressor
Condenser
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Flash
Intercooler
Disadvantages of Flash Intercooler :
Liquid refrigerant in tank is at
intermediate pressure and saturated.
1. Evaporator is above Intercooler.
2. Heat is absorbed in liquid line.
1. Some liquid evaporates ahead
of Expansion Valve.
2. Operation of Expansion Valve
is sluggish due to low pressure
differential.
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
36

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Multistage Vapour Compression Cycle
NOTE : Typical for AMMONIA
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

1
2
3
9
Evaporation
Condensation
E
x
p
a
n
s
i
o
n

4
5 6
7
8
Evaporator
LP
Compressor
Water
Intercooler

HP
Compressor
Condenser
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
_______
Shell-&-Coil
Intercooler
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Multistage Vapour Compression Cycle
Evaporator
LP
Compressor
Water
Intercooler

HP
Compressor
Condenser
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
_______
Shell-&-Coil
Intercooler
Advantages of Shell-&-Coil Intercooler :
Subcools the liquid refrigerant.
Eliminates possibility of flash
liquid ahead the Expansion Valve.
Large pressure differential, as the
liquid is at Condenser pressure.
Limitation of Shell-&-Coil Intercooler :
Low COP, as not possible to
intercool the liquid as much as in
Flash Intercooler.
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
37

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Multistage Vapour Compression Cycle
NOTE : Typical for R12 and R22
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Evaporator
LP
Compressor

HP
Compressor
Condenser
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
_______
Shell-&-Coil
Liquid
Intercooler
3
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

1
2
3
9
Evaporation
Condensation
E
x
p
a
n
s
i
o
n

4
5 6
7
8
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Multistage Vapour Compression Cycle
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Evaporator
LP
Compressor

HP
Compressor
Condenser
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
_______
Shell-&-Coil
Liquid
Intercooler
3
Vapour from LP Compressor is not
intercooled.
Vapour from LP Compressor is
mixed with refrigerant from
Intercooler.
In stead of Float Valve, a Thermostatic
Expansion Valve is used.
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
38

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Multistage Vapour Compression Cycle
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Enthalpy, h
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

P
r

1
2
3
9
Evaporation
Condensation
E
x
p
a
n
s
i
o
n

4,10,11
5 6
7,12
8
Low Temp
Evaporator
LP
Compressor

HP
Compressor
Condenser
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
_______
Shell-&-Coil
Liquid
Intercooler
3
Water
Intercooler
High Temp
Evaporator
10
11
12
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Multistage Vapour Compression Cycle
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
No. of stages of Compression :
Economic as well as Practical Considerations.
R12, R22 and Ammonia : Single Stage
Evaporator Temp above 30 C.
R12, R22 : Single Stage more successful at lower temp than that for Ammonia.
Two Stage : Evaporator Temp between 60 C to 30 C.
Three Stage : Evaporator Temp below 65 C.
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
39

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Cascade Refrigeration System
Entropy, s
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

T

3a
4a
2a
1a
2a
3b
4b
2b
1b
2b
Evaporator
LP
Compressor
1a
2a 3a


4a
HP
Compressor
1b
2b
Condenser
3b
4b
Cascade
Condenser
ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Vapour Compression and Vapour Absorption Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Cascade Refrigeration System
Evaporator
LP
Compressor
1a
2a 3a


4a
HP
Compressor
1b
2b
Condenser
3b
4b
Temperatures below -65 C
Two Independent Systems.
Cascade Condenser : Heat Exchanger
Advantage :
Possibility of Multistaging each stage!!!
Limitation :
Efficiency loss due to Temperature
Overlap in Cascade Condenser.
Applications :
1. Liquefaction of Petroleum Vapour.
2. Liquefaction of Air / Atm. Gases.
3. Manufacture of Dry Ice.
ME 0611 SEM-I
07-08-2012
40

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
It is one of the oldest Refrigeration System.

Production of Low ( Cryogenic) Temperature Applications.

Two or more Refrigeration Cycles operate in series.

Cascade Refrigeration System

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. ME 0611 SEM-I
Thermodynamic Cycle
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
07-08-2012
41

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. ME 0611 SEM-I
Experimental Setup for Cascade System
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. ME 0611 SEM-I
Experimental Setup for Cascade System
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
07-08-2012
42

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. ME 0611 SEM-I
Performance of Cascade System
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Sr. No. Parameter Value Parameter Value
1. T
e
,CO2 -50
0
C T
e
,NH3 -20.96
0
C
2. T
c
,CO2 -17.48
0
C T
c
,NH3 29.72
0
C
3. COP,CO2 2.40 COP,NH3 2.14

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Comparison Multistage VCC
07-08-2012
43

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Precooled Linde Hampson Cycle
(1)
Makeup Gas
Heat Exchanger
Heat Exchanger
J T Valve
J T Valve
Main
Compressor
Refrigerant
Compressor
Cooling
Water
Liquid
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(f)
(g)
(6)
(1)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3
4
T
e
m
p
,

T

Entropy, s
1 2
5
6
f g
Refrigerant
Boiling
Point

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Cascade System for Air Liquefaction
Makeup Gas
Liquid N
2
Cooling Water
Ammonia, NH
3
Ethylene, C
2
H
4
Methane, CH
4
07-08-2012
44

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Cascade System for LNG Liquefaction
ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. ME 0611 SEM-I Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Advantages / Limitations
Temperature Overlap in Cascade Condenser .
Limitation :
Advantages :
It permits the use of Two / more different Refrigerants, depending on
their Boiling Points.

Inclusion of Intercooling between every two stages is possible, so it
improve performance of system.

Each cycle is operating separately ( i.e. Pr, Freq, compressor Input
Power, etc).


07-08-2012
45

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg.
Thank You !
Advanced Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning ME 0611 SEM-I

Basic Gas Cycles and Vapour Compression Refrigeration
M. Tech. Thermal Engg. Applied Thermodynamics & Heat Engines
References
Randall Barron, Cryogenic Systems, Oxford University Press, 2
nd
ed.,
1981, pp. 69 85.

Roy J. Dossat, Principles of Refrigeration, Thomson Press, 2
nd
SI ed., pp.
542 548.

Aurora S. C. and Domkundwar S. , Refrigeration and Air Conditioning,
Dhanpat Rai & Sons, Delhi, 8
th
ed. pp. 1 4.

Cengel Y. & Boles C. , Thermodynamics, Tata McGraw Hill Publication,
Sixth ed., pp. 636-638.
ME 0611 SEM-I