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大 学 科 技 英 语

田传茂 编著

1
前 言

二十世纪是科技和经贸飞速发展的世纪,而英语是使用最为广泛的国际通用语。随着
世界各国科技工作者用英语进行写作和交流,共同遵循一定的写作范式,一种新的英语文
体——科技英语应运而生。从语言学角度看,科技英语是专门用途英语的一个分支。本书立
足于理论与实践相结合,围绕“学什么”和“怎么学”两个问题对科技英语学习的基本要
素进行了简略介绍。
第一编探讨科技英语的理论。导言部分首先介绍了科技英语的概念及其重要性,指明
了科技英语学习的难点及应对策略。第一章详细介绍了科技英语的文体、语法和词汇特点,
并结合语篇实例对这些特点作了例示性说明。第二章介绍了科技英语的微观和宏观阅读策
略,包括如何应对难词、如何理解难句、如何阅读段落、图表以及整个语篇。第三章介绍了科
技英语的写作特点及策略,如技术概念的定义方法,实验、操作、生产、发现发明过程等的
描述方法,科技论文等各种体裁的写作方法。第四章介绍了科技英语翻译的原则,常用的
翻译方法以及科技翻译特有的某些重要内容的翻译。第二编为科技英语综合技能训练,即
将所学的科技英语理论运用到科技英语的读、写、译实践。课文后的练习都是针对第一编科
技英语的特点及其读写译策略而设计的,旨在帮助学习者掌握科技英语的理论和相关技能。
本书还设计有五个附录。附录一是第二编课文的参考译文,学习者可通过译文检验自
己对原文的理解程度。附录二是课外阅读材料,材料中的难点已作了注释,旨在拓宽阅读
面和增加阅读量。附录三是科技英语常用前缀、词根和后缀。掌握它们对科技英语实践大有
帮助。附录四是科技英语研究文选。本书由于篇幅,仅对科技英语进行了一般性介绍。科技
英语的具体领域,以及与其紧密相关的经贸、法律、医学等领域未作介绍。阅读该附录所选
文章可弥补其不足。附录五是科技英语基本词汇。掌握这些词汇对学习者现在和将来的学习、
工作和生活都是非常重要的,
本书撰写具体分工为:沈晓华负责第二编九到二十单元课文及练习的设计;陈桂琴承
担第一编第四章长句翻译部分的撰写;本书其他部分均由田传茂执笔;其他编者在本书素
材收集、整理和校对方面做了很多工作。
在本书的写作过程中,编著者直接或间接地利用了不少学者的研究成果,在此表示衷
心的感谢。同时也衷心地感谢湖北科技出版社的高诚毅和李海宁两位编辑,他们在本书的
策划和出版过程中做了大量工作。
本书凡有舛错,概由编著者负责,同时欢迎读者指正。

2
目 录

前言
第一编 科技英语的基本理论
导言
0.1 科技英语的概念
0.2 科技英语的重要性
0.3 科技英语的学习方法
0.4 科技英语的难点与应对策略
0.4.1 技术词语及其“假朋友”现象
0.4.2 缩略语及各类技术符号
0.4.3 复杂长句与名词化结构
第一章 科技英语的特征
第一节 文体特征
第二节 语法特征
1.2.1 被动语态
1.2.2 一般现在时和一般过去时
1.2.3 虚拟语气和祈使语气
1.2.4 大量使用修饰语
1.2.5 名词化结构
1.2.6 同位语结构
第三节 词汇特征
1.3.1 总体特点
1.3.2 科技英语词汇的类型
1.3.3 科技英语词汇的主要构词方法
第四节 特征小结:语篇实例分析
第二章 科技英语阅读
第一节 生词的阅读策略
第二节 难句的阅读策略
第三节 段落的阅读策略
第四节 图表的阅读策略
第五节 语篇阅读策略
第三章 科技英语写作
第一节 科技英语写作的特点
第二节 科技英语写作的方法
3.2.1 科技英语的定义方法
3.2.2 科技英语的描述方法
3.2.3 各类科技文体的写作
3.2.4 科技英语惯用语
第三节 科技英语常用句型结构
第四章 科技英语翻译
第一节 科技汉语的特点
第二节 翻译原则
第三节 翻译基本技巧

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4.3.1 选词
4.3.2词义引伸
4.3.3 词类转换
4.3.4 增词法
4.3.5 省略法
4.3.6 正反译法
第四节 专项翻译
4.4.1 技术词语的翻译
4.4.2 数量数据的翻译
4.4.3 被动语态的翻译
4.4.4 长句翻译
4.4.5 逻辑与科技翻译
4.4.6 背景知识与科技翻译
4.4.7 割裂修饰现象及其翻译
第五节 翻译资源及其利用
第二编 科技英语读、写、译实践
Unit 1 Healthy Germs
Unit 2 Common Herb Can Help Fight Cancer
Unit 3 Alternative Energy Sources Gain Worldwide
Unit 4 Quantum Clockwork
Unit 5 The Long Road to Calculus
Unit 6 The ‘Superstar’ Nutrient
Unit 7 Three Kinds of Fatigue
Unit 8 New Ways of Dealing with Hazardous Toxic Waste
Unit 9 Guidelines for Using a Cellphone Abroad
Unit 10 Closer to Vanishing: Bending Light as a Step Toward Invisibility
Cloaks
Unit 11 Self-serve Brains
Unit 12 The Mind of the Swarms
Unit 13 What’s a Planet?
Unit 14 Earthshaking Event
Unit 15 Deep Impact
Unit 16 Save the Flowers
Unit 17 Cool Birds
Unit 18 Blood Work
Unit 19 When Genes Escape
Unit 20 The Nature of Things

附录一 课文参考译文
附录二 课外阅读材料
附录三 科技英语常用前缀、词根与后缀
附录四 科技英语研究文选
附录五 科技英语基本词汇

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参考文献

第一编

科技英 语的基 本理论

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导 言

0.1 科技英语的概念

随着二十世纪经济与科学技术的迅速发展,整个世界都处于技术与商贸这两大力量的
支配之下。这两大力量的发展需要一种国际性语言,而英语由于其种种有利条件,承担了这
一国际语言的脚色。与此同时,语言学的研究认为不同内容的语言具有不同的特点和表达方
式,因此,找出某一特殊语言环境(如科技,商贸,行政管理) 的语言特点,并用于指导语言
教学的观点成为专用英语的理论基础(段平,1999:50)。
科技英语(English for Science and Technology,简称EST)是专门用途英语
(English for specual purposes, 简称ESP)的一个分支,是科技工作者在用英语传递科
技信息的过程中逐渐形成的一种语体。科技英语可以泛指一切论及科学和技术的书面语和
口语,其中包括:1)科技著作、科技论文、实验报告和方案;2)各类科技情报和文字资料;
3)科技使用手册,包括仪器、仪表、机械、工具等等;4)有关科技问题的会谈、会议、交谈的
用语;5)有关科技的影片、录像等有声资料的解说词等等(刘宓庆,1998:325)。本书所论
科技英语,指上述1)、2)、3)项所提到的书面英语。

0.2 科技英语的重要性

随着我国科学技术与市场经济的迅速发展,社会对外语人才的需求重心也在起着明显
的变化。目前,英语专业毕业生在求职时遇到用人单位提出的一个普遍性的问题是:“除
了英语,你还会什么?”。同其他专业一样,英语专业的培养目标受市场经济规律的影响越来
越大。为了培养厚基础、宽口径、专业适应能力强的外语人才,一些院校的英语专业正在进行
培养复合型英语人才的尝试,开设了科技英语、外贸英语以及旅游英语等专业。
科技英语不仅对英语专业学生很重要,对其他文科学生和理科学生同样重要。大学学
习离不开英语:日常英语阅读,各种各样的英语考试,(理科)毕业论文的写作等等,都涉
及到科技英语的读、写、译技能。踏入社会之后的工作更离不开科技英语:从事与科技相关
的工作直接与科技英语打交道,如英文科技资料的读、写、译,各种国际科技会议,国际科
技合作,工程项目的谈判、引进、安装等等;而包括英语专业学生在内的文科学生也有可能
在外事、外贸单位,外资、合资企业以及翻译公司工作,他们接触科技英语的机会也很多。
可以说,不论是现在还是将来,科技英语就在我们身边,与我们息息相关。
大学阶段的问题是,无论是英语专业学生,还是其他文科或理科学生,在科技英语方
面都有各自需要弥补的缺陷。英语专业学生虽然英语语言知识相对扎实,但他们不懂科技,
而且科技英语在语法、词汇、文体方面有自己独特的地方,因此不学习科技英语,即便是英
语专业学生也难以胜任科技英语的读、写、译实践。其他文科学生不仅英语基础相对较差,
而且科学知识贫乏;理科学生科技知识丰富,但英语基础较差。因此,对于文理科学生来
说,科技英语都是一门必修的课程。

0.3 科技英语的学习方法

理论与实践相结合是学习英语的有效途径。理论是指科技英语的文体、语法、词汇特征
以及读、写、译策略。科技英语在产生和发展过程中,逐渐形成了自己独特的文体风格和写

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作规范,为广大科技工作者共同遵守。因此,学习科技英语首先要全面地、系统地、准确地
掌握科技英语的语体特点和读写译策略,然后通过大量的、反复的语言实践加深对其认识
和领悟。只有这样才能真正掌握科技英语。当然,像所有事物一样,科技英语也是在不断发
展变化的。我们只有把握科技英语的发展趋势,才能在自己的学习与工作中准确地运用科
技英语,不至于落伍。

0.4 科技英语的难点与应对策略

学习科技英语,我们应对其难点做到心中有数,了解其应对策略,并在理论学习与实
践训练中予其以更多的注意力。科技英语的难点主要包括技术词语及其“假朋友”现象,
缩略语及各类技术符号以及结构复杂的长句等。下面分别叙述。

0.4.1 技术词语及其“假朋友”现象
学习和记忆词汇是中国学生学习英语最为头痛的问题之一。而就学习科技英语而言,
技术词汇是制约读、写、译实践的一个主要障碍。文科学生甚至望“其”而却步。技术词汇是
科技语言的主要构成,要学好科技英语,对技术词汇不能回避。学习技术词汇,首先要树
立强烈的自信心,要培养对科技知识的兴趣,关注发生在自己周围的科技现象,对科技英
语词汇要有强烈的求知欲望。例如笔者做准分子激光近视矫正手术,了解到目前技术已由
PRK发展到LASIK和LASEK。这里PRK、LASIK、LASEK究竟指什么?笔者带着好奇心上网利用
GOOGLE查询,发现它们分别指“准分子激光角膜切削术” (photorefractive
keratectomy), “准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术”(laser-assisted in site
keratomileusis), “ 准分子激光角膜上皮磨镶术”(laser-assisted epithelial
keratomileusis)。又如因湖南卫视的《超级女生》节目而风靡全国的PK,意为“单挑”。那
么它是什么单词的缩写呢?词典上是查不到的,因为PK是个新词,且“来路不正”,是网
络游戏用语,意为“杀死玩家”(player killing)。
如果我们对科技词汇永远保持一颗好奇之心,我们大脑中的英语技术词库会在不知不
觉中不断扩大,就会大大降低死记硬背技术词汇的枯燥乏味之感。技术词汇的学习除了这
种关注日常生活的“随机”学习和积累外,还有系统的、科学的学习方法。科技词汇中的很
大一部分都是利用英语构词法规则派生而成的。如果我们掌握了科技英语词汇构成要素中
的那些常用的前缀、后缀和词根,我们就能根据某一科技词语各部分的意思推导出整个词
的词义。例如,像photomorphogenesis这样的“大”词,看起来令人望而生畏,但如果我
们能够辨识出其中包含的三个词素photo-(光),-morph-(形态)和-genesis(产生),我们
就能大致猜出其意——“光形态发生现象”。关于利用英语构词法来理解、记忆、新造科技
英语词汇,我们将在第一章的“词汇特征”一节详细讨论。
技术词语具有简练性、专业性特点。在技术领域,我们是不能用日常词汇来“越俎代庖
”的。例如,在相关技术领域,“近视”,“花粉”、“断层”、“花梗”、“榫”不能用日
常词汇表述为near-sightedness,flower powder,layer-breaking, flower stalk,
meeting part,而应用专门技术词myopia,pollen,fault,pedicel,juncture。在写作
和翻译中,想当然或疏于查阅工具书或懒于请教有关专家而用日常词汇表达来敷衍塞搪,
将会失去科技英语的准确性、严谨性和技术性。
另外,在科技英语中还有一些词汇的的表层意义并非其真正含义,语言学上将这些词
称为“假朋友”。例如,dog’s ears(轧件表面上的疤痕), bull’s eye(靶心),
shoulder(路肩), labor(分娩),tolerance(公差,容差),finish(表面光洁,磨光),
machine(v. 切削)。这其中,有的词(组)是别有含义,有的词是一词多义。在科技英语学

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习中,对这类词决不能想当然,而应查词典或求教他人,否则就会闹笑话。这里对英语词
汇学习中的“假朋友”作分类介绍,希望有益于大家的英语学习。
A)普通词语
英语中的不少名词,所指的并不是某一事物,而是该事物的某一特点,因而其字面意
义不是其真实所指。美国语言学家布龙非尔德在《语言论》一书中列举了不少这类词,如
whitecap(浪头白色泡沫),turnkey(狱吏),longlegs(盲蜘蛛),butterfingers(丢三
落四的人),longnose(欧洲一种长嘴硬鳞鱼),swallow-tail(燕尾服),blue-coat(警
察),blue-stocking(女学者),blue-bottle(矢车菊,青蝇)等。
B)成语典故
成语典故大多出自神话寓言、童话传说、风俗习惯、文学、宗教、经典等,其真实含义与
字面意义常常不一致,如:under the weather (身体欠佳),salt of the earth (社会
中坚),head over heals (手忙脚乱地),have a bee in one’s bonnet (想得入了迷),
have an axe to grind (另有企图),a brown study (沉思默想),British Sunday (枯
燥乏味之物),Derby and Joan (恩爱夫妻),Jekyll and Hyde (双面人),pumpkin-
eater (养不活老婆的人)等。
C) 修辞性语言
英语中的一些修辞格如委婉语、比喻、双关、反语等,其意义常在言外,须加注意,如:
in one’s birthday suit (赤裸),go the way of all flesh (死亡),eating for
two(怀孕),married but not churched (同居),the smiling year(春天)等。
D)俚俗用语和科技用语
英语中的俚俗用语或非正式用语的含义有时与其字面意义相去甚远,如kick the
bucket(翘辫子/蹬腿,指死亡),Blast you!(挨刀货!),You are telling me.(我
早知道了,不用你告诉我。)。科技英语中有些术语由普通词语构成,具有不同于字面意义
的专门含义,如:dog(车床夹头,水密门夹扣,止动器,无线电测向器),base(碱,
固色剂,底边),rectify(精馏,直流探伤,整流),package engineer(撬装设备工
程师 ),physical inventory(实物盘存)等。
总之,对于英语中的“假朋友”,一是不要想当然、望文生义,要联系语境理解;二
是不要盲目相信某一本词典,要多查词典,查原版词典,多向人请教。(田传茂,2004)

0.4.2 缩略语及各类技术符号
科技英语中大量使用缩略语,而各种符号、公式、字母、数字、参数更是比比皆是。技术
缩略语不易辨识,特别是那些非约定俗成的、由作者生造的缩略语。例如cf.,c/o,
p.p.,s.g.,cot分别代表compare(比较),care of(由…转交),signed on behalf
of(代表…签字),specific gravity(比重),cotangent(余割)。更为令人头痛的是,有
些缩略语指代的不是一个技术词汇,而是许多技术词汇,如MS,它代表的技术词汇有:
MS = millisecond (毫秒)
= Mississippi (密西西比河)
= Microsoft (微软)
= Master of Science (理科硕士)
= maximum stress (最大应力)
= manuscript (手稿)
= master switch (总开关)
= memory system (存储系统)
= master sequence (主程序装置)

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= medium speed (中速/平均速度)
= military standard (AmE) (军事标准)
除了缩略语,科技英语中的各类技术符号的拼法、读法和意义也是一个难点。例如:

stress ∝ strain 其中的∝读作 is proportional to


log10 x 读作the logarithm of x to the base 10或log x to the base 10
≥≤ 读作greater than or equal to…, less than or equal to…
180 36’11’’读作eighteen degrees thirty-six minutes eleven seconds

+ = 0读作 x to the minus two third plus the fifth root of a squared equals zero

科技英语还大量使用希腊字母和拉丁语词汇。例如,,
δ(delta),ε(epsilon),η(eta),θ(theta), μ(mu),), Σα(sigma),它们分别
是希腊语的第四、五、七、八、十二、十八个字母,拼读法为:
delta,epsilon,eta,theta,mu,sigma。科技英语中的拉丁语词集中在生命科学和医学
领域的事物名称上,如Emiliana huxleyi(颗石藻,英语俗名为
coccolithophore),Bothus ocellatus (比目鱼,英语俗名为flatfish),Symbion
oandora (一种无脊椎动物)等等。

0.4.3 复杂长句与名词化结构
科技英语多长句,其原因是科技信息复杂,而表述又要求精确,这就需要大量地运用
各种修辞语,其结果是增加了句子的长度。例如:
---The separation of the natural sciences into physical and biological sciences, and physical
sciences into physics and chemistry happily breaks up a larger body of knowledge into more
manageable parts. 自然科学分化为物理和生物学科,而物理学科又分化为物理学和化学,
这就很恰当地把一个庞大的知识体系分割成一些较为容易掌握的门类。
从上例下画线部分可以看出,科技英语长句结构的复杂性集中在名词短语而非动词短
语上。名词短语多为名词化结构(nominalized structure),即将一个动词转化为名词,如上
例中的 separation 就是一个名词化动词,由 separate 加名词词尾-ion 变化而来,separation 再
与 of-短语构成名词短语,这个短语称为名词化结构。科技英语中,为了使表述简练,以最
少的文字容纳最多的信息,写作者大量使用名词化结构,其结果是拉大了句子的长度,同
时使名词短语的结构变得复杂起来,进而增加了理解的难度。请看下面二例:
---The difficulty in measuring smoke’s outdoor dispersion has led NIST analysts to simulate the
problem mathematically. 由于测量油烟在室外消散遇到困难,NIST 的分析员们用数学模拟
法处理这一问题。
---Alternating layers of semiconductors with slightly different compositions can act as mirrors,
bouncing a portion of the light back and forth between the faces of the chip. 由于各层半导体的
组成成分略有不同,所以能起到镜子的作用,使部分的光在芯片界面间来回反射。
以上两例的画线部分为名词化结构,是整个句子的理解难点。在科技英语的阅读和翻
译实践中要特别注意名词化结构,理顺其间的逻辑和意义关系是理解和翻译的关键。
此外,科技英语句子结构中错综复杂的修辞关系、省略、替代等也给阅读理解带来困难。
各种技术图表的阅读与写作也是科技英语学习的一个重难点。

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第一章 科技英语的特征

第一节 文体特征

科技英语作为一种独立的文体具有一些不同于文学英语的固有属性。如果将科技英语
与文学英语进行对比,我们会发现前者有别于后者的一些显著特征。例如,科技英语以“
准确”为核心,文学英语则要求“不要摹写自然”。文学英语重在塑造艺术形象,而科技
英语重在如实地记叙、研究、观察和实验的过程与结果。文学英语的主要特点是再现与表现
性的高度统一,鲜明性和模糊性的和谐统一,语言气势与节奏的变幻多姿;科技英语的主
要特点是逻辑严谨,表述准确,语言简练明析,句子结构平匀稳密。概括起来说就是,科
技英语是如实地呈现客观事实的语言。
英国近代作家托马斯·斯普拉特(Thomas Sprat)在其杰作《英国皇家学会史》(1668)
中指出,科技语言的一个显著特点是“表达贴切、显豁、自然”(a close, naked,
natural way of speaking),用一句中国俗谚诠释就是,“清水出芙蓉,天然去雕饰”。
为权威的《牛津英语》(1986)科技英语部分执笔的彼得·梅达沃爵士(Sir Peter
Medawar)认为,简洁(brevity)、中肯(cogency)、明晰(clarity)乃科技文体的三大
主要品质,并将明晰列为首要品质。可见,科技语言应当明了、毫无雕饰。(田传茂,许明武,
2000:56)简洁明了是科技英语在表达方面的一个突出特点。
当代著名学者刘宓庆 (1998:333)则将科技英语的文体总貌特征概述为:“科技英语的
显著特点是重叙事逻辑上的连贯(Coherence)及表达上的明确(Clarity)与畅达(Fluency);避免
行文晦涩,作者避免表露个人感情,避免论证上的主观随意性。因此,科技英语总是力求
少用或不用描述性形容词以及具有抒情作用的副词、感叹词及疑问词。科技英语力求平易
(Plainness)和精确(Preciseness)。因此尽力避免使用旨在加强语言感染力和宣传效果的各种修
辞格,忌用夸张、借喻、讥讽、反诘、双关及押韵等修辞手段,以免使读者产生行文浮华、内
容虚饰之感。”这是科技英语在修辞方面的特点。应当看到,当代科技英语的发展已显露出
一些与传统科技英语不同的文体特征。例如当代科技工作者为了使科技英语 (特别是科普英
语)叙述生动有趣,会在不影响描述客观性的前提下偶尔“犯忌”,有限制地使用比喻、拟
人、夸张等积极修辞手法,以增强文章的可读性(田传茂,许明武,2001)。

第二节 语法特征

科技英语与普通英语在语法方面没有根本的差异,只是有些英语语法资源得到更充分
地利用,或者说得更具体些,这些语法资源更受到科技写作者的青睐,而另外一些语法资
源在科技英语中的使用频率相对要低一些或者根本不用。专用英语研究表明,被动语态、一
般现在时和一般过去时、虚拟及祈使语气、修辞语(特别是后置修饰语和扩展的名词前置修饰
语)、同位语结构等是(传统)科技英语的突出特点。下面我们分别作具体介绍。

1.2.1 被动语态
在科技英语特别是传统科技英语中,被动语态得到广泛的使用。有人作过统计,科技
英语文章中百分之八十以上的句子使用被动语态,本章第四节的语篇实例将会证明科技英
语的这一语法特征。这里的一个关键的问题是,为什么科技英语写作者如此青睐被动语态?
要知道问题的答案,我们首先必须了解英语被动语态的功能或者说“语义价值” (Semantic

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Values,刘宓庆,1998:351)。被动语态的功能包括:
1) 强调行为的承受者
行为的承受者由于被置于话题(Topic)的主位(Thematic Position)上而得到强调,例如:
--- Loss of efficiency in the boiler will be caused by the dissipation of heat through the walls of
the combustion chamber. 热量通过燃烧室的壁散失掉,将引起锅炉效率降低。
loss of efficiency in the boiler( 锅炉效率降低) 由于处于话题的主位即句子主语位置上而得
到强调。
2) 隐藏动作的执行者
“ 隐藏动作的执行者”有两个原因:一是不知道动作的执行者是谁,二是知道动作的
执行者是谁,但说话人觉得不重要不想道明,或者觉得难以启齿,或者因施事者在场不想
冒犯对方而隐藏。遇到这种情形,汉语可使用无主句,而英语则无法用主动语态描述思想、
表达事实,只有借助于被动语态。例如:
---Gunpowder was invented in China in the Song Dynasty. 中国在宋朝发明了火药。
---The window has been broken. 窗户破了。
例 1 采用被动语态是因为不知道是谁在宋朝发明了火药。若是汉语,完全可用无主句来叙
述这一事实:“中国在宋朝发明了火药”。例 2 使用被动语可能是说话人不知道是谁打破了
窗户,或者知道是谁,但此人就在说话现场,出于礼貌或避免冒犯此人,说话人只有隐去
施事者姓名。
3) 衔接上下文
人们叙述事实时常常围绕一个中心事物(话题)进行。这个事物有时是某些动作的执行者,
有些则是另外一些动作的承受者。说话者或写作者若不欲改变话题主语,使叙述紧凑而连
贯,就只有借助被动语态来描述该事物为受动者的那些情形。例如:
---The word “plastic” comes from the Greek word “plasticos” and is used to describe something
which can be easily shaped. “塑料”一词来自希腊语词“plasticos”,用来指易于成形的东西。
---Many advances in computer technology took place in the twenties after 1950. They are
generally classified into four stages or generations. 在 1950 年之后的二十年内,电脑技术获
得了长足进展,一般被划分为四个阶段或四代。
例 1 中的中心话题是 The word “plastic”,它是动作 to come 的施事者,动作 to use 的受
事者;遇到后一种情形,在不改换话题主语的情况下只有使用被动语态。例 2 同例 1 相似,
Many advances 是前一个动作 to take place 的施事者,是后一个动作 to classify 的受事者,因
此第二句用了被动语态。
4) 使表述客观
被动语态使表述较为客观,使读者或听者觉得某一观点是大家而非某个人的观点。这
一功能以及强调受事者和隐藏施事者的功能使被动语态在科技文体中得到广泛地运用。试
比较:
---I think that he is an honest man.
---It is thought that he is an honest man。
我认为他是个老实人。/ 大家都认为他是个老实人。
例 1 表明为个人观点,因而给人以主观武断的感觉;例 2 暗示为多数人的观点,因而显
得较为客观。
5) 使说话礼貌
被动句有时比主动句委婉、客气,因此显得礼貌。试比较:
---You are requested to give a performance. / We request you to give a performance.
请你来个节目。/ 我们要你表演一个节目。

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---Where can you be reached? / Where can I reach you?
在什么地方可以找到您?/ 我在什么地方可以找到你?
所举两例中的第一句,其语气没有第二句直接生硬。在人际交流中,建议、要求、命令、批
评总是令人反感,若用被动语态表达,可缓和减轻语言的刺耳度。
6) 避免语义模糊
使用被动语态有时可以避免词句意义出现模棱两可的情况。例如:
---The gas is carefully heated.
---People heat the gas carefully.
例 1 将事实和盘托出,表述客观而明确。例 2 中的 People 则有指代不明的问题,违背了科
技英语语义明了的文体风格。实际上,在科技叙述中也不需要指明动作的执行者是谁,因
为读者关心的是科学事实。
被动语态的第 1),2),4),6)项功能使其受到科技英语写作者的偏爱。首先,科技写作关
注的是客观事物、事实、现象、过程、结果、规律等,所以写作者一般都倾向于将客观事物置
于话题主位即句子主语的位置上,而在很多情况下事物都是某一动作的承受者。遇此情形,
按照英语语法规则,只有使用被动语态才能将动作承受者放在主语的位置上。其次,作为
动作执行者的人如工程师或实验人员,在科技活动中一般处于次要地位,技术方法、过程、
结果才是科技活动的中心内容,因为无论是谁,只要运用同样的方法、遵循同样的步骤,
就会获得同样的结果。因此,科技写作一般隐去动作的执行者,英语被动语态正好可以满
足这一写作要求。再次,科技与客观世界打交道,对其认识不能有任何的模棱两可。这要求
科技语言表述客观清晰,拒斥文学语言的模糊性,而被动语态正好具有这两项功能。凡此
种种原因决定了被动语态在科技英语中非常广泛的运用。不过,随着科技英语的迅速发展,
人们对被动语态的过分依赖心理也在逐渐发生变化。有学者指出,“在当代科技英语中,
‘被动’这个‘特点’已经与实际情况越来越不相符……目前,越来越多的学者倾向于应
该尽量少用或者不用被动语态”(范瑜,李国国,2004)。

.1.2.2 一般现在时和一般过去时
从时态来看,一般现在时在科技英语中得到广泛使用,除此之外就是一般过去时。由
于科技语言描述的自然界的是客观现象、本质、规律、过程、机制、法则等,它们都具有一个
显著的特点:无时间性(timelessness)。而在英语时态系统中,适合描述“无时间性”的真理
性事物的主要是一般现在时,如:
---Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.
“水由氢和氧构成”这一论断,无论是过去、现在或将来 (限于人类历史),都是一条不
变的科学真理,即它不受时间的影响。除此之外,“无时间性”还指与时间没有直接联系
或与时间无关,如科学定义、分类、规程、法则等。请看下面的例子:
---A knife is an instrument for cutting.
---Scientists can be classified into theoretical scientists and applied scientists.
---The temperature rises until it reaches 1000C, but after that it remains constant.
在描述过去发生的事情如实验、生产、发明发现过程等时,科技英语使用过去时。例如:
---In 1676 Romer discovered that light travels at a determined speed.
上例主句中的动作发生在过去,所以用了一般过去时;从句揭示的是一条真理,所以
用了一般现在时。除了一般现在时与一般过去时,根据具体需要,科技英语有时也使用过
去完成时、现在完成时,一般将来时和现在进行时。

1.2.3 虚拟语气和祈使语气

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从语气来看,科技英语使用除疑问语气之外的所有语气,包括陈述语气、祈使语气和
虚拟语气。疑问语气在科技英语特别是专业科技英语中几乎不用。陈述语气为所有文体所共
有,无需赘述。科技英语比较频繁地使用虚拟和祈使语气。这是因为,科学研究常常以假设
作为出发点,而如果这种假设带有较大的不确定性或不可能性时,诉诸语言表达就需要使
用虚拟语气。例如:
---If all the ice in the world melted, the level of the sea would rise about 250 ft.
如果地球上的冰都融化,海平面将升高大约 250 英尺。
---If there were no oxygen in air, fuels would not be able to burn.
空气中如果没有氧气,燃料就不可能燃烧。
---If there were no frictional losses in a machine, the machine would be 100 percent efficient.
机器如果没有摩擦损失,其效率就是 100%。
---Were there no voltage in a conductor, the flow of electrons would not take place.
如果导体内没有电压,电子就不能在里面流动。
以上诸例中的动词使用虚拟形式,暗示句子所描述的情况发生的几率很小甚至不可能 。
科技英语常与实验、产品、仪器操作流程有关,因而需要运用祈使语气来传达操作命令或建
议。英语多用动词原形或 should 或 must 或 don’t 来传达命令。例如:
---Wear safety glasses in an organic laboratory to protect your eyes.
进入有机实验室要戴上安全镜,以保护眼睛。
---Don’t leave your bench during a reaction or distillation. Or ask somebody to watch it for you.
在反应发生或者进行蒸馏时,不能擅自离开。若要离开,需请人照看。
---You must put on a lab coat to protect your clothes.
穿上实验服,保护好自己的衣物。
---You shouldn’t keep your face too close to a vessel in which you are heating reagents.
在给试剂加热时,不要将脸靠近容器。

1.2.4 大量使用修饰语
科技信息纷繁复杂,常常需要大量的修饰语才能清楚、准确、严密地表达。而由于修饰
语的广泛使用,使得科技英语出现大量的结构复杂的长句。科技英语中的修饰语多为后置
修饰语。英语中可以充当后置修饰语的语言资源有:定语从句(即关系从句),非限定性动词
短语(包括分词短语和动词不定式短语),介词短语,形容短语和副词短语。下面各举一例:
---Hydrogen is a chemical fuel that is clean and smokeless when burned. (定语从句)
氢是一种干净的化学燃料,燃烧时无烟。
---The function ф (x, y, z)so determined is called the velocity potential.( 过去
分词短语)
这样一来确定的函数 ф (x, y, z)称为速度势。
---An element is a substance consisting of atoms of only one kind. (现在分词短语)
元素是只含一种原子的物质。
---Because of the terrestrial gravitation, all bodies not very far from the surface of the earth have
the tendency to fall toward the center of the earth. (动词不定式短语)
由于地球的引力,所有离地面不远的物体都有落向地心的趋势。
---Work is the product of the force and the distance in the direction of the force. (介词短语)
功等于力乘以在力方向上的距离的积。
---To every action there exists a reaction equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. (形容词短
语)

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对于每个作用力,都存在一个大小相等、方向相反的反作用力。
---The moisture around will make the common carbon steel rust rapidly. (副词短语)
周围的湿气会使普通碳钢很快生锈。
除了这些后置修饰语外,科技英语中还有一种特殊的前置修饰语——扩展的名词前置
修饰语(刘宓庆,1998)。科技英语中,作定语的名词,常常不是由 of 引导,置于被修饰的名
词后面,而是直接置于被修饰名词的前面,以符合科技英语简练的文体风格。这也符合当
代英语发展的整体趋势。例如:
illumination intensity determination = determination of the intensity of illumination 照明强度测

power transmission relay system = a relay system for power transmission 送电中继体系
breast cancer survey program evaluation = an evaluation of the survey program with regard to
breast cancer 乳腺癌普查计划实施总结
以上三例中,前者为科技英语惯用表达方式,后者为日常英语表达方式。两相比较,
不难发现科技英语表达的简练与明确。请再看三例:
3-feet glass manhole door 3 英尺玻璃人孔门
interferon spray concentration processing 干扰素喷药浓缩剂加工法
computer programming teaching device manual 计算机程序编制教学装置手册

1.2.5 名词化结构
伦道夫·夸克等人在《当代英语语法》(A Grammar of Contemporary English, 1972)中指
出,大量使用名词化结构(Nominalization)是科技英语的特点之一。因为科技文体要求行
文简洁,表达客观,内容确切,信息量大,强调存在的事实,而非某一行为。
科技英语中的名词化现象指科技写作者倾向于将动词或形容词派生或转化为其相应的
抽象名词来使用。这个抽象名词实际上是“名词化”了的动词或形容词,它还保留部分动
词或形容词的特征和功能,若与其他词语,特别是与 of-之类的介词词组连用,就构成了一
个名词化结构。请看下面一对例子。
① Rectification of this fault is achieved by insertion of a wedge.
② You can rectify the fault if you insert a wedge.
插入一个楔子,就能校正这个误差。
以上两例意思基本一样,不同之处是例①为科技英语,例②为普通英语。例①虽短,
却使用了两个名词化结构: rectification of this fault 和 insertion of a wedge,可见该结构在科
技英语中使用频率之高和受青睐的程度。这两个名词化结构都是由通过派生法形成的名词
化动词(即 rectify→rectification 和 insert→insertion)+ of-短语构成。比较这两个例子,我们
可以看出它们各自的特点。例①为简单句,例②为复杂句;例①使用被动语态,例②使用
主动语态;例①主语为物称,例②主语为人称;例①的信息焦点在名词化结构上,例②的
信息焦点在两个分句的动宾结构上。这些特点反过来又再现出两个句子各自的文体风格。从
句子结构看,例①要比例②简洁;从表达方式看,例①要比例②客观;从词组结构看,例
①则没有例②意思清楚明了,因为它的名词化结构意思模糊,不够直截了当。不过,从科
普英语应当平易亲切的角度看,例②似乎比例①更好,因为它主观中透出亲切和人性,例
①的客观反倒显得生硬、机械而无生气。这似乎告诉我们,如果不是技术性较强的专业科技
英语,名词化结构应尽量少用。
戴维· 克利斯托尔 (David Crystal ,1988) 曾经指出,科技英语结构的复杂性集中在名词
短语而不是动词短语上,这里的名词短语指的主要就是名词化结构。名词化结构常常是由
句子压缩而成的,虽然信息含量大,但结构复杂,不易一眼看清,如 the separation of the

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natural sciences into physical and biological sciences, and physical sciences into physics and
chemistry,就是一个超长的名词短语。另外,名词化结构的使用使科技英语中出现了一类特
殊的动词即空语类动词,来帮助作主语的名词化结构完成其句法功能,如上例①中的
achieve。这样的动词其语法功能大于其意义功能,不仅存在于科技英语中,在普通英语也
存在。纽马克(Peter Newmark,1981)指出,在诸如 make use of ,take care of ,pay attention
to 之类的短语中,信息焦点在名词而非动词上。这里的 make,take,pay 的词义不显著,主
要起语法功能作用,这类词就是空语类动词。科技英语中的空语类动词有:achieve, realize,
complete, finish, keep, retain, make, take, maintain 等。请看下面的例子:
---Radio detection of an object in the air is achieved by transmitting a beam of radio-frequency
energy and detecting the energy reflected by the object.
---The need of a plant for water, oil and sunshine has to be obtained from its environment.

1.2.6 同位语结构
科技英语常用同位语来对某一技术概念或思想进行解释或者补充说明。一个词、词组、
分句、句子都可充当同位语。例如:
---We consider the circuit as completed, that is, connected.(单词作同位语)
我们认为,电路循环已经完成,也就是说已经连接上了。
---Geothermal energy, or energy from within the earth, can be used to generate electricity. ( 词
组作同位语)
地热,即来自地球内部的热量,可以用来发电。
---This experiment leads to the conclusion that unlike charges attract each other.(分句作同位
语)
这一实验得出结论,即异性电荷相互吸引。
---We can apply the same argument to show that the atoms in a solid also are in motion: a hot
solid heats a cold gas in contact with it.(句子作同位语)
我们可以运用同一论点来说明:固体中的原子也是运动的。也就是说,当热的固体接触冷
的气体时会使其温度上升。

第三节 词汇特征

科 技 英 语 根 据 其 内 容 可 分 为 专 业 科 技 英 语 (English for Specialized Science and


Technology,简称 ESST)和通俗科技英语(English for Common Science and Technology,简称
ECST),或称为科普英语。二者的主要区别是专业词汇的密集度和专业度不一样。而专业词
汇密集度的差异又决定了这两种亚科技英语体裁内容难易程度的不同。总体来看,科技英
语既使用科技词汇,又使用非科技词汇。即使在专业科技英语语篇中也有大量的日常英语
词汇。

1.3.1 总体特点
就科技术语而言,一般说来,具有如下特点(靳燕,2002):
1) 准 确 性 ( accuracy ) : 术 语 要 确 切 的 反 映 概 念 的 本 质 特 征 ;
2) 单 义 性 ( monosemy ) : 一 词 一 意 ;
3) 系统性(systematization):在一个特定领域的各个术语,必须处于一个明确的层次结构
之 中 , 共 同 构 成 一 个 系 统 ;
4) 语言正确性( linguistic correctness ):术语的结构要符合该语种的构词规则和词组构成

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规 则 ;
5) 简 明 性 ( conciseness ) : 术 语 要 简 明 扼 要 , 易 懂 易 记 ;
6) 理 据 性 ( motivationess ) : 尽 量 做 到 “ 顾 名 思 义 ” ;
7) 稳 定 性 ( stability ) : 术 语 一 经 定 名 , 一 般 不 宜 轻 易 改 动 ;
8) 能产性(productivity):术语确定之后,还可以由旧术语出发,通过构词法或词组构成
的方法,派生出新的术语。

1.3.2 科技英语词汇的类型
从技术性(technicality)的角度看,科技英语中有些词汇专业性强,有些专业性不强,还
有些则没有技术内涵。依据词汇的技术程度,科技英语词汇可分为四类:技术词,准技术
词,半技术词和非技术词(李鲁,李霄翔,2000)。
1)专业技术词(Specialized technical words)
这类词基本上专用于某一学科领域,使用范围狭窄,词义单一,一般可在最新和较全
的科技词典中查到。然而,由于当今科学技术发展太快,以致为数可观的新专业术语无法
及时收编入词典, 因此译者往往需要基于科技常识、术语词根、前后缀和构词法等灵活处
理,并通常应请教专业技术人员核实为准。例如,biochip (生物芯片),cyberspace (电
脑空间),cyborg (受控机体),superconductivity (超导),ophthalmology (眼科学),
clone (克隆),neutron (中子),tactor (触觉器),haptics (触觉学),biomimetics
(仿生材料[学])等。
2)次技术词(Sub-technical words)
这类词系通用技术词,它们通常词义单一,通用于多种专业,并在日常生活中也经常
使用,如:equilibrium (平衡),synchronous (同步),symmetry (对称),computer-
aided (计算机辅助的),density (密度),velocity (速度)等。
3)半技术词(Semi-technical words)
这类词借自普通词,即日常英语词汇,其科技词义与其普通词义相比,已明显有所引
申或变化。此类词可大致分为两组。
A 组(特点:科技词义单一),如:

表1 英语词汇的普通词义与科技词义对照表
单 词 普通词 义 科技词 义
reading 阅读;读物 读 数
mouse 老鼠 鼠标(器)
impotence 衰弱;无力 阳萎
conduct 进行;指挥 传导
compatible 协调的 兼容的
interactive 相互作用的 交互式
civil 民事/民用的 土 木

B 组(特点:科技词义多样,因专业而异),如:
a)dog 普通词义:狗
机械:车床的夹头;止动器
电子:无线电测向器
船舶:水密门夹扣
天文:大犬座;小犬座

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气象:雾虹; (预示有雨的)小雨云
b)base 普通词义:基础;底部
化工:碱;盐基
药学:主剂
纺织:固色剂;媒染剂
数学:底边,基线;基数
建筑:垫板,脚板
军事:基地
c)rectify 普通词义:纠正;整顿
数学: (曲线)求长;从切
化工:精馏;提纯
机械:调整;拨准(仪表)
焊接:直流探伤
电气电子:整流;检波
d)carrier 普通词义:搬运工人
计算机:媒体
集成电路:载体
无线电:载波;载波电路
半导体:载流子
机械:托架
航空:运输机
航天:运载火箭
交通:搬运汽车
海军:航空母舰
e)element 普通词义:因素;要素
机械:零件;构件;部件
无线电:元件;器件
数学:元;素;诸元
电学:电池;电极;电阻丝
化学:元素;成分
通讯:电码
军事:部队;机组;小分队
气象:自然力;风雨
植物:原种
动物:生存环境;活动范围
计算机:单元;基元
语法:音素
在科技、科普翻译中,半技术词是一大难点:一是词汇量大,二是其专业词义较难把
握,尤其是B组词类。翻译时,译者应细查科技词典,必要时应请教专业技术人员核实为准。
4)非技术词(Non-technical words)
也称普通词。这类词与功能词构成科技、科普文的基础词汇,其意义和用法类似于普通
英语。
从词汇结构看,科技英语词汇又可分为简单词、复合词和复杂词,此外还有缩略词和
各种技术符号。

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1)简单词
英语中的简单词(Simple words)指那些不能再进一步切分的、可以独立使用的语言单位。
例如,gland 腺, estrogen 雌激素, ulcer 溃疡, embryo 胚胎, iodine 碘, anemia 贫血, rodent 啮齿
动物, hormone 激素等。
2)复合词
英语中的复合词 (Compound words) 指由两个简单词结合而生成的词,其间可用或者不
用连字符。是否用连字符以词典为准。例如:
A 组 (用连字符的复合词)
salt-former 卤素
dew-point 露点
heat-wave 热浪
hot-press 热压
pulse-scale 脉冲定标器
B 组(不用连字符的复合词)
splashdown 溅落;
fallout 放射性尘埃
waterlock 水闸
thunderstorm 雷暴
moonwalk 月面行走
3)复杂词
英语中的复杂词(Complex words)指那些由词缀法构成的派生词。词缀法(Affixation)包括
前缀法和后缀法。前缀法(Prefixation)是利用某个前缀和词根结合构成新词的方法,例如 en-
large。后缀法(Suffixation)则是利用某个后缀和词根结合构成新词的方法,例如 bright-en。当
然也可以同时利用某个前缀和某个后缀与词根结合构成新词,例如 pre-school-ing。所举三
例中的词根,都是能够独立使用的自由词根(Free root),即为一个简单词。还有些词根是
不能独立使用的粘着词根(Bound root ),如与自由词根 earth ,water ,sun 同义的粘着词
根 terra , hydro , sol ,只有与其他词素结合才能形成单词,如 terr-estrial( 地球的 ) , hydro-
gen(氢),sol-ar(太阳的)。科技英语中有些常用的前缀、后缀和词根(见附录三),记住它们
对理解生词和创造新词大有裨益。
除了简单词、复合词和复杂词外,科技英语还经常使用各种缩略词以及各种专门的技
术符号。缩略词包括溶合词、首字母拼音词、首字母拼缀词以及截短词。
溶合词(Blends)包括两种类型。一种是由一个单词的一部分与另一个单词的一部分结合
而成。例如:
forex = foreign + exchange 外汇
smog = smoke + fog 烟雾
telex=teleprinter + exchange 电传
另一种是由一个单词的一部分与另一个单词整体结合成一个新词。例如:
medicare=medical + care 医疗保健(医保)
contrail=condensation + trail 凝结尾流
gravisphere = gravity + sphere 动力作用的范围
zincode = zinc + anode 锌极(电池的阳极)
escalift = escalator + lift 自动电梯
copytron = copy + electron 电子复写(技术)
首字母拼音词(Acronyms)和首字母拼缀词(Initials)统称为字母缩略词,指的是取用技术专

18
名中核心词汇(一般为名词)的第一个字母合成一个新词。二者的区别是首字母拼音词可以读
作一个单词,首字母拼缀词则只能依次拼读字母。例如:
Group A:首字母拼音词
sonar = sound navigation and ranging 声纳(声波导航与测距[设备])
radar = radio detecting and ranging 雷达(无线电定位与测距)
laser = light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation 激光(受激辐射光放大[器])
NASA = National Aeronautics and Space Administration 美国宇航局
SALT = strategic arms limitatioan 限制战略武器会谈
AIDS = acquired immune deficiency syndrome 获得性免疫缺陷综合症
Group B:首字母拼缀词
UFO = unidentified flying object 不明飞行物
CD = compact disk 光盘
VCD = video compact disk 视频高密光盘
DVD = digital video disk 数字化视频光盘
AC = alternating current 交流电
A/C =air-conditioning 空调
DC = direct current 直流电
CT = computerized tomography 电脑断层摄影(照相术)
EEG = electroencephalogram 脑电图
ECG = electrocardiogram 心电图
DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸
IP= internet phone IP 电话
CEO: = chief executive officer 首席执行官
SOS: = save our ship/souls 国际紧急求救信号
s. g. = specific gravity 比重
需要指出的是,字母缩略词的构词方式有时并非严格按照只能取用单词首字母的要求 ,
有时可能取用一个单词的前两个字母,如 sonar 中的 so 就是 sound 前两个字母,而第三个
字母 a 取用的并非实词而是虚词 and 的首字母。有些字母缩略词中的字母不是某个独立的单
词的首字母,而是构成某词的词素的首字母,如 ECG ,分别是词素 electro- ,-cardio- , -
gram 的首字母。
截 短 词 ( Clippings ) 有 四 种 类 型 : 截 去 头 部 , 如 : phone = telephone , copter =
helicopter ;截去尾部,如:dorm = dormitry,doc = document ,hi-fi = high-fidelity (高保真);
截 去 中 间 , 如 : maths = mathematics , ft = foot, Mt = Mount ; 截 去 头 尾 , 如 : flu =
influenza,tec = detective。
科学技术符号是科技语言的重要组成部分,基本上是国际通用的。了解科技英语中基
本符号的写法和读法对写作和口头交际大有好处。下面介绍一些工程技术类符号的写法和
读法。

表 2 常用工程技术类符号的写法和读法
符号 示例 读法
· 3.14159 three point one four one five nine
+ u + v u plus v
- v- u v minus u
= 1 tonne = 1,000 kg one tonne is equal to one thousand

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kilogrammes
≠ x≠y x does not equal y
× mass × velocity mass multiplied by (times) velocity
no sign between two momentum = mv momentum equals m multiplied by v

quantities
÷ 8÷2 eight divided by two
one quantity over speed equals distance divided by time
taken;
another speed =
speed equals the ratio of distance to time
taken

/ 20 km/h twenty kilometers per hour


≡ 1 mm vertical ≡ 5N one millimeter vertical is equivalent to five
newtons
≈ 60 km/h ≈ 17m/s 60 kilometres per hour is approximately

equal to seventeen metres per second


∝ stress ∝ strain stree is proportional to strain
: 2 :1 two to one
% 0.4% zero point four percent
5 the square root of five (root five)
2 3
2 33
2
two squared three cubed
4
104 ten to the power four;

ten to the fourth power


-5
10 -5
ten to the power minus five;
ten to the minus fifth power
> >18 mm greater than eighteen millimetres
< <20 mm less than twenty millimeters
≧≦ ≧40 mm≦100 mm greater than or equal to forty millimeters,
less than or equal to one hundred
millimeters
± ± 2 kg plus or minus two kilogrammes
0
900 349℃ ninety degrees; three hundred and.forty-
nine degrees Centigrade
’ ” 60 32’ 16’’ six degrees thirty-two minutes sixteen

seconds

( 段 平 , 1998 : 101-
102)

最后要指出的是,科技英语词汇中有些词语,尤其是动词和形容词,与日常英语中的
一些词汇在意义上完全对应,不同之处是前者具有技术色彩,后者则没有。这些词语是我
们在科技英语的读、写、译实践中需要特别注意的。前者能使我们体会到科技英语的技术性,
同时若欲使我们的科技英语写作和翻译具有技术色彩,就应使用前一类词语,避免使用后
一类词语,对此文科学生尤其需要注意。下面列举一些常见的科技英语和普通英语意义近

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似的对应词汇。

普通英语 科技英语
consider speculate
breath respiration
empty vacant
circle circulate
eatable edible
movable mobile
go beyond exceed
run into one another collide
speed up accelerate
go back recede
watch over supervise
flying aviation
light up illuminate
cold frigid
go to pieces decompose
come from be derived from
stomach (belly) abdomen
sweat perspire
wet (damp) humid, humidity

1.3.3 科技英语词汇的主要构词方法
关于科技英语的构词方法,上面已介绍了复合法、派生法和省略法。这三种方法是科技
英语的最主要的构词手段。除此之外,还有专名借用、逆向构词法和类比构词法。
科技英语中,不少技术概念、产品或现象都是直接或间接借用科学家、发明创造者或发
生地的名字来表达的。例如 diesel( 柴油机 ) 就是直接借用发明者德国工程师 Rudolf Diesel
(1858-1913)的名字。Pasteurize( 高温杀菌)则是间接借用。它由该技术发明者、法国化学家
Louis Pasteur(1822-1895)的名字 Pasteur+英语动词后缀-ize 生成。还有大量的技术概念由科学
家的名字+普通词语构成,如 Curie plot 居里曲线。下面略举一些专名借用实例:
Xerox 静电复印(技术)(借用同名复印机商标名称)
Dural 杜拉铝(借用商标名称)
mackintosh 防雨衣/防水材料(借用苏格兰化学家 Charles Macintosh 的名字)
Doppler effect 多普勒效应 (借用奥地利物理学家 Chritina John Doppler 的名字)
watt 瓦特(借用英国发明家 James Watt 的名字)
kuru:库鲁癫痫症(借用此病发源地地名)
逆向构词法是假设英语中某一现存词语有一后缀,然后去掉该假想后缀构成新词。例
如 laser 本为首字母拼音词,词尾-er 根本不是后缀,但它的形式与英语后缀-er 完全一样。我
们假设它是后缀,去掉该后缀便产生一个新词 to lase (用激光做某事)。科技英语中这类词语

不 多 , 常 见 的 还 有 television→televise , mass-production→mass-

produce,automation→automate 等。

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类比构词法是利用英语中现存的词语结构模式创造新词。例如 man-made,我们只需要
替 换 man 就 可 以 创 造 出 许 多 新 词 , 如 hand-made , hen-made , machine-made , mother-
made,Australian-made,plant-made 等等。

第四节 特征小结:语篇实例分析

上面各节对科技英语的特点进行了详细的讨论,这里作一小结并用实例对这些特点加
以印证。
第一,从词汇方面来看,科技英语大量使用复合词、缩略词以及高度专业化的技术词
汇。复合词从过去的双词组合发展到多词组合,缩略词倾向于任意构词。专业技术词汇的构
成成分复杂,有些借自日常英语,有些在不同专业技术领域含义不同,还有一些专属某一
学科领域。此外,科技英语还通过现代英语构词法,构成极为丰富多样的科技词汇。
第二,从语法方面看,科技英语倾向于多用动词现在时,特别是一般现在时,表达无
时限的自然现象。名词化结构是科技英语的另一显著特点。美国著名翻译理论家尤金·奈达
(Eugene A. Nida)说,科技英语使用名词化结构一方面是为了避免使用人称代词求得表达的
客观性,另一方面是为了压缩信息求得表达的简洁性。为了适应名词化结构的需要,科技
英语还广泛地使用空语类动词即那些没有实在意义的动词,以免影响或歪曲科学事实的描
述。被动语态的使用是科技英语最为显著的特征,其目的是为获得表述的客观性和准确性,
逻辑的严谨性和语言的精炼性。
第三,从句法方面看,科技英语广泛地使用长句和复杂句,这是为了适应表达复杂的
科技原理和概念的需要,使表述逻辑严密,结构紧凑。科技英语中广泛地使用非限定动词,
用以描述自然界事物之间各种各样的逻辑关系。此外,科技英语惯用it…that…句型。这种句
型可以避免使用人称代词,从而达到表述的客观性。
第四,从文体修辞方面看,科技英语忌用带有感情色彩的形容词、副词和积极修辞方
法如比喻、幽默、夸张、双关等。从消极修辞看,科技英语句式平匀稳密,常用虚拟祈使语气
以满足科学假设论证、操作规程和作业指导描述的需要。为使语言简洁明了,科技英语还大
量使用省略。下面结合实例分析科技英语的这些特点。
例1
These added②③ quantities of inert gas have① an important characteristic. The relative
abundance of their isotopes, which are① elements having③ the same atomic number but
different atomic weights, is① characteristic of the process that produces① them. For example,
helium that originates① as alpha particles consists① only of the isotope helium-4. Argon from
the radioactive decay of potassium exists① only as the isotope argon-40, and exnon from
spontaneous fission consists① primarily of xenon-134 and xenon-136.
Consequently, the inert gases found②③ in the various rocks, minerals, and waters of the
earth and atmosphere are “tagged” ①② with unique isotope “signature.” The isotopic patterns
enable① earth scientitsts to utilize③ the inert gases as tracers in a number of natural geochemical
processes.
Some of these characteristic isotopic signatures for the inert gases have been known and
used ①②for a long time. For example, argon-40 is① the basis for the potassiumargon method
used②③ to date ③rocks and minerals.
Because inert gases occur① in such small quantities in the earth, adding③ even a little inert
gas to terrestrial material represents① a significant increase in the total. In May 1978,
geochemists Ichiro Kaneoka and Nobuo Takaoka of the Geophysical Institute of the University of

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Tokyo reported that they found excess quantities of a xenon isotope, xenon-129, in minerals from
recent lava flows in Hawaii. Xenon-129 is produced①② by radioactive decay. Any radioactive
isotope decays① into the isotope of another element – in the case, iodine-129 decays① into
xenon-129.
Iodine-129 has① a very short half-life of 17 million years, compared②③ with the age of
the earth. A half-life is① the length of time it takes① for one-half of a radioactive element to
decay③. Because of this short half-life, any iodine-129 that was present when the earth was
formed② disintegrated② very early in the earth’s history.
The fact that there is① excess xenon-129 in the earth today indicates① that iodine-129 was
present in the earth when it was formed②. It also indicates① that some of the xenon-129 into
which the iodine-129 decayed has been trapped①② within rocks in the earth throughout its
history.
(刘宓庆 用例)
语言学习,特别是英语学习,要注意动词尤其是谓语动词的形态变化。有语言学家指
出,谓语动词是句子灵魂,抓住了句子的谓语动词,就像抓住了蛇的七寸。比如理解一个
英语句子,我们先找出它的谓语动词,再找出这个动词的主语和宾语 (如果有的话),然后
辨识它们的形态以及是否带有修饰语,比如是否带有形容词、副词和介词短语,同位语成
分,各种从句等充当定语、状语或同位语,这样就可以把句子的结构看清、理顺。
如果我们对上例中动词的形态作仔细分析,我们就会找出科技英语最主要的语法特点 。
最为突出的特点是谓语动词的形态惊人的一致,即多用现在时,尤其是一般现在时,来表
述“无时间性”的“一般叙述”。现将这些谓语动词归纳如下 (原文中标为斜体并在其后用
①标记):
have, are, is, produces, originates, consists, exists, consists, are tagged, enable, have been
known and used, is, occur, represents, is produced, decays, decays, has, is, takes, is, indicates,
indicates, has been trapped
其次,被动语态(或称被动式,包括谓语动词的被动形式和表达被动意义的过去分词形
式) 在上例中的使用频率非常高(原文中标为斜体并在其后用②标记),计有:
added, found, are tagged, have been known and used, used, is produced, compared, was
formed, disintegrated, was formed, has been trapped
再次,非限定动词在上例中也得到广泛的使用(原文中标为斜体并在其后用③标记),
计有:
added, having, found, to utilize, used, to date, adding, compared, to decay
除了以上这些语法特征外,词汇上的特点是专业技术词汇和非技术词汇的混合运用,
请看下表例示:

表 3 技术词语类型举例
技术词 准技术词 半技术词 非技术词
helium-4 isotope decay these
argon-40 atomic number Inert is
exnon134 atomic weights Signature of
exnon-136 helium tracers their
potassiumargon alpha particles any
xenon-129 argon and

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iodine-129 radioactive the
half-life xenon
potassium
fission

例2
Nitrogen
Nitrogen was discovered by Rutherford and by Priestley, working independently, in 1772.
When free from moisture and carbon dioxide, air contains appropriately 78 per cent of nitrogen by
volume. Most of the nitrogen used commercially is produced by the fractional distillation of liquid
air. This commercial nitrogen is usually supplied with a guaranteed purity of 99. 7 per cent. The
small amount of oxygen remaining may be removed by passing the gas through a tube containing
copper turnings at bright red heat or by washing in chromous chloride solution.
There are various ways of preparing nitrogen gas in the laboratory. In small quantities,
extremely pure nitrogen may be evolved by thermal decomposition of sodium or barium azide in a
vacuum. Usually it is prepared by the removal of hydrogen from ammonia or its compounds in
one or other of the following ways :
1. Ammonia or a mixture of ammonia and nitric oxide is passed over cupric oxide at high
temperature.
2. Ammonia is passed into a solution of bromine and caustic soda in water. The resultant
oxidation of the ammonia releases nitrogen.
3. The decomposition by heat of a solution of ammonium nitrite, or of a mixture of sodium
nitrite and ammonium chloride, yields nitrogen.
4. Ammonium dichromate decomposes violently on heating, giving off nitrogen and leaving
a residue of chromic oxide.
Pure nitrogen gas is colourless, odourless, and tasteless. It has slight solubility in water, has
no action on litmus and does not turn lime water milky. It does not support combustion or
respiration, although it is non-poisonous.
If nitrogen gas at a pressure of approximately 0.11mm is subjected to an electric discharge, a
yellowish-orange glow is emitted. The gas continues to give off a glow for several minutes after
the discharge is switched off. It was suggested by Strutt that this‘active nitrogen’, as it is called,
consisted of the gas in its atomic stage, and it has since been demonstrated experimentally that
active nitrogen consists mainly of normal molecular nitrogen with a mixture of ground-state
atoms. The afterglow is a product of the emission-band spectra of excited nitrogen molecules
formed as the result of recombination of single atoms of nitrogen.
(张克亮,崔钦华 用例)
这是一篇化学方面的文章,是比较典型的科技英语语体。下面我们从词汇、句子、语法、
篇章结构等方面对这段文字进行简要分析。科技英语最显著的特点体现在其词汇上。就
Nitrogen 这篇文章来看,其词汇特点首先在于文章中大量使用的专业术语,如: nitrogen
(氮),carbon dioxide(二氧化碳), fractional distillation( 分馏), oxygen( 氧),
ammonia(氨)等等。尽管随着科技知识的普及,其中有些词语,如oxygen ,compound
,atom,已为大众所熟知并成为普通语汇的一部分,但绝大多数词语仍仅见于科技文章之中。

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这些词语大多源自希腊语和拉丁语,词义单一,能避免产生歧义,符合科技英语力求准确的
要求。
其次,较多地使用抽象名词表示动作、状态、手段、结果等,如: distillation(蒸馏),
oxidation(氧化),respiration(呼吸),recombination(重新组合) 等等。在日常英语或其
它功能和题材的文体里,这些动作名词出现的几率很小,经常使用的是与其同根的相应的动
词或形容词,甚至是从句。抽象名词在科技英语中的普遍使用是和“科学文献借助于抽象思
维的逻辑性和概念化,追求表达的简练、凝重、客观和浓缩”的要求分不开的(侯维瑞,
1988: 285)。另外,大量使用复合名词和名词词组,如nitric oxide(氧化氮),lime water
(石灰水),ground-state atom(基态原子),emission-band spectra (放射频谱) 等等。这
种把名词和名词(或者是名词和形容词)直接拼接叠加起来合成新词的方法可以避免不断创
造新词,同时还使语言变得精练。
在句子的选择使用上,一般来讲,科技英语文章中的句子字数较多、长度偏大、结构复杂、
信息量大。有语言学家指出,句子的可读性(或难易度) 与构成句子的词数和词长成正比关
系(Houp &Pearsall 1984 :173)。R.Flesch 更进一步量化了句长(以词数表示)与可读性之
间的对应关系(Flesch 1962 :56) :
Very easy        8 words or fewer
Easy 11
Fairly easy 14
Standard 17
Fairly difficult 21
Difficult 25
Very difficult 29 words or more
上例全文共有20个句子,构成句子的单词数最少的是8个,最多的竟有43 个,平均句长
是17.185 词/ 句。根据Flesch 的阅读难度量化标准,上文20个句子的难度分布为: 7个句
子低于标准难度(即属于“很易”、“易”、“稍易”三类),5个符合标准难度,8个高于标准
难度(即属于“稍难”、“难”、“很难”三类)。根据这一标准来衡量,这篇文章除了个别句
子偏难外,整体上难度并不是很高。其原因是该文是一篇科普性质的文章,难度当然不及专
业程度和正式程度最高的化学学术文献。
在语法层次上,科技英语的一个重要特点是大量地使用被动语态。在Nitrogen一文中,
第一段总共有5个句子,其中4个以被动形式出现。此外,在其它几个自然段中,还有10个限定
动词用了被动语态。语法上的第二个特点是一般现在时的广泛使用。就Nitrogen一文来说,
作者在文章开头谈到氮的发现时用了一个一般过去时的句子;在间接援引已故化学家
Strutt的话时又使用了一个一般过去时的句子,然后又用了一个现在完成时的句子来强调
对目前的影响。除此之外,一般现在时贯穿文章的始终。此外,使用it作形式主语或形式宾语
也是科技英语的一个语法特点。在Nitrogen一文中就有两例: It was suggested by
Strutt that . . . and it has since been demonstrated experimentallythat . . .。
最后,在篇章结构方面,科技文章逻辑性强,结构紧凑,层次清楚。Nitrogen 一文从氮的一般
知识谈起,继而介绍氮气的四种制造方法,最后描述氮的一些理化特性。文章由浅入深,层层
推进,把一个复杂的化学问题表达得清清楚楚。(张克亮,崔钦华,2001)
下面我们再用一个例子将科技英语和普通英语进行对比,也许可以帮助我们将科技英
语的特点看得更加清楚。
例3
A.普通英语
Natural and Synthetic Rubber

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People (1)get natural rubber from rubber trees as a white, milky liquid, (2)which is called
latex. They (3)mix it with acid, and dry it, (4)and then they send it to countries all over the
world. As the rubber industry (5)grew, people (6)needed more and more rubber. They (7)started
rubber plantations in countries with hot, (8)wet weather conditions, but these still could not
(9)give enough raw rubber (10)to meet the needs of growing industry.
It was (11)not satisfactory for industry to depend on supplies, (12)which come from so far
away from the industrial areas of Europe. It was always possible that wars or shipping trouble
could stop supplies.
For many years (13)people tried (14)to make (15)something to take its place, but they
(16)could not do it. (17)In the end, they (18)found a way of making (19)artificial, man-made
rubber which is in many ways (20)better than and in some ways (21)not as good as natural
rubber. They make artificial, man-made rubber in factories by a complicated chemical process. It
is usually cheaper than natural rubber.
(22)Today, (23)the world needs so much rubber that we use both natural and artificial
rubber in large (24)amounts.
B.科技英语
Natural and Synthetic Rubber
Natural rubber (1)is obtained from rubber trees as a white, milky liquid (2)known as latex.
This is (3)treated with acid and dried (4)before being dispatched to countries all over the world.
As the rubber industry (5)developed, more and more rubber was (6)required. Rubber plantations
were (7)established in countries with a hot, (8)humid climate, but these still could not (9)supply
sufficient raw rubber (10)to satisfy the requirements of developing industry.
It was (11)unsatisfactory for industry to dependent on supplies (12)coming from so far
away from the industrial areas of Europe. It was always possible that supplies could be stopped by
wars or shipping trouble.
For many years, (13)attempts were made (14)to produce (15)a substitute, but they
(16)were unsuccessful. (17)Finally, (18)a method was discovered of producing (19)synthetic
rubber which is in many ways (20)superior and in some ways (21)inferior to natural rubber.
Synthetic rubber is produced in factories by a complicated chemical process. It is usually cheaper
than natural rubber.
(22)At present, (23)the world requirements for rubber are so great that both natural and
synthetic rubber are used in (24)quantities.
(黄忠廉,李亚舒 用例)
只要略读一遍,我们便不难发现,上例中的两段文字其实表达的是一个意思,但它们
所选择的语言手段及其所体现的文体风格大不一样。第一段文字是普通英语语篇,第二段
文字是科技英语语篇。具体差异仍然以表格形式进行对照。

表 4 普通英语与科技英语语法、词汇、文体特点对照表

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普 通 英 语 科 技 英 语
get is obtained
which iscalled known as
mix it with treated with
and then they send it before being dispatched
语 grew developed
needed required
法 started established
wet waether conditons humid climate
词 give enough supply sufficient
to meet the needs to satify the requirements
not satisfactory unsatisfactory

which come coming
people tried attempts were made
比 to make to produce
something to take its place a substitute
较 could not do it were unsuccessful
in the end finally
found a way a method was discovered
artificial, man-made synthetic
better superior
not as good as inferior to
today at present
the world needs so much rubber the world requirements… are so great
amounts quantities
1 通俗性:日常词汇(简短小词)用得多 ① 专业性:专业词汇(包括书卷气大词)用
文 2 多义性:一词多义,使用范围广 得多
体 3 人称化:人称词语丰富多样,较为 ② 单义性:词义相对固定单一,因专业而
风 主观 不同
格 4 多时性:描述生活,时态多样 ③ 物称化:多用物称,以示客观
比 5 主动态:句子多用主动语态 ④ 现时性:叙述事实多用现在时
较 6 简单性:单句简单化,复句少 ⑤ 被动态:句子多用被动语态
7 口语化:简短小词多,口语用得多 ⑥ 复杂性:复杂单句、复句用得多
⑦ 书面化:书卷气的大词多,长句多
(黄忠廉,李亚舒,2004)
这些差异告诉我们,普通英语和科技英语不是一回事。那种认为科技英语=普通英语语
+
法 技术词汇的观点是错误的。

第二章 科技英语阅读

科技英语阅读旨在扩大英语学习者在科技方面的英语词汇、涉猎当今世界科技领域的
最新发展动态,同时,通过课文的学习和各种练习的实践,培养和提高英语学习者阅读英
语科技文章的能力,达到语言技能和科学知识共同提高的目的。因此教学应以学生为中心,

27
以阅读练习为主要手段,使学生在语言实践中学到科学知识,掌握阅读技巧,提高其综合
运用语言的能力。
科技英语包含着大量的信息。主要是对一些客观事实的陈述。读者在阅读这些文章时,
不仅要从中获取重要的信息,而且还要充分理解语言材料本身。对于母语为非英语的人而言,
要想很好地读懂科技英语文献并非易事。但有时因需要,我们又不得不查阅这样的资料,因
为大多数先进的科学技术知识都是以英语为载体的。但如果在阅读中,我们能够学会正确地
使用某些阅读策略,遇到的困难就会大大减少,取得令人满意的效果。这些策略主要用来解
决在阅读中如何应对生词,怎样应对难句,如何理解段落和怎样阅读图表等微观阅读策略
(肖德林,2004:51-54),以及整个语篇的宏观阅读策略。

第一节 生词的阅读策略

阅读科技英语文章时,人们常常遇到的一个最头疼的问题就是生词。它直接影响到读者
的阅读兴趣、积极性和对文章的理解。针对此问题,我们可以采取以下对策。

2.1.1 查阅词典
这是一种最基本、最简单的方法,也是最有效的方法。因为词典能给出准确意思。所以我
们应学会有效地、正确地、充分地使用词典,使它发挥最大的功能,为阅读服务。按媒介形式
分,词典可分为纸质词典和电子词典。纸质词典属于传统型词典,用起来方便,但查阅速
度无法与电子词典相比。纸质词典按语言介质看又可分为单语词典和双语词典。就英语学习
而言,单语词典指的是英语原版词典,双语词典指的是英汉和汉英词典。双语词典(这里指
英汉词典)有时无法帮助读者准确地判断生词的含义,因为有时它不给出原文释义,而译
文有时会误导读者,这时就需要查阅英语原版词典。从内容看,词典可分为综合性词典和
专业性词典。科普英语文章的生词一般查阅大、中型的综合词典即可;专业英语文献需要使
用相关领域的专业词典。陌生的缩略语需要查阅综合型的或专业性的缩略语词典。如果要对
某一技术难词充分理解,则可查阅百科全书,如《大英百科全书》 、
《中国大百科全书》等 。
纸质词典查阅速度太慢,且词量有限,因此在日常科技英语阅读中,我们要充分地利
用电脑和互联网络迅速准确地查阅生词。我国目前比较流行的英语电子词典/软件有金山词
霸等。上海金山公司最近推出海量的网上词典“中国译典
”(http://www.chinafanyi.com),并为每个词语提供了大量例句,是科技英语读、写、译
实践的好帮手。 《微软电子百科全书》和网上《维基百科全书 》(http://en.wikipedia.org)能
提供更大的搜索范围和更新的信息。如果纸质词典、电子词典、网上词典和百科全书仍然不
能解决问题,可求助于互联网络。整个互联网络就是最大的百科全书,可以直接将所查单
词输入GOOGLE、百度等搜索引擎搜索,一般都能找到答案。不过,利用互联网搜索信息,要
学会区别有用信息和垃圾信息,这是每个网络社会的学习者都应具备的能力。
需要指出的是,查阅词典不利的一面是大大地阻断了阅读的连续性,而且只能用于日
常科技英语阅读,碰到考试或不容许使用词典的场合,就只能运用结构分析、上下文分析
等其他阅读策略。

2.1.2 单词结构分析
我们知道词是由词干、前缀、后缀构成的。只要我们掌握了常用的词干与词缀的意思,通
过分析这些语义单位,就能获取整个词的意思。例如:
---Hydrocarbons present one of the two major challenges which are being dealt with by
bioremediation, the other being dangerous military leftovers from the Cold War such as chemical

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weapons.
上例中影响读者理解的是两个技术词语hydrocarbons和bioremediaiton。他们显然是
两个派生词。我们只要正确地辨识出其构成词素并了解这些词素的意思,整个词语的意思
就不难破解。hydrocarbon由前缀hydro-和词干-carbon构成,hydro-意为“氢/水”,-
carbon意为“碳”,由此推断出hydrocarbon的意思是“碳氢化合物”。bioremediation由
前缀bio-,词干-remedi-和后缀-ation构成,它们的意思分别是“生物/生命”,“矫正/
治疗”,“性质/状态/方法”,由此推断出bioremediaiton的意思是“生物还原法”。全
句因此可理解为“碳氢化合物是生物还原学要对付的两大难题中的一个。另一个则是冷战
后遗留下的危险的军事残留物,比如化学武器。”

2.1.3 利用上下文线索猜测词义
我们应首先学会怎样发现线索。线索可能是一个词或一些词、短语或句中的标点符号。
上下文的线索是多样化的。下面是最常见的几种。
1) 定义式线索
一个术语后通常会跟一个定义或能充分说明该术语的句子。例如:
---Typhoons are cyclones, storms with strong winds rotating around a low pressure center.
如果cyclones 是生词,推断该词义的线索就是位于它之后的逗号。因逗号在此的功能
要说明前后两词为并列关系。后者是前者的同位语,起进一步说明前者意义的作用。由此我
们便知cyclones 的意思是“绕低气压中心形成的暴风雨”。
---Kinetic energy is the energy of moving particles.
Kinetic energy 可能是生词。推猜它的词义要从句式上来看。整个句子是一个主+ 系+
表结构。表语就是用来说明主语性质内容的。所以Kinetic energy 的意思是“运动粒子的
能量”。
---They dug a deep hole and gently lowered the body into the grave.
如果grave 是生词,同样用该句中起定义作用的并列结构“a deep hole and lowered
the body”,我们便可推测出该词的意思为“掩埋遗体的深洞”。
2) 常识性线索
有时我们可以借用常识性知识推测出生词的意义。例如:
---The cat came quickly through the grass towards the birds. When it was just a few feet
from the victim, it gathered its legs under itself, and pounced.
pounce 是该句的生词。推测该词的词义可以凭借我们的常识。我们知道当猫看见鸟时,
通常它会先把爪子收起来,然后再突然向小鸟发起攻击。由此可以推断pounce 一词的意思
为“突然攻击”。
3) 对比性线索
当两个词或两个句子结构形成对比时,如果知道其中一个的意思,另一个的意思就可以
通过对比知道。例如:
---The question was important to the child , but it appeared trivial to the teacher.
该句中trivial 是生词。我们可以利用“. . . important. . . ”后边的转折词
“but”,通过前后的对比关系得出“trivial”的词义为“不重要的”。
---The term“sea”usually implies that water is saline, but the sea of Galilee is not salty.
该句中saline 是生词。我们可以利用转折词but 和not salty 通过对比知道saline
的词义为“咸的”。
4) 推导性线索
推导词义必须有充分的根据作基础,它是一种合乎逻辑的推测。例如:

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---The secret of making silk was first discovered in China and was jealously guarded for
thousands of years.
jealously 为该句生词。我们可以利用secret (秘密),discovered(发现) ,guarded
(保护),thousands of years(数千年) 这一连串的词推断出jealously 意思是“警惕地
”。
在以上三种应对生词的策略中,我们应首选分析法和利用上下文的方法来解决生词问
题。因为这两种方法不会打断阅读过程。如果以上两法仍不能解决词义问题,就应求助于词
典。(肖德林,2004)

第二节 难句的阅读策略

阅读时,我们常常会遇到这样的情况,句中的每个词我们都懂,但就是搞不懂整个句子
的意思,尤其是当英文句子较长或较复杂时。面对这种情况,我们可以采用句子分析、认清
省略成分、认清指代关系、认清修饰关系和抓住关联词语等策略。

2.2.1 句子成分分析
不论何时,当遇到读不懂的句子时,应首先对该句进行语法分析。要做好这点,必须具备
良好的语法知识与识别各种句型的能力。分析句子时首先找出它的主语、谓语、宾语或补语,
然后再对这些句子的修饰成分加以分析。例如:

(肖德林 用例)
该句虽长,但通过成分分析,意思便很清楚。可译为: 我们的血液外观是红色的液体,但
在显微镜下它看起来却像稻草似的灰白色。在血液中有成千上万微小的、盘形的细胞、
红血球在浮动。

2.2.2 认清省略成分
科技英语文体的一个重要特征就是简洁。遇到重复的句子成分,科技英语常常省略,
有时借助标点符号来暗示省略成分。例如:
---The specific gravity of steel is 7.8, of lead 11.4 and aluminium 2.6.
---The logarithm of 10 is 1; of 100, 2; of 0.001, -3.
要准确理解上面两个句子,认清省略成分是关键。第一句两次省略了the specific
gravity和is;第二句两次省略了the logarithm 和is。注意第二句中的分号( ;) 起并列
连词“and”的功能。逗号( ,) 引起省略,替代系动词“is”。两句可分别译为:“钢的比
重为7.8,铅(的比重)为11.4,铝(的比重)为2.6”和“10的对数等于1,100的对数等于
2,0.001的对数等于-3”。

2.2.3 认清指代关系

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为了避免重复,作者常常在科技文章中使用代词指代前面的词语。这些代词包括人称代
词,如it, they, he 等;指示代词,如this, that, these, those ;关系代词,如which,
that, who, whom等;以及名词,如the method, the technique, the processes等。不会
识别这些代词的功能就会影响阅读理解。例如:
---When they are dissolved in water, some kinds of molecules do, and some do not, remain
intact. Those that do not remain intact break up into ions.
该句中They = molecules;Some = Some kinds of molecules;Those = Some kinds
of molecules。
搞清以上这三个代词的指代关系,该句的意思也就清楚了。该句的意思是:“当某些分
子放到水中溶解时,有些分子保持不变;而那些己溶于水的分子分解为离子”。

2.2.4 认清修饰关系
科技语言要求用准确的语言表达复杂的信息,这就使科技英语不可避免地出现大量的
修饰语,特别是后置修饰语。有时,同一个名词带有几个后置修饰语,其结果是造成修饰
语与被修饰语割裂的现象。遇此情形,我们一定要思路清晰、眼界开阔,看清修饰关系。例
如:
---Since all compounds are electrically neutral, there also must be a species in the oxidation-
reduction reactions that gains electrons.
因为一切化合物都不带电,所以在氧化还原反应中也一定有一种物质是获得电子的。
上例原文中名词species带有两个后置定语,即介词短语in the oxidation-
reduction reactions和定语从句that gains electrons,其中介词短语将定语从句和它
所修饰的名词隔开。如果将定语从句理解为修饰介词短语中的名词species,那就错了。上
例的修饰关系还比较好判断,我们可以借助语法手段。species是单数,reactions是复数,
而后面的定语从句的谓语动词是第三人称单数形式,由此可以判断定语从句修饰species
而非紧邻的reactions。如果两个名词都是单数,就会增加判断的难度。遇此情形,我们只
有借助于逻辑推理和判断了。关于科技英语中修饰语与被修饰语割裂的现象,我们将在科
技英语翻译一章详加讨论。

2.2.5 抓住关联词语
关联词语是一个词或一个短语。它的功能是在句子之间起连结作用。如果阅读时不注意
它们的用法,就会影响你的理解力。如果阅读时抓住关联词,就能很好地帮你理解句义。最常
用的关联词有:
1) 表递进关系:also, besides, apart from, in addition to, moreover, furthermore,in other words
2) 表因果关系:accordingly, hence, due to, as a result (of), so, therefore, thus, as a consequence
(of), consequently, so that, for, because of , owing to, on account of
3) 表条件关系: if, when, unless, provided that, providing that, on condition that
4) 表对比关系: but, though, although, still, yet, however, instead, in spite of , on the other
hand, not only, despite, even though, in contrast
5) 表比较关系: like, unlike, likewise, in the same way, in the same manner, similarly
6) 表可能关系: possibly, probably, perhaps, likely
7) 表强调关系: above all, really, in effect, particularly, especially, in particular, in the final
analysis, as a matter of fact, more important(ly)
8) 表次序关系: in the beginning, after, first, second, later, then, next, later on, eventually,
ultimately, finally, subsequently, last, last but not least

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9) 表例举关系: for example, for instance, in one instance, in this instance, as an example, that
is, namely, such as, take…for example,
10)表示归纳与总结:in one word, on the whole, all in all, in conclusion

第三节 段落的阅读策略

有时在阅读中虽然看懂了句子,但仍然无法很好地理解全文。其原因主要在于我们不熟
悉文章的结构。如果我们了解科技文章的构成规律、中心思想的表达方式以及阅读技巧,就
能大大提高理解水平。段落的阅读策略主要包括:找出主题、找出中心思想、找出主要支持
性细节和找出次要支持性细节。

2.3.1 找出主题
什么是主题? 主题就是段落所讲的主旨性内容。主题必须准确,但既不能太具体,也不
能太笼统。例如:
Animals produce a wide variety of sounds. Birds whistle, porpoises click, wolves howl, and
gorillas produce a drumlike sound as they beat their chests. The list is almost endless.
“Animals’Sounds”是该段的主题。该主题准确,说明了本段所讲的是动物能够发声,
并举出许多例子加以说明。

2.3.2 找出中心思想
找到主题后,接下来就应找出段落的中心思想。它可能是一个定义,一种分类方法,一种
目的,或者是一种对主题的说明。通常我们可以在主题句(Topic sentence)里找到中心思想。
主题句往往出现在段首、段尾或段中。如果段落里没有现成的主题句,我们必须通过段落中
的具体细节,概括出它的中心思想。例如:
Latex is collected from the trees by tapping. Workers cut a narrow slanting groove about
halfway around the trunk. It is just deep enough to pierce the living layers of cells beneath the
bark. At the bottom of the cut a metal spout is attached, and below it, a cup. The milky white latex
oozes from the cut and drips into the cup.
段落主题: How to collect latex(怎样采集乳胶) 。中心思想: 段落的第一个句子,
即Latex is collected from the trees by tapping,它是该段的主题句。又如:
The largest icebergs in the north are one-half to one mile in length and may show 300 feet of
ice above the water. Since only about one-ninth of the total iceberg is visible above water, such
icebergs actually may attain heights of up to 2 ,700 feet. The greatest of all icebergs are those that
are broken off the Antarctic glaciers. Some of these icebergs are over forty miles in length and a
thousand feet thick. They are usually flat at the top and bottom, and are described as tabular.
段落主题: The Size of Large Icebergs(大冰山的规模)。中心思想: Large
icebergs are very long and very thick (大冰山非常长而厚)

2.3.3 找出主要支持性细节
支持性细节是对主题句进一步的展开说明,其形式是多样化的,大致可分为:
1) 定义性细节。这种细节通过对中心思想所讲的内容下定义的方式来支持中心思想。为了
迅速找到这类细节,我们必须了解科技英语中表达定义常用的句式,这些常用句式在第三
章“科技英语的定义方法”一节有详细介绍。
2) 归类性细节。这类细节通过给中心思想所讲的内容进行归类式扩展说明,以支持中心思

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想。识别这类细节,我们必须懂得表达归类的方法,同时也要了解归类时常用的一些路标词
(signal words / pointer words),如as follows, furthermore, moreover, also, and
, either… or, neither… nor, in addition, first, second, next, for one thing,
for another等。
3) 解释性细节。该类细节通过对中心思想的进一步的解释或描述以支持中心思想。通常该
细节解释或描述的是某种过程、手段、形式、性质和功能。标示解释性细节的常用词语有:in
other words, that is, that is to say, namely, or, to be more specific, more
specifically, to be more exact等。
4) 例举性细节。这类细节通过例举的方式对中心思想进行扩展,进一步支持了中心思想的
内容。例举时常用的信号词有:for example, for instance, as an illustration, such
as, include,a case in point is,include / including等。
5) 比较或对比性细节。这类细节通过对某种事物或概念的比较或对比,以说明它们之间的
相同与不同点来支持中心思想。常与这类细节连用的路标词有: like, unlike,
similarly, in the same way, in the same manner, likewise,however,
nevertheless, yet, but, although, on the contrary, on the other hand, in
contrast等。
6) 因果关系性细节。该类细节通过描述因果关系来支持中心思想。表示因果关系时常用的
路标词有: if, in consequence, consequently, so, as a result, therefore,
thereby, for this reason, thus, since,because, accordingly, hence, the
effect, the result, why等。
7) 归纳性细节。该类细节通过利用间接重复中心思想得方式来支持或强化中心思想。常用
的路标词有: in one word, on the whole, in conclusion, in brief, in short等。
下面是一个有关例举性细节的段落:
(1) Many scientists believe that life on earth will eventually end. (2) The oxygen supply in
our atmosphere , for example , has been gradually decreasing and will be used up in a billion
years. (3)Other fates may overtake us before that time. (4) The sun may explode , as other stars
occasionally do , destroying life in an instant. (5)Or another star may pass so close as to disrupt
the gravitational pull between the sun and the earth and shift the earth closer to the sun , where it
will face destruction from the intense heat.
该段落主题为: The End of Life on Earth(地球上生命的终结)。中心思想为: Many
scientists believe that life on earth will eventually end.(许多科学家认为地球
上的生命最终会消亡)。段落中有三个描述生命怎样最终在地球上消亡的例子,用来支持段
落的中心思想。第二句是第一个例子。第四句是第二个例子。第五句是第三个例子。

2.3.4 找出次要支持性细节
在一个段落中,有些细节是直接说明段落的中心思想的,这些细节称为主要支持性细
节。还有一些细节不是直接说明中心思想,而是直接说明主要支持性细节。还有的细节是说
明次要支持性细节的。我们将这些“细节的细节”统称为次要支持性细节。次要支持性细节
在理解段落的中心思想方面也是很重要的。例如:
(1) The purification of water is basically a two-step or three-step process carried out under
the strict supervision of public-health scientists and engineers. (2)As the first step, natural water
from the least contaminated source is allowed to stand in large reservoirs, where most of the mud,
silt, and clay settle out; this is called“sedimentation. ” (3)Often , in water with high mud content,
lime and aluminum sulphate are added to the water in the setting reservoirs. (4) These chemicals

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react in the water to form aluminum hydroxide, which settles slowly and carries much of the
suspended material, including most of the bacteria, to the bottom of the reservoirs. (5)As the
second step, the water is filtered through beds of sand and gravel, which remove other impurities
and chemicals in it. (6)During or after filtration, antibiotic chemicals are ordinarily added to the
water to kill any remaining harmful bacteria. (7) Chlorine is one of the most common chemicals
used for this purpose. (8)A third step taken by some municipalities is adding to the water other
beneficial chemicals such as fluoride to make tooth enamel hard, and soda ash to make the water
itself soft. (9) The water purification process, carried out with little variation from one large city
to another, is perhaps the biggest factor in the prevention of major outbreaks of disease.
段落主题: The purification of water(水的净化)。中心思想: The purification
of water is basically a two-step or three step process carried out under the
strict supervision of public-health scientists and engineers.(水的净化主要有两
步或三步过程,这些过程都是在公共健康卫生方面的科学家和工程师的严格监督下进行的。)
主要支持性细节: 第(2) 、(5) 、(8) 、(9) 句。第(2) 、(5) 、(8)句描述了这种过程,第
(9) 句重述了中心思想。
次要支持性细节: 第(3) 、(4) 、(6) 、(7) 句。第(3) 、(4)句解释了第一个主要支持性
细节;第(6)句解释了第二个主要支持性细节;第(7)句描述了第(6)句。

第四节 图表的阅读策略

图表是科技英语中常用的一种传输信息的方式。它的特点是直观、简洁、明了。把一些复
杂的原理、运动变化、数据等用归纳列表、构图成形的手法呈现出来,使读者一目了然。图表
表达的内容与文章一样,有主题,有中心思想和细节。阅读时应首先找出主题,再确定中心思
想,最后找出支持性细节。常用的图表有线画图、示图、立体图、图片、表格等。例如:

(肖德林 用例)
主题: 大陆地壳的主要成份。中心思想: 大陆地壳主要构成的成份是什么及它们所占
的比例。
细节: 通过具体的次要成份比例数据,说明了主要成份及所占的比例。

第五节 语篇阅读策略

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科技英语语篇属于特定的交际事件, 具有特定的交际目的和特定的交际对象, 在语篇
结构、文体风格、社会功能等方面都具有特定的体裁特征, 因此具有典型的形式特征、社会
功能和语境得体性。科技英语具有突出的“体裁结构潜式”。而作为语篇体裁, 科技英语文
体又是体中有体, 形式多样。主要可分为两大部分: 科普文体和专用科技文体。这里我们主
要讨论后者, 它又可以进一步区分出许多亚体裁如, 文摘、科技论文、说明书、技术报告、工
程设计、科技应用文等。不同的专用科技文献由于交际目的、交际情景差异又会对语言、语篇
形式有不同的要求。如文摘是供检索之用, 故其语言必须简明、准确、练达:语篇构造简短
扼要, 直陈主题;信息高度凝练。然而, 专利说明书系法律文献, 表义必须准确无误, 经
得起推敲, 故语句较长, 词汇重复较多。同样, 学术论文中的句子也以长句为多, 但由于
作者主要目的是传递信息, 将复杂深奥的学术内容用浅显易懂的语言表达出来, 因此这样
的长句不会累赘拖沓。同样是长句, 但由于专利说明书与学术论文的交际目的、交际对象不
同, 故它们的表现特征不完全相同。因此通过体裁分析, 我们可以发现同一文体不同体裁
且同中有异, 异中有同, 并能得知其原因。语篇体裁分析(Genre analysis)使读者对科技
英语语篇的理解不是停留在表层语言平面, 而是上升到深层语篇语义功能层面, 从而帮助
读者领悟科技英语的选词造句技巧和谋篇布局的机制。
具体说来,在阅读一篇科技文章之前,读者应该做到目的明确,可以问自己这样的问
题,如“这篇文章到底讲什么”,“我想从这里学到什么”。要快速地得到这些问题的答
案,就需要用到“浏览”(Skimming)和“审视”(Scanning)这两个阅读技巧。这两个技巧
也是阅读中最为常用的,尤其对于快速和有效的科技英语阅读尤其重要和实用,使用哪一
个或两者都用取决于读者的阅读需要。在专业英语文章中,经常会涉及到大量的术语、概念、
技术细节,阅读者需要从这些繁多的信息中了解文章的主旨以及提取需要的特定信息,就
需要用浏览来掌握文章概要和用审视来定位特定信息。要熟练地掌握这两个技巧就需要练
习阅读较长的专业英语文章。所谓浏览就是快速的扫描文章以抓住文章的要点和主旨,而
审视则是快速的阅读文章并找到所需要的特定信息。
“浏览”通常是在一定的时间内对一篇长文章作大范围的扫描,而不是集中在一个单
词或一个句子。通常浏览包括快速阅读以定位和慢速阅读特定句子两个层次,可以包括速
读,由上而下(即由宏观到微观)或由下至上(即由微观到宏观)的阅读方法和过程。当
然阅读者的背景知识也将大大有助于提高阅读中使用浏览技巧的效率。在日常的阅读训练
中,定时是必要的。在浏览专业英语文章时,除了需要通过读标题和副标题,第一段介绍
和最后一段的总结以掌握文章的结构和主旨外,也需要注意:不同的字体,如粗体、斜体
等。在科技英语中经常使用不同于正文的字体来突出一个新的或者重要的概念和术语。过渡
性或重复性的关键词,以帮助判断下文信息和决定是否跳过而直接进入另一段。如“in
addition, furthermore”等表明附加和补充信息,“despite, however”等则意味转折
信息将出现。此外要特别注意图表和数据等视觉信息。人类对于图表等视觉信息的吸收和理
解比文字信息要敏感和容易得多。因此,科技英语中大量的图表对于读者掌握文章的主旨
将大有帮助,这也是科技和专业英语阅读的一个优势。
“审视”也是实现快速和有效专业英语阅读一种必要的手段。读者首先快速扫描全文
以寻找需要的特定信息,如特定的词/ 词组,术语,图表,数据,符号等,然后再集中细
读以弄清其细节,同时忽略大部分无关内容。这种方法也可以用于回答阅读问题和解决阅
读前所提的问题。如,在工程专业英语中,经常会涉及到具体的工艺或样品制备方法,因
此通常的专业词,如processing,technical approach, flow chart等就告诉读者下面将
介绍详细的制备工艺工程。
“浏览”是一种宏观阅读策略,是通览整个语篇的阅读活动。“审视”是一种微观阅
读策略,包括词、句、段、图表等的阅读理解。二者密不可分。阅读活动的程序,既可以是由

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宏观到微观,也可以是由微观到宏观,一般由阅读目的决定。
此外需要强调的是,有效的阅读活动离不开背景知识和常识判断。理解某个概念和原
理,有时仅仅依靠上下文是不够的,必须借助于读者头脑里储存的知识,甚至是查阅相关
资料。例如有这样一个句子:--The simplest sort of nuclear reactions is no more
than a pile of graphite bricks, each about eight inches square with channels
cut in them in which the uranium bars sit.。理解此句不仅需要了解nuclear
reactions,graphite bricks,uranium bars这些技术词语的意思,准确判断channels在
此语境中的含义;理请句子的各种关系,如指代关系(them和which指代什么),修饰关
系(which-从句的先行词是什么),逻辑关系(如主句及其从属成分之间是什么逻辑关系)
等等,找出句子的主干即核心信息,还需要判断句子所传达的技术信息是否正确和严谨。
如果我们简单地将原文的核心信息理解为“最简单的核反应堆不过是一堆石墨砖”,就会
与科学事实不符。“最简单的核反应堆”不仅需要石墨砖,还需要金属铀棒。原文表述不够
严谨,或者说将所需信息放到了其他地方即隐入从属成分之中。这就需要读者具有基本的
科学常识,以便获得对原文正确与完整的理解。关于科学背景知识在阅读理解中的重要性,
我们将在“科技英语翻译”一章详细论述。

第三章 科技英语写作
如何撰写科技论文、实验报告、文章摘要、产品说明书等等,是科技英语学习的一项重
要内容。下面我们主要介绍科技英语写作的基本特征和常用策略。

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第一节 科技英语写作的特点

准确客观、简洁明了、条理分明,是科技写作的主要特点。科技英语写作的特点与科技英
语的语法、词汇、句法、文体特点密不可分,因为只有符合和满足这些特点,一篇科技文章
才能真正称得上是标准的、地道的科技英语。当然,仅仅具有这些特点仍然不够,科技英语
还有自己独特的写作方法和格式,如科技术语的定义方法、各类图表的描述方法以及谋篇
布局的格式等等。了解这些方法和格式对科技英语写作实践大有裨益。
这里对“准确客观、简洁明了、条理分明”的十二字写作原则作简要说明。准确指运用
技术词语而非意义模棱两可的日常生活词语表达技术概念,以及运用各类复合词结构和修
饰语严密地描述技术概念的特征和含义。一般综合性英语词典中标明为“技术”(tech)、“
医学”(med)、“法律”(law)的词语都是技术词语,如velocity (tech), scapula(med),
larceny(law)。如果我们用普通英语里的speed, shoulder blade, stealing分别代替这些
词语,写作的准确性和技术色彩就会丧失殆尽。
客观指科技写作要围绕方法、过程、结果、规律、事实叙述,力避写作者个人感情的流露,
尽量不用文学创作中常用的积极修辞格如比喻、夸张、拟人等,表现在语言上就是多用物称
主语,多用被动语态,多用It…that…句型等。专业科技英语的读者是专业科技人员。他们
感兴趣的不是语言,而是技术数据、方法、过程、结果结论等科学事实,因此无需在语言上
精雕细刻,同时科技工作者工作繁忙,也无暇在其写作中顾及语言因素。当然,科普英语
可以适当运用积极修辞手法,以增强阅读的趣味性,因为其读者是非专业人员,他们可能
对语言和内容均感兴趣。生动的语言有助于增强普通读者对科技知识的兴趣。例如有这样一
个描写蚊子叮人的句子,就使用了非常生动的比喻和夸张语言,把蚊子比作了飞机:The
convection currents set up in the cool air by the heat of your body prompt the
mosquito to cut the motor and let down the landing gear.(当蚊子感觉到冷空气中
由你身体散发的热而形成的气流对流,便会促使它关掉马达,放下起落架,叮在你身上。)。
简洁指科技写作不说废话,用最经济的语言表达最多的信息,如科技英语的名词化结
构,就是把一个句子的信息压缩到一个名词短语里,而各类短语如分词短语、不定式短语、
动名词短语、名词短语、形容词短语、副词短语等用来替代各种从句,也是科技英语语言简
练的重要表征。使用技术词语,除了可以获得准确性外,还可以使表述简洁,减少累赘的
描述,如quark(“夸克”,一种基本粒子),若用通俗英语表达,则是:the smallest
possible piece of material。
明了指科技语言意在言表,不像文学语言有时故意使用意义模糊、含有歧义的词句来
扩大读者的想象空间或者达到某种写作目的。如莎士比亚笔下人物哈姆莱特的名句:To be
or not to be, that’s a question,其含义深奥博大,莫可测度,涉及到哲学、文学、科
学,令古往今来多少圣贤俊才折腰气短。这样的语言,在科技写作中是绝对禁止使用的。
条理分明指科技信息的组织逻辑线索清楚,衔接紧密,意思连贯,表现在语言上就是
多 用 关 联 词 语 如 if, when, because, although, also, moreover, likewise, on the
other hand 等 , 以 及 各 种 程 式 化 的 套 语 如 given(“ 已 知 ” ) , find(“ 求 ” ) ,
procedures(“解”)等。

第二节 科技英语写作的方法

3.2.1 科技英语的定义方法
在科学技术领域,定义是一种非常重要的写作手段。何为定义?定义指“对于一种事

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物的本质或一个概念的内涵和外延的确切而简要的说明”(《现代汉语词典(汉英双语
版)》,2002:460)。科学技术领域需要定义的事物有很多,如概念、思想、法则、本质特性、
操作、物质、物品、机器工具等等。
科技英语的定义方法主要分为三种:基本概念定义法,具体特性定义法和扩展式定义
法(段平,1993)。下面分别介绍。
A)基本概念定义法
基本概念定义法适用于对单个的名词概念的本质特征进行描述。被定义的名词一般不
带(前置)修饰语。用于该定义法的基本句型是:单数名词 + 系动词 + 不定冠词 + 类
别词+ 后置修饰语。其中“单数名词”是被定义的事物,前面常常使用不定冠词,如果是
不可数名词,则其前面的不定冠词省略;“系动词”一般是is;“不定冠词”为a/an;“
类别词”(class word)是说明该事物类属的词语;“后置修饰语”可以是定语从句、介词
短语、分词短语等,用来说明该事物区别于同类其他事物的特征。具体说来,有以下几种句
型:
1)An x/y is a/an class word +wh-word + verb-s…
e.g.:
---A catalyst is a substance which alters the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs, but is itself
unchanged at the end of the reaction..
---Vinegar is a liquid which contains acetic acid.
2)An x/y is a/an class word + wh-word is verb-ed…
e.g.:
---An alloy is a metallic substance which is composed of two or more elements.
3)An x/y is a/an class word + verb-ed…
e.g.:
---Square is a result obtained by multiplying a number by itself.
4)An x/y is a/an class word + preposition + verb-ing…
e.g.:
---A thermostat is a device for regulating temperature.
5)An x/y is a/an class word + preposition + wh-word…
e.g.:
---Acoustics is a branch of physics in which the properties of sounds are studied.
6)An x/y is a/an class word + preposition + noun phrase
e.g.:
--- A triangle is a plane figure with three sides.
---Tungsten is a metal with the property of retaining hardness at red-heat.
7)An x/y is a/an class word + verb-ing
e.g.:
---A tangent is a straight line touching a curve at one point.
8)Definition formulas (公式型定义)
e.g.:
P = FV (Power equals force multiplied by velocity)
B)具体特性定义法
具体特性定义法适用于对具体概念或事物的描述,换言之,它适用于对词组型概念的
描述。具体特性定义法与基本概念定义法的区别在于它定义的不是名词概念本身,而是这
个名词概念的修饰语。例如,对triangle进行定义,用基本概念定义法;对equilateral

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triangle定义,就需要运用具体特性定义法,对修饰语equilateral进行说明。请看下面的
例子:
---A key-hole saw is a saw with a narrow blade, used for cutting holes in wood.
---Potential energy is an energy waiting to be released.
---A horseshoe magnet is a magnet shaped like a horseshoe.
从上面三例可以看出,定义的对象都是名词概念中的修饰语而非中心名词本身。从句
型看,具体特性定义法采用了重复名词中心语的定义方法,有时也可不用重复法,用一个
涵盖名词中心语的类别词,例如:
---A Wheatstone bridge is a scientific apparatus in the form of a bridge for measuring the
resistance of an electric circuit.(用类别词apparatus[装置],未重复bridge)
C)扩展式定义法
该定义法是基本概念定义法的一种扩展形式,即在基本概念定义之外运用描述、归纳、
举例等手段对所下定义进一步说明。扩展式定义至少包含两个句子,有时甚至是一个段落。
该定义法又可具体分为:
a)描述式扩展定义法。例如:
A telescope is an instrument for magnifying distant objects. It has two essential parts: The
objective which collects light from the distant object and forms a real image, and the eye-piece
which forms a magnified image of this image. Refracting telescopes use a convex lens as the
objective and reflecting telescopes use a curved mirror of large diameter. (画线部分为基本定义,
下同)
b)归纳举例式扩展定义法。例如:
Man and most animals can only exist near the surface of the earth in the region known as the
biosphere. The biosphere is the thin layer of soil, water and air in which all life exists. On land tth
biosphere only goes down as far as the deepest tree roots. In the sea most life is in the top 150
meters although the biosphere can be considered as extending to the depths of the ocean. Some
birds and insects fly high into the sky, but most animals could not even live in the earth’s highest
mountains. The upper limit in the air can be estimated to be around 10,000 meters.
c)介绍用途式扩展定义法。例如:
Aluminium is a metal which is light in weight. Therefore, it is used for making aircraft.
d)介绍构件式扩展定义法。例如:
An insect is a small arthropod animal. It consists of three main parts: the head, the thorax and
abdomen.
在科技写作过程中进行定义时,注意不要将定义与举例相互混淆。例如,我们不能说 ,
“Ohm’s law is one of the scientific laws”,因为该句没有说明Ohm’s law的本质
内涵。定义句的前半部分应当是一般陈述,类别词的选择要适当,既不能太宽,也不能太
窄,例如,我们对dentist进行定义时,最好选用类别词person而不是doctor,从而得到
如下定义:“A dentist is a person who takes care of people’s teeth.”。定义句
的后半部分即修饰语部分必须抓住被定义事物或概念的本质特征,而非无关痛痒的表面现
象。例如我们对school 进行定义。如果我们的定义是:A school is a place where you
find blackboards,就没有抓住关键,因为有“黑板(blackboard)”的地方也可能是出售
黑 板 的 商 店 或 者 其 他 地 方 , 可 取 的 定 义 是 : A school is a place where children
receive education。定义句中被定义的名词前面习惯用不定冠词a/an或者不用,一般不用
定冠词the,因为定义是一般性陈述。定义句中的谓语动词一般是 is,有时可用can be
defined。

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上面介绍的是比较正式的定义法,科技英语有时也用非正式的定义方法,一般是借用
同义词语对被定义的事物稍加解释或说明。例如:
---Often a model, a simplified version of reality, is part of a hypothesis or theory.
---Altitude or the height above sea level, also determines climate.
---Geothermal energy, or energy from within the earth, can be used to generate electricity.

3.2.2 科技英语的描述方法
描述法是科技英语写作的另一重要方法,可分为变化描述法和状态描述法。前者主要
描述化学变化和物体运动,后者侧重于事物的分类、物质及其特性、物品的物理特性以及科
技术语含义的描述。从某种意义上讲,定义也是一种描述,可归入状态描述法。关于变化描
述法,我们主要介绍实验过程描述、物品生产过程描述、事物工作原理描述和发明发现过程
描述。关于状态描述法,我们主要介绍图表的描述。
1)实验过程描述
实验过程描述要注意两点:一是主语形式的一致性,二是时态的一致性,以保证叙述
的连贯性。请看下面两个有问题的实验描述:
例 1
Turn a gas-jar upside down and a wooden splint is burnt under it for about a quarter of a
minute. I close the jar with a cover and then we put it the right way up on the bench. Next you
remove the cover, 2 cm of lime water is quickly added. Replace the cover and we shake the jar.
例 2
A clear glass capillary tube is fixed vertically in a beaker. The beaker contains a liquid which
wets glass, such as water or petrol. The liquid rose up the tube and reached a certain height which
depended on the nature of the liquid and the diameter of the tube. With a given liquid, the amount
of the rise is proportional to the narrowness of the tube. The surface of the liquid at the top of the
column was concave to the air.
例1的问题是主语混乱,使用了you, I, we三种主语形式,使读者无法确定究竟谁在
做实验。使主语统一的方法有两种:所有句子都用祈使句或者被动语态。比较而言,使用祈
使句使叙述更为简练。例2的问题是时态不统一,一般现在时和一般过去时交替使用,给读
者的感觉好象是这个实验是在过去和现在两个时空中完成的,这是不可思议的。实验描述
可用一般现在时或过去时。已被证明的实验过程的介绍用一般现在时,过去发生的实验描
述用过去时态,但要注意真理性的东西的描述即使在过去的语境里也要用一般现在时,如
例2原文中的a liquid which wets glass,时态无须变动。两个例子似可作如下改进:
例 1
Turn a gas jar upside down and burn a wooden splint under ir for about a quarter of a minute.
Close the jar with a cover and then put it the right way up on the bench. Next remove the cover
and quickly add 2 cm of lime water. Replcae the cover and shake the jar.
例 2
A clear glass capillary tube is fixed vertically in a beaker. The beaker contains a liquid which
wets glass, such as water or petrol. The liquid rises up the tube and reaches a certain height which
depends on the nature of the liquid and the diameter of the tube. With a given liquid, the amount
of the rise is proportional to the narrowness of the tube. The surface of the liquid at the top of the
column is concave to the air.
2) 物品生产过程描述
物品生产过程描述包括物质提纯、矿物提炼、金属制造以及物品的工业生产过程的描述。

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该类描述有时还包括对物品的定义或对其特性的描述。描述顺序一般按照物品生产过程的
自然时空顺序。请看下面有关咖啡生产过程的描述。
Coffee Production
The coffee plant: an evergreen shrub or small treeof African origin, begins to produce fruit 3
or 4 years after being planted. The fruit is hand-gathered when it is fully ripe and a reddish purple
in colour. The ripened fruits of the coffee shrubs are processed where they are produced to
separate the coffee seeds from their covering and from the pulp. Two different techniques are in
use: a wet process and a dry process.
The wet process: First the fresh fruit is pulped by a pulping machine. Some pulp still clings
to the coffee, however, and this residue is removed by fermentation in tanks. The coffee seeds are
then dried to a moisture contnent of about 12 percent either by exposure to the sun or by hot-air
driers. If dried in the sun, they must be turned by hand several times a day for even drying.
The dry process: In the dry process the fruits are immediately placed to dry either in the sun
or in hot-air driers. Considerably more time and equipment is needed for drying than in the wet
process. When the fruits have been dried to a water content of about 12 percent the seeds are
mechanically freed from their coverings.
The characteristic aroma and taste of coffee only appear later and are developed by the high
temperatures to which they are subjected during the course of the process known as roasting.
Temperatures are raised progressively to about 220-230℃. This releases steam, carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide and other volatiles from the beans, resulting in a loss of weight of between 14
and 23 percent. Internal pressure of gas expands the volume of the coffee seeds from 30 to 100
percent. The seeds become rich brown in colour; their texture becomes porous and crumbly under
pressure. But the most important phenemon of roasting is the appearance of the characteristic
aroma of coffee, which arises from very complex chemical transformations within the beans. The
coffee, on leaving the industrial roasters, is rapidly cooled in a vat where it is stirred and subjected
to cold air propelled by a blower. Good quality coffees are then sorted by electronic sorters to
eliminate the seeds that roasted badly. The presence of seeds which are either too light or too dark
depreciates the quality.
3) 事物工作原理描述
事物工作原理描述常见于操作手册和产品说明书。此种描述除了文字叙述外还常附有
帮助理解文字说明的示意图。同时,除了工作原理的详细描述之外,还有对事物的定义,
及其功能、构成要件和类型的介绍。请看下面有关车床工作原理的介绍。
The Lathe
The lathe is one of the most useful and versatile machines in the workshop, and is capable of
carrying out a wide variety of machining operations. The main components of lathe are headstock
and tailstock at opposite ends of a bed, and a tool-post between them which holds the cutting tool.
The tool-post stands on a cross-slide which enables it to move slidewards across the saddle or
carriage as well as along it, depending on the kind of job it is doing. The ordinary centre lathe can
accommodate only one tool at a time on the tool post, but a turret lathe is capable of holding five
or more tools on the revolving turret. The lathe bed mus t be very solid to prevent the machine
from bending or twisting under stress.

41
The headstock incorporates the driving and gear mechanism, and a spindle which holds the
workpiece and causes it to rotate at a speed which depends largely on the diameter of the
workpiece. A bar of large diameter should naturally rotate more slowly than a very thin bar; the
cutting speed of the tool is what matters. Tapered centres in the hollow nose of the spindle and of
the tailstock hold the work firmly between them. A feed-shaft from the headstock drives the tool-
post along the saddle, either forwards or backwards, at a fixed and uniform speed. This enables
the operator to make accurate cuts and to give the work a good finish. Gears between the spindle
and the feed-shaft control the speed of rotation of the shaft, and therefore the forward or backward
movement of the tool-post. The gear which the operator will select depends on the type of metal
which he is cutting and the amount of metal he has to cut off. For a deep or roughing cut the
forward movement of the tool should be less than for a finishing cut.
Centres are not suitable for every job on the lathe. The operator can replace them by various
types of chucks, which hold the work between jaws, or by a front-plate, depending on the shape of
the work and the particular cutting operation. He will use a chuck, for example, to hold a short
piece of work, or work for drilling, boring or screw-cutting. A transverse movement of the tool-
post across the saddle enables the tool to cut across the face of the workpiece and give it a flat
surface. For screw-cutting, the operator engages the lead-screw, a long screwed shaft which runs
along in front of the the bed and which rotates with the spindle. The lead-screw drives the tool-
post forwards along the carriage at the correct speed, and this ensures that the threads on the screw
are of exactly the right pitch. The operator can select different gear speeds, and this will alter the
ratio of spindle and lead-screw speeds and therefore alter the pitch of the threads. A reversing
lever on the headstock enables him to reverse the movement of the carriage and so bring the tool
back to its original position.
4) 发明发现过程描述
在科技英语中,发明发现的描述主要使用一般过去时。如果是客观真理,用一般现在
时;如果是发生在“过去的过去”的动作,用过去完成时。此类描述常使用以下句式结构:
…thought that…/it was thought that…

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…believed that…/It was believed that…
…noted that…/it was noted that…
…observed that…/It was observed that…
…discovered that…/It was discovered that…/it had been discovered that…
…found that…/It was found that…
请看下面三例:
例 1
Discovery of oxygen
Priestley's most famous discovery occurred on Aug. 1, 1774, when he obtained a colourless
gas by heating red mercuric oxide (he called it mercurius calcinatus per se). Finding that a candle
would burn in it "with a remarkably vigorous flame," he called it "dephlogisticated air" because
he believed, accepting prevailing theory, that ordinary air became saturated with phlogiston when
it could no longer support combustion or life. (Phlogiston was thought to be a material that was
transferred during burning and respiration; a unifying idea in 18th-century chemistry, it avoided
quantitative considerations but was the reverse of the oxidative interpretation of combustion and
respiration established by Lavoisier in 1789.) Priestley was not yet sure, however, that he had
discovered a "new species of air." (Oxygen was also discovered by the Swedish chemist and
apothecary Carl Wilhelm Scheele, probably by 1773.) The following October Priestley
accompanied Shelburne on a journey through Belgium, Holland, Germany, and France, where in
Paris he informed Lavoisier how he obtained his new "air." The meeting of the two scientists was
highly significant for the future of chemistry: Lavoisier required no more than the barest
intimation of the success of Priestley's experiments to appreciate their significance. He
immediately repeated them and in 1775-80 conducted intensive investigations from which he
correctly deduced the elementary nature of oxygen, recognized it as the active "principle" of the
atmosphere, interpreted its role in combustion and respiration, and gave it its name (1789).
Priestley, however, did not accept all of Lavoisier's views and continued in particular to uphold
the phlogiston theory until, in his old age, he was its last champion.
例 2
The Discovery of Pluto
The search for the expected ninth planet in the solar system was supported most actively at
the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff in the early 20th century. It was initiated by the founder of the
observatory, Percival Lowell, an American astronomer who had achieved notoriety through his
highly publicized claims of canal sightings on Mars.
After two unsuccessful attempts to find the planet prior to Lowell's death in 1916, an
astronomical camera with a 13-inch objective was built specifically for this purpose in 1929, and a
young amateur astronomer, Clyde Tombaugh, was hired to carry out the planetary search. Less
than one year after he began his work, on Feb. 18, 1930, Tombaugh found Pluto in the
constellation Gemini. The new planet appeared as a dim "star" of the 15th magnitude that slowly
changed its position against the fixed background stars as it pursued its 248-year orbit around the
Sun.
例 3
The Invention of the Audion Tube
In 1907 De Forest patented a much more promising detector (developed in 1906) which he
called the "Audion"; it was capable of more sensitive reception of wireless signals than were the

43
electrolytic and Carborundum types then in use. It was a thermionic grid-triode vacuum tube--a
three-element electronic "valve" similar to a two-element device patented by the Englishman Sir
John Ambrose Fleming in 1905. The same year De Forest was able to broadcast experimentally
both speech and music to the general public in the New York City area.
In 1910 he broadcast a live performance by Enrico Caruso at the Metropolitan Opera in order
to further popularize the new medium. In 1912 De Forest conceived the idea of "cascading" a
series of Audion tubes so as to amplify high-frequency radio signals far beyond what could be
accomplished by merely increasing the voltage on a single tube. He fed the output from the plate
of one tube, through a transformer to the grid of a second, and the output of the second tube's plate
to the grid of a third, and so forth, thereby allowing for an enormous amplification of a signal that
was originally very weak. This was an essential development for both radio and telephonic long-
distance communication. He also discovered in 1912 that by feeding part of the output of his
triode vacuum tube back into its grid, he could cause a self-regenerating oscillation in the circuit.
The signal from this circuit, when fed to an antenna system, was far more powerful and effective
than that of the crude transmitters then generally employed and, when properly modulated, was
capable of transmitting speech and music. When appropriately modified, this single invention was
capable of either transmitting, receiving, or amplifying radio signals.
5)图表描述
科技英语使用各种各样的技术图表(包括公式),用以直观简洁地表达文字内容。图表描
述大致可以划分为单词型、句子型和段落型。下面分别举例说明。
A)单词型
单词(包括词组)型描述用一个单词或词组说明用图表表示的某个概念的根本属性或含
义或类型。反过来看,图表是对某一抽象概念的含义的视觉外显,即直观化,其特点是文
字与图表互为说明。例如:

1)perpendicular 2)diagonal

3)tangent 4)parallelism

5)deflect 6)taper

7)oscillation 8)disperse

B)句子型
句子(包括句群)型描述多用于公式,有时也用于图表,说明抽象的概念、原理、法则或
客观规律,常用一般现在时。例如:

1) R = (∑ Px) 2 + ( ∑ Py ) 2
R equals the square root of sigma Px(all) squared, plus sigma Py(all) squared.

44
2)V = 1/3π r2 cot α
V equals one-third π r squared times cotangent alpha.
3)θ= ωt + 1/2αt2
Theta is equal to omega times t plus half alpha times t squared.
4)2π f1 L2 - 1/2π f1 C = 0
Two π f1 L2 minus one divided by two π f1 C is equal to zero.
5)
The sum of the three angles of a triangle is 180 degrees and the length of any two
sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side.
C)段落型
单词型和句子型描述主要用于简略地描述某一概念、原理和客观现象。如果要进行详细
描述,需要运用段落或段群。如果图表说明的是抽象的概念原理或客观规律,用一般现在
时;如果说明的是过去的事物,用一般过去时。
例 1
Parabola
Parabola is an open curve, a conic section produced by the intersection of a right circular
cone and a plane parallel to an element of the cone. As a plane curve, it may be defined as the path
(locus) of a point moving so that its distance from a fixed line (the directrix) is equal to its
distance from a fixed point (the focus).The vertex of the parabola is the point on the curve that is
closest to the directrix; it is equidistant from the directrix and the focus. The vertex and the focus
determine a line, perpendicular to the directrix, that is the axis of the parabola.

The line through the focus parallel to the directrix is the latus rectum (straight side). The
parabola is symmetric about its axis, moving farther from the axis as the curve recedes in the
direction away from its vertex. Rotation of a parabola about its axis forms a paraboloid.The
parabola is the path, neglecting air resistance and rotational effects, of a projectile thrown outward
into the air. The parabolic shape also is seen in certain bridges, forming arches.For a parabola the
axis of which is the x axis and with vertex at the origin, the equation is y2 = 2px, in which p is the
distance between the directrix and the focus.

例 2
Growth of Natural Rubber and Synthetic Rubber
(tons)
Year Natural Rubber Sytnetic Rubber
1940 480,000 0

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1950 670,000 20,000
1960 950,000 32,000
1970 1,320,000 51,000
1980 1,800,000 81,000

During the last 40 years there was a rapid increase in the world’s natural rubber production.
In 1940, only 480,000 tons were produced, whereas 40 years later 1,800,000 tons were produced.
There was an increase of 1,320,000 tons of natural rubber from 1940 to 1980.
During the last 40 years there was also a rapid increase in world’s synthetic rubber
production. In 1940, there was not any synthetic rubber production, whereas 40 years later 81,000
tons were produced. There was an increase of 61,000 tons of synthetic rubber from 1950 to 1980.
(段平 用例)
从上面例2的描述中可以看出,所用时态是一般过去时;在词汇运用上使用了whereas
来对两种事物进行比较。用于事物比较的词汇,除了 whereas,还有however, while, on
the other hand, on the contrary, by contrast / in contrast, conversely等等。

3.2.3 各类科技文体的写作
科技英语文体作为一种大的语体下面又可分为许多亚体裁,如科技论文、技术报告、操
作流程、产品说明书、技术规程与标准、论文摘要等等。下面对这些亚体裁的写作进行简单的
探讨。
1)科技论文写作
用英语撰写科技论文,从目前我国高等教育的现状来看,是理工科课程特别是双语教
学课程的要求,是某些学校毕业论文的要求,同时也是向英语学术期刊投稿的要求。那么
如何用英语撰写科技论文?
首先,我们必须对科技论文的内在特点了然于胸。第一,科技论文要具有科学性。就描
述对象而论,科技论文只涉及科学与技术领域的命题;就描述内容来看,要求文章的论述
具有可信度。科技论文不能凭主观臆断或个人好恶随意取舍素材或得出结论。它有足够的、
可靠的和精确的实验数据、现象观察或逻辑推理作为依据。第二,科技论文要具有首创性。
这是科技论文的灵魂。它要求论文所揭示的事物现象、属性、特点以及事物运动所遵循的规
律,或者这些属性、特点以及研究计划的可行性论证亦可列入本类型。运动规律的运用,必
须是前所未见的,首创的或部分首创的,而不是对他人工作的复述或解释。
第三,科技论文要具有逻辑性。逻辑性指文章的结构特点。它要求论文脉络清晰、结构
严谨、推论合理、演算正确、符号规范、文字通顺、前呼后应、自成系统。不论文章所涉及的专
题大小如何,都应该有自己的前提或假说,论证素材和推断结论,而不应该是数据的堆砌
或现象的自然描绘。最后,科技论文应具有有效性。有效性指文章的发表方式。只有经过相
关专业的同行专家审阅,并在一定规格的学术评议会上答辩通过并存档归案;或在正式的
科技刊物上发表的科技论文才被认为是完备的、有效的。这时,不管论文采用何种文字发表,
它所提示的事实及其真谛已能方便地为他人应用,成为人类知识宝库的组成部分。
从类型看,科技论文可分为论证型、研究报告型、发现与发明型以及综述型(靳中征,
2004)。论证型科技论文是对基础科学命题的描述与讨论。如对数学、物理、化学、天文、地理、
生物等基础性学科及其他众多的应用技术性学科的公理、定理、定律、原理、原则或假设的建
立、论证及其适用范围、使用条件的讨论。很多实验技术、工程方案和研究计划的可行性论证
亦可列入本类型。研究报告型是针对科技领域的一个学科或一个专题,有目的地进行调查
与考察,试验与分析,或进行相应的模拟研究,得到系统的观察现象、实验数据或效果比

46
较等重要的原始资料和分析结论。
发现与发明型是记述发现事物的背景、现象、本质、特性及其运动变化所遵循的规律与
使用前景,是阐述发明的装备、系统、工具、材料、工艺、形式或方法的性能、特点、原理及使
用条件等。综述性论文与一般科技论文的主要区别在于综述性文章不要求在研究内容上具
有首创性。尽管一篇好的综述文章也常常包括有某些先前未曾发表过的新资料或新思想,
但是它要求撰稿人在综合分析和评价已发表过的资料基础上,提出该涉及专题在特定时期
内发展演变的规律和趋势。综述型文章的题目比一般科技论文的题目笼统,篇幅也允许稍
长,往往对所讨论的专题或学科的进一步发展起到引导作用。
科技英语论文的格式 可参考 APA(American Psychological Association) 或 The Chicago
Manual of Style各版本之说明。整个论文的组成要素包括标题、作者及其单位、摘要及关键词、
目录、正文、致谢、参考文献和附录。毕业论文、会议论文以及著作都有目录,学术期刊文章
则没有目录。在学术期刊文章中,致谢有时以脚注的形式出现在文章首页;在学术著作中,
致谢则辟专页出现在正文之前。科技论文的正文一般包括引言 (Introduction) ,文献综述
(Literature Review) ,研究设计之方法 (Methodology),结果与讨论 (Results and Discussion) ,
以及结论(Conclusion)。下面简要介绍科技论文的构成要件。
A)标题 (Title)
标题应简洁明了, 概括全文内容, 引人注目。如果标题一般化, 流于空泛, 会使读者
错过阅读它的机会。 应该注意的是: ①标题不采用句子形式, 比句子简洁, 但词的先后顺
序很重要;②标题中不要使用缩略语, 化学分子式, 或过时的术语; ③英国数学学会要
求数学论文一条标题不超过12个词, 英国新英格兰医学杂志在约稿中规定“必要时给目录
写一个限制在75 个字母之内的标题”;④不提倡标有篇序的系例文章; ⑤英语标题第一
个词和每一个实词的第一个字母要大写, 如: Algebraic Solution of Linear Partial
Differential Equation(线性偏微方程的代数解)。
B) 作者(Author)及其单位(Affiliation)
作者必须参与过本项研究的设计和开创工作,参加过论文的撰写,阅读过论文的全文,
并同意其发表。科技论文可以个人署名, 也可以用集体名义署名, 并写明工作单位和地址,
便于联系, 作者不止一人时, 按对文章的贡献大小排列。
C)摘要(Abstract)及关键词(Key Words)
科技论文应附有内容摘要, 它是全篇论文的缩影,一般放在正文前面。摘要分两种:
陈述性摘要和资料性摘要。科技论文中常用资料性摘要——包括主题、研究方法、研究结果、
数据和研究结论。关键词是反映研究内容的关键概念。摘要和关键词的字数在不同场合有不
同要求,如学术期刊文章的摘要一般在300字词左右,关键词为3—8个。
D)目录(Contents)
目录反映论文的提纲, 所列条目就是论文组成部分的小标题, 用来帮助读者查阅章节。
E) 正文(The Body)
a)引言
引言是科技论文的总体介绍, 用来向读者解释论文的主题、目的和总纲。引言应包括:
(1) 说明论文主题和目的,(2) 说明引起论文写作要求的情况和背景,(3) 概述达到理想
答案的方法。
b)文献综述
文献综述介绍本课题所涉及的研究领域目前国内外研究现状及发展趋势,它是研究者
进行研究的立足点和依据。通过广泛阅读国内外有关文献,研究者可以了解本领域研究的
空白和不足之处,从而找到研究课题及研究的可能方向。文献综述涉及到文献阅读广度和
深度的问题。一般初涉研究的同学对文献阅读和文献综述感到迷惑,不知从何处着手。从范

47
围讲,文献阅读当然是多多益善,尽可能地收集到国内外相关的文献。但受条件限制,想
穷尽所有相关文献是不可能的,我们只有充分利用图书馆、书店、人际关系、网络电子资源,
尽可能地多了解有关文献,使我们的研究不至于成为重复劳动或者有漏洞。就深度讲,本
科论文的文献阅读不需要像博硕士毕业论文那样需要充分掌握既广且深的文献内容,只需
要了解文献阅读和综述的方法,就某一问题提出自己合理的看法即可。
c)研究方法
这里的研究方法指整个研究所运用的方法,如调查研究法、实验研究法、个案研究法等
等,也可以是几种方法的结合。此部分的写作包括引言(Introduction)、研究问题或假设
(General and specific research questions/hypotheses)、研究对象(Sujects)、研究设
备/工具(Instruments)、数据收集(Data-collection)、数据分析(Data-analysis)等。注意
这个部分的引言与整个论文的引言完全不同,它只是对本研究课题所使用的研究方法的详
细说明以及对本部分宏观架构的介绍,与整篇论文没有关系。 。
d)结果与讨论
结果与讨论是实验结果的归纳和探讨,是整个研究工作的落脚点,并决定其意义所在,
同时为后面的结论立据。
e)结论
结论是论文内容的概略, 一般放在正文最后面。总结应包括研究问题的提出, 研究内
容和研究方法, 同时应涉及研究的成果和意义。如果课题没有完全解决,应对本课题的未
来研究方向作出有益的建议和启示。结论(论文总的观点) 是实验结果的逻辑发展, 是整篇
论文的归宿。
F)致谢 (Acknowledgements)
致谢可以单独成段成页,放在结论后面,但它不是论文的必要组成部分。它是对曾经
给予论文的选题、构思或撰写指导或建议,对考察或实验过程中做出过某种贡献的人员或
曾经给予过技术、信息、物资或经费帮助的单位、团体或个人致以谢意。一般对例行的劳务,
如校对等可不专门致谢。
G)参考文献 (Bibliography/References)
同其它论文写作一样, 最后必须列举参考书目, 但英语科技论文的参考文献排列较一
般论文严谨、复杂些。例如,如果引用了杂志论文则应标明: ①作者姓名,②论文标题,③
杂志名称,④卷号,⑤期号,⑥出版年、 月,⑦论文首页与末页。如引用了专利则应标明:
①发明者姓名, ②国别与专利号,③专利使用年代,④拥有专利的公司,⑤可以找到专利
摘要的摘要杂志。如引用了书籍则应标明: ①著者姓名,②编者姓名,③书名,④版次,
⑤出版者,⑥出版地与年代,⑦卷号,⑧页码。
H)附录 (Appendix/Appendices)
附录是论文的附件,不是论文的必要组成部分。它向读者提供论文正文中部分内容的
详尽推导、演算、证明、仪器、装备或解释、说明,以及提供有关数据、曲线、照片或其他辅助
资料,如计算机框图或程序软件等。
2) 技术报告的写作
技术报告与科技论文略有不同,当然科技论文中的研究报告可以看作是技术报告的
一种。一般说来,科技论文比较正式,结构比较严谨,其写作是为了发表或者是为了满足
某种特定的要求如课程结业要求。技术报告比较简短,仅作交流或汇报之用,可以是报告
语体,也可以是书信语体。技术报告可分为田野报告,测试报告,实验报告,进度报告等。
请看下面的例子。
例 1 田野调查报告(报告体)
Examination of the Necessity of Buying Videotape Recorders for the Language Laboratory

48
Shi Ming October 22, 1981
Purpose
The purpose of this inspection is to determine, at the request of the Equipment Division, whether
the language laboratory needs to buy videotape recorders to improve the language skills of
students, particularly those of postgraduates.
Conclusions
These conclusions were based on personal attendance at no less than 10 language classes taking
place in the language laboratory from September to October, 1981. The present equipment was
found to be quite unsatisfactory for students, particularly for postgraduates.
1. There are no videotape recorders.
2. There are no educational videotape recordings.
Suggestions
1. That two videotape recorders be bought.
2. That five videotapes be bought.

例 2 检测报告(书信体)
November 15, 1981
Mr. Paul Harris
Motorcycle Center
2608, Front Street
Middletown
Subject: Test of 750 four-cylinder engine
Dear Mr. Harris:
Upon receiving the 750 four-cylinder engine, we immediately began to test it. On the basis
of the tests, I recommend that production of the engine begin as soon as possible.
The 750 engine was thoroughly checked to make sure it was in perfect order. It was found to
be perfect.
Then the engine was run every day for more than six hours and no less than four hours for a
period of thirty days. The engine came through the tests with no problems.

Yours sincerely,
Michael Smith
Testing Division

例 3 实验报告(报告体)
Experiment to Obtain Crystals by Evaporation
Object of the Experiment
The object of the experiment is to make crystals by evaporation
Theory
It is believed that if a solution is allowed to evaporate, its crystals will appear in the end.
Materials
Copper sulphate, beaker, Bunsen burner, water, evaporating dishes
Procedure
The water in the beaker is heated with a Bunsen hurner. Meanwhile, the copper sulphate is added

49
and stirred until the solution is saturated. Next, the solution is poured into an evaporating dish and
allow it to evaporate. The result is that crystals appear.
Reference
Laster, Ann. Simple Experiments in Chemistry. Education Press, 1979.
3)操作规程的写作
操作规程是一种独立的科学语体,可以归入说明文的范畴。其显著特点是程式化的语
言特点:句式结构少变化,多用祈使句,多词语特别是表达指令的动词的重复,多用甲乙
丙丁开药方式的语篇结构介绍操作的严密步骤。下面是一篇操作规程说明,介绍了反应器
加热器的现场装配程序。
Field Erection Procedures for 64F 301 Reactor Heater
1. Verify accurately the layout of foundations and anchor bolts positions as well as the horizontal
position and elevation of foundation.
2. On ground, assemble by pairs the radiaton panels. Erect the radiant shell in vertical position on
foundation. Install the floor element.
3. Brush the inside of radiation shell. Weld anchorrods to the shell for lining refractory. Check
nuts for upper bends guides.
4. Install lining refractory in radiant section, floor excepted.
5. Install lower return bends supporters.
6. Erect prefabricated elements of radiation coil. Install upper bend guides.
7. Weld inlet and outlet manifold.
8. Verify positions of guides and supports of radiation coil.
9. Install lining refractory on the floor with openings for burners, blocks, sight ports, tubes
crossings.
10. On ground, brush the inside of radiant cone and stack element with damper obturator. Weld
anchorrods for lining refractory.
11. On ground, install lining refractory in cone and stack element. Check the design operation of
damper and obsturator in the stack. Verify the orientations of all connections.
12. Erect cautiously the radiant cone and the stack element. Install winch and amper cable with
guides.
13. Install lower platform with brackets, handrails and ladder. Install landing top of radiation with
brackets, handrails and ladder.
14. Install burner tiles and burners. Verify that the floor datum level is correctly horizontal.
15. Install flame detector in radiation shell.
16. Install skin thermocouples.
17. Install and verify miscellaneous details. Check the correct working of damper obsturator,
burners, doors as well as position of flame detector. Install of flame detector. Install name plate.
Verify that all openings for guides, supporters, tubes, and so on, are filled with refractory products
according to the drawing.
18. Verify correct cold position and clearances for expansion of tubes and manifolds. Check all
connections and orientations.
19. Install two stairs for lower common platform access, after ground assembly, including steps
and handrails.
20. Proceed to coil hydraulic test.
21. After the test, verify the good closure of access and explosion doors, all joints, tube expansion

50
and so on.
4)产品说明书的写作
产品说明书是由生产单位编写、向用户介绍产品的特点、用途、主要技术数据、操作使用
说明、维修注意事项等的一种说明文,经常随产品一起赠送给用户,能起到宣传产品、扩大
销售、便利用户使用的作用。产品说明书有多种多样的形式,开本、印刷、装帧可以各有差异,
但有一些基本格式却是相同的:
一、封面。封面上要写上产品商标、规格型号、产品名称、生产厂名,还要印上产品的图
样。
二、前言或概述。这一部分,有的产品说明书是介绍新产品的主要性能特点,有的产品
说明书则是强调编写说明书的目的或说明维修、使用好新产品的重要性,有的产品说明书
没有这一部分。
三、目录。如果是篇幅较长、装成一本的产品说明书,为了便于读者翻检,还需要提供
目录。如果是只有几张纸的产品说明书,则不需要目录。
四、主要技术数据。要写得准确、简洁,也可以用表格的形式来反映。
五、使用方法。往往配上插图,按照一定的程序,说明产品的使用方法。
六、保养和维修。简要说明本产品保养的一般知识和维修的注意事项。
七、附属备件及工具。如果随产品附有备换零件和工具,则应在这一项中写明。
八、封底。注明厂址、电话号码、电报挂号,正中还可印上醒目的商标。
撰写产品说明书,一定要实事求是,恪守信誉,对用户高度负责,说明的内容必须符
合产品的实际状况,这样才能取得用户的信赖。
说明书多用祈使句,多用简短的句式结构。英语除了使用主语省略的祈使句外,还大
量使用被动语态、情态动词、虚拟语气等。下面是 USB Flash Disk 的使用说明书。
USB Flash Disk
User’s Manual
1. USB flash disk performance
1.1 USB 1.0 / 1.1 or 2.0 compliant, hot plug & play.
1.2 No external power is required, powered by USB bus directly.
1.3 High capacities.
1.4 Tightly compatible between different operation systems.
1.5 Electronic storage device, no mechanical components, shake protection, electromagnetic
wave protection.
1.6 Write / delete protection switch.
1.7 More than 10 years data retention.
1.8 High transferring rate (30 times the rate of floppy driver) .
1.9 Easily portable.
2. System requirements
2.1 Computer system requirement
IBM PC / AT or compatible desktop or Mac computer with USB port
2.2 Operation system requirement
Windows 98 SE
Windows ME
Windows 2000
Windows XP
Mac OS 9. X or above

51
Linus Core 2.4 or above
3. Software installation
3.1 Driver installation for Windows 98 SE
3.1.1 Be sure your computer supports USB port.
3.1.2 Be sure the USB ports work correctly.
3.1.3 Start up Windows 98 SE, then insert the driver disk into the floppy driver.
3.1.4 Plug the USB Flash Disk into the USB port of your computer. The system will detect it
and prompt to set up drivers; do as the system requires.
3.1.5 After having finished the driver installation and restart the system, you could find a
new driver icon named Removable Disk on My Computer.
3.2 Driver installation for Windows ME / 2000 / XP and Mac OS
3.2.1 Be sure you computer supports USB port.
3.2.2 Be sure the USB ports work correctly.
3.2.3 Insert the USB Flash Disk into USB port of the computer. The system would set up the
driver automatically. After that, you will find a new driver icon named Removable Disk or Local
Disk on My Computer. It is just the UBS Flash Disk. In general the UBS Flash Disk is the last
driver of operation system.
4. Notices
4.1 You can not plug out the USB Flash Disk until the indicator is blinding slowly.
4.2 The USB Flash Disk is online and ready while the indicator is blinking slowly. Otherwise the
USB Flash Disk is in a read / write processing and can’t be plugged out from the computer while
the indicator is blinking rapidly. The indicator light is off while the USB Flash Disk is offline or
the computer is in sleep.
4.3 Please wait 5-10 seconds between two plugging in / out.
5. Accessories
5.1 USB Flash Disk.
5.2 Installation Disk.
5.3 Connecting cable.
5.4 User’s manual.
5.5 Neck strap.
5)摘要的写作
国内外学术会议论文,毕业论文,学术期刊文章,学术著作都离不开摘要,而科技论
文英文摘要则是进行文献检索促进国际科技交流的重要手段。就摘要本身的作用来看,它
是对所写内容的高度概括,是原作的浓缩和精华,可以帮助读者在极短时间内了解原作的
大意,并影响读者是否决定通读原作的决断,因此摘要的写作非常重要。下面着重介绍信
息型英文摘要的写作方法(段平,1998)。
科技论文通常采用信息型摘要(Informative Abstract)的形式,其内容包括研究背
景、目的、方法、结果和结论五个方面,其重点在于方法、结果和结论。摘要写作应遵循客观
写实的原则,避免主观评论和感情色彩。
A)信息型摘要的写作方法
信息型摘要表达的是论文的内容要点,它是论文内容的浓缩和代表,也是国外文献检
索所使用的主要形式。科技论文英文摘要遵循科技论文准确客观和简洁的语言特点,必须
提纲挈领,重点突出,内容完整。按照科技论文的组织结构,摘要通常包括背景
(Background),目的(Purpose),方法(Method),结果(Result)和结论

52
(Conclusion)五个方面。其具体内容包括:
背景句:介绍研究的背景、现状和问题,常用现在时。
目的句:叙述研究的前提、目的、任务和所涉及的主题范围,常用过去时。
方法句:陈述研究所使用的原理、对象、材料、工艺、手段、程序等,常用过去时。
结果句:陈述研究的结果、数据、效果、性能等,常用过去时。
结论句:陈述对研究结果的分析、比较、应用,或根据结果提出问题、建议、预测等,常用现
在时或情态动词。
下面举例分析一篇论文摘要中各句的作用及其时态:
Composing Letters With a Simulated Listening Typewriter
Abstract: [1]With a listening typewriter, what an author says would be automatically recognized
and displayed in front of him or her. [2]2However, speech recognition is not yet advanced enough
to provide people with a reliable listening typewriter. [3]An aim of our experiments was to
determine if an imperfect listening typewriter would be useful for composing letters.
[4]Participants dictated letters, either in isolated words or in consecutive word speech. [5]They
did this with simulations of listening typewriters that recognized either a limited vocabulary or an
unlimited vocabulary. [6]Results indicated that some versions, even upon first using them, were at
least as good as traditional methods of handwriting and dictating. [7]Isolated word speech with
large vocabularies may provide the basis for a useful listening typewriter.
摘要的第1和第2句为背景句,介绍该领域的研究现状,采用的时态为一般现在时。第3
句为目的句,用一般过去时。第4和第5句是方法句,介绍实验的对象、设备和方法,用一般
过去时。第6句是结果句,用一般过去时。第7句是结论句,陈述根据研究结果而提出的意见,
用现在时加情态动词的形式。科技刊物对论文摘要的字数均有限制。英文摘要一般在200个
词左右,不超过250个词。如果摘要过长,可省去背景句和目的句,重点陈述研究的方法、
结果、结论和建议。例如:
Unidentified Curved bacilli in the Stomach of Patients With Gastritis and Peptic Ulceration
Abstract: [1] Biopsy specimens were taken from intact areas of antral mucosa in 100 consecutive
consenting patients presenting for gastroscopy. [2]Spiral or curved bacilli were demonstrated in
specimens from 58 patients. [3]Bacilli cultured from 11 of these biopsies were gramnegative,
flagellate, and microaerophilic and appeared to be a new species related to the genus
Campylobacter.[4]The bacteria were present in almost all patients with active chronic gastritis,
duodenal ulcer, or gastric ulcer and thus may be an important factor in the aetiology of these
diseases.
该摘要的背景句和目的句被省略。第1句是方法句,介绍实验的对象、方法和材料。第2
句、第3句和第4句的第一个分句介绍实验的结果。第4句的第二个分句是结论句,陈述根据
实验结果而提出的意见。该摘要的参考译文如下:
胃炎和消化性溃疡患者胃中的不明弯曲杆菌
摘要:经患者同意,从100个依次接受胃镜检查患者的窦粘膜的无损部分取出活检标本,
从其中58 例标本中发现有螺线型即弯曲型杆菌,从其中11例活检标本中培养的杆菌是革
兰阴性的鞭毛状的和微量需氧的,看起来是与弯曲杆菌属相关的一个新的菌种。这种细菌
几乎存在于所有慢性胃炎、十二指肠溃疡和胃溃疡患者中,可能是这些疾病病原学的一个
重要因素。
B)信息型摘要写作应注意的问题
第一,注意不要把信息型摘要写成描述型摘要。描述型摘要表达的是论文的特点和信
息的类型,而不是论文的内容,因此信息型摘要中不应出现“本文以……为理论基础讨论

53
了……问题”或“本文资料翔实、内容丰富、图文并茂”之类的话。第二,注意不要把信息
型摘要写成评价型摘要。评价型摘要表达的是对论文的作用、意义、影响的评价,而不是论
文的内容要点,因此不要在信息型摘要中夹杂作者的主观见解,论文中未涉及的补充解释
和对论文的评论,如“具有重大的理论意义”或“将产生巨大的社会效益”之类的话。第
三,摘要写作一般使用第三人称和被动语态,不用I、 we 作主语,以避免文章带有主观和
感情色彩。第四,摘要中不使用疑问句或感叹句,采用平铺直叙的陈述语气以体现其写实
性。第五,摘要中避免使用缩略语、图表、公式和读者难以理解的简称或代号,如确有必要,
必须在首次使用时加以说明。(段平,1998)
C)英文摘要写作常用的语句和词组
1)常用起始句
(1) This paper presents a thorough study of …
(2)This paper treats an important problem…
(3)This thesis addresses problems concerning…
(4)The article shows results on…
(5) This paper is concerned with …
(6)This thesis discusses / considers / examines …
(7)This thesis proposes / develops / extends a new approach for …
(8)This thesis provides a new framework…
(9) The purpose of the thesis is to explore …
(10) The author describes …
(11)In this thesis … is introduced
(12)The thesis conducts an examination into …
(13) The paper provides insights into …
(14) The author makes an exploration of …
2)常用结尾句
(1)The thesis concludes that…
(2)It is concluded that …
(3) The author arrives at the conclusion that…
(4) In conclusion…
3)常用词组“根据”和“基于”的英文表达
a). 根据
(1)in accordance with
(2)according to
(2)in (the) light of
(3)in conformity with
(4)based on
(5)on the basis of
(6)in compliance with
(7)in line with
(8)in keeping with
(9)ipso facto (根据事实,法律用语)
(10)ipsojure (根据法律,法律用语)
(11)exculpatory exception (根据负责规定的抗辩,法律用语)
(12)contractual claim (根据合同的债权,法律用语)

54
(13)action excontract (根据合同的诉讼,法律用语)
(杨全红,2003:181-189)
b) 基于
(1)according to
(2)referring to
(3) based on
(4) on the basis of
(5) on… basis (如…on wavelet multiresolution decomposition basis,基于多分辨率小波分解的
…)
(6) –based (如 network-based,基于网络的)
(安碧丽等,2006:54-55)

3.2.4 科技英语惯用语
科技英语中有一些习惯用语,如: let / suppose / assume / pretend( 假设 ) , given that…
( 已知 ) , provided / providing that…( 除了 / 只要 ) , consider that…( 考虑 ) , refer to( 参见 ) ,
take…for granted( 姑 且 ) , find / determine ( 求 ) , … to be obtained ( 需 求 出 ) , procedure /
solution ( 解 ) , derive ( 推导 ) 出 ) , where ( 式中 ) , neglect /…be negligible ( 忽略不计 ) ,…
could/can be written (as)..(可以写成)等等。下面举例说明。
1)Let ∠ABC be an angle of 900 . 设角∠ABC 为直角。
2)In Fig 1, assume that the weight of the members is negligible. 在图 1 中,设各杆重量忽略不
计。
3)Draw a free-body diagram of portions AB and BC. Neglect the weight of the members.试画出
AB 部分和 BC 部分的自由体图。构件的重量忽略不计。
4)Refer to Fig 1-3. Determine the stress in the truss bar. (A = 6×10-4m2 )
参见图 1-3,试求出桁架 AB 杆的应力(面积 A = 6×10-4 平方米)
5)There is an equivalence between mass and energy that was first expressed by Albert Einstein: E
= mc2
where m is the mass of an object, c is the speed of light, and E is the energy of the object.
阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦首先表明了质量和能量之间的等值关系:E = mc2
式中 m 表示物体的质量,c 表示光速,E 则表示物体的总能量。
6)Given: The cantilever truss shown in Fig 3.
Find: The external relations and internal forces in members U0L1, U3L2.
Procedures: The roller suppoprt provides only horizontal support; the other provides a vertical
and horizontal support, as shown below in the free-body diagram 6.
已知:如图 3 所示悬臂桁架。
求:支座反力和杆件 U0L1、U3L2 的内力。
解:滚柱只提供一种水平方向的支承,另一个则提供垂直的和水平的支承,自由体如图 6
所示。
(郭著章,李庆生,2000)

第三节 科技英语常用句型结构

  科技英语文章中经常使用若干特定的句型,从而形成科技文体区别于其他文体的标志。
例如 It…that…结构句型;被动语态结构句型;主动语态结构句型,非限定动词结构句型,

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省略句结构句型,with 短语结构句型等等。了解并能纯熟地运用这些句型结构,对科技英语
写作大有裨益。下面分别举例说明。
3.1 It…that…结构句型
3.1.1 It is + 形容词 + that 从句
It is evident that a well lubricated bearing turns more easily than a dry one.
显然,润滑好的轴承,比不润滑的轴承容易转动。
It is unlikely that the right conditions for fossil fuels to be formed from animals and plants
will happen again, and it is unlikely that fossil fuels will be replaced.
由动植物形成矿物燃料的适合条件不可能重现,因而矿物燃料是不可能补充的。
该 结 构 中 使 用 频 率 较 高 的 形 容 词 有 : evident, likely, unlikely, apparent, appropriate,
available, clear, certain, conceivable, definite, desirable, doubtful, essential, enough, important,
impossible, natural, necessary, obvious, possible, preferable, probable, questionable, interesting,
notable, noteworthy, remarkable, reasonable, satisfactory, true, understandable, weel-known 等。
3.1.2 It is + 名词短语+ that 从句
It is common knowledge that bodies are lighter in water than (they are) in air.
物体在水中比在空气中轻,这是普通常识。
It is the law of nature that a freely falling body has an acceleration of 9.81 meters a second
during each second (that) it falls.
自由落体的加速度为 9.81 米/秒,这是自然规律。
常 用 于 该 结 构 中 的 名 词 短 语 有 : the case, a (well-known) fact, no harm, common
knowledge / sense / observation, a misconception, a / the law, a matter, a good thing , a question, a
truth, a wonder, no wonder, a mystery 等。
3.1.3 It is / was / can (may / should / must) be / will be / has been + 过去分词(短语)+ that 从

It is estimated that the temperature of the center of the sun is as high as 10,000,000℃.
据估计,太阳中心的温度高达一千万摄氏度。
It was believed that acid solutions would not affect gold, but this is not true.
人们过去认为, 酸溶液对金不起作用,但这一看法并不正确。
It can be shown that the rate of loss of heat of a body is proportional to the excess
temperature of the body over its surroundings.
可以证明,物体散热的快慢和它与环境温差成正比。
It may therefore be said that the ability to design is both an art and science.
可以说,设计的本领既是艺术,也是科学。
It should be noted that the life pf the cutting tools is most affected by the cutting speed.
应当注意,刀具的寿命受切削速度的影响很大。
It must be emphasized that in vacuum light bodies will fall as fast as heavy ones.
必须强调的是,在真空中,轻重物体下落得一样快。
It has been proved that induced voltage causes a current to flow in opposition to the force
producing it. 
已经证明,感应电压使电流的方向与产生电流的磁场力方向相反。
常 用 于 该 结 构 中 的 过 去 分 词 ( 短 语 ) 有 : (generally / universally) accepted, agreed,
alleged, announced, asserted, assumed, believed, claimed, considered, declared, demonstrated,
discovered, desired, established, expected, felt, found, hoped, hypothesized, known (to all),
mentioned, noted, noticed, outlined, pointed out, predicted, proposed, recommended, recognized,

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regarded, said, stressed, suggested, supposed, thought, understood 等。
3.1.4 It + 某些不及物动词(短语)+ that 从句
It seems that these two branches of science are mutually dependent and interacting.
看 来 这 两 个 科 学 分 支 是 相 互 依 存 , 相 互 作 用 的 。
  It stands to reason that without evaporation there would be no rainfall, and without rain there
would be no water for the crops on the earth.
显然,没有蒸发就没有降雨;而没有雨,就没有地球上庄稼所需要的水。
常 用于 该结 构中 的不 及物 动词 (短 语) 有: appear, seem, follow, go without saying,
happen, stand to reason, turn out 等。
3.1.5 It is + 介词短语+ that 从句
It is form this viewpoint that the reasonable utilization of coal and other raw fuels has
become one of the main objects for today’s research.
由此看来,合理用煤和其它天然燃料已经成为今天研究的主要对象之一。
3.1.6 It is / was + 从句 + that 从句
It was not until the 19th century that heat was considered as a form of energy.
直到十九世纪人们才认识到热是能量的一种形式。
3.2 被动语态结构句型
Computers may be classified as analog and digital.
计 算 机 可 分 为 模 拟 计 算 机 和 数 字 计 算 机 两 种 。
  The switching time of the new-type transistor is shortened three times.
新型晶体管的开关时间缩短了三分之二。(或——缩短为三分之一。)
  This steel alloy is believed to be the best available here .
人们认为这种合金钢是这里能提供的最好的合金钢。
3.3 主动语态结构句型
Electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed as light.
电磁波传送的速度和光速相同。
Microcomputers are very small in size , as is shown in Fig.5.
如图 5 所示,微型计算机体积很小。
In water sound travels nearly five times as fast as in air.
声音在水中的传播速度几乎是在空气中传播速度的五倍。
3.4 非限定动词结构句型
英语中的非限定动词(Non-finite verbs)包括现在分词和过去分词,动词不定式以及动名
词。这些非谓语动词形式在科技英语中得到广泛的运用。下面各举一例。
Being too small, atoms cannot be seen even through a powerful microscope. (现在分词短语)
因为原子太小,所以即使用大倍数显微镜也无法看见。
Ice keeps the same temperature while melting. (while + 现在分词短语)
冰在溶化时,其温度保持不变。
Compared with hydrogen, oxygen is nearly 16 times as heavy. (过去分词短语)
氧与氢比较,重量大约是它的十六倍。
The heaviest material in the petroleum, or the one with the highest boiling point, is further
processed to produce coke and asphalt. (动词不定式短语)
石油中最重的物质,即沸点最高的物质,可进一步提炼以取得焦块和沥青。
Being light and rustproof is an important reason for the wide use of aluminum as a building
material. (动名词短语)

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铅广泛用作建筑材料的重要原因是它重量轻,可防锈。
The resistance being very high, the current in the circuit was low. (独立分词结构)
由于电阻很大,电路中通过的电流就小。
3.5 省略句结构句型
科技英语简练的文体特征决定了科技英语大量使用省略句,即重复的词语大都可以省
略。省略句类型可分为并列符合句中的省略,复杂句中的省略及其他形式的省略。
3.5.1 并列句中的省略
The acceleration is positive if the speed is increased, negative if the speed is decreased.
(negative 之前省略了 the acceleration is)
速度正大时的加速度为正,速度减小时的加速度为负。
The length of the line indicates the magnitude and the arrowhead the direction. ( arrowhead
之后省略了 of the line indicates)
该线段的长度表示大小,其箭头表示方向。
3.5.2 复杂句中的省略
According to the molecular theory the speed of the molecules is increased when heated.
(heated 之前省略了 the molecules are)
根据分子理论,当分子受热时,其速度就增大。
3.5.3 其他形式的省略
Both human and cow milk are naturally spiced with a small amount of morphine. (human 之
后省略了 milk)
人乳和牛乳含有少量的吗啡。
This second solution would follow from Eq. (1) by replacing m with n, a with β, and q with
r. (a 和 q 之前省略了 replacing)
用 m 代替 n,用 a 代替 β, 用 q 代替 r, 这第二个解即可从方程(1)求得。
3.6 with 短语结构句型
“with + 复合结构”的句型在科技英语中使用频率很高。该句型大致可分为以下六种。
3.6.1 with + 名(代)词 + 名词(短语)
The capacitor is a square with all sides a half centimeter.
电容器是正方形的,边长为 0.5 厘米。
3.6.2 with + 名(代)词 + 数词
This catamaran had a conventional form with a prismatic coefficient 0.645.
这艘双体船具有常规线型,棱形系数为 0.645。
3.6.3 with+ 名(代)词 + 形容词(短语)
A force polygon must now be drawn, with each of the sides of the polygon parallel to the
force it represents.
现在必须画一个力多边形,它的每边与其代表的力平行。
3.6.4 with + 名(代)词 + 介词短语
This is an old-time aerofoil section with maximum width at one third chord.
这是一个旧时机翼截面,最大宽度在 1/3 弦长处。
3.6.5 with + 名(代)词 + 分词(短语)
Atoms with the outer layer filled do not form compounds.
外层填满了的原子不能形成化合物。
The work done is proportional to displacement with the force acting upon a body being
constant.

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作用于物体上的力不变时,所作的功与位移成正比。
3.6.6 with + 名(代)词 + 动词不定式
The satellite can escape from the gravitational attraction with a rocket to accelerate it
continuously.
有了火箭不断地给卫星加速,它就能脱离地球引力。

第四章 科技英语翻译

作为一名合格的科技翻译工作者,必须对科技英汉语的特点了然于胸。只有这样,才

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能在翻译中使语言尽量符合译入语的特点,从而使译文地道、标准,具备技术语言的风格。
前面各章已对科技英语的文体、语法、词法、句法特点作了详细的介绍,这里不再赘述。下面
对科技汉语的特点作简要介绍。

第一节 科技汉语的特点

科技汉语的总体特点是大量使用术语、符号、公式、图表; 句式平整、变化少; 一般不


用修辞格式; 语言平实,多采用客观描述的方式。
从词汇看,科技汉语具有以下特点:
1) 汉语科技文体中使用专门的科学术语。科学术语本身又具有其显著特征:(1)单义性, (2)
稳定性, (3)不带感情色彩 ,(4)绝大多数科学术语是名词或名词性词组。
2) 汉语科技文体中大量使用抽象词
3) 汉语科技文体在一般情况下不使用下列词语:
叹词,象声词;歇后语,谚语和方言土语,成语用得较少;一部分语气助词,如啊,吧,
么,呢;一部分副词,如明明,大肆,断然,极力,万万,分外等;一部分儿化的词,如
花儿,鸟儿,劲儿等;形容词的重叠形式,如好好儿,白茫茫,好端端等;动词的重叠形
式,如商量商量等;描写任务性格、品质的词语,如高尚,刚强,聪明,果断等;其他词,
如喜欢,号召,动员,捍卫,害怕等。
4) 汉语科技文体中保留了一定数量的文言词语,如;
于,初,而,与,所,设,若,之,则,为等
5) 外来词的运用
卡,伏特,磅,基因,纳米(nanometer, nm=10-9 metre,毫微米)
6) 反义词的运用
正/负数,加/减法,液/气化,向心/离心力,氧化/还原,有机/无机
7) 虚词的使用
从句法看,科技汉语的特点包括:
1) 汉语科技文体中,主语是客观现象、事物时,多用完全的主谓句;主语泛指人时,往往
可以省略。
2) 汉语科技文体多用陈述句。
3) 汉语科技文体中有许多常用的固定格式和词组。
4) 单句的复杂化。
5) 大量运用复句。

第二节 翻译原则

科技翻译的原则可归纳为五点:准确,明晰,简洁,连贯,规范。准确不仅指技术概
念、原理、法则要理解和表达准确,还指对字、词、句之间的逻辑关系要判断无误。明晰指译
文的意思要清楚明了,一眼即明。简洁指译文用词精炼,用最少的词句表达最多的信息。连
贯指译文词句的衔接与连贯,科技信息的组织和发展清通合理、脉络清楚。规范指译文用字
必须是规范的技术词语,既不能用日常词语代替科技词语,也不能自作主张创造技术“新
词”,舍弃约定俗成的规范技术词语不用。
这里特别要强调准确的原则。准确不仅是科技写作的首要原则,同时也是科技翻译最
重要的原则。这一原则要求我们在进行科技翻译时决不能想当然,否则就有可能犯技术错
误。例如有一次,笔者为客户翻译一份产品说明书,将“远红外线”想当然地译为 distant

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infrared rays,但对其中的 distant 没有把握。交稿后,笔者寝食难安,第二天查询了网上两
大 词 库 : “ 中 国 知 网 翻 译 助 手 (http://dict.cnki.net)” 和 “ 中 国 译 典
(http://www.chinafanyi.com)”,发现“远红外线”的译文应是 far infrared rays,马上通过电
子邮件向客户作了更正说明。

第三节 翻译基本技巧

4.3.1 选词
选词,即选义择词,贯穿于整个翻译的实际操作过程。这里的“词”指表达某一实体
或整体性概念的单词、词组和短语。“选义”是由人类语言的一词多义现象决定的。任何一
种发展完备的人类语言,其中的大部分词汇都是一词多义。例如英语的 dog,其普通词义是
“狗”,当然也可指人,在科技领域还可指“ (机械)车床的夹头;止动器”、“(电子)无线
电测向器”、“(船舶)水密门夹扣”、“(天文)大犬座;小犬座”、“(气象)雾虹;小雨云”
等等。这里就有个辨义和确定词义的问题。人类语言还具有多词一义现象,即可用不同的词
语表示同一个意思,因此译者除辨义外还面临“择词”的问题。例如英语形容词 thin 的一
个基本意义是“瘦”,但在具体语境中受描述对象、情感、风格等因素的影响,可能会选用
与“瘦”同义的词语来翻译 thin,如用 a thin face 来描绘一个女性,thin 既可中性地译为“
瘦削”,也可褒义性地译为“清秀”,如果是描绘男性,还可译为“清癯”。
无论是“选义”,还是“择词”,都离不开上下文语境。英国翻译理论家纽马克 (Peter
Newmark ,1990:100)说,没有词是完全孤立的 (No word is an island entire to itself.) ,词的
意义必然受到前后相邻词句的影响。我国学者王佐良先生也说,上下文不只是语言问题,
说话是一种社会行为,上下文实际上是提供了一个社会场合或情境,正是它决定了词义。
他还指出,一个词不仅有直接的、表面的、字典上的意义,还有内涵的、情感的、牵涉许多联
想的意义;一个词的意义有时不是从本身看得很清楚的,而要通过整篇整段 --亦即通过这
个词在不同情境下的多次再现--才能确定。香港译界有句名言:词无定译,说的就是同一个
词在不同的语境中可能有不同的翻译。
从词语与语境的关系看,有些词基本不受语境影响 (context-free) ,如意义相对固定单
一的专有名词、科技术语、数量词等;有些词则受语境制约(context-bound),如那些含有感情
色彩、价值判断且意义极为丰富的普通名词、形容词、动词、副词等。对于这些词语,先利用
各种手段确定其意,然后恰当措辞表达。这里介绍几种确定词义的方法。
一、通过搭配确定词义
词语搭配构成词组小语境,可以藉此确定相互间的意义,如:
例 1 HEAVY 基本词义:重的
1) heavy current 强电流
2) heavy cutting 原件切割
3) heavy duty rectifier 大功率整流器
4) heavy mortar 稠灰浆
5) heavy ring 承力环
6) heavy soil 粘质土
例 2 SEVERE 基本词义:严格的;严厉的
1) severe test 严格的测试
2) severe reasoning 严谨的推理
3) severe competition 激烈的竞争
4) severe brake 急刹车

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5) severe radiation 强辐射
6) severe load 过载/ 超载
7) severe pollution 严重污染
二、通过语篇语境确定词义
句子是表意相对完整的语言单位,能够提供一定的语境信息;如果句内信息不足以确
定词义,则扩大到句群、段、段群、篇、章节、书的不同语篇层面去寻找破解词义的有关信息。
由于篇幅限制,下面仅以句子语境为例:
例 1 POWER 基本词义:力量;权力
1) Radiation’s amazing power to cure a wide variety of cancers is almost unknown to the public.
放射性疗法对各种癌症都有着惊人的疗效,但这一点几乎不为人知。
2) Assume that the input voltage from the power supply remains constant.
假定由电源输入的电压保持不变。
3)Pulleys and belts are widely used to transmit power.
皮带轮和传送带广泛用于传送动力。
4)The intensity of light is directly proportional to the candle power of the source.
亮度与光源的烛光成正比。
5)By power we mean the rate of doing work.
所谓功率,指的是作功的速率。
6)This is a telescope of high power.
这是一架高倍望远镜。
7)The combining power of one element in the compound must equal the combining power of the
other element.
化合物中一种元素的化合价必须等于另一元素的化合价。
8)Ten to the power three (Ten to the third power) is one thousand.
10 的三次幂是 1000。
例 2 DEVELOP 基本词义:发展
1)Fresh air and exercise develop healthy bodies.
新鲜空气和运动有益于健康。
2) People with rheumatoid arthritis may develop heart problems, lung diseases, or anemia.
风湿性关节炎患者可能并发心脏病、肺病或贫血。
3)A proper exposure to the light is needed to develop a good picture.
要洗出好照片,适当的曝光是必要的。
4)What would be done if the patient should develop allergy to penicillin?
如果病人对青霉素产生过敏,那该怎么办呢?
5)Albert Einstein, who developed the theory of relativity, arrived at this theory through
mathematics.
阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦通过数学创立可相对论。
6)The scientist wants to develop a drought-resistant plant.
这位科学家希望培育一种耐旱的植物。
7) After the film is developed, the sound track will be light or dark according to whether the
original sound was weak or loud.
由于原始声音有强有弱,所以软片显影后声道也有明有暗。
8)Bacteria do not develop at low temperature, so that food can be preserved in cold storage.
细菌在低温下繁殖,因此食物可以冷藏。

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9)A chicken develops in the egg.
小鸡在蛋中孵化。
10) If the disease develops, other symptoms may appear.
如果病情加重,可能出现其他症状。
三、通过常识判断确定词义
常识 (common sense / general knowledge about the world around us) 人人有,而且常识愈
丰富对翻译理解愈有用。很多老翻译家如吕淑湘、傅雷、杨宪益都强调翻译需要”杂学”。我
想,这”杂学”可以看作是比较”高级”的常识吧。请看下面一段关于铜质保温瓶结构的
描述:
---Another type is a double-walled copper vessel with the corresponding surface scrupulously
cleaned to achieve the high intrinsic reflectivity of copper. A body of charcoal absorbent may be
affixed to the outer wall of the fluid container, where it is kept cold and helps to condense any
gases remaining in the vacuum space after it is evacuated and sealed off.
某译文:另一种类型是有双壁的铜容器,其相应表面洁净无疵以获得铜所固有的高反射
率。在流体容器的外壁可以粘着一层木炭吸附剂,它保持着低温并在容器抽空和密封后帮
助冷凝残留在真空空间的气味。
此句的翻译关键在于两个 it 的意思。根据上面的译文,两个 it 都指 fluid container。这显
然不对。从原文看,fluid container 明显指铜质保温瓶盛装液体的内筒,而内筒怎么能抽空
呢 ? 根据生活常识,保温瓶中要抽空的是内外夹层之间的夹套,即原文中的 the vacuum
space,因此第二个 it 应指 the vacuum space。再举一个简单一点的例子:She could knit when
she was seven.。句中的 knit,其基本意思是”编织”,但译文不能只说”织”或”编织”,
必须把动词的宾语补上,因为汉语里说”她七岁时就会(编)织”显得不够自然。那么”织”
什么呢?根据我们的生活经历,一般是织毛衣,而不是织麻袋什么的,因此原句可译为“她
七岁时就会织毛衣”。常识也包括一些很简单的科普知识。如果科技知识为大众所共有,那
就是利用科学背景知识来确定词义。
四、利用背景知识确定词义
理解一个词有时需要从文本以外去寻找相关信息,如上面的常识判断。在科学翻译中 ,
时常需要运用自然科学或社会科学或其他领域的背景知识来确定词义。如:
---Velocity changes if either the speed or direction changes.
velocity 和 speed 都可表示”速度”,前者具专技色彩,一般用于科技文献,后者语域
较宽,可用于科技或日常生活领域。如果将 velocity 和 speed 都理解为”速度”,原文表述
将失去意义,因此这里 velocity 和 speed 中必有一个词表示其他意义。物理学告诉我们,速
度是矢量,有大小又有方向,而速率是标量,有大小而没有方向。据此,velocity 是速度,
因为原文语境信息暗示它有方向(direction),speed 是速率。这样确定词义后原句可译为:”
如果(物体运动的)速率和方向有一个发生变化,则物体的运动速度也随之发生变化。”
五、利用逻辑判断和推理确定词义
在翻译实践中我们还可以利用逻辑学的有关知识,如矛盾律等来确定词义。如:
---Automobiles and trucks would be powered by quickly replaceable electric batteries.
某译文:汽车和卡车则可以迅速替换的电池组作动力……
译文乍一看似乎没有问题,可是从逻辑的角度仔细思考,我们会发现,”汽车”和”
卡车”两个概念是蕴涵与被蕴涵的从属关系,即”卡车”包含在”汽车”之中。”汽车”
是属概念,”卡车”是种概念。译文犯了种属概念并列的逻辑错误。因此,必有一词的理解
出了问题。查词典,Automobiles 除了作”汽车”讲外,还可作”轿车”解。”轿车”与”卡
车”是对立概念,可以并列。再看一类似的例子:

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---It caused devastation by burrowing and by devouring the herbage which might have maintained
millions of sheep and cattle.
它们在地下打洞,吞食掉本来可以维持数百万只牛羊的牧草,从而造成了破坏。
原文中的 cattle 有”牲畜”和”牛”二义,这里因与”羊” (sheep) 对置,根据种属概
念不能并列的逻辑规则,cattle 只能作”牛”解。

4.3.2 词义引伸
人们在日常交际和写作中使用语词并不”循规蹈矩”,严格按照辞典规定的意义用词 ,
不越雷池一步。相反,人们用词大胆灵活,全凭己意,这样就出现了词义的引伸以及修辞
性的用法。因此,理解词义必须借助语境,词典有时靠不住。中外许多学者都强调语境之于
辨义的重要性。英国语言学家弗斯(J. R. Firth)说:”任何一个词,用在一个新的语境中,就
是一个新词(Each word, when used in a new context, is a new word.)。也就是说,这个词在这个
语境中所具有的意义不一定是它在词典上的意义,也不一定是前人使用过的意义,词的使
用随时可以”破格”。
人类使用语言的灵活性决定了词语意义的伸缩性。词语意义的引伸包括由抽象、一般到
具体、特殊,或者由具体、特殊到抽象、一般。翻译有时需要对词语的意义作引伸处理,由此
产生了翻译的伸缩法,包括概括化和具体化两种。
4.3.2.1 概括化
概括化译法是指将原文中表示具体意义的特称词一般化或抽象化,很多情况下表现为
内涵缩小,外延扩大。例如:
1)The skin is a natural spacesuit of the human body.
皮肤是人体的天然保护层。
2)Bacteria are man’s invisible friends and foes.
细菌是肉眼看不见的,它对人利弊兼有。
3)It is the father’s sperm which determines whether the fertilized egg will develop into a boy or a
girl.
正是男性的精子决定着受精卵将发育成男孩或女孩。
4)A burglar alarm is a device for giving warning that thieves are trying to enter a building.
防盗报警器是一种在小偷行窃时发出警报的装置。
5)Pregnant women and women breast-feeding their children may need vitamins.
孕妇和哺乳期的妇女可能更需要维生素。
6)Electric power became the servant of man only after the motor was invented.
只是在电动机发明之后,电力才开始为人类服务。
7)The technology of millimeter wave guidance is still in its infancy now.
毫米波制导技术目前才刚刚起步。
8)It is easy to understand why ships are more popular candidates for arming with heavy weapons.
不难理解,为什么舰艇较适于装备重型武器。
4.3.2.2 具体化
具体化译法是指将原文中意义过于抽象、模糊的词汇具体化、明确化,一般表现为内涵
扩大,外延缩小。例如:
1)Space technique has made great progress in the course of this single generation.
空间技术在近三十年内取得了巨大的进展。
2)While artificial hand is considerably less useful than the natural one, there may be some jobs
that it can do with greater efficiency.

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虽然机械手远比不上人手,但某些工作由机械手来做,效率会更高一些。
3)This approach to survival and victory on the battlefield was justified on practical ground.
实践证明,这种在战场上保存自己、消灭敌人的方法是正确的。
4)Other things being equal, iron heats up faster than aluminium.
其他条件相同,铁比铝热得快。
5)Hard metals can be easily cut with grinding wheels.
硬金属可以很容易用砂轮磨削。
6)High voltage current is usually carried by living things being electrocuted.
为防止人畜触电,高压电一般采用高架线传送。
7)The heart is the body’s most vital organ, if it stops working, death soon follows.
心脏是人体最重要的器官,如果它停止跳动,死亡随之来临。

4.3.3 词类转换
英汉对译中运用词类转换大致有两个原因,一是两种语言的词类系统不完全对应。也
就是说,表示同一意义的语词的词性可能不一样,如”确信”在汉语里是个动词,而意义
对应的 sure, certain 则是形容词。又如汉语表示”超过”、”进入”、”穿越”只能用动词,
而英语除了动词外还可用介词 beyond, into, across 表示。一旦翻译这样的词语就会发生词类
变化。二是操这两种语言的人具有不同的用词倾向,中国人喜用动词和量词,英美人喜用
名词、形容词和介词。翻译中要做到合乎译入语的表达习惯,就必须进行词性转换,如将英
语的名词(特别是动词派生的名词)、形容词(动词派生或具有动作意味的形容词)、介词转类为
汉语的动词,反之亦然。例如:
1)Light from the sun is a mixture of light of many different colors.
太阳光是由许多不同的颜色混合而成的。(名词转换为动词)
2)As applied to machine-shop practice, grinding refers to the removal of metal by means of
rotating abrasive wheel.
“磨”这个词用于机工车间实践时,指的是用旋转的砂轮切除金属。(名词转换为动词)
3)The amount of vitamins in the milk is not adequate to the demand of the infant.
牛奶中维生素的含量不能满足婴儿的需要。(形容词转换为动词)
4)When metals are cut, the shining surface is visible, but it turns grey almost immediately.
切削金属时,可以看到光亮的表面,但立刻就变成灰色。(形容词转换为动词)
5)Copper and gold are available long before man has discovered the way of getting metal from
compound.
在人们找到从化合物中提取金属的方法很久以前就使用铜和金了。(形容词转换为动词)
6)Substitute t = 3 and v = 60 in the formula given above and then solve it for s.
将 t = 3 和 v = 60 代入上述公式,然后解方程求出 s。(介词转换为动词)
7)Within a few seconds the meter needle should read zero.
在几秒钟内,表针的读数应为零。(动词转换为名词)
8)Neutrons act differently from protons.
中子的作用不同于质子。(动词转换为名词)
9)Its thermal power ranges from 7,000 to 10,000 kilowatts.
其热功率范围从七千到一万瓩。(动词转换为名词)
10)The more carbon the steel contains, the harder and stronger it is.
钢的含碳量愈高,其强度和硬度就越大。(形容词转换为名词)
11)Evidence indicates that the outer core of the earth is about twice as dense as the material in the

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mantle.
有证据表明,外地核的密度为地幔物质的两倍。(形容词转换为名词)
12)The friction of the bearings causes them and the lubricating oil which is circulating through
them to warm up.
轴承的摩擦使轴承和流通于轴承间的润滑油发热。(代词转换为名词)
13)The device is shown schematically in Figure 5.
图 5 所示为这种装置的简图。(副词转换为名词)
14)Mercury is appreciably volatile even at room temperature.
即使在室温下,水银的挥发性也很显著。(形容词转换为名词,副词转换为形容词)
15)The photo mask must possess dimensional stability.
光掩膜的尺寸必须稳定。(形容词转换为名词,名词转换为形容词)
16)Below 4℃, water is in continuous expansion instead of continuous contraction.
水在 40C 以下不断地膨胀,而不是不断地收缩。(形容词转换为副词,名词转换为动词)

4.3.4 增词法
科技英语明晰的品质决定了翻译中有时需要运用增词法。科技英语翻译中的增词是为
了使隐含的语法、逻辑关系外化,使内隐于词句中的意义浮于表面,使语言表述精炼紧凑。
对应地,增词法可分为语义增词、语法增词、逻辑增词和修辞增词。
4.3.4.1 语义增词
语义增词法是通过增加词语使原文中的词、词组、句子的内涵意义外显的翻译方法。例
如,
在一定的上下文中,下列词语可译为:
absorption 吸收作用/吸水性
constraint 约束条件
display 显示值/显示器
application 使用场合/适用范围
computation 计算技术/计算结果
characteristics 特性曲线
remedy 治疗方法
fragmentation 破碎特性
具体上下文语境中的语义增词举例如下:
1)After dropping a small stone into still water, we saw ripples going out in all directions.
将一块小石头投进平静的水里后,可以看到迭起的波纹向四周扩散。
2)Upon completion of the design change, the ASD should be ready for engineering development..
原设计的修改工作一旦完成,ASD 就可以进入工程设计阶段了。
3)The expansion of metal on heating must be taken into consideration before a long metal bridge
is built.
要建造金属大桥,就必须考虑金属的热膨胀特性。
4)In most cases small lathes are as complete as large lathes, only smaller and lighter.
大多数情况下,小车床的结构与大车床一样完备,只是体积小些,重量轻些。
5)According to Newton’s Third Law of Motion action and reaction are equal and opposite.
根据牛顿的运动第三定律,作用力和反作用力是大小相等,方向相反。
6)Figure 4 shows the probability of penetrations in roof of vehicle from a volley of 40 105 mm
projectiles against an array of 8 vehicles.

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图 4 所示为 40 发 105 mm 子弹向一排 8 辆坦克齐射时,穿透坦克顶板的几率。(增加量词)
4.3.4.2 语法增词
语法增词法指通过增加词语表达原文中某一语法意义 (通常情况下无须表达 )的翻译方
法。例如:
1)Radioactive materials can be used to learn how the glands and organs of our body’s function.
放射性物质可用来查明人体各种腺体和器官的功能。(名词复数意义增词)
2)You may wonder why the magnet’s poles point north and south?
你可能会感到奇怪,为什么磁铁的两极会指向南北呢? (名词复数意义增词)
3)When the sun is low in the lunar sky, these craters look like deep pits.
从月球上看,太阳将落的时候,这些火山口看起来就象一个个深坑。(名词复数意义增词)
4)In developing Eq.(8) the assumption was made that the projectile with canard in place is
inherently stable.
在推导方程(8)中,本文曾假定装有鸭舵的弹丸本身是稳定的。(动词时态意义增词)
5)In recent years some insight has been gained into the chemical composition and structure of the
chromosomes.
近年来,人们对于染色体的化学组成和结构已经有了深入的了解。(动词语态意义增词)
6)The plastic lighthouse to be installed is eight meters high and 2.2 meters in diameter.
即将安装的塑料灯塔高 8 米,直径 2.2 米。(动词语态意义增词)
4.3.4.3 逻辑增词
逻辑增词实际上是包含在语义和语法增词中的,因为逻辑增词法指通过增加词语外显
原文中隐含的逻辑关系的翻译方法,而逻辑关系既可能是逻辑语义关系,也可能是逻辑语
法关系。由于逻辑关系在科技语篇中的重要性,这里我们将逻辑增词单列出来加以讨论和
强调。请看下面的例子:
1)The maximum pressure in the gun being known, the acceleration is determined by dividing the
pressure by the mass of the projectiles.
如果知道火炮的最大膛压,那么把膛压除以弹丸的质量即可求得加速度。(逻辑语法关系增
词,下划线部分作为独立成分,包含后面主句所需要的条件)
2)The whale, swimming like a fish, is a mammal.
鲸鱼虽然游起来象鱼,但它却是哺乳动物。(逻辑语义关系增词,原文主从结构之间隐含转
折关系)
3)Bring a charged ebonite rod near a light object, and the latter will be attracted toward it.
如果把带电硬胶棒靠近轻物体,后者就会被吸过去。(逻辑语法关系增词,原文“祈使句
+and+主语+will do sth.”结构中的祈使句部分表示条件)
4)Differences in target spectrum, requirements, operational performance and weapon calibers led
to substanially different design.
由于目标种类、作战要求、使用性能和武器的口径等方面有许多不同,所以陆军和海军采用
了明显不同的设计手段。(逻辑语义关系增词)
5)The best intelligence service cannot be good enough to ensure timely and total knowledge of the
latest developments and acquisitions by the opponent.
即使是最好的情报机关,也不可能保证及时、全部地掌握敌方取得的最新研究成果。(逻辑语
义关系增词)
4.3.4.4 修辞增词
科技英语翻译中,有时为了使语言精炼、紧凑、连贯、自然而增加词语,这种翻译方法
叫做修辞增词法。例如:

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1)Manganese is a hard, brittle, grey-white metal.
锰是一种灰白的又硬又脆的金属。
2)The pointer of the ampere-hour meter moves from zero to two and goes back to zero again.
安培小时计的指针先从零转到二,然后又回到零。
3)The units of “ampere”, “ohm”, and “volt” are named respectively after three scientists.
安培、欧姆、伏特这三个单位分别是以三位科学家的姓氏命名的。
4)Reaction time and rate of fire compensate for each other, at least to some extent.
反应时间和发射速度可以相互补偿,至少在一定程度上是如此。

4.3.5 省略法
科技语言简练的特点要求翻译中有时需要运用省略法。英汉两种语言在表达方式上有
很大差异。英语重语言形式上的衔接呼应,多用虚词(冠词、介词和连词)和代词;汉语重暗
示,少用虚词和代词。因此,英译汉时,这些虚词和代词需要省略。例如:
---You cannot build a ship, a bridge or a house if you don’t know how to
make a design or how to read it.
不会制图或看不懂图纸,就不可能造船、架桥或盖房子。
译文省略了原文中的粗体词汇。再看一些例子:
1)As the crankshift turns to the left and upward, the connecting rod pushes the piston upward.
当曲轴向左上方转动时,连杆把活塞推向上方。(省略冠词)
2)The synthetic detergent you use for washing your clothes doesn’t look like the petrol you put
into your car engine, but both the powder and the power were originally crude oil.
虽然用来洗衣服的合成洗涤剂与注入汽车发动机的汽油不相象,但无论是洗涤剂还是汽油
都来源于原油。(省略代词)
3)This laser beam covers a very narrow range of frequency.
该激光束的频率范围很窄。(省略动词)
4)The twist drill is the most common type of metal working drill.
麻花钻是最普通的金属加工钻头。(省略名词)

4.3.6 正反译法
人类自然语言的形式有两种:肯定和否定。同一个意思既可以用肯定形式正面表达,
也可以用否定形式反面表达。例如,在汉语里我们可以说“你说得很对”,也可以说“你
说得一点不错”。这里的“对”和“不错”,一个是正面表达,一个是反面表达。英汉语里
都有供反面表达的否定词语,如汉语的“不”、“非”、“无”、“未”等,英语的 not, no,
never, un-, non-, dis-等。值得注意的是,英语用肯定形式表达的意思有时转换成汉语的否定
表达形式会显得更自然,意思更清楚,反之亦然。翻译中的正反转换,就是将肯定形式的
说法转换为否定形式的说法,或者将否定形式的说法转换成肯定形式的说法,有些教材称
之为“正反译法”或“反译”,其目的是为了使译文意思清楚、表达自然。例如:
1)In the first battles, the Israeli boats avoided being hit by Egyptian missiles.
在最初的几次海战中,埃及导弹未能击中以色列舰只。(肯定变否定)
2)This error is often caused by a failure to test a sufficient number of subjects.
这种误差往往是由于没有检查足够数量的试验材料而引起的。(肯定变否定)
3)The manufacturer declines responsibility for the consequences of an inadequate storage.
对因保管不当而产生的后果,制造厂不承担责任。(肯定变否定)
4)The signal is independent of lamp intensity, thus eliminating the need for frequent calibration.

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该信号不会随指示灯的亮度而变化,因而不需要经常校准。(肯定变否定)
5)Worm gear drives are quiet, vibration free, and extremely compact.
蜗轮传动没有噪音,没有振动,而且非常紧凑。(肯定变否定)
6)Women giving birth are often offered acupuncture instead of pain-killing drugs.
分娩的妇女现常用针刺镇痛,而不用止痛药物。(肯定变否定)
7)The success rate in lung, heart or liver transplants is far from satisfaction.
肺、心脏和肝脏的手术移植成功率远不能令人满意。(肯定变否定)
8)If houses are at rest relative to the earth surface, the earth itself is not motionless.
虽然房子相对于地球表面是静止的,但地球本身却是运动着的。([双重]否定变肯定)
9)Bacteria are one-celled creatures too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope.
细菌是一种极小的单细胞生物,只有用显微镜才能看见。(否定变肯定)

第四节 专项翻译

4.4.1 技术词语的翻译
在科技英语翻译中,译者要经常与技术词语打交道。首先,译者要熟悉科技英语的构
词规则,这不仅对理解英语技术词汇大有帮助,同时也有助于将科技汉语中出现的新词译
成英语。技术词汇的翻译,首先要遵守约定俗成,这就要求译者具有勤查词典、求教专门家
的精神。在没有现成词语可以利用的情况下,可采用下面的方法翻译科技英语中的新词。
4.4.1.1 直译法 (Literal translation)
据《现代汉语词典》,直译”指偏重于照顾原文字句的翻译 (区别于’意译)’”(1999:
1615)。就技术词语的翻译而言,直译法指直接翻译出词语的字面意义。例如:
thermocouple 热电偶,smart bomb 灵巧炸弹,solid propellant 固体燃料,atomics 原子学,
minidose 小剂量,multicoloured 多色的,cubic 立方的
4.4.1.2 意译法(Free/Liberal translation)
意译法与直译法相对,不是翻译字表意义,而是翻译字词的含义。《现代汉语词典》 给
出的定义是”根据原文的大意来翻译,不作逐字逐句的翻译 ( 区别于’直译’ )”(1999 :
1496)。例如 the Milky Way,不按字面译作“牛奶路”,而是按照汉语习惯意译为“银河”。
请看下面的例子。
Graves’ disease 甲状腺机能亢进 ( 意译 )/ 格雷夫斯氏病(直译), Boston ivy 爬山虎, blue-
bottle 肉蝇/青蝇/僧帽水母/矢车菊,bull’s-eye 靶心,longlegs 盲蜘蛛,longnose 欧洲一种长
嘴硬鳞鱼,whitecap 浪头白沫
4.4.1.3 具体化(Specification)
科技术语和概念多为抽象名词,翻译时有时要译为具体名词。例如:
control 控制→控制器,display 显示→显示器,fan-in 扇入→扇入端,coating 涂覆→涂层,
housing 收藏→外壳,doping 掺杂→掺杂浓度,damping 衰减→衰减系数,nesting 嵌套→嵌
套重数,buffering 缓冲→缓冲法,patching 修补→修补法,sorting 分类→分类法
技术词语的具体化译法主要是通过在直译出的抽象名词尾部增加诸如“法” 、“器”
等名词,因此这种译法又可看作增词法。
4.4.1.4 增词法(Amplification)
有些生活词语变成科技术语后,汉译时要适当补充汉字,意义才完整、明确。例如:
read 读→读出,clock frequency 钟频率→时钟频率,source 源→源极(场效应晶体管用),
hole 孔→孔穴(半导体物理用)
注意增词法的目的是使意义明确,以免误解,否则就是画蛇添足,为译者忌。

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4.4.1.5 词类转换(Conversion)
有些形容词术语,由于省略说法或词性转换,派生出具体名词术语。例如:
peripheral 外 围 的 → 外 围 设 备 (= peripheral device) , 特 性 的 → 特 性 曲 线 (= characteristic
curve),terminal 终端的→终端设备(terminal equipment),directive 指令的→指令
我们可以把此种翻译看作是形容词转换为名词。
4.4.1.6 省略法(Omission)
有时在不损害原义的情况下可以省略汉字,以便于记忆和口头使用。例如:
resistor 电阻器→电阻,terminal 终端设备→终端,interface 接口装置→接口,watt 瓦特→瓦,
volt 伏特→伏
4.4.1.7 词序调整(Inversion)
英语术语的词序比较严格,一般与汉语相同,调整词序的情况不多。但当技术词语中
的修饰语具体、被修饰语抽象时,要倒换词序才能译出原意。例如:
smudge resistance 抗污性,life expectancy 预期寿命,cost difference 差价,paper feed unit 输
纸部件,tree-walk method 攀树法,time-sharing system 分时系统,error correcting code 纠错

4.4.1.8 音译法 (Transliteration)
音译是利用译入语的语音资源仿拟原文字词的声音特征。音译一般应遵循的标准是:
人名、地名之类的专用名词,意义深奥难懂、无法用几个字说清的术语概念以及在汉语中找
不到对应物的文化词语等,可考虑音译;音译时译者不能掺入个人感情和价值观念;音译
词作为一种标记词一般不应具有意义,若是具有意义,应与原词意义相一致,不容许随意
增减或改变原义;应根据统一的译音表用规范的译音字进行音译,以使译名统一。
科技英语翻译中,音译较适于翻译技术单位,科技专名,首字母缩略词等。
1)技术单位
科技英语中,不少技术单位都是用发明家、科学家的名字来表示的。这类词完全可以采
用音译。例如:
bushel 蒲式耳,gallon 加伦,gill 吉耳,peck 配克,pint 品脱,grain 格令,pound 磅,ounce
盎司,ampere 安培,coulomb 库伦,farad 法拉,henry 亨利,ohm 欧姆,volt 伏特,calorie
卡路里,joule 焦耳,bar 巴,mil 密耳,dyne 达因, hertz 赫兹,watt 瓦特
学习科技英语,不仅要熟悉常见的技术单位,还要了解它们的含义及使用场合。下表列
出了日常生活中经常碰到的一些技术单位的英汉对照名称。

表 5 常用技术单位英汉对照表
量的名称 单位名称 单位符号 其他表示
式例
平面角 plane angle 弧度 radian rad l
立体角 solid angle 球面度 steradian sr l
频率 frequency 赫(兹) hertz Hz 8-1
力;重力 force 牛顿 newton N kg·m/82
压 力 ; 压 强 ; 应 力 pressure ; intensity ; 帕(斯卡)pascal Pa N/m2
stress
能量;功;热 energy;work;heat 焦(耳) joule J N·m

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功率;辐射;通量 power;radiant;flow 瓦(特) watt W J/s
电荷量 electric charge 库(伦) coulomb C A·s
电位;电压;电动势 potential;voltage; 伏(特) volt V W/A
electromotive force
电容 capacitance 法拉 farad F C/V
电阻 electrical resistance 欧(姆) ohm Ω V/A
电导 conductance 西(门子) siemens S A/V
磁通量 magnetic flux 韦(伯) weber Wb V·s
电感 inductance 亨(利) henry H Wb/A

2)首字母拼音词(Acronyms)
科技英语中的首字母拼音词是一些专名的缩略形式,音读若单词,常用音译。例如:
AIDS = acquired immune deficiency syndrome 艾滋病
laser = light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation 镭射/莱塞(激光)
sonar = sound navigation and range 声纳
radar = radio detecting and ranging 雷达
maser=microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation 脉塞(受激辐射微波放大器)
lanac = laminar air navigation and anti-collision (system) 兰那克(无线电空中导航及防撞系统)
3)产品名称
产品名称是产品的标记,重在标记功能,因此可采用音译。例如:
nylon 尼龙 quinine 奎宁 morphine 吗啡 nicotine 尼古丁
heroin 海洛因 procaine 普鲁卡因 hormone 荷尔蒙(激素)
aspirin 阿斯匹林 celluloid 赛璐珞
这里需要指出的是,翻译史造就了很多一名二译的问题,即一个技术名词有一个音译名
称和一个意译名称。一名二译现象是翻译不成熟和译入语文化特别是科技文化落后的产物。
一般是先有音译。当人们对音译不满意时便有了意译。一般说来,音译词大都为意译词所取
代,个别音译词得以留存,也有音译词和意译词并存的情况。例如:
技术名称 音译名称 意译名称
engine 引擎 发动机
vitamin 维他命 维生素
penicillin 盘尼西林 青霉素
combine 康拜因 联合收割机
cortisone 可的松 肾上腺皮质激素
laser 莱塞\镭射 激光
diesel 狄塞尔 柴油机
microphone 麦克风 话筒
ultimatum 哀的美敦书 最后通牒
modern 摩登 现代
romantic 罗曼蒂克 传奇式
4.4.1.9 音意合译 (Combination of transliteration + free translation)
音意合译法指同时运用音译法和意译法翻译某一技术名词,即该技术名词的一部分用

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音译,另一部分用意译(此处意译就是译意)。音意合译法比较适合用来翻译结构为专名+
普通名词的技术名词,专名译其音,普通名词译其意。例如:
Magnus moment 玛格努斯力矩, Einstein equation 爱因斯坦方程, Doppler effect 多普勒效应,
Mach number 马赫数, Curie plot 居里曲线, Monte Carlo solution 蒙特卡洛解法, Zener
diode 齐纳二极管, Bessel function 贝塞尔函数, radar chain 雷达防线, force pump 压力泵,
decibel 分贝,kilovolt 千伏,megohm 兆欧,microfarad 微法,permalloy 坡莫合金
音意合译法的一种特殊情况是,先将某一名词完全音译,然后在音译名后添加一个范畴
词,指明原文名称所指事物的类别。例如:
neon 霓红灯, tractor 拖拉机, Dural 杜拉铝, carbine 卡宾枪, beer 啤酒, jeep 吉普车,
logic 逻辑学
4.4.1.10 形象译法 (Image translation)
科技英语中有一类技术名词包含有某种形象。这一形象一般由字母再现,有时也用词
汇表示。前者如 O-ring (O 形环);后者如 heart carrier(鸡心夹头)。这类词语的翻译有三种
方法:替代法、移植法和意译法
1)替代法(Substitution/Replacement)
替代法就是用汉语中书写形式相似的汉字代替所译技术词汇中的英语字母。例如:
T-square 丁字尺,H-post 工字杆,I-sted 工字钢,T-beam 丁字梁, Z-iron 乙 字 铁 , X-
brace 叉形支撑
2)移植法(Transplanting)
据《现代汉语词典》,移植有两义,一指”把播种在苗床或秧田里的幼苗拔起或连土掘
起种在田地里”,二指”将机体的一部分组织或器官补在同一机体或另一机体的缺陷部分
上,使它逐渐长好”(1999:1485)。这两条定义告诉我们,移植只是移动了事物的位置,事
物的原貌得以保存。翻译中的移植也应当如此理解,即将一词一语从一种语言移到另一种
语言,不改变其外形。这里的形象移植指将所译技术词语中的英语字母直接移植到汉语中。
例如:
O-ring O 形环, C-clamp C 形夹钳, Z-crank Z 形曲柄, S-connection S 形连接, U-shaped
spring U 形弹簧,C-type gun C 型点焊钳,X-type groove X 型切口
3)意译法(Free translation)
这里的意译指用语言文字将所译技术词语中字母的形态特征描摹下来。例如:
O-ring 密封环,C-clamp 开口夹钳,V-belt 三角皮带,T-bend 三通管,U-steel 槽钢
技术词语的翻译还要注意以下几点。第一是“副服从主”(吴仲贤, 1981),即为了使
科技术语统一,应根据副科的定名服从主科定名的原则,尽量使本科术语与其他学科统一。
例如,large-scale integration 一词来源于半导体技术,我们在编辑计算机词汇时就采用无线
电词典中的“大规模集成(电路)”的译名,以便于统一。第二,应避免使用使人反感、生
厌的译名。例如,有人把 post-mortem program 译作“验尸程序”,把 phantom circiut 译作“
妖怪电路”,可取的译名应是“算后检查程序”和“幻象电路”。第三,译名的发音应当
清晰易辨,以便于教学和口头交流。例如, collector 和 base,在半导体器件中,曾被人译
作“集极”、“基极”。“集”与“基”的读音非常近似,易生混淆,如果将 base 改译为“
集电极”,就能很好地避免读音混淆的问题。

4.4.2 数量数据的翻译
数量数据的翻译是科技英语翻译的重要内容。虽然很多数量数据的表达式都是国际通
用的,但这不意味着数量数据的翻译只是简单地从一种语言移植到另一种语言。数量数据
的翻译不是一件易事。例如有这样一个英语句子:

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---Ten thousand people, of whom 4,500 are qualified scientists, are employed in fundamental
physics research in France. The budget for paying their salaries and buying equipment for their
work is about 1.7 m FF per year.
有人将该句译为:“在法国,有一万人受聘从事基础物理学研究,其中四千五百人为
合格的科学家。支付薪金和他们购买研究设备的预算每年约一百七十万法郎。”该译文将
1.7 m FF 中的 m 理解为 million。问题是,这里的 1.7 m FF 是“一百七十万法郎”吗? m 除
了代指 million,还可指 milliard(十亿)。它究竟何所指只能根据上下文来确定。根据原文
语境,一万人按一百七十万法郎计算,每人每年平均不到一百七十法郎,支付薪金尚且不
够,更不用说购买研究设备。显然这里的 1.7 m FF 应译为“十七亿法郎”。“一百七十万法
郎”与“十七亿法郎”相差何其大!真所谓误译一词,差之千里,可见数量数据的翻译丝
毫马虎不得。不仅在原文理解和译文表达两个环节要十分细心,译后还要对数量数据再三
检查,做到万无一失。就数量数据的翻译而言,译者首先必须对英汉语数字系统的异同、英
语中表示数量的前缀、英汉语度量衡的转换关系非常熟悉。
4.4.2.1 数量数据翻译的基本知识
1)英汉语数字单位系统的异同
下表列出了汉语与英国英语和美国英语在数字对应关系上的异同。

表 6 英汉数字系统异同对照表
中国 个 十 百 千 万 十万 百万 千万 亿 十亿 百亿 千亿 兆 十兆

美国 个 十 百 千 十千 百千 M 十M 百M B 十B 百B T 十T

英国 个 十 百 千 十千 百千 M 十M 百M 千M 十千 百千 B 十B

M M

表中的 M 代表“百万”(million) ,B 代表“十亿” (billion),T 代表“兆”(trillion)即


“万亿”。从表中可以看出,从“个”到“千”,三种数字系统完全对应;从“万”开始,
汉语的数字单位与英语出现差异;从“十亿”开始,英国英语的数字单位与美国英语出现
差异。这种数目表达方式上的差异是科技翻译工作者需要特别注意的,因为它要求在翻译
时进行数量单位转换,我们在下面翻译方法的讨论中将加以具体介绍。
这里要指出的是,英国英语与美国英语的差异在数字单位上有所体现,因而对数量数
据的翻译有所影响。例如,“十亿”在英国英语中可以用 milliard / one thousand million,在
美国英语中用 billion,这不是问题。问题在于同一个词在英国英语与美国英语中表示不同的
数目,这个词就是 billion。在美国英语中 billion 是“十亿”,在英国英语中是“万亿”。那
么,如何确定 billion 的词义呢 ?有三种办法:一是利用上下文和逻辑推理,二是利用科学
背景知识或常识,三是确定原文是英国英语(BrE),还是美国英语(AmE)。例如:
---The oldest accepted physical remains of life on earth are microscopic fossilized algae believed
2.3 billion years old.
人们公认的地球上最古老的生命遗迹,就是据信为 23 亿年前的水藻显微化石标本。
根据“地球只有五十亿年的历史”这一科学常识,billion 只能作“十亿”解。了解英国英
语与美国英语的异同对于在科技英语的口笔译交流中确定 billion 的词义大有帮助。这里简
略介绍英国英语与美国英语的差异。
A. 发音上的差异
BrE AmE

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star [sta:] [stãr]
which [wit∫] [hwit∫
ask [a:sk] [ask]
secretary [‘sekretri] [‘sekreteri]
ordinary [‘o:denri] [‘ordeneri]
lieutenant [lef’tenent] [ lu’tenent]
clerk [kla:k] [klerk]
B. 拼写上的差异
BrE AmE
colour color
civilize/se civilize
centre center
anaemia anemia
aesthetic esthetic
defence defense
connexion connection
traveller traveler
tyre tire
pyjamas pajamas
enquire inquire
catalogue catalog / catalogue
programme program
waggon wagon
cheque check
grey gray
aluminium aluminum
aeroplane airplane
towards toward
C. 词义上的差异
a)同词异义
BrE AmE
table 将…列入议程 搁置
first floor 二楼 一楼
calico 白布 印花布
corn 谷物 玉米
period 月经 句号
b)异词同义
BrE AmE
pavement sidewalk
gas petrol
film movie
lift elevator
tin can
post mail

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railway railroad
call box telephone booth
underground subway
mobile phone cell phone
football soccer
autumn fall
biscuit cookie
child(ren) kid(s)
holiday vacation
term semester
D. 惯用法上的差异
BrE AmE
I insist that you should attend the meeting. I insist that you attend the meeting.
to start to start up
to drown to drown out
to meet to meet with
different from different than
to lose to lose out
to pay to pay off
to consult to consult with
He said on Tuesday He said Tuesday
5 June, 2005 June 5, 2005/
The play ran from Jan. 1 until / to Feb. 18. The play ran from Jan. 1 through Feb. 18.
严格说来, billion 在英国英语中表示“万亿”是一种旧用法,目前流行的趋势是将
billion 用作“十亿”。请看著名物理学家斯蒂芬 ·霍金的文章《生命起源及人的未来》 (The
Origin of Life and Future of Humans)中的一句话:
---Life seems to have originated in the primordial oceans that covered the Earth four billion years
ago. 生命可能起源于 40 亿年前覆盖着地球的原始海洋。
霍金虽为英国人,却将 billion 用作了“十亿”。
2) 英语中表示基本数目的常用前缀
英语中表示基本数目的前缀不少是“成双成对”,这是因为英语同时借用了拉丁语前
缀和希腊语前缀的缘故(文艺复兴时期,包括英国在内的欧洲科学技术开始迅速发展,英语
借用希腊语和拉丁语创造了大量的科技词语 ) 。例如表示数目“四”的前缀有 quadri- 和
tetra-,前者是拉丁语前缀,后者是希腊语前缀。

表 7 英语中表示基本数目的常用前缀
前缀 意义 例词
uni-;mono- 一 unicycle 独 轮 车 , univalent[ 化 学 ] 单 价 的 , monotomic 单 原 子 的 ,
monoplane 单翼飞机, monoxide 一氧化物
bi-;di- 二 bimetal 双金属, bisexual 两性的, biplane 双翼飞机, diatomic 二原子的,
dioxide 二氧化物, dicotyledon 双子叶植物
twi- 二 twiblade 双叶兰, twiforked 有两叉的

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amphi- 二 amphicar 水陆两用车, amphibian 两栖的
tri- 三 triangle 三角形, triatomic 三原子的, trijet 三引擎喷气机
quadri- 四 quadruped 四足动物, quadrangle 四角形, quadrilateral 四边的
tetra- 四 tetrode 四极管
penta- 五 pentagon 五角, pentoxide 五氧化物, pentatomic 五原子的

quinque- 五 quinquesection 五等份, quiquevalence[化学]五价


sex- 六 sexangle 六角形 sexfoil 六叶形
hexa- 六 hexode 六极管, hexagram 六线形
hepta- 七 heptahedron 七面体, heptachord 七弦琴
octa- 八 octavalent[化学]八价的
ennea- 九 enneahedron 九面体
myria- 万 myriagram 万克, myrialitre 万升

3) 英语中表示十的倍数的前缀
下表中是英语中表示十的倍数的常用前缀。

表 8 英语中表示十的倍数的前缀
前缀 意义 缩写符号 分解因数
tera- 兆 T 1012
giga- 十亿 G 109
mega- 百万 M 106
kilo- 千 k 103
hecto- 百 h 102
deca- 十 da 101
deci- 分 d 10-1
centi- 厘 c 10-2
milli- 毫 m 10-3
micro- 微 μ 10-6
nano- 毫微 n 10-9
pico- 微微 p 10-12
femto- 毫微微 f 10-15
atto- 微微微 a 10-18

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4)英制、美制、公制、市制度量衡换算表
下表列出了英制、美制、公制、市制度量衡单位的换算公式。

表 9 英汉语中常用的度量衡单位及换算公式
12 in (英寸) = 1 ft (英尺) = 0.3048 m (米) (in = inch, ft = foot, m = metre)

3 ft = 1 yd (码) = 0.9144 m (yd = yard) 6076.12 ft = 1 nautical mile(海里) = 1852 m


16 oz (盎司) = 1 lb (磅) = 0.4536 kg (oz = ounce, lb = pound)
2 stones (石) = 1 quarter (夸特)= 12.70 kg (kg = kilogram)
20 hundredweight (英担) = 1 (long) ton (长吨) = 1.016 tonnes(公吨)
2000 pounds( = 1 (short) ton (短吨) = 0.9072 tonnes
1 square inch (平方英寸) = 645.16 mm2 (平方厘米)
144 in2 = 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2 9ft2 = 1 square yard = 0.8361 m2
4840 yd2 = 1 acre (英亩) = 4047 m2
640 acres = 1 square miles = 259 ha (公顷) (ha = hectare)
1 cubic inch (立方英寸) = 16.39 cm3 1728 in3 = 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3
27 ft3 = 1 cubic yard = 0.7646 m3
4 gill (吉尔) = 1 pint (品脱) = 0.1421 dm3 (公升) (dm = decimeter)
2 pints = 1 quart = 1.137 dm2 4 quarts = 1 UK gallon (加伦) = 4.546 dm3
231 in3 = 1 US gallon = 3.785 dm3 8 gallons = 1 bushel (蒲式耳) = 36.369 dm3
Fahrenheit (华氏) = (9/5℃) +32 Centigrade (摄氏) = (5/9℉) - 32
Kelvin (开氏) = ℃ + 273.15 1 US pint = 0.9689 UK pint = 0.5506 dm3
1 US bushel = 0.9689 UK bushel = 35.238 dm3
60 seconds (秒) = 1 minute (分) = 0.2909 μrad (毫弧度)
60 minutes = 1 degree (度) = 17.45 μrad
10 mg (毫克) = 1 centigram (分克) = 0.154 grain (格令)
10 g (克) = 1 decagram (10 克) = 0.353 oz (g = gram, oz = ounce)
1 square millimetre (平方毫米) = 0.00155 in2
100 mm2 = 1 square centimetre (平方分米) = 0.1550 in2 (mm = millimetre)
100 cm2 = 1 square metre = 1.196 yd2 100 m2 = 1 ac (英亩) = 119.6 yd2 (ac = acre)
10,000 m2 = 100 acres = 1 ha (ha = hectare) 100 ha = 1 square kilometre = 247.1 ac
10 l (公升) = 1 dl (公斗) = 2.20 gal (l = litre, dl = decalitre, gal = gallon)
1 寸 = 3.333 cm = 1.3123 in 1 尺 = 0.3333 m = 1.096 ft

1 丈= 3.333 m = 3.6454 yd 1 里 = 500 m = 0.3107mile


1 平方尺 = 0.111 m2 = 1.1960 ft2 1 平方丈= 11.1111 m2 = 13.2888 yd2
1 平方里= 0.2500 km2 = 0.0965 mile2 1 亩 = 6.6666 ares (公亩) = 0.1674 acres
1 顷= 6.6666 ha = 16.4737 ac 1 寸立方尺= 0.0370 m3 = 1.3080 ft3
1 立方丈= 37.0370 m3 =1308 ft3 1 斗= 10 l = 2.1997 gal
1 石 = 100 l = 2.7497 bu (bu = bushel) 1 钱 = 5 g = 0.1754 oz
1 两 = 50 g = 1.7637 oz 1 斤= 0.5 kg = 1.1023 lb (lb = pound)

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4.4.2.2 数量数据翻译的基本规则和策略
1) 翻译基本规则
在科技文章的翻译中,经常会遇到数字的问题,哪些场合用阿拉伯数字表示,哪些场
合用单词表示,往往让人难以决定。但在以英语为母语的国家中,对此已形成了几条约定
俗 成 的 规 则 。
(1)英美等国家的出版社在排版时遵循一条原则,即 1 至 10 用单词表示,10 以上的数目用
阿拉伯数字表示。例如:
---That test bench measures three meters by two. 那个测试台长 3 米,宽 2 米。
---The test persisted 12 hours. 测 试 持 续 了 12 个 小 时 。
(2)人数用阿拉伯数字表示,但不定数量、近似值用单词表示。例如:
---There are 384 voters on the electoral rolls. 选举名单上有 384 人投票。
---Nearly one hundred procedures are stored in this computer. 计算机中储存了近 100 个测试程
序。
表示一个大约数,可用 tens of (数十), dozens of (几十),scores of (好
几十), hundreds of (数百), thousands of (数千,成千上万), millions of
(数百万)等等。(3)遇到日期、百分比、带单位的特殊数字,通常用阿拉伯数字。例如:
2nd May 1998 1998 年 5 月 2 日
the 1990s = the 1990’s = the nineteen nineties 20 世纪 90 年代
a discount of 10 percent 10%的折扣
2 gallon oil 2 加仑油
(4)在科技文章中,数字频繁出现,多用阿拉伯数字表示。例如:
---The new engine has a capacity of 4.3 liters and an output power of 153 kilowatts at 4400
revolutions per minute.
这 台 新 发 动 机 的 容 积 为 4.3 升 , 转 速 为 每 分 钟 4400 , 输 出 功 率 为 153 千 瓦 。
(5)句首和句末要尽量避免用阿拉伯数字。例如:
---Sixty percent projectiles are located in this area. 60% 的 弹 丸 都 落 在 这 一 区 域 。
---The test bench can locate the fault for ninety percent. 该测试台可定位出 90%的故障。
(6)遇到分数,可用带连字符的单词表示。例如:
---Oxygen forms about one-fifth of the atmosphere. 氧约占大气的五分之一。
另外,还可用 part 来表示分数:
a hundredth part 百 分 之 一
three-fifths parts 五 分 之 三
three parts per ( 或 in a ) million 百 万 分 之 三
a ( 或 one) part in 104 万 分 之 一
a third part in 104 万 分 之 三
2)翻译策略
科技英语汉译的基本策略包括:
a)当原文为阿拉伯数字且数字不大时,保存原文数字
---The range of sounds audible by man is from 20 to 20,000 vibrations per second
人类所能听到的声音的音域是 20-20,000 赫兹。
b)将原文的单词转换为中文数字或阿拉伯数字
---About ten men in every hundred suffer from color blindness in some way.
每一百个人中,大约有十 个人患有不同程度的色盲度。
c)转换计量单位

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---There may be as many as 100,000 different sorts of proteins in a man’s body.
人体内不同种类的蛋白质高达十万/10 万种。(换算成“万”为单位)
---Our present atmosphere is about the same in composition as it was five hundred million years
ago. 目前,大气的成分与五/5 亿年前大致相同。(换算成“亿”为单位)
d)直译+夹注
---The nuclear power plant is located in a remote mountainous area, with a total area of 660 acres
这座核电站位于偏远的山区,占地 660 英亩(约四千亩)。
4.4.2.3 倍数的翻译
倍数的增减向来是科技翻译的一大难点。下面介绍科技英语中常用的表示倍数增减的
句型及其翻译模式。
1)倍数的增加
倍数的增加可运用以下表达方式:
(1) N times + as +large + as
N times + larger than
N times + n./ that of
以上三个句型均可译为“比……(N-1)倍”或“是……N 倍”。例如:
---Regardless of how large or small the circle is, its perimeter is a little over three times as long as
its diameter.
圆不论大小,其周长都比直径长两倍多一点。
---World consumption of petroleum products is about five times greater than in 1940.
目前,全世界石油产品的消耗量约为 1940 年的五倍。
---The average energy consumed per head of population in the U.S is over 100 times that of the
world’s poorest countries.
按人口计算,美国的平均耗能量是世界上最贫穷国家耗能量的一百倍以上。(句型为 N times
+ that of,其中 that 代替前面重复的名词[energy],of 可以是其他介词)
---The velocity of sound in water is 4,900 ft. per second, or more than four times its velocity in
air. 声速在水中为 4,900 英尺/秒,即比在空气中快三倍多。(句型为 N times + n.,n. 还可以
是其他类似名词如 size,area,length,height,strength,force 等)
(2) increase + by + N times
increase + N times
increase + to + N times
与上面的句型一样,译作“增加了 (N-1)倍” 或 “增加到 N 倍”。例如:
---The production of integrated circuits in our factory has been increased three times as compared
with last year.
与去年相比,我厂集成电路的产量增加了两倍。
---A temperature rise of 100℃ increases the conductivity of semi-conductor by 50 times.
温度升高 100℃,可使半导体的电导率增至原来的 50 倍。
表示倍数增加,除了用 increase,还可用 raise,rise,go up,amount to 等。例如:
---For some projectiles the air resistance may amount to 25 times the force of gravity.
某些弹丸的空气阻力可达重力的 25 倍。
(3) increase + by a factor of +N
翻译模式为“增加了 (N-1)倍” 或 “增加到 N 倍”。例如:
---The new technique will raise the output value by a factor of 4.
这项新技术把产值提高到原来的四倍。

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(4) be + N times + over/upon
翻译模式为“增加了 (N-1)倍” 或 “增加到 N 倍”。例如:
---This year the value of our industrial output is five times over that of 1952.
今年,我国的工业产值比 1952 年增加了四倍。
(5) as many/large/heavy/much……again as
翻译模式为“两倍于……”或“是……两倍” 或“比……大/多/重一倍”。例如:
---The driving gear turns as fast again as the driven gear.
主动齿轮的转速为从动齿轮的两倍。
(6) double/twice
翻译模式为“两倍于……”或“是……两倍”或“比……大/多/重一倍”。例如:
---Every 10 months the number of people with AIDS doubles in U.S.
在美国,患艾滋病的人数每十个月就增加一倍。
(7) triple/treble
翻译模式为“三倍于……”或“(比原来)增加两倍”。例如:
---Between 1950 and 1973 the number of telephones in the USA more than tripled , with an
addition of 90 million telephones.
1950 年至 1973 年间, 美国的电话机增加了九千万只, 总数比原来增加了两倍以上。
2)倍数的减少
在 句型 上, 倍数 的减 少与 倍数 的增 加前 三种 句型 相对 应。 表示 减少 的动 词除 了
decrease,还可用 reduce. shorten, weaken, go down 等。
(1) decrease + by + N times
decrease + N times

decrease + by + a factor of + N
N −1 1
翻译模式为“减少了 ”或 “减少到原来的
N N ”。例如:

---Since the introduction of the new technique the switching time of the transistor has been
shortened three times.
采用这项新工艺后,晶体管的开关时间缩短了三分之二。
---When the signal has increased by 10 times, the gain may have been reduced by 8 times,
如果信号增大九倍,增益就可能降低八分之七。
(2) N times + 表差、少等形容词的比较级 + than
N times + as + 表差、少等形容词原级 + as
N −1 1
翻译模式为“减少了 ”或 “减少到原来的
N N ”。。例如 :
---The plastic casing is three times lighter than the steel one.
这种塑料壳比钢壳轻三分之一。
---If you treble the distance, the gravitational attraction gets nine times weaker.
如果把距离增加两倍, 引力就会减至原来的九分之一。

4.4.3 被动语态的翻译
英汉语都有被动句,都有被动意义需要表达。但汉语被动句的使用相对说来比英语要
少。例如《水浒传》,据有人统计,仅仅用了 120 个被动句。被动意义的表达在两种语言里可

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明可暗。汉语里表示被动,主要靠词汇,如”被”,”受”,”让”,”叫”,”为”,
”予以”等。英语表示被动意义有个专门的结构:(subject +) be + v-ed (+ by sth.)。其中,主
语(subject)是受事者;助动词 be 有各种形态变化;动词是及物动词或者是不及物动词+介词
构成的及物动词词组;by 引导动作的实施者,有时可以省略。隐形被动,即不用被动标记
词或被动结构的被动句,英汉语里都有,如汉语里的”饭烧熟了”、”会场已布置好”、”
海水不可斗量”,其实是” 饭被烧熟了” 、”会场已被布置好”、”海水不可被斗量”等。
当代翻译学者刘宓庆(1998)将英语被动语态的翻译方法归纳如下:
1)将被动句译为主动语态及被动隐含句。
2)转换主语,或是另行选择主语,或转换动词,译成主谓句。
3)使用泛指主语如“有人”,“人们”,“大家”等,译成主动语态句或不用主语,译成
无主句。
4)用“……的是……”或是“……是……的”句式。
5)用“为……所”。
6)用介词短语“在……下”。
7)用“据说”,“据信”,“据报道”等动宾合成动词引导句。
8)译成“被”字句。
9)用动词“受”等词加动词形成双动动宾式。
10)用其他词语或句式,如“加以”,“把”,“由”,“予以”,“给以”等。
韩其顺、王学铭(2003)总结出四种英语被动语态的汉译方法。下面分别介绍。
4.4.3.1 译成汉语的主动句
这里的主动句可能是真主动句,也可能是假主动句,即形式上为主动的被动隐含句。
前者改变了原文的主谓宾序列,可以是主语和宾语互换位置,也可以另行选择符合逻辑的
主语。后者保留了原文主语,省略了“被”字,形式上表现为主动句。例如:
---Friction can be reduced and the life of the machine prolonged by lubrication.
润滑能减少摩擦,延长机器寿命。(改变原文主谓宾序列,构成真主动句)
---Agricultural technique spreading centers have been set up everywhere in that province, helping
farmers to do their work in a more scientific way.
该省已普遍成立了农技推广中心,帮助农民以更科学的方法种田。(另行选择主语,即选择
原文中介词短语 in that province 中的 that province 作主语)
---To explore the moon’s surface, rockets were launched again and again.
为了探测月球表面,人们一次又一次地发射火箭。(增加原文字面没有的主语“人们”)
---The quartz crystal didn’t vibrate until the voltage was applied
直到电压加上去以后石英晶体才开始振荡。(保留原文主语,构成隐含被动句)
4.4.3.2 译成汉语无主句
汉语中,特别是科技汉语中大量使用动宾结构的无主句。科技英语中的被动语态常常
暗示的是一种普遍的情况或客观真理,与作为动作执行者的人关系不大,或者适用于任何
人,或者无论谁来做都会得到相同的结构。汉语可用无主句来描述这种情况。例如:
---In the watch-making industry, the tradition of high precision engineering must be kept.
在钟表制造业中,必须保持高精度工艺的传统。
---Best surface finish is provided by machining methods, especially by grinding.
用机械加工方法,特别是用磨削方法,可以获得最佳表面光洁度。
---The unpleasant noise must be put an end to.
必须立即终止这种讨厌的噪音。
4.4.3.3 译成汉语的判断句

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这种翻译方法使用的就是刘宓庆先生归纳的句型“……的是……”/“……是……的
”。
例如:
---This kind of device is much needed in the mechanical watch-making industry.
这种装置在机械表制造工业中是很需要的。
---Produced by electrons are the X-rays, which allow the doctor to look inside a patient’s body.
电子产生的是 X 射线,它使医生能透视病人的身体。
4.4.3.4 译成汉语被动句
英语被动语态可以用汉语表示被动的词汇如“被”、“受”、“遭受”、“为……所”、
“加以”等来翻译。例如:
---The metric system is now used by almost all the countries in the world.
公制现在被全世界几乎所有的国家所采用。
---Nuclear power has been known to scientists for quite a ling time.
核动力为科学家所认识已经很久了。
---The air in this area is still being polluted by smog.
这个地区的空气现在仍然受烟雾的污染。
---Other processes will be discussed briefly.
其他方法将简单地加以讨论。
4.4.3.5 It…that…句型的翻译
科技英语中大量使用 It…that…句型。该句型的翻译方法如下:
It is generally accepted that… 一般认为/大家公认
It is allerged that… 人们断言
It is asserted that… 有人主张
It is believed that... 据信
It cannot be denied that… 不可否认
It gas been found that… 已经发现/实践证明
It must be kept in mind that… 必须记住

4.4.4 长句翻译
相对而言,英语长句多一些,而且多为主从复杂句;汉语则多用中、短句,即使是长
句,也多为并列结构。长句的翻译,首先必须对英汉句式的特点了如指掌,这样才能在表
达时能够按照译入语的句子逻辑组织行文。翻译长句的难点在结构上,在句子各部分的关
系上。只有捋清各种关系,才能创造连贯、紧凑、流畅的译文。刘宓庆先生(1998:188)把英语
句子的翻译切分为以下六个步骤:
第一步:紧缩主干 ●析出 SV—SVO—SV.IO.DO 等
●识别谓语形态,确定时态、语态、语气
第二步:辨析词义 ●识别其他词语形态及其语法关系
●判断词义,确定词义
第三步:区分主从 ●识别修饰语与被修饰语,主句与从句
●判断各成分之间的内在联系
第四步:捋清层次 ●推断句子思维逻辑发展的形式及重心
第五步:调整搭配 ●按汉语习惯形成主谓宾配列及各式搭配
●调整各层次语序,捋顺表达法
第六步:润饰词语 ●炼词,炼句

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●考虑文体的适应性,并作出调整
前四步构成理解阶段,后两步为表达阶段的主要任务。第一步是分析句子结构;第二
步是理解并确定词义,包括词语的各种语法形态;第三步是找出句子各成分之间的各种关
系;第四步是抓住句子思想的发展脉络、模式和中心;第五步是按照汉语句子的逻辑重组
译文;第六步是检查译文,考察选词是否得当,行文是否自然,文体是否得体等。
科技英语是用来陈述自然界、科技界所发生或出现的事情,描述其规律、特点、过程等的
语言,其表达客观准确、逻辑性强、结构严谨。为了更好地记录自然界的现象和科技界的动态,
用来记录的句子往往偏长、结构复杂。这些长而难的句子,给读者和译者带来不少麻烦。长句
之所以难翻译,主要是其中包含多个从句或短语,使句子结构十分复杂、难以理顺造成的。因
此,科技英语译者必须首先分析和弄清从句的语法结构,从句与主句、短语与主句等之间的
语法关系和逻辑关系,找出整个句子的中心内容及其各层意思,然后分析各层意思之间的相
互逻辑关系,再按照汉语的特点和表达方式,采取相应的手段准确地译成汉语。陈桂琴
(2005:5-7)将科技英语长句的翻译方法归纳为五种,即结构分析法,顺序法,调整顺序
法,分句法和综合法。下面分别介绍。
4.4.4.1 结构分析法
科技英语长句中语言结构层次多,并列成分多,修饰语多,因此,翻译前必须对句子作细
致分析。一般说来,要首先找出句子的主干或核心句: 主谓结构或主谓宾结构,然后分析从
句的具体语法作用,以便透彻理解,准确翻译。
例1
Contrary to the computer engineers’ initial predictions that if the dictionaries were large
enough and the lexicography good enough, then the programs would be able to do quality
translation, the natural languages we speak and write, with all their exceptions and ambiguities,
their subtleties and diosyncrasies, are far more complex than this statement suggests, and have
proved to be beyond the capabilities of computer technology.
【分析】通读整句后,可找出核心句:the natural languages. . . and have proved
to be beyondthe capabilities of computer technology ,其中的定语从句we speak
and write 和介词with all their exceptions and ambiguities 都是修饰主语;表语中
还有一比较状语从句。其他部分可分析如下:主句前有一形容词短语,由cont rary to 引导,
这一短语中that 引导的同位语进一步说明initial predictions ,且这一同位语是由if
引导的主从复合句构成。在此基础上进行翻译,信息的准确性便可以得到保证。译为: 计算
机工程师的最初预言是词典词条足够多,又编得很好,那么这种程序就可产生优秀译文,而与
此相反的是,除其中的各种例外、含糊不清的地方、微妙之处和各种特点外,我们用的自然语
言远比上面的说法复杂,因而远非计算机技术所能解决。
例2
We assumed that there were forces of attraction between molecules which varied rapidly with
the distance so that the attraction between molecules that were more than a few ten millionths of a
millimeter apart was very small but became considerable when the molecules approached more
closely.
【分析】句子的框架是We assumed that there were forces of att raction. . .
that 引导宾语从句。此宾语从句内含一个由which 引导的定语从句修饰先行词forces of
attraction ; so that the att raction between molecules. . . 是so that 结构引导
的结果状语从句;在此状语从句中,除主干结构the att raction. . . was very small
but became considerable. . . ,又有that were more than a few ten millionths of
a millimeter apart 作定语从句修饰先行词molecules 和when the molecules

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approached more closely 做状语从句,修饰. . . but became
considerable。Considerable 译为“相当大(或多的) ”。译为: 我们曾经假定,分子之间存
在着引力,这种引力随着分子之间距离的不同而有显著的变化,因而,在间距为千万分之几毫
米的分子之间的引力是很小的,但是分子靠得很近时,这种引力会变得相当大。
4.4.4.2 顺序法
有些科技英语长句叙述的是一连串动作,或按时间顺序安排,或按逻辑关系安排,与汉
语的表达方式相似,翻译时可按原文顺序译出。
例1
But it is realized that supplies of some of them are limited ,and it is even possible to give a
reasonable estimate of their “expectation of life”,the time it will take to exhaust all known sources
and reserves of these material.
【分析】该句的主干结构为“It is realized that . . . ”,it为形式主语,that 引
导主语从句以及并列的it is even possible to. . . 结构,其中,不定式作主语,the
time. . . 是“expectation of life”的同位语,进一步解释其含义,而time 后面的句子
是它的定语从句。五个谓语结构,表达四个层次的意义:A. 可是现在人们意识到;B. 其中有
些矿物质的蕴藏量是有限的;C. 人们甚至还可以比较合理地估计出这些矿物质“渴望存在
多少年”;D. 这些已知矿源和储量将消耗殆尽的时间。翻译时可依据顺序,把第四层含义的
表达作适当的调整。译为: 可是现在人们意识到,其中有些矿物的蕴藏量是有限的,人们甚至
还可以比较合理
地估计出这些矿物“渴望存在多少年”,也就是说,经过若干年后,这些矿源的全部已知储量将
消耗殆尽。
例2
A very important world problem — in fact, I am inclined to say it is the most important of all
the great world problems which faces us at the present time — is the rapid increasing pressure of
population on land and on land resources.
【分析】这个句子结构若只取主干,本来是很简单的,因为它只提了一个问题。但中间插
入一个相当长的句子(在主谓之间),来说明这个问题乃是当今世界许多重大问题中最重要
的。这就造成整个句子结构两头小、中间大。原句这样安排具有修饰效果,其优点是很明显的:
首先提出问题,以引起注意,继而通过指出这是许多问题之一作为铺垫和渲染,最后再说明
问题所在使印象深刻。由于本句除了这一结构特点之外再无其它典型特征需要处理,故汉译
不妨保留其结构特色,依据原句表达的顺序,在靠近首尾处均用破折号断开,并略加词语,使
语气贯通。译为: 一个十分重要的世界性问题———事实上,我想说明一下,这乃是我们目前
所面临的所有世界性重大问题中至关重大的一个———那便是由于人口剧增对土地和土地
资源所造成的日甚一日的压力。
4.4.4.3 调整顺序法
英汉语在表达顺序上有很大不同。汉语一般是“先发生的事情先说,后发生的后说”,
“先原因,后结果”,“先次要,后主要”;而英语有许多时候与汉语正好相反:更多的是把
主句放在句首,分析或说明部分置后;有时把某些部分放在句首或反常的位置以示强调。因
此,当科技英语长句的叙述层次与汉语逻辑相反时,翻译必须按照汉语的习惯从原文的后面
译起,要依据汉语的表达方式,对原语序进行调整;有时甚至还要重新组合译文,以达到画龙
点睛、突出主题的目的。
例1
The method normally employed for electrons to be produced in electron tubes is thermionic
emission, in which advantage is taken of the fact that, if a solid body is heated sufficiently, some

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of the electrons that it contains will escape from its surface into the surrounding space.
【分析】此句中,主句放在句首,分析说明部分放在后面,翻译时为突出主题,应按照汉语
表达习惯对语序进行调整。译为 固体加热到足够温度时,它所含的电子就会有一部分离开表
面飞逸到周围空间中去,这种现象叫热离子发射。通常,电子管就是利用这种现象来产生自由
电子的。
例2
Aluminium remained unknown until the nineteenth century, because nowhere in nature is it
found free, owing to its always being combined with other elements, most commonly with
oxygen, for which it has a strong affinity.
【分析】这个句子由一个主句,两个原因状语和一个定语从句组成。“铝直到19 世纪才
被人发现”是主句,也是全句的中心,全句共有四个谓语结构,五层意思: A. 铝直到19 世
纪才被人发现;B. 由于在自然界找不到游离状态的铝;C. 由于它总是跟其它元素结合在
一起;D. 最普遍的是跟氧结合;E. 铝跟氧有很强的亲和力。翻译时,我们可以发现,此例
中译文与原文的语序有很大不同,英汉语表达上的差异表现得很突出。为了符合汉语的表达
习惯,需对译文的语序进行调整。本句为因果句,英语的表达习惯是先说结果,后说原因,而
汉语的表达习惯恰好相反。因此,按照汉语的“先原因,后结果”的顺序对译文进行调整。译
为: 铝总是跟其它元素结合在一起,最普遍的是跟氧结合,因为铝跟氧有很强的亲和力。由于
这个原因,在自然界找不到游离状态的铝,所以,铝直到19 世纪才被人发现。
4.4.4.4 分句法
有些科技英语长句中,主句与从句或主句与修饰语间的关系并不十分密切,翻译时可以
按照汉语中多用短句的习惯,把长句中的从句或短语译成句子,分开来叙述,为使意思连贯,
有时还需要适当增加词语。分译的目的是化长为短、化整为零,使译文连贯,有整体感。
例1
Television, it is often said, keeps one informed about current events, allow one to follow the
latest developments in science and politics, and offers an endless series of programmes which are
both instructive and entertaining.
【分析】在此长句中,有一个插入语“it is often said”,三个并列谓语结构,还有一
个定语从句,这三个并列谓语结构尽管在结构上属于同一句子,但都有独立的意义,因此,在
翻译时,可以采用分句法,按照汉语习惯把整个句子分解成几个独立的分句,译为: 人们常
说,通过电视可以了解时事,掌握科学和政治的最新动态。从电视里还可以看到层出不穷、既
有教育意义又有娱乐性的新节目。
例2
It is because of the close association in most people’s minds of tools with man that special
attention has always been focused upon any animal able to use an object as a tool, but it is
important to realize that this ability, on it s own, does not necessarily indicate any special
intelligence in the creature concerned.
【分析】句子的框架是It is because of . . .that. . . , but it is important to
realize that . . . ,but 连接两个并列句, but 前的并列分句为It is. . . that . .
. 强调结构,强调because of 引导的状语。but 后的并列分句又有that 引导的宾语从句做
realize 的宾语。the close association in most people’s minds of tools with man
中注意in most people’s minds 把the close association of tools with man (工具
与人类的密切联系) 分离开来。两个并列句分别有able to use an object as a tool 和
concerned 分别做其前面名词animal 和the creature 的后置定语。man 根据上下文在此
处指“人类”;ot necessarily 译为“不一定、未必”;n it s own 意为“独立地,凭自

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己力量”,在此转译为“就其自身而言”。如此长的句子,翻译时,我们可以按照汉语中多用
短句的习惯,把长句中的从句或短语译成句子。译为: 正是由于在大多数人头脑中工具与人
类的密切关系,人类才特别关注可以把物体当工具使用的任何一种动物,但值得注意的是,这
种能力就其自身而言,并不表明这种动物有什么特别的智慧。
4.4.4.5 综合法
有些科技英语长句单纯地使用顺序法、调整顺序法或者分译法都有困难,这就要求我们
综合考虑对长句的处理方法,仔细推敲,兼顾上下文关系,按时间先后,或按逻辑顺序,主次

明地对全句进行综合处理,把英语原文翻译成通顺忠实的汉语句子。
例1
The phenomenon describes the way in which light physically scatters when it passes through
particles in the earth’s atmosphere that are 1/ 10 in diameter of the color of the light.
【分析】该句可以分解为四个部分: The phenomenon describes the way/ in which
light
physically scatters/ when it passes through particles in the earth’s
atmosphere/ that are 1/ 10 in diameter of the color of the light . 其中,第一、
二和三、四部分之间是修饰与被修饰的关系。总体考虑之后,我们可用综合法来处理这个句
子,即合译第一、二和第三部分,第四部分用“分句法”,这样译句就符合汉语的表达习惯了。
译为: 这种现象说明了光线通过地球大气微粒时的物理散射方式。大气微粒的直径为有色
光直径的十分之一。
例2
These new observational capabilities would result in simply a mass of details were it not for
the fact theoretical understanding has reached the stage at which it is becoming possible to
indicate the kind of measurements required for reliable weather forecasting.
【分析】本句由一个推测句和一个假设的并不存在的事实构成主要思路,并由一个定语
从句说明达到的具体阶段,一个分词短语说明测量的归属,考虑到分词短语前置安排为定语
有困难,且意义上也可以相对分开作为补充说明,故译为插入语。译为: 理论上的认识现已
达到能够指明各种测量性质的阶段(这些测量对于可靠的天气预报是必不可少的),如果不是
这样,那么这些新的观察能力就只会造成繁琐材料的堆积。
可见,无论我们面对的是一个结构多么复杂的科技英语长句,但只要我们耐心地加以分
析,分清主次,理顺时间顺序及必要的逻辑关系,因句采取不同的方法,再难翻译的句子也会
迎刃而解。
科技英语长句翻译要注意的问题是,第一,在进行句子结构分析时,除了借助于语法
之外,还要根据专业知识来弄清各层意思之间的逻辑关系,以确定原文的真正含义;第二,
在分析句子结构的基础上,接着就要确定关联词(连词、关系代词和关系副词) 的基本词义,
有时一个关联词有好几个词义,一定要根据上、下文和专业知识来准确地确定关联词的词义,
这是长句翻译准确的关键;第三,翻译方法并不是固定的,翻译中不可拘泥不变,任何一
个长句,只要弄清语法关系的眉目,看透技术上的来龙去脉,就可以适当变动原文结构,灵活
处理;第四,如果对翻译的内容不熟悉,一定要翻阅有关这个内容方面的资料或书籍,做到
起码对这方面的专业知识有一个大概的了解,切忌不懂专业知识,只靠查字典机械地死译;
最后,在汉语表达上应力求文字严谨,避免层次不清,表达混乱,语言文字拖泥带水。同时,
也一定要避免歪曲原文的精神实质(于建平,2000:16)。

4.4.5 逻辑与科技翻译

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在科技英语中,从词句到篇章等各个语言层面都存在隐性逻辑关系。这些隐含的关系,
往往超出语言学的范围,需要借助于逻辑判断和事理分析才能搞清楚。因此,前苏联语言
学家巴尔胡达罗夫称之为“非语言成份”。在翻译实践中,它们极易逃过译者的视线,所
以应当给予高度重视。下面对科技英语中隐含的各种逻辑语法关系和逻辑语义关系作一粗
浅探讨。
4.4.5.1 词和词组所暗示或隐含的逻辑关系
1) 某些动词在SVO 和SVOC 句型中连接因果关系
著名语言学家F.R.帕尔默(F.R.Palmer,1988)将英语动词分为九种类型。其中的使役
性(causation)动词在科技英语中具有因果连接作用,例如:
1) The redundancy built into these flat cathodes—each has more than 1,000 tiny electron guns —
makes this kind of display more forgiving of manufacturing defects.
由于有大量冗余的电子枪在这些扁型阴极里—每个阴极都有1000 多个微型电子枪,所以
即使出现制造上的缺陷,也不会对这种显示器产生太大的影响。
科技英语中能够表达因果意义的动词不限于使役动词。张梅岗、李光曦(1994)将因果
动词分为两类:一类动词本身具有较强的因果作用,使句子表示因果关系,如cause,
make, result in, result from, lead to,bring about, attribute to, ascribe to,
give rise to等。请看下例:
2) The difficulty in measuring smoke’s outdoor dispersion has led NIST analysts to simulate the
problem thematically.
由于测量油烟在室外消散遇到困难,NIST的分析员们用数学模拟法处理这一问题。
还有一类动词如increase,allow,permit,give,limit,prevent...from, act as等表
示的因果意义虽然不明显,可是用在句子中仍可体现出因果作用,例如:
3) Alternating layers of semiconductors with slightly different compositions can act as mirrors,
bouncing a portion of the light back and forth between the faces of the chip.
由于各层半导体的组份略有不同,所以能起到镜子的作用,使部分的光在芯片界面间来回
反射。
从句法结构看,有些因果动词只适用于SVO 句型,如increase;有些则只在SVOC 句
型中出现,如make;还有一些两种句型皆适用,如cause。这种隐含因果关系的简单句有一
个显著特点,主语常常是科技术语名词、名词化或名词化结构,表达一个句子的意义。译者
在处理此类句子时,可采用主述分切法,即将充当主语的名词化结构和后面的动宾结构
(或动宾补结构)分别独立成句,译成汉语里的因果复句。
2)某些否定副词隐含转折意义
科技英语中,有些充当状语或前置修饰语的副词,从深层结构上分析,包含转折意念,
例如:
4) The success rate of up to 90% claimed for lie detectors is misleadingly attractive.
据称,测谎器的成功率高达百分之九十,这颇有吸引力,但却容易把人引入歧途。
5) Nonlinear equations indicate that a small force can have, unpredictably, either a small or a large
effect.
非线性方程表明,一股细小的力其效果可大可小,但究竟是大还是小是无法预言的。
这类句子中的否定副词不宜直译为形容词或谓语动词的修饰语。否则,译文会显得不
自然,不通顺,不明白。译者应当遵循原文固有的逻辑脉络,将隐含的转折意念如实地再
现于译文之中。
3)N+of+N名词化结构隐含的语法关系
语言学家伦道夫·夸克(Randolph Quirk,1985)等人指出,被动语态和名词化结构

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是科技英语语法的两大主要特征。N+of +N 是科技英语中一种最常见且使用频率最高的名
词化结构。尢金·奈达(Eugene Nida)从语义角度将这种结构划分为十一种关系类型,如
主谓关系,动宾关系,主谓宾关系,同位关系,主谓表关系,主谓状关系等等。下面仅就
主谓宾关系的两种形式举例说明:
6) One of the most interesting factors in the conversion of nectar to honey is the removal of
superfluous water. (表示动作意义的名词+of +名词+介词短语)
在由花蜜到蜂蜜的转变过程中,最有趣的因素之一是除去多余的水份。
7) Loss of tool hardness leads to tool failure. (表示动作意义的名词+of+ 名词+ 名词)
刀具由于失去硬度而无法使用。
N+of +N中隐含的主谓宾关系一般由该结构的主谓关系或动宾关系发展而来。例6 中的
主谓宾结构由主谓结构(the conversion of nectar)扩展而成,即在主谓结构之后添加
一个与该结构中的动作名词搭配一致的介词短语(to honey),由介词宾语(honey)充当
主谓结构的逻辑宾语。例7 中的主谓宾结构则由动宾结构(loss of hardness)演变而来。
充当动宾结构逻辑主语(tool)的成份,一般为名词或物主代词,既可紧接在of 之后修
饰of的宾语,又可置于动作名词之前作前置定语。名词化结构在表意功能上相当于一个句
子,若用作主语并隐含有状语意义(如例9),可译成一个句子。
4.4.5.2 各类短语与主句之间的状语关系
科技英语中,形容词短语、分词短语、不定式短语、介词短语等可以发挥多方位的状语
功能,如原因、条件、让步、递进等。读、译者要善于通过语法和逻辑分析,准确地抓住各种
短语与主句之间的关系。
1) 形容词短语表示原因、让步、条件等意义
夸克等人(1985)指出,状语性质的形容词短语有两个特点:一是它与主句的主语和
谓语都发生关系;二是它的位置具有动态性,即它可放在句首、句中或者句尾。请看夸克所
举的例子:
8) Rather nervous, the man opened the letter.
The man, rather nervous, opened the letter.
The man opened the letter, rather nervous.
(A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, p.425)
科技英语中,作状语的形容词短语一般放在句首,表示因果、让步等关系,例如:
9) Capable of holding over 300 passengers and flying safely, this type of aeroplane is used by
many airlines.(表示原因)
由于能装载300 多名乘客且飞行安全,这种类型的飞机被许多航空公司采用。
10) Small in size, this apparatus can lift a weight as heavy as 500 kilograms.( 表示让步)
尽管这个装置体积小,可它能举起500 公斤重的东西。
2)动词不定式短语隐含条件意义
动词不定式作状语,可以用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,表示目的、结果、原
因、程度等。在科技英语中,有一种不定式,虽然用作主语或宾语,本身却蕴含条件状语意
义,例如:
11) Children of the 21st century will likely be surprised to hear that there were once computers
that didn’t plug into telephones without video screens and television sets that merely showed
programs without viewer interaction.
二十一世纪的儿童,如果听说以前曾经有过不与电话线路接通的电脑,不带电视屏幕的电
话和只能演播节目而不能同观众对话的电视机,很可能会感到惊讶。
句中不定式(to hear that…自己所带的宾语是一个含有虚拟语气的宾语从句。该不

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定式所包含的条件意义由其宾语从句中的时态所暗示。在It would be +adj. + to do
sth. 或 It would have been +adj. + to do sth.句型中,不定式也包含有虚拟条件意
义,例如:
12) It would be absurd to deny the fact. 该事实不容否定。
这类表示条件意义的不定式通常出现在虚拟语境里,要么自己带有假设意义的宾语从
句,要么主句谓语为虚拟形式。翻译此类句子,既可译成表示条件意义的偏正复句,也可
译成无条件标志词的意合句。
3) 分词短语隐含原因、让步、条件等意义
科技英语中,现在分词短语和过去分词短语可以表示原因、条件、让步、时间等多种状
语意义。这里仅就过去分词的状语功能略举几例:
13) Halley, preoccupied by his other scientific interests, seems to have taken his time applying
Newtonian principles to comets. (表示让步)
哈雷虽然醉心于研究他所感兴趣的其他科学问题,但似乎已经耗尽他的时间运用牛顿的原
理来研究彗星了。
14) Over a period of several hundred million years, however, comparatively small amounts of
organic material have been trapped under layers of silt, soil or volcanic rock and, deprived of
oxygen, have not fully decomposed.(表示原因)
然而,经过几亿年的长期过程,一些较小部分的有机物质被密封在淤泥、土壤或火山岩构
成的地层下面,并由于缺氧而没有完全腐烂。
15) Sent from New York, the rocket would be in Tokyo in half an hour.( 表示含蓄条件)
若从纽约发射的话,火箭30 分钟就会到达东京。
4) 介词短语隐含递进、条件、原因等意义
夸克等人(1985)认为,当介语短语用在不及物动词后面作状语时,句子的重心由动
词转移到介词短语上。他并举例加以说明:
16) The Queen arrived. [ i.e. the arrival is all important ]
The Queen arrived in a blue gown. [i.e. her dress is more important than the arrival]
(A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, p.506)
当介词短语补充的信息与动词意义一致时,它们之间存在递进关系,例如:
17) And their conclusions are not just pie in the sky—they’re based on an astonishing experiment
in which a dog was frozen for 15 minutes, then revived in perfect health! (表示递进)
他们的结论并不是凭空想象得出的,而是根据一个惊人的实验得出的。在这个实验中,一
只冷冻了十五分钟的狗复活了,而且十分健康。
在科技英语中,介词短语除了表示递进关系,还可表示条件、原因等关系,例如:
18) In the absence of mathematics science would not exist.(表示虚拟条件)
没有数学,科学就不存在。
19) The end of the cold war has opened up the skies over Russia and China to aircraft flying to
and from Asian destinations, but traffic is restricted by the lack of groundbased navigation aids.
(表示原因)
冷战结束之后,俄罗斯和中国对往返亚洲各国的飞机开放了空域,但由于地面导航设备不
足,空中交通量受到限制。
4.4.5.3 主从句间和句子之间隐含的逻辑关系
1)and 和or所暗示的特殊逻辑关系
and最常用的语法功能是连接并列成份。但是在语用实践中,它还有一些特殊的含义。
夸克等人(1985)将and的特殊语法功能归类为以下八种:因果关系,先后关系,对比关

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系,条件关系,让步关系,类比关系,补充关系和解释关系。科技英语中,and连接的逻辑
关系除了上面八种外,尚有递进关系,选择关系等。因此,在科技文献的读、译活动中,我
们不能简单地将and 理解为“并且/ 和”,而应当善于从逻辑语义分析着手,抓住前后子
句间的正确关系。下面略举几例:
20) The interpretation of ‘quality’ of sound, too, is extremely variable and essentially subjective.
(倒置因果关系)
人们对于音质的判断也是完全不同的,因为这种判断主要取决于人的主观感觉。
21) All you need to do is type 1471 and a computerized voice will give you their phone number.
(条件结果关系)
你只要拨1471,计算机就会把他们的电话号码告诉你。
22) Motion is infinite in variety, and the study of certain simple types of motion constitutes the
science of echanics.(让步关系)
尽管运动的方式多种多样,但是人们通过对某些简单运动形式的研究创立了力学。
23) These parts are made of woods and plastics and not metals. ( 根据事理逻辑and 表示选择
关系)
这些零件是用木材或塑料而不是用金属制成的。
不仅and 在一定的场合(如例25)具有选择连词or的功能;同样,or在特殊情形下也
能表示并列关系,其功能同and。夸克等人(1985)指出,用在否定语境中的or,其功能大
致等同于and,例如:
24) Rods and wires shall have a smooth finish, free from surface imperfections, corrosion
products, grease or other foreign matter which would affect the quality of the weld.
焊条与焊丝应该表面光洁,不能有表面缺陷和锈垢、油脂以及其它杂质,因为它们会影响
焊接质量。
例24 中的or 由于处在否定意义的free from短语中,根据夸克理论,它实际上表示
并列关系。or 还可引导同位语,对前述名词进行解释或补充说明,例如:
25) The distance equals two kilometers or 1.2428 miles.
该距离为2 千米,即1.2428 英里。
26) Geothermal energy, or energy from within the earth, can be used to generate electricity.
地热,即地球内部的能量,可用来发电。
2)某些定语从句隐含状语意义
张培基等编《英汉翻译教程》(1983)在谈到定语从句的特殊用法时指出:“英语中有
些定语从句,兼有状语从句的职能,在意义上与主句有状语关系,说明原因,结果,目的,
让步,假设等关系。翻译时应善于从原文的字里行间发现这些逻辑上的关系,然后译成汉
语各种相应的偏正复句。”(p.136)科技英语中的定语从句,很大一部分都含有状语意义,
而且富于隐蔽性,比如例24中which 引导的定语从句,若不仔细分析,很难发现它与主句
之间存在因果关系。下面再介绍几种定语从句所表示的状语意义:
27) For any machine whose input force and output force are known, its advantage can be
calculated. (表示条件)
任何机器,若已知其输入力和输出力,则可求出其机械效益。
28) The same ozone that helpfully blocks ultraviolet light in the stratosphere can seriously
damage your respiratory system when it is at ground level — where it can be inhaled. ( 表示对
比)
同是臭氧,在平流层它阻挡紫外线对人是有益的,但在地面,被人吸入就会严重伤害呼吸
系统。

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29) Potential energy that is not so obvious as kinetic energy exists in many things. (表示让步)
势能虽然不像动能那样明显,但它存在于许多物体之中。
30) Matter is composed of molecules that are composed of atoms.(表示并列)
物质由分子构成,而分子由原子构成。
3) 语句之间隐含的逻辑语义关系
夸克等人(1985)把语篇关联手段分为四种类型:语用和语义暗示,词汇连接,韵律
与标点,语法手段。科技英语中,有些句子之间用句号断开,没有词汇和语法连接标志。其
间的关系是通过语义暗示的。译者只有准确地把握住语句间隐含的逻辑关系,才能做到翻
译时句子与句子之间语气相接,紧凑连贯,关系分明,例如:
31) Magnetic measurements give no information about the extent of the thermal area at depth.||
Volcanic rocks from inside the field were found to be non-magnetic.(前果后因)
以前的调查表明,热田深部的火山岩为非磁性岩石,因此磁测工作不可能获得有关这个地
热区的范围的资料。
32) This rule says that a stealth aircraft should be designed so that every detection system arrayed
against it has roughly the same range.||There is no point in building an airplane that is invisible to
radar at five miles if optical sensors can see it at 10 miles.(解释关系)
依据该原则,隐形飞机的设计必须实现其所有针对它的监测系统上的暴露距离大体相同。
即,如果某飞机在5 英里以外不会被雷达发现,但在10英里外却能被光学探测器捕捉,这
样就失去了隐形的意义。
而且,语句之间的关系并不局限于相邻的两个句子之间。有时,一个句子可以和上文
或下文中的多个句子发生关系,例如:
33) The later 90s should give us gene-spliced farm animals — hogs that yield low-cholesterol
pork and cows that produce milk from which pharmaceutical companies can extract such
beneficial drugs as insulin or growth hormone. Already the U.S. Patent Office has received dozens
of proposals for such creatures. Researchers in both the United States and Japan are working on
catfish and trout that grow larger and faster and consume less food in the process. ||Consumers
may shy away from genetically engineered food as weird and even dangerous, so scientists are
developing special testing plans for these new and unknown breeds.
九十年代后期应当给我们带来基因拼接技术培育的家畜—那时的肉猪提供低胆固醇的猪肉,
奶牛所生产的牛奶可供制药厂用以提取胰岛素或生长激素之类有益的药物。现在,美国专
利局已经收到好几十份培育这种牲畜的方案。美国和日本两国的研究人员正在设法培育长
得更大更快、生长期耗费饲料又较少的鲶鱼和鲑鱼。但是,消费者可能会嫌弃用遗传工程方
法制造的食品,总觉得它们古怪甚至危险。因此,科学家们正在制订对这些新奇的未知品
种进行检验的专门计划。
上例中的转折关系并不是最后一句与它前面一句之间的关系,而是它与整个上文所蕴
含的语义关系。总之,在处理科技语篇中意合法的句子时,译者首先必须根据语境找出它
们之间的隐性关系,然后用贴切的连词联接之。若是语句间的关系特别密切,可采用融合
译法,将两个独立的句子合并成一个复合句。
4.4.5.4 语段间的逻辑语义关系
同句子一样,科技文章中语段间的关系有时不是利用语法和词汇手段,而是通过语义
暗示来连接的。透彻领悟每个语段的意思,抓住语段之间的关系是译者避免译文中语段脱
节、衔接不紧密的前提条件。下面略举一例:
34) Like DNA itself, the story has two entwining strands. As researchers deprived of public funds
turn to commercial companies to pay for their research, those companies seek to protect their

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intellectual property for their shareholders’ benefit. The privatization of science has led to the
privatization of genes. This has affected even those scientists still working in publicly funded
laboratories, so that governments too are staking their claim to human DNA.
There are striking parallels with the enclosures movement which swept across the English
landscape from the 17th to the 19th centuries, parceling up for private profit what had once been
common land over which individuals had rights but nobody had ownership. The enclosures were
legitimized by the passage of parliamentary bills . But today it is the officials of the European and
American patent offices who have overseen the appropriation into privates hands of humanity’s
genes, extending patent protection from industrial chemicals to DNA, the very blueprint of human
life itself.
It is all a far cry from 1953, when, in the Cavendish laboratory in Cambridge, two brilliant
young men — an American birdwatcher turned microbiologist, Joules D. Watson, and an English
physicist, Francis Crick — iscovered that the molecule of heredity, DNA, had the structure of a
double helix. The 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded to them and the New Zealand
scientist Maurice Wilkins who was part of the team of scientists for this discovery. (“Whose Gene
Is It ?”, by Tom Wilkie)
正如脱氧核糖核酸本身一样,这种情况也具有两股相互缠绕的链。当研究人员不能取
得公共基金而转向商业公司,并由这些公司来支付他们的研究,那么那些公司为了他们股
东的利益必将力求保护他们的知识产权。科学的私有化导致了基因的私有化,这种情况已
影响到现在仍在国家资助实验室工作的科学家们,因此各国政府也试图称他们拥有人类脱
氧核糖核酸专利权。
这与17-19 世纪席卷英伦大地的“圈地运动”有着惊人的相似性,即把那些以往人人均
有权利但不能占有的公共土地转让为私人的财产。这种圈地是经议会决议所合法通过的。但
今天则是在欧洲和美洲的专利机构的官员的监视下,由私人将人类的基因据为己有,将专
利保护由工业化学品扩展至人类生命本身的脱氧核糖核酸蓝本。
然而,1953 年情形大不一样。当时在剑桥卡文迪什实验室有两位才华横溢的年轻人—
一位是美国的鸟类研究者后改行成为微生物学家的詹姆斯·D·华生,另一位是英国的物理学
家弗朗西斯·克里克,他们发现遗传分子,即脱氧核糖核酸,具有双螺旋结构。1962年他们
以及参与此项发现的研究组成员、新西兰科学家毛里斯·威尔金斯被授予诺贝尔医学奖。
上面三段之间虽然没有关联词连接,却有一根无形的语义之线把它们紧紧地拴在一起。
稍加分析,不难看出一、二段之间存在着类比关系即把各商业公司和各国政府纷纷宣布拥
有D N A 专利权的现象同英国历史上的“圈地运动”作比。第二段起首用“这与”承接前
文,显得紧凑、贴切、自然。而第三段作者笔锋一转,指出三位科学家获诺贝尔奖与拥有DNA
专利权是两码事。因此,二、三段之间可以用一个转折连词“然而”连接。这样,通过适当
地措辞,语段间隐含的逻辑语义关系便清晰地呈现出来。
阅读和翻译从某种意义上看是逻辑活动。善于准确地识别和捕捉科技文章中隐含的逻
辑语法关系和逻辑语义关系是对译者的基本要求。为了避免因疏忽而遗漏原文字里行间的
意义与关系,译者须要时刻保持逻辑觉悟,要善于运用逻辑判断和推理。否则,就会导致
篇章松散,语段脱节,句子之间语气不接,语义不明,逻辑不通、不清或矛盾以及佶屈聱
牙的翻译腔等问题。

4.4.6 背景知识与科技翻译
科技翻译离不开背景知识。无论是词义的理解,句意的准确推断和把握,还是整个语
篇信息脉络的连接与连贯性都需要借助背景知识。广义的背景知识,不仅包括科技常识、相

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关科技知识,还包括文化知识和语言知识。杨宪益、吕叔湘等前辈翻译家指出,翻译需要“
杂学”。这里的“杂学”就是背景知识,它无所不包。这就要求译者尽一切可能拓展自己的
知识领域和深度,跟上科技发展的潮流,然后才能做到在翻译中游刃有余。下面举例说明
语言知识、文化知识、科技知识在翻译中的具体运用。
例1
---Equation 3.6 indicates that the free energy of a given phase decreases more rapidly with the rise
in temperature the larger its specific heat. ( Modern Physical Metallurg” by R.E. Smallman,
p.115)
原译:公式(3.8)表明,随着温度的上升,某一相的自由能减少得越迅速,它的比热也越大。
(中译本,P.67)
【分析】以上译文的错误根源在于缺少相关语言背景知识,即对“The +比较级…,the +
比较级”结构认识不全面。一般说来,该结构是从句在前,主句在后,翻译照原文次序,
例如 The more you practice, the better you sing.(练习越多,唱得越好。) 。若是主句移前,从句
挪后,此时,主句用正常语序,从句以“ the +比较级”开头。翻译时则与原文次序相反,
即先译后面的从句,再译前面的主句,例如 She sang the worse, the more she practiced.(“她练
习越多,反而唱得越差。”,见葛传槼所著《英语惯用法词典》)。根据这一语言知识,原文可
译为:“公式 3.8 表明,某一相的比热越大,则其自由能随着温度的升高而减少得越快”。
【术语链接】“相”(phase),其一指交流电路中的一个组成部分,如三相交流发电机有
三个绕组,每个绕组叫做一相;其二指作余弦 (或正弦)变化的物理量,在某一时刻(或某一
位置)的状态可用一个数值来确定,这种数值叫做相值。比热 (specific heat)指的是单位质量
的物质温度每升高(或降低)1 度所吸收(或释放)的热量。自由能(free energy),热力学函
数之一。有两种含义。英国和美国的冶金及一部分化学书刊中指的是等温等压下作判据的吉
氏自由能 (Gibbs free energy),其定义为: ,式中 H 为焓,S 为熵,T 为绝对
温度。德国和法国等欧洲大陆国家称吉氏自由能为自由焓(free enthalpy),而苏联则称之为
等压位(或等压势)。 另一含义则为等温、等容下作判据的赫氏自由能 F(Helmholtz free
energy),其定义为: ,式中 U 为内能。德、法等国称赫氏自由能为自由能,而
英国和美国的冶金书刊则称之为功函或功含量,前苏联则称之为等容位(或等容势)。

例2
---Importance of attack helicopter gunships is increasing. (《翻译通讯》)
原译:载有攻击型直升飞机的炮舰其重要性与日俱增。
【分析】以上译文的错误在于“gunships”一词的翻译上。乍一看,gunships 译作“炮舰”
似乎不错,其实这是一种想当然的翻译。如果具有相关的文化背景知识,或者勤于查词典,
这种误译是可以避免的。gunship 是二十世纪六十年代出现的词语。美国在侵越战争初期大量
使用的直升飞机 UH-1 上加上机炮和火箭,改装成 AH-1 武装直升机,用来压制地面炮火,
对运输直升机等进行护航并在山区丛林追击游击队,gunship 一词从此流行开来。
如果不知道这一文化背景知识,只要查阅一下 Webster’s New Collehiate Dictionary ,我
们 也 能 找 到 gunship 的 词 义 : An armed helicopter used esp. for protecting troop transport
helicopter against groundfire。因此,gunship 应译为“武装直升机”。此例告诉我们,翻译决
不 能望 文生 义。 吕叔 湘先 生曾 殷殷 告诫 翻译 工作 者: NEVER TAKE ANYTHING FOR
GRANTED!(翻译决不能想当然!)。

例3
---There are some kinds of rays from the sun which would burn us to death if we were not

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protected from them. (《英语语法表解释》,p.148,上海译文出版社)
原译:太阳中有些光线射到我们身上会把我们烧死,如果我们不防备的话。
【分析】以上译文后半部分的意思令人费解:我们到底怎样防备才不致于被太阳烧死?事
实是,大家都没有防备,却从来没有发生过太阳把人烧死的情况。因此,译文有错。该误译
原因有二:其一是译者忽略了基本的科学常识;其二是没有把原文看清楚。地球物理学告
诉我们,地球周围厚达数百公里的大气层反射和吸收了太阳发出的高能射线,保护我们不
受其害。由此我们发现原作者没有把话说清楚,句末省略了 by the atmosphere,这也就是我
们所说的译者没有把原文看清楚。据此,原文似可译作:“如果我们不是受到(大气层的)保
护的话,来自太阳的某些种类的射线就会把我们烧死”。

例4
---A resistance coil is always wound so as to be inductionless, that is, the coil wound back on
itself so as to avoid magnetic effects and self-induction.
原译:线绕电阻总是绕成无感电组,就是说,线圈本身是反绕的,以便消除磁效应和自感。
(《科技英语结构分析与翻译》,季健编著,新时代出版社)
【分析】以上译文错误的原因是译者缺少相关科技背景知识以及没有把原文语言结构辨
识清楚而错误理解原文有关部分。从语言理解上讲,译文中的“线圈本身是反绕的”从语
法上看,是将 itself 看作 the coil 的同位语,而实际上 itself 是代替 coil 作介词 on 的宾语。从
科技知识看,电工理论告诉我们,线圈本身“顺绕”或“反绕”对线圈自感的大小没有影
响。原文中画线部分的意思是“沿着已绕好的线圈再反绕一遍”,这样,一个线绕电阻实
际上由圈数相同、绕向相反的两部分组成,自感相互抵消,对外界呈无感电阻特性。因此,
原文可译为:“线绕电阻总是绕成无感电阻,就是说,线圈要顺其本身再反绕回去,以消
除磁效应和自感”。
【术语链接】自感(self-induction),电路中因自身电流变化而引起感应电动势的现象。在
具有铁心的线圈中特别显著。如果在原线圈中通有电流,当电流发生变化时,不仅仅使附
近线圈产生感应电动势,而且原线圈本身也造成自感电动势,有时这种电动势也被称为反
电动势,因为它总是反抗本身电流的变化,这种现象在只有一个线圈的情况下,也是如此。

例5
---Why is the period of the pendulum independent of the size of the swing?
原译:为什么单摆的周期与摆的大小无关。(《科技英语结构分析与翻译》,季健编著,新时
代出版社)
L
【分析】以上译文与物理学中关于单摆周期的公式 T=2π( )相违背。公式告诉我们,
G

单摆的周期 T 与摆的长度 L 的平方根成正比,即摆越长,周期越长。由此可见,单摆周期


与摆的大小并不是无关的。因此,原文中的 swing 在这里不指“摆”,而是另有所指。根据
上下文,这里的 swing 指“摆动”,翻译时最好译为“摆动角度”,以避免歧解。据此,原
文可译为:“为什么单摆的周期与摆动角度的大小无关?”。

例6
---By removing and inserting these rods in an atomic reaction pile, the number of neutrons
causing fission reations is controlled.
原译:把这些金属棒取出并插入原子反应堆,就可以控制产生裂变反应时中子的数量。

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【分析】以上译文似乎告诉人们,控制裂变反应时中子数量的方法是将金属棒从什么地
方取出,然后插入反应堆。实际情况是,反应堆内插有能强烈吸引中子的物质制成的控制
棒,调节其插入深度就能改变堆内中子的数目,控制棒插入堆内越深,吸收中子越多,反
应速率越慢;而把棒从堆内抽出,吸收的中子数目减少,可使反应堆启动或使反应加快。
从语法上看, in an atomic reaction pile 同时修饰 removing 和 inserting 两个动作,因而控制
的方法应是根据需要把金属棒在反应堆里插进拔出。据此,原文可译为:“把这些金属棒
拉出或插入原子反应堆,就能控制产生裂变反应的中子数量”。
【术语链接】裂变反应(fission reaction) 指铀-235、钚-239、铀-233 等重元素在中子作用下
分裂为两个碎片,同时放出中子和大量能量的过程。反应中,可裂变物的原子核吸收一个
中子后发生裂变并放出两三个中子。若这些中子除去消耗,至少有一个中子能引起另一个
原子核裂变,使裂变自持地进行,则这种反应称为链式裂变反应。实现链式反应是核能发
电的前提。

例7
---The bright ring is 16,000 miles in width and its out edge is as luminous as the brightest parts of
the planet. It is separated from the outer ring by a 3,000-mile gap. (《天文专业英语文选》,商务
印书馆,南京大学公共英语教研室)
原译:土星亮环的宽度是 16,000 英里,它的外缘同该星最亮部分的亮度一样。土星和外环
相隔 3,000 英里。
【分析】如果译者具有相关背景知识,就会发现“土星和外环相隔 3,000 英里”的理解
和译法都是错误的。天文学常识告诉我们,土星环由里向外有三个环,即内环、亮环和外环。
亮环即 B 环,宽度为 16,000 英里,即著名的卡西尼空隙(Cassini Gap)。据此,说土星与外环
的距离为 3000 英里是不符合逻辑的,因为中间的亮环就有 16,000 英里。以上译文将 It 理解
成指代 the palnet,即土星,是错误的。这里的 It 应指前面提到的 the bright ring(亮环)。原文
似可译为:“土星亮环的宽度的 16,000 英里,它的外缘同该星最亮部分的亮度一样。该亮
环与外环相隔了 3,000 英里”。此例告诉我们,科学背景知道有助于译者消除词语歧义。

例8
---The objects inhabiting our universe range from the very familiar areas of the earth and its moon
to the stranger pulsars, neutron stars, and black holes on the fringes of our perception. (《英语世
界》)
原译:银河系的星体繁多,包括人们非常熟悉的地球及其卫星,以及陌生的脉冲星、中子
星,直至我们理解为边缘上的黑洞。
【分析】从科学上讲,黑洞是广义相对论所预言的一种暗天体。目前,黑洞仍然是一种
理论上的假说,常被作为晚期恒星的一种模型,或者作为类星体核心、星系核心的模型。将
黑洞说成是位于宇宙边缘上的星体目前尚无科学依据。以上译文“银河系”和“我们理解
为边缘上的黑洞”是错误的,应改为“我们的宇宙”和“处于我们认识边缘上的黑洞”。
【术语链接】黑洞(black hole)是传统的物理学上的概念,指的是一种天体,它的引力场
是如此之强,任何物质——从巨大的星体到星际尘埃等,一旦掉进去,就再不能逃出,就
连光也不能“幸免于难”。根据广义相对论,引力场会使时空弯曲。当恒星的体积很大时,
它的引力场对时空几乎没有什么影响,从恒星表面上某一点发的光可以朝任何方向沿直线
射出。而恒星的半径越小,它对周围的时空弯曲作用就越大,朝某些角度发出的光就将沿
弯曲空间返回恒星表面。当恒星的半径缩小到一特定值(天文学上叫“史瓦西半径”)时,
就连垂直表面发射的光都被捕获了。到这时,恒星就变成了黑洞。说它“黑”,是指它就像

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宇宙中的无底洞,任何物质一旦掉进去,“似乎”就再不能逃出。 当代英国著名科学家史
蒂芬·霍金在经过长时间的研究之后发现,一些被黑洞吞没的物质随着时间的推移,慢慢地
从黑洞中“流淌”出来,并认为黑洞在银河系的形成中起到了非常重要的关键性作用。这
种认为黑洞既“破坏”又“建设”的新观点在整个科学界引起了巨大的轰动。
从以上讨论可以看出,具备扎实的语言基本功和丰富的科技文化知识对科技翻译是多
么的重要。

4.4.7 割裂修饰现象及其翻译
科技英语的一个语法特点是大量地使用修饰语,特别是后置修饰语,来准确严谨地表
达复杂的科技信息。当几个后置修饰语同时修饰一个名词中心语时,必然有一个或几个修
饰语会与其被修饰对象割裂开来。有学者早就注意到了这种现象(黄凯,1987),也有学者把
这种现象称为“多枝共干”结构,并指出这是英译汉中的一个陷阱(邵启祥, 1992)。碰
到此种情况,首先要看清修饰关系,然后才能正确翻译。下面介绍科技英语中常见的修饰
语与被修饰语割裂的类型并探讨其翻译。
4.4.7.1 介词短语作定语的割裂修饰现象
1)当两个介词短语修饰同一个名词时,其中必然有一个要离开被修饰对象。例如:
---The movement of cold and warm air in this fashion is called a convection current.
冷空气与暖空气以这种方式运动称为对流。
[分析] of cold and warm air 与 in this fashion 两个介词短语同时修饰名词 movement。翻
译时,将名词化的动词 movement 还原成动词 move ,用第一个介词短语的宾语 cold and
warm air 做动词 move 的主语,用第二个介词短语做 move 的方式状语,从而将原文的主语
译成一个句子。
2)为使谓语紧靠主语,当修饰主语的介词短语比谓语长或长短相当时,则把该介词短语移
到谓语之后。例如:
---Very carful studies have been made of the relationship of the uranium rods and carbon in the
atomic-power reaction.
关于原子反应堆中铀棒和碳的关系已进行了认真的研究。
[分析]理解原文时,注意不要把 made of 看成是一个动词短语。实际上,介词短语 of the
relationship of the uranium rods and carbon 修饰主语 studies。只有这样理解才能准确地翻译原
文。
3)当介词短语和很短的定语从句修饰同一个名词时,常把该介词短语放在定语从句之后,
致使作定语的介词短语与被修饰对象隔离。例如:
---This is a tangent line we drew to the circle x2 + y2 = 25.
这是一条我们所画的圆 x2 + y2 = 25 的切线。
[分析]定语从句 we drew 和介词短语 to the circle 同时修饰 a tangent line,注意不要将 to
the circle 理解为定语从句的一部分。
4)有时,放在句子中间的介词短语、同位语和省略了成分的状语从句可能把作定语的介词短
语与其被修饰对象分开。例如:
---A gas has much less resistance, when compressed in a sealed container, to a change in volume
than a liquid.
在密封容器里受压时,气体对容积变化的阻力比液体要小得多。
[分析] 介词短语 to a change 作后置定语,修饰前面的名词 resistance ,它不是 when 所
引导的时间状语从句的一部分。
4.4.7.2 动词不定式作定语的割裂修饰现象

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1)当动词不定式短语和介词短语修饰同一个名词时,不定式短语置于介词短语之后。例如:
---Surface tension is the tendency of a liquid surface to contract and become as small as possible.
表面张力是液体表面尽可能缩小的趋势。
[ 分析 ] 将介词短语和不定式短语 of a liquid surface to contract and become as small as
possible 译为一个主谓结构“液体表面尽可能缩小”,作前置定语,修饰名词中心语
tendency。
2)当不定式短语很长时,应置于修饰同一名词的分词短语或从句 (它们比不定式短)之后,
从而造成割裂修饰现象。例如:
---To be brief, there is the task, more clearly defined than ever before, for scientists to apply the
results of pure science to the applied science to benefit the people.
简言之,科学家们面临着比以往任何时候都更为明确的任务,就是把理论科学的成果用于
应用科学以造福于人民。
[分析]划线部分的过去分词短语以及不定式短语同时修饰 task ,翻译时将过去分词短
语作为 task 的前置定语,而将不定式短语作为 task 的同位语。
3)当修饰主语的不定式短语很长、而句子的谓语(一般为不及物动词或被动语态)却很短时,
常把作定语的不定式置于谓语之后。例如:
---Problems then arise to find out at what pressure flooding tests must be done to prove the
watertightness to be qualified.
于是出现了这样的问题:在多大压力下做试验才能证实水密性是合格的。
[ 分析 ] 注意不要将不定式短语理解为目的状语。翻译时,可将该不定式短语译作
problems 的同位语。
4)当不定式所修饰的名词在谓语之后时,可把谓语的状语(可能较长)置于不定式之前。例如:
---Clearly, there is an inherent nature, when being made to roll in still water, for a ship to restore
its equilibrium position automatically after the external force vanishes.
很显然,当船在静水中被迫横摇时有一种固有的特性,即外力消失后它会自动地恢复其平
衡位置。
[分析]修饰谓语动词 is 的状语 when being made to roll in still water 放在了 nature 及其后
置 修 饰 语 for a ship to restore its equilibrium position automatically after the external force
vanishes 之间。翻译时,将时间状语从句移到主句前面,而将不定式译作同位语。
4.4.7.3 分词短语作定语的割裂修饰现象
1) 分词短语修饰句子的主语时,如果它比谓语长,就将该分词短语移到谓语之后。例如:
---Steel tubes are available both welded and seamless, the latter type being more concentric.
有缝钢管和无缝钢管都可使用,但后者同心度更好。
[分析]过去分词短语 both welded and seamless 作后置定语修饰 steel tubes。因其信息简短,
翻译时可将其译为前置定语。
2) 作定语的分词短语有时被修饰同一个名词的介词短语、形容词短语、定语从句等隔开。例
如:
---The properties that describe how a material reacts to mechanical usage, called the mechanical
propertues, are more often important to the engineer in selecting materials in connection with
design.
材料在力学上的性质称为机械性能。对于工程师选择设计材料来说,这些性能往往更为重
要。
[分析]作定语修饰名词 properties 的过去分词短语 called the mechanical properties 被 that
引导的定语从句隔开。翻译时,将原文的偏正结构译为一个句子。注意 a material reacts to

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mechanical usage 译为“材料在力学上的性质”,是意译法。
4.4.7.4 定语从句的割裂修饰现象
1)先行词带介词、分词短语、形容词短语、同位语等作后置定语时,定语从句被迫离开先行词。
例如:
---The forces acting on a given body which are exerted by other bodies are referred to as external
forces.
由别的物体作用于已知物体的力称为外力。
[分析]通过语法手段可以确定 which 引导的定语从句不是修饰紧邻的 body,而是修饰
forces,因为其动词谓语为复数形式。翻译时,可将 forces 的两个后置定语译作前置定语。
2)当主语的谓语很短时,为使谓语紧接在主语之后,修饰主语的定语从句被迫离开先行词。
例如:
---A body is in stress when forces are applied to it which cause its size and shape to change.
当作用于物体上的力使该物体的大小和形状发生变化时,它就处于受力状态。
[分析] 通过语法手段可以确定 which 引导的定语从句修饰 forces,因为其谓语动词为复
数形式。翻译时,原文后半部分的结构必须打破重组。

第五节 翻译资源及其利用

科技英语翻译需要运用词典、百科全书、网站等翻译资源。我们在科技英语阅读部分就
此已经作了简单介绍。现在有不少翻译软件,包括一些自动机器翻译系统,如欧盟的
Systran 和 Altavista 公司的 Babelfish,可以进行多种语言的互译,但译文质量很差,除了一
些格式固定的文件如网站本地化可以借助机器翻译系统外,一般科技文献的翻译还是要依
靠人工翻译。
译 者要 充分 利用 互联 网资 源。 碰到 词典 或百 科全 书查 不到 的词 语, 可将 其输 入
GOOGLE 或百度引擎查询,可在所输入词语前后添加“翻译”、“译”、“汉译”、“英译
”等参数。对搜索结果要多方求证,因为网上有很多垃圾信息。求证方法是看信息源是否可
靠,搜索结果是否完全一样。对于不同的搜索结果,可采用定量和定性分析法确定正确的
答案。搜索同一结果项数最多的,可靠性越大,此为定量分析;搜索结果信息源权威性愈
高,答案正确性愈高,此为定性分析。

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第二编

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科技 英语的 读、写 、译实 践

Unit 1
Healthy Germs
By Christine Gorman

[1]Say the word bacteria, and most folks conjure up images of a nasty germ like
staphylococcus[1] or salmonella[2] that can make you really sick. But most bacteria aren’t bad for
you. In fact, consuming extra amounts of some bacteria can actually promote good health. These
beneficial bacteria are available without a prescription in drug and health-food stores and in foods
like yogurt[3]. So far, the best results have been seen in the treatment of diarrhea[4], particularly in
children. But researchers are also looking into the possibility that beneficial bacteria may thwart
vaginal[5] infections in women, prevent some food allergies in children and lessen symptoms of
Crohn’s disease[6], a relatively rare but painful gastrointestinal[7] disorder.
[2]So where have these good germs been lurking all your life? In your intestines[8], especially
the lower section called the colon[9], which harbors at least 400 species of bacteria. Which ones
you have depended largely on your environment and diet. An abundance of good bacteria in the
colon generally crowds out stray[10] bad bacteria in your food. But if the bad outnumber the good –
for example, after antibiotic treatment for a sinus[11] or an infection, which kills normal intestinal
germs as well – the result can be diarrhea.
[3]For generations, people have restored the balance by eating yogurt, butter-milk or other

100
products made from fermented milk. But nowadays, you can also swallow down a few pills that
contain freeze-dried germs. These preparations[12] are called probiotics to distinguish them from
antibiotics. Unfortunately, you can’t always be sure that the bacteria in the products you buy are
the same strains[13] as those listed on the label or even that they’re still alive. Probiotics are usually
sensitive to both heat and moisture.
[4]Among the most promising and most thoroughly researched probiotics is the GG strain of
Lactobacillus[14], discovered by Dr. Sherwood Gorbach and biochemist Barry Goldin, both at Tufts
Univeristy School of Medicine, L-GG, as it’s called, has been used to treat traveler’s diarrhea and
intestinal upsets caused by antibiotics. Even more intriguing, L-GG also seems to work against
some viruses, including rotavirus[15], one of the most common causes of diarrhea in children in the
U.S. and around the world. Here the effect is indirect. Somehow L-GG jump-starts[16] the immune
system into recognizing the threat posed by the virus.
[5]Pediatricians at John Hopkins are studying a different bug[17], the Bb-12 strain of
Bifidobacterium[18], which was discovered by researchers at CHR Hansen Biosystems. Like L-GG,
Bb-12 stimulates the immune system. For reasons that are not clear, infants who are breast-fed
have large amounts of bifidobacteria in their intestines. They also have fewer intestinal upsets. Dr.
Jose Saavedra and colleagues at Hopkins have shown that Bb-12 prevents several types of
diarrhea, including that caused by rotavirus, in hospitalized infants as young as four months. It has
also been used to cure diarrhea in children of all ages.
【注释】
[1]staphylococcus(复 staphylococci):葡萄球菌
[2]salmonella:沙门氏菌
[3]yogurt:酸乳酪;酸奶
[4]diarrhea:腹泻
[5]vaginal:阴道的
[6]Crohn’s disease:克罗恩氏病;节段性回肠炎
[7]gastrointestinal :胃肠的
[8]intestine:肠
[9]colon:结肠
[10]stray:离群的;零落的
[11]sinus:脓液流出的管道;窦
[12]preparation:制剂;制备
[13]strain:菌株
[14]Lactobacillus:乳(酸)杆菌
[15]rotavirus:轮状病毒
[16]jump-start:助推
[17]bug:病菌
[18]Bifidobacterium:双歧杆菌

Exercises

I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1)What is the author’s attitude toward bacteria according to the text?

101
2)What examples are given in the text to show the benefits of bacteria?
3)Where is the colon in the human body?
4)How may diarrhea take place according to paragraph 2?
5)Use the word-formation knowledge to figure out the meaning of the words “probiotics” and
“antibiotics”.
6)What does L-GG in paragraph 4 refer to?
7)Who discovered the Bb-12 strain of Bifidobacterium?
8)Why do children have fewer intestinal upsets?
9)How do we look at germs in our daily life?
2. Paraphrase
1) These beneficial bacteria are available without a prescription in drug and health-food stores and
in foods like yogurt.
2) Somehow L-GG jump-starts the immune system into recognizing the threat posed by the virus.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
staphylococcus, diarrhea, Crohn’s disease, intestine, colon, sinus, preparation, probiotics,
antibiotics, strain, Lactobacillus, rotavirus, Bifidobacterium
2. Describe the major features of salmonella.
3. Write a 300-word composition entitled “The Germs I Know in Our Daily Life ”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
staphylococcus, Crohn’s disease, gastrointestinal disorder, the GG strain of lactobacillus, jump-
start, , John Hopkins, CHR Hansen Biosystems, hospitalized infants
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) But researchers are also looking into the possibility that beneficial bacteria may thwart vaginal
infections in women, prevent some food allergies in children and lessen symptoms of Crohn’s
disease, a relatively rare but painful gastrointestinal disorder.
2) An abundance of good bacteria in the colon generally crowds out stray bad bacteria in your
food.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 3 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for the germ warfare launched by the Japanese invaders in
northeastern China in the Second World War.

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

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small credit immediate germ mask
identify invade prove suitable air

In medicine, the germ theory refers to the theory that certain diseases are caused by the
______ of the body by microorganisms, organisms too ______ to be seen except through a
microscope. The French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur, the English surgeon Joseph
Lister, and the German physician Robert Koch are given much of the ______ for development and
acceptance of the theory. In the mid-19th century Pasteur showed that fermentation( 发 酵 ) and
putrefaction( 腐 烂 ) are caused by organisms in the ______; in the 1860s Lister revolutionized
surgical practice by utilizing carbolic acid (phenol) to exclude atmospheric ______ and thus
prevent putrefaction in compound fractures of bones; and in the 1880s Koch ______ the
organisms that cause tuberculosis(肺结核) and cholera(霍乱).
Although the germ theory has long been considered ______, its full implications for medical
practice were not ______ apparent; bloodstained frock coats were considered ______ operating-
room attire even in the late 1870s, and surgeons operated without ______ or head coverings as
late as the 1890s.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
The biological warfare, _[1]_ called the germ warfare, means the military use of _[2]_, such
as bacteria and viruses, on humans, animals, or plants and the means for combating such agents.
Though direct use of biological warfare _[3]_ enemy personnel is very old, it has acquired a
stigma in modern times, and _[4]_ country has admitted employing it. In 1972 a treaty was signed
by more than 70 countries prohibiting the production, stockpiling, or development of biological
weapons and requiring destruction of existing stockpiles. _[5]_, reports, rarely substantiated,
persist, alleging such development or, occasionally, disastrous accidents growing out of such
experimentation. One of the grounds for opposition is the _[6]_ of an agent getting out of control,
as is said to have happened in the most celebrated recorded _[7]_ of biological warfare.
In the siege of Caffa (now Feodosiya, Ukraine) in the Crimea in 1347, the Mongols hurled
bodies of plague victims over the walls of the Genoese defenders. Genoese ships carried the
bacillus( 细 菌 ) to Europe, loosing the massive epidemic known as the Black Death. Many later
_[8]_ were made to spread infection among enemy armies or populations, but rarely with much
success.
In World War I the Germans infected Romanian cavalry horses, as well as livestock in the
United States destined for shipment to the Allies, with glanders( 鼻疽病), a lesion-producing(身体
疮口所产生的) bacterial disease. _[9]_ of germ warfare were made by the Chinese against United
Nations forces in the Korean War of 1950-53, but no substantiation was offered. So _[10]_ as is
known, no nation has used germs successfully against the personnel of another in the 20th
century.
[1] and also yet like
[2]disease-produced disease-producer disease-producing disease-production
[3]for against with on

103
[4]no any neither none
[5]Moreover Likewise Instead Nevertheless
[6]rate possibility potentiality hope
[7]thing case condition situation
[8]attacks efforts attempts intentions
[9]Suits Charges Blames Criticisms
[10]long early far well

Unit 2
Common Herb Can Help Fight Cancer
By Barbara Moses

[1]When you’re stopping to smell the roses, you might give a nod of appreciation to the
ground cover[1] growing beside them. The leaves of American Mayapple[2], a common herb that
grows from Florida to Michigan, could replace a nearly extinct Asian plant in supplying a
compound used in manufacturing a drug aimed at lung and testicular[3] cancer, researchers say.
[2]By a simple process, the scientists extract from the leaves of the plant a compound called
podophyllotoxin[4], which is used in the cancer drug etoposide. The main source of the compound
to date has been from the root stem of an Asian plant similar to the Mayapple, but taking it kills
the plant and has resulted in its near extinction. By using the leaves, it’s not necessary to kill the
plant.
[3]“The best thing that’s going to happen is that the Indian species will not become extinct
because there is another supply, and it is renewable,” says Camilo Canel, a molecular biologist
with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which sponsored the work in collaboration with the
University of Mississippi. “We are not killing the plant, just using the leaves.”
[4]The scientists already have a patent for the extraction process, which Canel describes as a

104
simple procedure involving grinding the leaves of the plants, drying them and then mixing them
with water for 15 to 30 minutes. Now they’re talking to a number of pharmaceutical [5] companies
about how to get the compound ready for therapeutic [6] use, but as yet they have “no firm
commitment from any company,” Canel says.
[5]The American Mayapple consists of a single shoot that grows about a foot tall and has one
large leaf that looks like a small umbrella. It long has been known to have medicinal benefits, says
Erica Kipp, manager and Phytochemist[7] at the New York Botanical[8] Garden’s plant research lab.
North American Indians used the rhizome[9], or root stem, and ripe fruit of the plant to treat warts
and testicular cancer, she says, so “it is not something surprising that the leaves would have anti-
cancer potential.” “This sounds wonderful, but it’s in baby stages at this point,” Kipp says. “When
it is in clinical trials and picked up by a pharmaceutical company, it becomes more promising.”
[6]Etoposide, the drug that’s manufactured using podophyllotoxin, the compound made from
the Mayapple, is often combined with other drugs to treat variety of cancers, including lung,
testicular, prostate[10], stomach and eye, according to the American Cancer Society. Studies have
shown it inhibits the activity of an enzyme[11] essential for the replication of cancer cells, thus
preventing their spread.
[7]Its use may be on the wane[12], however, at least for lung cancer, according to New York
oncologist[13] Abraham Chachoua. In the last five years, he says, other drugs – such as Taxol –
have proved more effective against the most common type of living cancer. “Etoposide has lost its
domination in lung cancer treatment,” Chachoua says. He uses it now only to treat small cell lung
cancer, a less common type of the disease, he says.
【注释】
[1]ground cover:地被类小植物
[2]American mayapple:美国鬼臼果
[3]testicular:睾丸的
[4]podophyllotoxin:鬼臼素
[5]pharmaceutical:制药的
[6]therapeutic:治疗的
[7]phytochemist:植物化学家
[8]botanical:植物的
[9]rhizome:根茎
[10]prostate:前列腺(的)
[11]enzyme:酶
[12]on the wane:逐渐衰落
[13]oncologist:肿瘤学家

Exercises

I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1)What is the herb mentioned in the text which can be used to manufacture a kind of anti-cancer
drug?
2)What is the compound extracted from the leaves of the herb?
3)What is the name of the cancer drug?

105
4)What does “it” refer to in “taking it kills the plant” in paragraph 2?
5)Why does the Asian plant, which has been the main source of the compound used in the cancer
drug, almost become extinct? Where does the plant grow in Asia?
6)Give a description of the American Mayapple.
7)Figure out the meaning of the prefix “phyto-” in the word “phytochemist” and find out at least
two more technical prefixes and their meaning in the text.
8)What kind of word-building device is employed in the production of the word “lab” ?Can you
give a few words of this kind in EST?
9)What kinds of cancers can be treated by the compound of the Mayapple which is often
combined with other drugs?
10)Apposition is a very important feature in EST. Collect all the appositives employed in the text.
11)Even today cancer is incurable for Western medicine. What can traditional Chinese medicine
do in the treatment of cancers?
2. Paraphrase
1) When you’re stopping to smell the roses, you might give a nod of appreciation to the ground
cover growing beside them.
2) Now they’re talking to a number of pharmaceutical companies about how to get the compound
ready for therapeutic use, but as yet they have “no firm commitment from any company,” Canel
says.
3) Its use may be on the wane, however, at least for lung cancer, according to New York
oncologist Abraham Chachoua.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
Mayapple, testicular cancer, compound, phytochemist, rhizome, wart, prostate, enzyme
2. Describe how cocaine is produced.
3. Write a 800-word thesis entitled “Acupuncture: Energy or Nerves?”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
Mayapple, Michigan, testicular cancer, podophyllotoxin, Camilo Canel, anti-cancer potential,
cancer cells, oncologist, etoposide
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) The main source of the compound to date has been from the root stem of an Asian plant similar
to the Mayapple, but taking it kills the plant and has resulted in its near extinction.
2) Its use may be on the wane, however, at least for lung cancer, according to New York
oncologist Abraham Chachoua.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraphs 4 and 5 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for the meaning of the word “Mississippi” which was borrowed into

106
English from one of the American Indian languages

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper preposition.

Mayapple, also called Mayflower, ______ Mandrake (Podophyllum peltatum), is a type of


perennial herbaceous( 多年生草本的 ) plant of the family Podophyllaceae (order Ranunculales)
native ______ eastern North America, most commonly in shady areas ______ moist, rich soil.
Its plant is 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 inches) tall. Its dark green, umbrella-like leaves, nearly 30
cm across, have five ______ seven lobes. The cup-shaped flower, with six to nine white petals, is
2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 inches) across and appears from April to June. The fruit is an edible yellow
berry that is sometimes used in jams or beverages. The dried rhizomes (fleshy underground stems)
are sometimes used medicinally ______ a purgative( 泻 药 ). The plant is a coarse but attractive
specimen ______ the shady wild garden.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
Cancers are classified by the type of tissue in _[1]_ they arise and the cell type that
constitutes the tumour. This system of classification recognizes in humans more than 150 types of
cancer with different behaviours.
The organs of the body consist of a _[2]_ of tissues, including those that line their inner
surfaces (epithelia) and those that render structural support and contain their blood supply (the
connective tissues). Tumours of a given type of tissue differ _[3]_ those of the normal tissues in
that and other organs but may closely resemble tumours of similar tissue in other regions of the
body.
Classification of cancers according to the tissue from which they evolve is _[4]_ two major
types: carcinoma( 癌 科 ) and sarcoma( 毒 瘤 ). Carcinoma, the larger category, refers to _[5]_ of
epithelial( 上 皮 的 ) tissues, which cover the external body (the skin) and line the inner cavitary
structures of organs such as the breast; the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts( 胃 肠 区 ); the
endocrine glands, such as the pituitary( 垂体 ), thyroid( 甲状腺 ), and adrenals( 肾上腺 ); and the
genitourinary system(泌尿系统), which includes the prostate( 前列腺), testes( 睾丸), ovaries(卵
巢) , fallopian tubes( 输卵管 ), uterus (子宫) , kidneys, and urinary bladder. Sarcoma _[6]_ to
cancers of the various elements that constitute the connective tissues, such as fibrous tissues,
muscle, blood vessels, bone, and cartilage( 软骨 ). _[7]_, a cancer is composed of both epithelial
and connective tissue simultaneously and is referred to as carcinosarcoma.
Leukemias( 白 血 病 ), lymphomas, and other cancers of the blood-forming tissues are
classified separately, although strictly speaking they can be regarded as a _[8]_ of cancers of the
connective tissues. Tumours of nerve tissues, including the brain, and melanoma, a cancer of the
pigmented cells of the skin, are also classified _[10]_. A carcinoma of the intestine has more in
common with a carcinoma of the stomach, lung, or breast than with a sarcoma of lymphoid cells
of the intestine. It is on the tissue and cells of origin, not the organ of origin, that the peculiar and
characteristic properties of a tumour more usually depend.
[1]that what which where

107
[2]variation variety variant varying
[3]from against with for
[4]of by with for
[5]tissues diseases tumours cancers
[6]refers prefers goes relates
[7]Rarely Commonly Relatively Usually
[8]set subset setting setup
[9]strictly clearly roughly separately

Unit 3
Alternative Energy Sources Gain Worldwide
By Dan Johnson

[1]The use of solar and wind power is now increasing rapidly, raising hope that such
alternative energy technologies can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and generate
new jobs.
[2]The global wind power industry, for example, has become a $ 2-billion-a-year business,
expanding at a rate of 25% per year. India, China, and a dozen European nations have installed
thousands of wind turbines[1] that generate electricity at a cost comparable to new coal-fired power
plants. In the 1990s, Germany has created 10,000 new jobs in its wind industry. Wind power now
provides less than 1% of the world’s total electricity, but that figure could climb to 20% or more
within 50 years, according to Worldwatch Institute researchers.
[3]Solar power is the second fastest growing energy source today. The cost of buying a
kilowatt worth of solar photovoltaic cells[2] dropped from $ 70,000 in the 1970s to $ 4,000 in
1997, and in 10 years it could go as low as $ 1,000. Approximately 400,000 homes – many in
remote areas not connected by power lines – already use solar power. Worldwatch studies suggest
that covering the rooftops of existing buildings with solar cells could meet more than half of the
electricity needs each year.

108
[4]“During the past few years a host of promising new technologies have moved quietly but
decisively from experimental curiosity to commercial reality,” write Worldwatch Institute energy
analysts Christopher Flavin and Seth Dunn in their report, Rising Sun, Gathering Winds: Policies
to Stabilize the Climate and Strengthen Economics. Advances in electronics, biotechnology, and
the use of synthetic materials could soon lead to cleaner and more efficient ways to generate
energy.
[5]A new generation of lightweight hybrid[3] electric vehicles could exceed 100 miles per
gallon by utilizing a combination of fuel cells, and small piston engines[4], turbine generators, and
highly efficient electric motors. Similar technologies using micro-turbines and fuel cells could
generate electricity and heat for commercial buildings and private homes while producing just
10% to 20% of the emissions from today’s power plants. Micro-power plants located in buildings
are extremely efficient; 90% of the fuel they use can be turned into electricity, usable space heat,
and heat for warming water.
[6]Government incentives[5] in Japan have led to plans by housing companies to build 70,000
homes with silicon roofing tiles[6] capable of generating enough electricity to meet most of the
residents’ needs. Similar programs are under way in the United States and Europe.
[7]India has become the fourth-leading user of wind power by offering tempting investment
tax credits and a guaranteed purchase price for wind-generated electricity. A government agency
focusing on renewable energy provides loans and grants to further stimulate development.
[8]Since 1989 the Dutch government has reached 28 separate long-term agreements with
1,000 companies that represent 90% of the country’s industrial energy use. The government
negotiates efficiency targets with each industry group, from giant paper and chemical companies
to small businesses such as laundries. The agreements call for an average 20% efficiency
improvement by 2000. Two-thirds of the agreements have resulted in an average 9% efficiency
gain from 1989 levels.
[9]”The countries that have achieved the most progress are the ones that have done many
small things right – forging an integrated package of mutually supportive policies that bring
market forces to bear to solve the climate problem,” write Flavin and Dunn.

【注释】
[1]turbine:涡轮
[2]solar photovoltaic cell:太阳能光电池
[3]hybrid:混合的,杂种的
[4]piston engine:活塞发动机
[5]incentive:鼓励,刺激(措施)
[6]silicon roofing tile:硅瓦

Exercises

I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1)Which countries in Asia are mentioned in the text which have made relatively full use of wind
power to generate electricity?
2)What is the prospect of the wind power industry in the world’s electricity supply?

109
3)What does “solar power” mean in the text?
4)What is the percentage solar power can enjoy in the world’s electricity needs?
5)What does “hybrid electric vehicles” mean in paragraph 5?
6)What are many Japanese homes equipped with so as to generate enough electricity?
7)What measures have been taken in India in order to develop wind power?
8)Give three examples in our daily life to show the extensive use of alternative energy.
2. Paraphrase
1) “During the past few years a host of promising new technologies have moved quietly but
decisively from experimental curiosity to commercial reality,” write Worldwatch Institute energy
analysts Christopher Flavin and Seth Dunn in their report, Rising Sun, Gathering Winds: Policies
to Stabilize the Climate and Strengthen Economics.
2) Similar technologies using micro-turbines and fuel cells could generate electricity and heat for
commercial buildings and private homes while producing just 10% to 20% of the emissions from
today’s power plants.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
alternative energy, greenhouse gas, photovoltaic cell, biotechnology, synthetic material, turbine
2. Describe the law of conservation of energy.
3. Write a 400-word article entitled “How We Conserve Energy”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
alternative energy, turbine, Worldwatch Institute, solar cells, lightweight hybrid electric vehicles,
micro-power plant, silicon roofing tiles, investment tax credits
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) “During the past few years a host of promising new technologies have moved quietly but
decisively from experimental curiosity to commercial reality,” write Worldwatch Institute energy
analysts Christopher Flavin and Seth Dunn in their report, Rising Sun, Gathering Winds: Policies
to Stabilize the Climate and Strengthen Economics.
2) ”The countries that have achieved the most progress are the ones that have done many small
things right – forging an integrated package of mutually supportive policies that bring market
forces to bear to solve the climate problem,” write Flavin and Dunn.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 6 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for the information on the use of alternative energy in the world in
2006.

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper connective given in the following box.

110
moreover hence for example similarly for instance

In physics, energy is defined as the capacity for doing work. It may exist in potential, kinetic,
thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear, or other various forms. There are, _[1]_, heat and work--i.e.,
energy in the process of transfer from one body to another. After it has been transferred, energy is
always designated according to its nature. _[2]_, heat transferred may become thermal energy,
while work done may manifest itself in the form of mechanical energy.
All forms of energy are associated with motion. _[3]_, any given body has kinetic energy if it
is in motion. A tensioned device such as a bow or spring, though at rest, has the potential for
creating motion; it contains potential energy because of its configuration. _[4]_, nuclear energy is
potential energy because it results from the configuration of subatomic particles in the nucleus of
an atom.
Energy can be converted from one form to another in various ways. Usable mechanical or
electrical energy is, _[5]_for instance, produced by many kinds of devices, including fuel-burning
heat engines, generators, batteries, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamic systems.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
The long-term trend toward increased use of alternative energy sources continued in 1998,
although it appeared that low prices for fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas might _[1]_ some
solar and wind power projects. The latest annual report from the Worldwatch Institute in
Washington, D.C., noted that capacity for _[2]_ wind power and shipments of solar cells were
growing at high rates throughout the world. Worldwatch estimated that in 1997 global wind power
generating capacity grew by 25%, reaching 7,630 MW, compared _[3]_ just 10 MW in 1980.
Shipments of solar cells rose 43% in 1997 to 126 MW. The growth in both areas was, _[4]_, from
a small base. The Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA) estimated that _[5]_ energy
(excluding hydroelectric power) accounted _[6]_ only about 4% of the energy needs of its
members, the world's industrialized countries. Renewable energy sources, mainly in the forms of
hydroelectricity and biomass( 生 物 数 量 ), such as firewood, agricultural by-products, animal
waste, and charcoal, in 1997 supplied between 15%-20% of the world's energy demand, according
to the IEA. The speed with _[7]_ renewable sources could grow depended in large part _[8]_
government policies and technological progress. In many countries conventional fuels were
subsidized, and governments offered insufficient financial _[9]_ for companies or individuals to
convert to renewable sources. As the IEA pointed out, "to achieve the substantial role expected of
renewables in the future, enthusiasm needs to be harnessed _[10]_ specific action."
[1]undertake underlie underline undermine
[2]making producing generating creating
[3]with to against from
[4]anyhow however also yet
[5]renewed renewing renew renewable
[6]about of for on
[7]which that it what

111
[8]for from on of
[9]incentives actions measures policies
[10]into to for from

Unit 4
Quantum[1] Clockwork

[1]Suppose you lived in a world where you could make a car run uphill by shoving it gently
back and forth, or send a pool ball straight into the pocket of your choice just by shaking the table.
[2]Such a world wouldn’t seem odd to a small band of researchers in an area that is new even
by the standards of frontier[2] physics. The days will soon be over, they believe, when electrons
rolled predictably downhill, away from the negative terminal in any circuit. They have discovered
how to make electrons move around without any directed[3] voltage.
[3]This is the new science of the quantum ratchet[4]. With an oscillating or randomly varying
signal, you can produce useful, directable motion from what seems like chaos. “You can make
electrons go round in circles, or up or down, you can make them run uphill. We can do everything
with electrons that we do with cars and buses in a city – it’s almost like a child’s game,” enthuses
one of the leading players in the field, Peter Hanggi of Augsburg university in Germany.
[4]By making electrons leap from one electrical component to another, we could build
electronics without connecting wires. And single electrons shunted around at will could be used to
store quantum information, and specially designed compartments could form the logic gates[5] of a
generation of quantum computers. As a bonus, quantum ratchets might even help us understand
how our muscles turn unfocused chemical energy into directed motion.

112
[5]Any ratchet produces motion in one direction from a cyclical force. For example, twisting
a ratchet screwdriver back and forth drives a screw relentlessly inwards. This relies on a ring of
lopsided[6] ratchet teeth: twisting one way drags a sprung peg[7] over the shallow side of each
tooth, but twisting in the other direction brings the peg up against the steep side of a tooth,
pushing the whole ratchet around. Ratchets appear in bicycle transmissions, turnstiles [8] and the
escapements of pendulum clocks, which turn the pendulum’s swing into the one-way motion of
the hands.
[6]Then Hanggi and Reimann discovered that quantum theory can turn things upside down –
or rather, back to front. At low temperatures, when the electrons sit near the bottom of each
trough[9], they can’t get over either wall. Classical physics says they should be permanently
trapped.
[7]But according to quantum theory, they can sneak out. Because an electron is a probability
wave[10], without a well–defined position, it can never be entirely contained by the walls of the
potential. So electrons have a small probability of finding themselves on the other side of a
barrier, leaking through in a process called tunneling[11].
[8]Electrons can tunnel in both directions through the ratchet. But tunneling is much more
probable through a thin barrier than a thick one.
[9]Again, there is net electron movement, but on the other half of the voltage cycle, and in
the other direction,
[10]That’s the theory. Heiner Linke of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, and his
colleagues from Lund University in Sweden, confirmed it.
[11]But electronics isn’t the only game in town. Linke points out that as electrons carry heat,
quantum ratchets could be used as heat pumps, perhaps for cooling single microscopic
components on a chip.
[12] Quantum ratchets might even help researchers understand molecular motors. These tiny
engines are biology’s ratchets. They take the directionless energy released in a chemical reaction,
and somehow[12] produce motion in one direction. Our muscles are huge arrays of molecular
motors working in concert[13]. Although it seems very unlikely that muscles really are quantum
ratchets, they may have quantum effects operating within them.
[13]Haggi points out that we are now building ratchets of every size from just a few
micrometres to the human scale. Ratchets that work in the quantum world could soon be used in
electronics. Biologists are developing narrow sawtooth channels to separate DNA fragments of
different weight.

【注释】
[1]quantum:[物理学]量子
[2]frontier:边缘的;探索
[3]directed:有向的;定向的
[4]ratchet:[机械学]棘轮;棘爪
[5]logic gate:[计算机]逻辑门
[6]lopsided:向一侧倾斜的;不对称的
[7]sprung peg:挂栓;悬挂销钉
[8]turnstile:[只许向同一个方向逐个通过的]旋转门
[9]trough:槽;槽谷;低谷

113
[10]probability wave:概率波
[11]tunnelling:隧道效应
[12]somehow:以某种方式;用某种方法;从某种角度
[13]in concert:协调一致地工作

Exercises

I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1)In what game is a pool ball used/
2)What is the science of the quantum ratchet according to the text?
3)What word-formation device is employed in the production of the word “enthuse” in paragraph
3?
4)What is the main idea of paragraph 4?
5)How does a ratchet produce motion? Give one example to explain it.
6)What is the difference between classical physics and quantum theory concerning the movement
of electrons?
7)What does “the theory” refer to in paragraph 10?
8)How can we understand the concept of “ratchet” according to the text?
2. Paraphrase
1) The days will soon be over, they believe, when electrons rolled predictably downhill, away
from the negative terminal in any circuit.
2) And single electrons shunted around at will could be used to store quantum information, and
specially designed compartments could form the logic gates of a generation of quantum
computers.
3) Our muscles are huge arrays of molecular motors working in concert.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
voltage, quantum, ratchet, probability wave, tunneling, chip, micrometer, DNA
2. Describe how the quantum field works.
3. Write a 300-word composition entitled “The History of Quantum Physics”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
quantum ratchet, logic gates, sprung peg, bicycle transmission, probability wave, University of
New South Wales, heat pump
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) With an oscillating or randomly varying signal, you can produce useful, directable motion from
what seems like chaos.
2) This relies on a ring of lopsided ratchet teeth: twisting one way drags a sprung peg over the
shallow side of each tooth, but twisting in the other direction brings the peg up against the steep

114
side of a tooth, pushing the whole ratchet around.
3) But electronics isn’t the only game in town.
4. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraphs 12 and 13 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the
transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for the information about “logic gate”, “quantum theory” and
“molecular motor”.

V. Gap-filling
1. The following are a set of instructions for a simple experiment. Fill in each blank with a proper
verb given in the following box.

measure move note replace measure


adjust suspend note attach pivot

1. ________ a metre stick at its centre point O so that it balances.


2. ________ a cord to a 1kg mass and suspend it from a point P on the side OX.
3. ________ what happens (The metre stick turns in an anticlockwise direction.).
4. ________ a second mass of 1 kg mass from a point on the side OY.
5. ________ the distance between O and the mass until the stick remains in a horizontal position.
6. ________ the distance between O and the second mass.
7. ________ the second 1kg mass with a 0.5 kg mass.
8. ________ what happens (The metre stick turns anticlockwise.).
9. ________ the 0.5 kg mass along OY until the stick again balances.
10. ________ the distance between O and point S where the 0.5 kg mass is suspended.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
What is quantum? In physics quantum is a discrete natural unit, or packet, of energy, charge,
angular momentum, _[1]_ other physical property. Light, for example, appearing in some _[2]_ as
a continuous electromagnetic wave, on the submicroscopic level is emitted and absorbed in
discrete amounts, or quanta; and for light of a given wavelength, the magnitude of all the quanta
_[3]_ or absorbed is the same in both energy and momentum. These particle-like packets of light
are called photons, a term also applicable _[4]_ quanta of other forms of electromagnetic energy
such as X rays and gamma rays. Submicroscopic mechanical vibrations in the layers of atoms
comprising crystals also give up or take on energy and momentum in quanta _[5]_ phonons.
All phenomena in submicroscopic systems (the realm of quantum mechanics) exhibit
quantization: _[6]_ quantities are restricted _[7]_ a natural set of discrete values. When the values
are multiples of a constant least amount, that amount is referred to _[8]_ a quantum of the
observable. _[9]_ Planck's constant h is the quantum of action, _[10]_ (i.e., h/2) is the quantum of

115
angular momentum, or spin.
[1]and also or like
[2]cases conditions places respects
[3]provided emitted reached given
[4]for on to toward
[5]named labeled known called
[6]observed observing observable observation
[7]by to onto of
[8]as with like in
[9]And Thus Yet Moreover
[10]or but also and

Unit 5
The :Long Road to Calculus
By Steiman K. Stein

[1]The origins of calculus go back over 2,000 years to the work of the Greeks on areas and
tangents. Archimedes[1] (287-212 B.C.) found the area of a section of a parabola, an
accomplishment that amounts in our terms to evaluating ∫0b x2 dx. He also found the area of an
ellipse and both the surface area and the volume of a sphere. Apollomius [2] (around 260-200 B.C.)
wrote about tangents to ellipses, parabola, and hyperbolas, and Archimedes discussed the tangents
to a certain spiral-shaped curve. Little did they suspect that the “area” and “tangent” problems
were to converge many centuries later.
[2]With the collapse of the Greek world, symbolized by the Emperor Justinian’s[3] closing in
A.D. 529 of Plato’s Academy[4], which had survived for a thousand years, it was the Arab world
that preserved the works of Greek mathematicians. In its liberal atmosphere, Arab, Christian, and
Jewish scholars worked together, translating and commenting on the old writings, occasionally
adding their own embellishments. For instance, Alhazen (A.D. 965 -1039) computed volumes of
certain solids, in essence evaluating ∫0b x3 dx and ∫0b x4 dx.
[3]It was not until the seventeenth century that several ideas came together to form calculus.

116
In 1637, both Descartes[5] (1596-1650) and Fermat[6] (1601-1665) introduced analytic geometry.
Descartes examined a given curve with the aid of algebra, while Fermat took the opposite track,
exploring the geometry hidden in a given equation. For instance, Fermat showed that the graph of
ax2 + bxy + cy2 + dx + ey + f = 0 is always an ellipse, hyperbola, parabola, or one of their
degenerate forms.
[4]In this same period, Cavalieri[7] (1598-1647) found the area under the curve y = xn for n =
1,2,3…,9 by a method the length of whose computations grew rapidly as the exponent increased.
Stopping at n = 9, he conjectured that the pattern would continue for larger exponents. In the next
20 years, several mathematicians justified his guess. So, even the calculation of the area under y =
xn for a positive integer n, which we take for granted, represented a hard-won triumph.
[5]”What about the other exponents?” we may wonder. Before 1665 there were no other
exponents. Nevertheless, it was possible to work with the function which we denote y = x p/q for
positive integers p and q by describing it as the function y such that yn = xn. Wallis[8] (161-1703)
found the area under this curve by a method that smacks more of[9] magic than of mathematics.
However, Fermat obtained the same result with the aid of an infinite geometric series.
[6]The problem of determining tangents to curves was also in vogue in the first half of the
seventeenth century. Descartes showed how to find a line perpendicular to[10] a curve at a point P
(by constructing a circle that meets the curve only at P); the tangent was then the line through P
perpendicular to that line. Fermat found tangents in a way similar to ours and applied it to
maximum-minimum problems.
[7]The stage was set for the union of the “tangent” and “area” techniques. Indeed, Barrow
(1630-1677), Newton’s teacher at Cambridge, obtained a result equivalent to the fundamental
theorem of calculus, but it was not expressed in a useful form.
[8]Newton (1642-1727) arrived at Cambridge in 1661, and during the two years 1665-1666,
which he spent at his family’s farm to avoid the plague, he developed the essentials of calculus –
recognizing that finding tangents and calculating areas are inverse processes. The first integral
table ever compiled is to be found in one of his manuscripts of this period. But Newton did not
publish his results at that time, perhaps because of the depression in the book trade after the Great
Fire of London in 1665. During those two remarkable years he also introduced negative and
fractional exponents, thus demonstrating that such diverse operations as multiplying a number by
itself several times, taking its reciprocal, and finding a root of some power of that number are just
special cases of a single general exponential function ax where x is a positive integer, -1, or a
function.
[9]Independently, however, Leibnitz (1646-1716) also invented calculus. A lawyer, diplomat,
and philosopher, for whom mathematics was a serious avocation. Leibnitz established his version
in the years 1673-1676, publishing his researches in 1684 and 1686, well before Newton’s first
publication in 1711. To Leibnitz we owe the notations dx and dy, the terms “differential calculus”
and “integral calculus”, the integral sign, and the word “function”[11]. Newton’s notation survives
only in the symbol x for differentiation with respect to time, which is still used in physics.
[10]It was to take two more centuries before calculus reached its present state of precision
and rigor. The notion of a function gradually evolved from “curve” to “formula” to any rule that
assigns one quantity to another. The great calculus text of Euler[12], published in 1748, emphasized
the function concept by including not even one graph.
[11]In several texts of the 1820s, Cauchy[13] (1789-1857) defined “limit” and “continuous

117
function” much as we do today. He also gave a definition of the definite integral, which with a
slight change by Riemann[14] (1826-1868) in 1854 became the definition standard today. So by the
mid-nineteenth century the discoveries of Newton and Leibnitz were put on a solid foundation.
[12]In 1833, Liouville[15] (1809-1882) demonstrated that the fundamental theorem could not
be used to evaluate integrals of all elementary function. In fact, he showed that the only values of

the constant k for which ∫ 1 − x 2 1 − kx 2 dx is elementary are 0 and 1.

[13]Still some basic questions remained, such as “What do we mean by area?” (For instance,
does the set of points situated within some square and having both coordinates rational have an
area? If so, what is this area?) It was as recently as 1887 that Peano (1858-1932) gave a precise
definition of area – that quantity which earlier mathematicians had treated as intuitively given.
[14]The history of calculus therefore consists of three periods. First, there was the long
stretch when there was no hint that the tangent and area problems were related. Then came the
discovery of their intimate connection and the exploitation of this relation from the end of the
seventeenth century through the eighteenth century. This was followed by a century in which the
loose ends were tied up.
[15]The twentieth century has seen calculus applied in many new areas, for it is the natural
language for dealing with continuous processes, such as changes with time. In this century
mathematicians have also obtained some of the deepest theoretical results about its foundations.
Calculus is definitely alive and well and still growing.

【注释】
[1]Archimedes:阿基米德,古希腊杰出的数学家、物理学家。生于意大利西西里岛的叙拉古,
曾求学于亚历山大。在其著作《论平板的平衡》所提出的数学方法成为 17 世纪无穷小分析的
基础。第二次布匿战争期间被入侵的罗马士兵杀死,当时他正在沉思一个数学问题。
[2]Apollonius:阿波罗尼奥斯,古希腊数学家,所著《圆锥曲线》一书是古代科学巨著之一。
[3]Emperor Justinian:查士一世(527-565 在位),拜占庭皇帝,曾主持编纂著名的《查士
丁尼法典》。征战波斯,征服北非及意大利等地 。
[4]Plato’s Academy:雅典学院,柏拉图在雅典郊外创办的一所学校,在他死后一直维持了
九个多世纪之久,公元 529 年,查士丁尼大帝将其封闭。Academy 一词即源于此。
[5]Descartes:笛卡儿,法国哲学家、数学家、物理学家。1637 年发表《几何》一书,标志着解
析几何学的创立。
[6]Fermant:费尔马,法国数学家,以当律师为业。精通多国语言文字,致力于数论、几何、
分析、概率论等方面的研究,以其未经证明的“费尔马大定理”著称于世。
[7]Cavalieri:卡瓦列里,意大利数学家,波伦尼大学教授, 1635 年出版《不可分连续量几
何》,用不可分原理制定了一种简单形式的积分法,为微积分学先驱之一。
[8]Wallis:沃利思,英国数学家、伦敦皇家学会创始人之一,对代数、几何学的发展和微积
分的起源有重要贡献。
[9]smack of: 带有……的味道
[10]perpendicular to:垂直于
[11]differential calculus, integral calculus, function:微分学、积分学、函数等名词的汉译由清
末学者、翻译家李善兰(1811-)首创,沿用至今。李善兰于 1852 年在外国传教士协助下开
始翻译西方数学著作,这是微积分第一次传入我国。
[12]Euler:欧勒,瑞士数学家, 1733 年任彼得堡科学院院士, 1741 年任柏林物理 -数学研

118
究所所长。其研究涉及数学许多分支领域,在数学史上有杰出贡献。
[13]Cauchy:柯西,法国数学家、法国科学院院士、伦敦皇家学会会员和几乎所有欧洲国家
科学院的院士。其研究遍及数学的各个领域。
[14]Riemann:黎曼,德国数学家,创建黎曼几何学,对代数函数论和微分方程也有重要贡
献。他关于空间几何的独具胆识的思想对近代理论物理的发展有深远的影响。
[15] Liouville:刘维尔,法国数学家,巴黎综合工科学校教授,创办《刘维尔杂志》,对分
析、数论和微分几何有重要贡献,首次证明超越数的存在。

Exercises

I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1)What do you about calculus?
2)Who found the volume of a sphere?
3)Who preserved the works of Greek mathematicians?
4)How was calculus produced?
5)Who found the area under the curve y = xn for n = 1, 2, 3, …, 9?
6)Who introduced negative and fractional exponents in the field of calculus?
7)What is the difference between differential calculus and integral calculus?
8)When did calculus reach its present state?
9)Who gave a precise definition of area?
10)What is the second period in the history of calculus according to the author?
11)What is the author’s attitude toward the study of calculus?
2.Paraphrase
1) In this same period, Cavalieri (1598-1647) found the area under the curve y = xn for n =
1,2,3…,9 by a method the length of whose computations grew rapidly as the exponent increased.
2) The stage was set for the union of the “tangent” and “area” techniques.
3) Calculus is definitely alive and well and still growing.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
tangent, parabola, ellipse, hyperbola, exponent, function, power, differentiation, constant
2. Describe the major features of the coordinates.
3. Write a 150-word summary of the text.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
Archimedes, Plato’s Academy, positive integer, tangent, exponential function, integral calculus,
Leibnitz, curve, continuous function, coordinates
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Little did they suspect that the “area” and “tangent” problems were to converge many centuries
later.

119
2) Wallis (161-1703) found the area under this curve by a method that smacks more of magic than
of mathematics.
3) It was as recently as 1887 that Peano (1858-1932) gave a precise definition of area – that
quantity which earlier mathematicians had treated as intuitively given.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 8 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for the fundamentals in calculus, geometry and algebra.

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

independent novel curve instrument revolution


revive treatise follow volume concern

The historian Carl Boyer has called the calculus "the most effective ______ for scientific
investigation that mathematics has ever produced." As the mathematics of variability and change,
the calculus was the characteristic product of the scientific ______. The subject was properly the
invention of two mathematicians, the German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and the Englishman
Isaac Newton. Both men published their researches in the 1680s, Leibniz in 1684 in the recently
founded journal Acta Eruditorum and Newton in 1687 in his great ______ Principia
Mathematica. Although a bitter dispute over priority developed later among ______ of the two
men, it is now clear that they each arrived at the calculus ______.
The calculus developed from techniques to solve two types of problems, the determination of
areas and ______ and the calculation of tangents to ______. In classical geometry Archimedes
had advanced furthest in this part of mathematics, having used the method of exhaustion to
establish rigorously various results on areas and volumes and having derived for some curves
(e.g., the spiral) significant results ______ tangents. In the early 17th century there was a sharp
______l of interest in both classes of problems. The decades between 1610 and 1670, referred to
in the history of mathematics as "the precalculus period," were at a time of remarkable activity in
which researchers throughout Europe contributed ______ solutions and competed with each other
to arrive at important new methods.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
Calculus is a branch of mathematical analysis concerned _[1]_ the rates of change of
continuous functions _[2]_ their arguments change. Two men are now _[3]_ with discovering
calculus, Sir Isaac Newton of England and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz of Germany. For almost a
century, development of the subject was inhibited by a bitter controversy _[4]_ priority between
supporters of Newton and those of Leibniz.A basic concept of calculus is "limit," an idea applied

120
by the early Greeks in geometry. Archimedes inscribed equilateral polygons in a circle. _[5]_
increasing the number of sides, the areas of the polygons (which he could calculate) approach the
area of the circle as a limit. _[6]_ this result together with a similar idea involving circumscribed
polygons, he was able to find the area of the circle as r2, in which r is the radius of the circle and
(pi) is a _[7]_ that has a value between 3 1/7 and 3 10/71.The area of an irregularly shaped plate
also can be found by subdividing it _[8]_ rectangles of equal width. If the number of rectangles is
made larger and larger, the sum of their areas (found by multiplying base by height) approaches
the required area as a _[9]_. The same procedure can be used to find volumes of spheres, cones,
and other solid objects. The beauty and importance of calculus is that it provides a systematic way
for the exact calculation of many areas, volumes, and other quantities that were _[10]_beyond the
methods of the early Greeks.
[1]about to with from
[2]if as since though
[3]contributed credited connected praised
[4]on about in over
[5]After Since Upon Once
[6]Use Using Used To use
[7]number element constant continuum
[8]as to into in
[9]result limit infinity constant
[10]out of besides beyond over

Unit 6
The ‘Superstar ‘ Nutrient
By Jane Brody

[1]Calcium[1], the most abundant mineral in the body, has long been recognized as vital for
the formation and maintenance of strong bones and teeth. But rather than serving as calcium’s
final destination, bones are, in a sense, actually just a starting point.
[2]The bones serve as a calcium storage tank for the body to draw on[2]. The body also has a
mechanism for replenishing calcium from outside sources, namely the diet. Crucial to both
processes is vitamin D, which enhances the body’s absorption and use of calcium.
[3]The recommended intake of calcium varies across Asia. In Singapore, adults are advised
to get 500 milligrams of calcium each day. In Taiwan the recommended amount is 600 mg, and in
Malaysia 450 mg. Still, experts across the region agree that calcium is an important nutrient. If the
body doesn’t receive enough dietary calcium to maintain the needed blood level, the parathyroid
hormone[3] (produced by our four parathyroid glands), along with vitamin D, signals the release of
calcium from bones. If someone is chronically calcium or vitamin D deficient, their bones
gradually get weaker.

121
[4]Recent research suggests calcium may have a critical influence over three health
problems:
[5]High blood pressure. A person’s blood pressure is influenced by many factors, including
genetics, body weight, physical activity and, in some cases, salt intake. Dozens of observational
studies since the early 1980s have suggested that calcium affects blood pressure.
[6]A low intake of calcium, then, may partly account for[4] the high rates of hypertension
among some people. In Hong Kong, a 1994 government report found that hypertension accounted
for the highest number of outpatient[5] treatments in the territory. Associate Professor Georgia
Guldan, a nutrition science specialist at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, says this is due, in
part, to the high salt content of Chinese diets, but may also be related to low calcium intake.
“Although every incidence of high blood pressure cannot be put down to[6] poor calcium intake,
there may be a definite relationship among some patients, she says. A shortage of calcium might
also contribute to the rise in blood pressure that commonly accompanies aging.
[7]In 1997 a large American trial found that a diet rich in low-fat dairy products, fruit and
vegetables (containing about 1, 200 mg of calcium daily) significantly lowered blood pressure in
adults with high to normal pressure or mild hypertension.
[8]Some experts champion[7] the view that calcium-rich foods are more effective than a low-
sodium[8] diet in curbing hypertension. Professor Guldan is concerned that a large proportion of
urban Asian children consume an unbalanced diet. One study she conducted in Hong Kong found
that more than half of children aged 10 to 12 were not getting enough calcium.
[9]Added to this is the concern that children aren’t exercising enough. Guldan explains:
“Although one study found that Chinese children absorb higher levels of calcium than those in the
West, a lack of regular physical activity slows down the rate of bone building as compared to
breaking down – two dynamic processes simultaneously occurring in our bones throughout life.”
Therefore, parents need to encourage their children to exercise, as well as eat more calcium-rich
foods such as soybean and green leafy vegetables.
[10]Cancer. Tissues in the body are lined with [9] epithelial cells[10] like the ones forming the
outer layer of skin. They grow, mature, slough off[11] and are replaced by new ones. In the lining of
the colon[12], the turnover[13] of epithelial cells normally takes three to ten days.
[11]But sometimes these cells divide more rapidly and fail to mature normally. Some
research suggests a link between this abnormal cell growth and colon cancer. Studies have
associated high-fat diets with colon cancer. One theory is that fatty acids and the bile acids[14]
released to process them damage the cells and stimulate abnormal growth.
[12]Last year Peter Holt, chief of gastroenterology[15] at New York’s St Luke’s-Roosevelt
Hospital Centre, reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association that he and his
colleagues had studied 70 adults who had undergone procedures to remove benign polyps [16],
which occasionally transform into colon cancer. When the participants’ consumption of low-fat,
calcium-rich dairy products reached 1,500 mg of calcium a day, cell growth in the colon improved
towards normal.
[13]PMS. Up to 40 percent of women suffer from the disruptive [17] symptoms of
premenstrual syndrome[18] (PMS), including mood swings, bloating, food cravings and pain. Susan
Thys-Jacobs, an endocrinologist[19] and clinical director of the metabolic Bone Centre at St Luke-
Roosevelt Hospital Centre, believes a chronic deficiency of calcium is largely responsible.
[14]Thys-Jacobs and colleagues at 11 other medical centres studied 466 women with

122
debilitating[20] PMS in a trial of calcium’s ability to relieve their monthly discomfort. Participants
taking 1,200 mg of calcium daily found their symptoms diminished by 48 per cent, compared with
30 per cent in the placebo group. Subjects in one of four calcium subgroups noted a 54 per cent
reduction in aches and pains, while the placebo group had a 15 per cent increase.
[15]Thys-Jacobs believe that PMS sufferers might have normal calcium levels in their blood
and urine – but only because parathyroid-hormone levels are abnormally high and the hormone is
continually extracting calcium from their bones.
[16]Of added concern to Thys-Jacobs is the fact that “perhaps 80 per cent of a person’s
vitamin D is produced in the skin when exposed to sunlight – but a lot of young women are
avoiding the sun, and their vitamin D levels may be very low.
[17]Foods Rich in Calcium

FOOD QTY CALCIUM (mg.)


Yoghurt, natural, low-fat 200g 420

Sardines, tinned & drained 100g 380


Milk, skim 1 cup 320
Chinese kale 100g 240
Cheddar cheese 30g 233
Soyabean curd 100g 150
Watercress 100g 114
Chinese cabbage 100g 102
Orange medium 70
Water spinach 100g 50

【注释】
[1]calcium:钙
[2]draw on:支取;利用
[3]parathyroid hormone:甲状旁腺激素,调节体内血液中钙、磷浓度
[4]account for:是……的原因。下一句中的 account for 则表示(数量上)占……
[5]outpatient:门诊病人
[6]be put down to:被归因于……
[7]champion:拥护;支持
[8]low-sodium:低钠的
[9]be lined with:用……作衬里
[10]epithelial cell:上皮细胞
[11]slough off:脱落
[12]:colon:结肠
[13]turnover:更换率;换新率
[14]bile acid:肝汁酸
[15]gastroenterology:胃肠病学
[16]benign polyp:良性的息肉
[17]disruptive:破坏的:引起混乱的
[18]premenstrual syndrome:经前综合症

123
[19]endocrinologist:内分泌学家
[20]debilitating:使人衰弱的

Exercises

I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1)What is the major function of calcium according to the text?
2)What does “both processes” refer to in paragraph 2?
3)What is the recommended intake of calcium in Taiwan?
4)What will happen if someone is lacking in calcium or vitamin D for a long time?
5)What is the parathyroid hormone produced by?
6)What will happen if one’s intake of calcium is low according to recent research?
7)What is the problem which often visits old people according to the text?
8)What can lower blood pressure according to a study in 1997?
9)How often does the turnover of epithelial cells take place?
10)What kind of cancer are epithelial cells linked with according to some research?
11)What is the percentage of women who suffer from PMS?
12)Why do PMS sufferers feel much more comfortable when they take a certain amount of
calcium?
13)Do you agree with the author’s view on the function of calcium?
2. Paraphrase
1) “Although every incidence of high blood pressure cannot be put down to poor calcium intake,
there may be a definite relationship among some patients, she says.
2) Tissues in the body are lined with epithelial cells like the ones forming the outer layer of skin.
3) Subjects in one of four calcium subgroups noted a 54 per cent reduction in aches and pains,
while the placebo group had a 15 per cent increase.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
parathyroid hormone, hypertension, sodium, tissue, bile acid, gastroenterology, polyp,
premenstrual syndrome
2. Describe how vitamin was discovered.
3. Write a 300-word composition entitled “Calcium and Human Health”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
Dietary calcium, parathyroid hormone, outpatient, bile acid, benign polyp, colon cancer,
premenstrual syndrome, subject, Thys-Jacobs, cheddar cheese, water spinach
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) A low intake of calcium, then, may partly account for the high rates of hypertension among
some people.

124
2) A shortage of calcium might also contribute to the rise in blood pressure that commonly
accompanies aging.
3) They grow, mature, slough off and are replaced by new ones. In the lining of the colon, the
turnover of epithelial cells normally takes three to ten days.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraphs 15 and 16 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the
transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for diseases of nutrition.

V. Gap-filling (Cloze or fill in the blanks)


1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

concern involve component target performance


interaction make-up mark choose apply

So far as humans are ______, nutrition refers to the process by which the human body uses
food. The scope of human nutrition extends far beyond the classical study of the physiological and
biochemical processes ______ in nourishment; i.e., how substances in food are converted into
energy and body tissues. Human nutrition has come to involve all the effects on humans of any
______ found in food; these include most chronic degenerative diseases (dental decay,
coronary[ 冠 状 的 ] heart disease, some cancers, etc.), which are now major ______ of research
activity. The scope of nutrition extends to the effects of food on human function; e.g., mental
function, athletic ______, resistance to infection, and fetal health and development. There is a
growing ______ between nutritional science and genetics because of the diversity of human
chemical ______ and because food components of which most people are unaware can have
______ effects on some individuals. Last, nutrition also considers why people ______ to eat the
foods they do, even after they have been advised that doing so may be unhealthy. The study of
food habits and people's attitudes, beliefs, likes, and dislikes overlaps with the social sciences of
physiology, anthropology, sociology, and economics. Dietetics is the ______ of nutrition in the
health sciences.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
Malnutrition is a _[1]_condition in which an organism fails to receive or to metabolize an
adequate supply of the element calcium, the mineral most likely to be _[2]_ in the average diet.
Calcium is the chief supportive element in bones and teeth. Calcium salts _[3]_ about 70 percent
of bone by weight and give that substance its strength and rigidity. About 99 percent of the
calcium in the human body is held in the bones and teeth. The _[4]_ 1 percent of calcium
circulates in the bloodstream, where it performs a variety of important functions. It helps to

125
contract muscles and helps _[5]_ the contractions of the heart. It plays a role in the transmission
of nerve impulses and in the clotting of blood. Calcium is involved in the stimulation of
contractions of the uterus during childbirth and in the production of milk. It also regulates the
secretion of various hormones and aids _[6]_ the functioning of various enzymes within the body.
Severe calcium deficiency, or hypocalcemia, which is defined as a reduction of calcium
levels in the bloodstream below a certain normal range, has its own clinical _[7]_. The main
syndrome is tetany, which involves sensations of numbness and tingling around the mouth and
fingertips and painful aches and spasms( 痉挛 ) of the muscles. A clinically detectable deficiency
of calcium is a relatively rare finding and is almost always caused either by a deficiency of
parathyroid hormone _[8]_or of vitamin D in the body, i.e., the two chief regulators of calcium
metabolism.
Calcium is _[9]_plentiful in nature. Food sources high in calcium include milk, cheese,
yogurt, and other _[10]_ products; leafy green vegetables such as broccoli( 椰菜 ), turnips( 芜菁甘
蓝), and collard(羽衣甘蓝) greens; and canned salmon(鲑鱼) and sardines.
[1]condition thing quality study
[2]short little weak deficient
[3]make up from make up for make up make up of
[4]adding remaining leaving resting
[5]regulate adjust influence balance
[6]of for on in
[7]appearances symptoms phenomena manifestations
[8]or and nor but
[9]plentiful plenty surplus adequate
[10]meat diary dairy rich

Unit 7
Three Kinds of Fatigue
By Jane Brody

[1] Fatigue is one of the most common complaints brought to doctors, friends, and relatives.
You’d think in this era of labor-saving devices and convenient transportation that few people
would have reason to be so tired. But probably more people complain of fatigue today than in the
days when hay was baled[1] by hand and laundry scrubbed on a washboard.
[2] The causes of modern-day fatigue are diverse and only rarely related to excessive
physical exertion. The relatively few people who do heavy labor all day long almost never
complain about being tired, perhaps because they expect to be. Today, physicians report, tiredness
is more likely a consequence of underexertion than of wearing yourself down[2] with overactivity.
In fact, increased physical activity is often prescribed as a cure for sagging energy.
[3]There are three main categories of fatigue.
[4] Physical. This is the well-known result of overworking your muscles to the point where

126
metabolic[3] waste products – carbon dioxide and lactic acid – accumulate in your blood and sap
your strength. Your muscles can’t continue to work efficiently in a bath of these chemicals.
Physical fatigue is usually a pleasant tiredness, such as that which you might experience after
playing a hard set of tennis, chopping wood, or climbing a mountain. The cure is simple and fast:
you rest, giving your body a chance to get rid of accumulated wastes and restore muscle fuel.
[5] Pathological. Here fatigue is a warning sign or consequence of some underlying physical
disorder, perhaps the common cold or flu or something more serious like diabetes or cancer.
Usually other symptoms besides fatigue are present that suggest the true cause.
[6] Even after an illness has passed, you’re likely to feel dragged out for a week or more.
Take your fatigue as a signal to go slow while your body has a chance to recover fully even if all
you had was a cold. Pushing yourself to resume full activity too soon could precipitate[4] a
relapse[5] and almost certainly will prolong your period of fatigue.
[7] Even though illness is not a frequent cause of prolonged fatigue, it’s very important that it
not be overlooked. Therefore, anyone who feels drained of energy for weeks on end should have a
thorough physical checkup. But even if nothing shows up as a result of the various medical tests,
that doesn’t mean there’s nothing wrong with you.
[8] Psychological. Emotional problems and conflicts, especially depression[6] and anxiety,
are by far the most common causes of prolonged fatigue. Fatigue may represent a defense
mechanism that prevents you from having to face the true cause of your depression, such as the
fact that you hate your job. It is also your body’s safety valve for expressing repressed emotional
conflicts, such as feeling trapped in an ungratifying[7] role or an unhappy marriage. When such
feelings are not expressed openly, they often come out as physical symptoms, with fatigue as one
of the most common manifestations[8]. “Many people who are extremely fatigued don’t even know
they’re depressed,” Dr. Bulette says. “They’re so busy distracting themselves or just worrying
about being tired that they don’t recognize their depression.”
[9] Emotionally induced fatigue may be compounded[9] by sleep disturbance that results from
the underlying psychological conflict. A person may develop insomnia or may sleep the
requisite[10] number of hours but fitfully, tossing and turning all night, having disturbing dreams,
and awakening, as one woman put it, feeling as if she “had been run over by a truck”.
[10] Understanding the underlying emotional problem is the crucial first step toward curing
psychological fatigue and by itself often results in considerable lessening of the tiredness.
Professional psychological help or career or marriage counseling may be needed.
[11] There is a great deal you can do on your own to deal with both severe prolonged fatigue
and those periodic washed-out[11] feelings. Vitamins and tranquilizers are almost never the right
answer, sleeping pills and alcohol are counter-productive[12], and caffeine is at best a temporary
solution that can backfire[13] with abuse and cause life-disrupting symptoms of anxiety. Instead,
you might try:
[12] Diet. If you eat a skimpy[14] breakfast or none at all, you’re likely to experience
midmorning fatigue, the result of a drop in blood sugar, which your body and brain depend on for
energy. For peak energy in the morning, be sure to eat a proper breakfast, low in sugar and fairly
high in protein, which will provide a steady supply of blood sugar throughout the morning. Coffee
and doughnut are almost worse than nothing, providing a brief boost and then letting you down
with a thud.
[13] The same goes for the rest of the day: Frequent snacking on sweets is a false pick-me-

127
up[15] that soon leaves you lower than you were to begin with. Stick to regular, satisfying, well-
balanced meals that help you maintain a trim figure. Extra weight is tiring both physically and
psychologically. Getting your weight down to normal can go a long way toward revitalizing you.
[14] Exercise. Contrary to what you may think, exercise enhances, rather than saps, energy.
Regular conditioning exercises, such as jogging, cycling, or swimming, help you to resist fatigue
by increasing your body’s ability to handle more of a workload. You get tired less quickly because
your capability is greater.
[15] Exercise also has a well-recognized tranquilizing effect, which helps you work in a
more relaxed fashion and be less dragged down by the tensions of your day. At the end of a day
exercise can relieve accumulated tensions, give you more energy in the evening, and help you
sleep more restfully.
[16] Sleep. If you’re tired because you haven’t been getting enough sleep, the solution is
simple: Get to bed earlier. There’s no right amount of sleep for everyone, and generally sleep
requirements decline with age. Find the amount that suits you best, and aim for it. Insomnia and
other sleep disorders should not be treated with sleeping pills, alcohol, or tranquilizers, which can
actually make the problem worse.
[17] Know yourself. Try to schedule your most taxing[16] jobs for the time of day when
you’re at your peak. Some are morning people who tire by midafternoon; others do their best
work in the evening. Don’t overextend[17] yourself, trying to climb the ladder of success at a record
pace or to meet everyone’s demands or expectations. Decide what you want to do and what you
can handle comfortably, and learn to say no to additional requests. Recognize your energy cycles
and plan accordingly. Many women have a low point premenstrually, during which time extra
sleep may be needed and demanding activities are particularly exhausting.
[18] Take breaks. No matter how interesting or demanding your work, you’ll be able to do it
with more vigor if now and again you stop, stretch, and change the scenery. Instead of coffee and
a sweet roll on your break, try meditation, yoga, calisthenics, or a brisk walk. Even running up
and down the staircase can provide refreshment from a sedentary[18] job. If your job is physically
demanding, relax in a quiet place for a while. The do-something-different rule also applies to
vacation; “getting away from it all” for a week or two or longer can be highly revitalizing, helping
you to put things in perspective [19] and enabling you to take your job more in stride [20] upon your
return.
【注释】
[1]hay was baled:dried grass was tied in bundles,捆干草
[2]wear oneself down:使自己疲乏无力
[3]metabolic:新陈代谢的
[4]precipitate:make happen before expected,使突然发生
[5]relapse:旧病复发
[6]depression:(医)抑郁症
[7]ungratifying:unfulfilling,未能够发挥作用的;未能够实现的
[8]manifestations:signs,表现形式;症状
[9]compound:使恶化(常用被动语态)
[10]requisite:required,必要的;足够的
[11]washed-out:筋疲力尽的;没精打采的
[12]counter-productive:(招致)反效果的;成事不足的

128
[13]backfire:have the opposite effect, 有相反的作用
[14]skimpy:缺乏的;不足的
[15]pick-me-up:something to give quick energy, 快速获取能量的食物
[16]taxing:difficult,艰难的;困难的
[17]overextend:take on too much,使承担 过多的任务
[18]sedentary:sitting a lot,久坐的
[19]in perspective :in the way in which a situation or problem is judged, so that consideration or
importance is given to each par,正确地
[20]in stride:without efforts; easily,从容地;轻易地

Exercises

I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions
1)What is the most possible reason for fatigue in today’s society?
2) What is the reason for physical fatigue?
3)What is the well-known result of overworking one’s muscles according to the text?
4) What is the relationship between physical fatigue and pathological fatigue?
5)What is the most common reason for prolonged fatigue according to the author?
6)What methods are introduced in the text to deal with fatigue?
7)Do you think “KNOW YOURSELF” is an effective way to deal with fatigue? If not, what is
your own to deal with fatigue?
8)Discuss the relationship between mental stress and fatigue.
2. Paraphrase
1) Therefore, anyone who feels drained of energy for weeks on end should have a thorough
physical checkup.
2) It is also your body’s safety valve for expressing repressed emotional conflicts, such as feeling
trapped in an ungratifying role or an unhappy marriage.
3) Vitamins and tranquilizers are almost never the right answer, sleeping pills and alcohol are
counter-productive, and caffeine is at best a temporary solution that can backfire[13] with abuse and
cause life-disrupting symptoms of anxiety.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
lactic acid, metabolic, carbon dioxide, insomnia vitamin, tranquilizer, yoga, calisthenics
2. Describe how the electric lamp was invented.
3. Rewrite the following sentences to make them satisfy the stylistic or grammatical features of
EST.
1)What is fever? Fever is a rise in your body temperature.
2)The earth travels around the sun.
3)It is necessary to examine whether the new design is efficient.
4)Steels which have a carbon content of between 0.5 and 1.3% are known as high carbon steels.
5)Information is needed as to which brand of canned goods is most popular.
6)The range of sounds that can be heard by man is from 20 to 20,000 vibrations per second.

129
7)Moderate winds, when accompanied by new snow and near-thawing temperature, often create
avalanche conditions.
8)The next step consisted of looking for methods by which the losses that occurred in the bearing
might be eliminated.
4. Write a 300-word composition entitled “Five Ways of Dealing With Mental Fatigue .”

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
underexertion, metabolic waste, lactic acid, washed-out feelings, pick-me-up, taxing job,
sedentary job
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Even after an illness has passed, you’re likely to feel dragged out for a week or more.
2) Vitamins and tranquilizers are almost never the right answer, sleeping pills and alcohol are
counter-productive, and caffeine is at best a temporary solution that can backfire with abuse and
cause life-disrupting symptoms of anxiety.
3) Don’t overextend yourself, trying to climb the ladder of success at a record pace or to meet
everyone’s demands or expectations.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 18 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for the causes for human mental and physical fatigue and for the
information on the appearance of the word “vitamin”, its meaning and its translation method in
Chinese.

V. Gap-filling (Cloze or fill in the blanks)


1. Fill in each blank with a proper verb given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

sustain underlie supply cause result


stimulate produce analyze confirm cool

Fatigue is a failure of the muscle to ______ force in a prolonged contraction or to reattain


force in repeated contractions. The mechanisms ______ fatigue share several features with those
underlying weakness: electrical excitation of the muscle cell; electromechanical coupling; and the
major processes ______ energy for contraction, work, and heat production. The action potential
that is conducted along the length of the muscle cell has its origin in a depolarization of the
postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction ______ by the release of acetylcholine( 乙
酰胆碱 ) from the presynaptic nerve terminal. The synapse is thus potentially a key control point
in the chain of command for muscular contraction. Complete failure of neuromuscular
transmission occurs from poisoning with curare or botulinum( 肉 毒 杆 菌 ) toxin and ______ in

130
complete paralysis. Incomplete or variable neuromuscular transmission is a feature of myasthenia
gravis, the diagnosis of which can be ______ by finding evidence of fatigue in response to
electrical ______ of the nerve supplying the muscle. This behaviour is a consequence of the
immunologic damage to the postsynaptic membrane of the synapse(突触,神经键) by antibodies to
the acetylcholine receptor.
Electrical stimulation of a muscle via its nerve is a means by which some of the mechanisms
underlying human muscle fatigue can be ______. By stimulating the nerve at a range of
frequencies and measuring the force of the contractions ______, it is possible to plot the
frequency: force curve. Failure of force at high stimulation frequencies is seen with myasthenia
gravis. In conditions in which normal muscle is ______ or lacks blood supply, there is also a high-
frequency fatigue.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
After severe exercise a form of fatigue may _[1]_ that is characterized by a lower force
production _[2]_ the lower stimulation frequencies with no decrease in the amplitude of the
evoked action potential recorded from the muscle. This type of fatigue would be expected _[3]_
the failure of excitation-contraction coupling, the inward spread of the action potential by the
transverse tubular system, resulting in the release of intracellular calcium, which activates the
actin-myosin interaction and _[4]_ contraction. There is a relationship between the development
of fatigue and the depletion of energy stores in exercising muscle. In _[5]_ exercise, such as
marathon running, fatigue is associated with glycogen depletion _[6]_ oxidative glycolysis.
_[7]_ exercise that lasts only a few minutes is associated with the accumulation of lactate and
an intracellular acidosis( 酸毒症 ) due to anaerobic (nonoxidative) glycolysis( 厌氧性醣酵解 ). In
both types of exercise there is a reduction of phosphocreatine( 磷酸肌酸 ), _[8]_ no appreciable
depletion of ATP. In contrast, in patients _[9]_ myopathies, more striking changes are seen with
only low total work or power output. Fatigue in patients with McArdle's disease, in _[10]_ there is
absent glycogenolysis, is not associated with the usual acidosis. Pronounced acidosis is a finding
in patients with defective mitochondrial metabolism in whom there may be a slow resynthesis of
phosphocreatine after exercise.
[1]insist exist resist persist
[2]by at over with
[3]with of out of by
[4]following consequent resulting subsequent
[5]long lengthened prolonging prolonged
[6]thanks to as to due to according to
[7]Intent Intensive Intense Internal
[8]however for although despite
[9]with of from upon
[10]who whom which that

131
Unit 8
New Way of Dealing with Hazardous Toxic Waste
By Norman Miller

[1]Chernobyl[1] is the most famous battlefield in the latest phase of an environmental war
where the enemies are familiar but the good guys are not. On one side are strontium, uranium,
lead, cadmium, oil and nerve gas[2]; on the other, white rot fungus, Indian mustard, sunflowers –
and whale gut bacteria[3].
[2]”Where there’s muck there’s brass”[4] is a saying that could have been coined for
environmental clean-up. Dealing with hazardous existing waste in the US alone using
conventional technologies is projected to cost at least $ 400 hundred billion. But what if there was
a real alternative that was cheaper, less disruptive and which came with impeccable green
credentials[5]? Well, there is.
[3]Bioremediation and phytoremediation[6] are the scientific names for processes which use
bacterial micro-organisms and plants to deal with pollutants ranging from toxic metals and TNT to

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oil and chemical weapons. While bioremediation is a catch-all term for the use of bacterial clean-
up agents, the use of plants splits four ways.
[4]Phytoextraction is the process by which metal-accumulating plants concentrate metals
from the soil into the harvestable parts of the plant above ground, where it can be removed, dried
and burned to metal-rich ash, a process that the University of Maryland plant researcher, Rufus
Chaney, compares to harvesting hay. “Burning allows recovery and recycling of the metals, “ he
says. “The ash is similar to commercial ore and could be sold as ‘Bio-ore’, “ he suggests.
[5]The term rhizofiltration[7] refers to clean-up operations where plant roots absorb and
concentrate toxic metals from polluted effluents, a process used particularly with water pollution.
It is also possible for plants to absorb and recycle metal residues in soil, a process called
phytostabilisation. Phytovolatolisation[8], by contrast, is where plants take up pollutants
(particularly selenium and mercury) and then release them into the atmosphere – a pollution
solution via dilution[9] which is perhaps more pleasing as a rhyme than as an answer to the
problem.
[6] Proper studies using plants in environmental clean-up began in the late 1980s, but it was
not until the early 1990s that an American company, Phytotech, took up the baton proffered by
academic research[10] and turned it into a corporation. The basic knowledge under-pinning
phytoremediation goes back even further. It was known in the Soviet Union in the 1950s that
semi-aquatic plants like water hyacinth and duckweed drew up[11] toxic metals such as lead and
cadmium from contaminated waters, while the fact that plants such as the wild herb alpine
pennycress thrived on zinc- and nickel-rich soils was used in the past by prospectors in the Alps
and America’s Rocky Mountains to help find ore deposits.
[7]It is now thought that certain plants develop a liking for large doses of metal in their diet
as its presence in stems and leaves protects them against certain fungal diseases and chewing
insects. But how plants actually extract, store and tolerate the metal is still something of a
mystery.
[8] A recent discovery by researchers at the Plant Gene Expression Center in Albany,
California may have revealed the key in a gene for heavy-metal tolerance which was found in a
yeast, and dubbed “html”.
[9] Many plants produce molecules called peptides that bind metals for storage in vacuoles,
the cell compartments in which plants either keep things they need or dump things they don’t
want. But metal-loving plants also use organic acids (such as citric acid) to bind high levels of
metals. The html gene appears to prompt the manufacture of a protein that pumps more bound
metals into vacuoles. If researchers can work out how to duplicate the html gene’s metalworking
activities inside high-yield crops, these could be used as super metal scavengers. Initial trials with
tobacco have not been entirely successful, but the Albany team still predicts that gene-altered
metal guzzling plants will be in use within a decade.
[10] Just as old-time miners used metal-accumulator plants to strike it rich, biotech
companies are also seeing dollar signs. The bioremediation market in North American and Europe
is projected to be worth at least $ US 1 billion a year by the end of the 20 th century, while the use
of phytoremediation against toxic metal contamination is expected to be worth around $ 400m a
year as companies and government agencies move away from present methods such as excavation
of soil for dumping in landfills or costly chemical processing that either removes metals or fixes
them in the soil so they do not spread.

133
[11] The earning potential of bio- and phytoremediation is huge, but British companies have
been painfully slow to grab a slice of the action. It has been in America that the new technology
has been most welcomed with hard cash and research effort, spurred on [12] by tough environmental
legislation. The irony of this is that the first ever successful commercial demonstration of
phytoremediation’s potential, though it took place in America, was a European Union-funded
project under the control of two British academics, Alan baker and Steve Mcgrath.
[12] The Pig’s Eye Landfill[13] in Minnesota was the battlefield, and alpine pennycress the
weapon – a plant which can tolerate a zinc level; in its leaves up to 60 times higher than that
which would kill most other plants. Bioengineered pennycress is now expected to quadruple the
plant would take to cleanse totally the Pig’s Eye site from a present estimate of 16 years to as little
as four.
[13] Despite this pioneering British triumph, there are few British counterparts to match the
rash of companies which have followed Phytotech into a boom industry. Throughout the US,
phytoremediation is being used at a growing number of sites, pitching Indian mustard against lead
in New Jersey, sunflowers against uranium-contaminated water in Ohio, and bulrush against
selenium in California.
[14] Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is also tackling the environmental devastation around
Chernobyl. In addition to accumulating up to an amazing 60 per cent of its dry root weight as
lead, Brassica has shown a tolerance for radionuclides such as strontium, caesium and uranium.
Strontium was a particular favorite, showing in the plant’s roots at concentrations 12 times higher
than in the soil.
[15] While plants are a powerful weapon against inorganic pollutants such as toxic metals,
organic nasties such as oil are grist for microbial attack. Just as certain plants have adapted to
dealing with metallic soils, so some natural bacteria have learnt to take advantage of the energy
derived from oil and other hydrocarbons. Oil is, after all, a natural product, and what’s good
enough to power a car is also good enough to power a microbe. What’s more, once the oil-loving
bacteria have finished extracting the energy from hydrocarbons, the formerly complex chains of
molecules have been broken down into two harmless products, carbon dioxide and water. Even
better, some bioremediating bacteria actually leave by-products that are commercially useful, such
as sulphite-loving bugs that create methane. The basic processes used by bioremediating bacteria
are also those behind fermentation, whose useful products include beer and wine.
[16] Hydrocarbons present one of the two major challenges which are being dealt with by
bioremediation, the other being dangerous military leftovers from the Cold War such as chemical
weapons. It was, in fact, a military problem which led to the foundation of the modern
bioremediation industry. When US forces in the Korean conflict [14] of the early 1950s found their
uniforms disintegrating in the humid climate, Howard Worne was commissioned by the US
government to look into the situation and found that the culprit wasn’t a new weapon but a micro-
organism which could break down fabrics previously been considered non-biodegradable. Worne
began an investigation to see whether other micro-organisms with similar powers existed, and
eventually isolated one which could degrade phenol, a common organic pollutant. His work was
taken up by others, and the continuing search for more and more pollutant-busting bacteria has
spurred on bioremediation since.
[17]The search has taken scientists to some strange places. Until recently, the most famous
thing to come out of a whale’s gut was Jonah[15], but Oregon State University toxicologist Morrie

134
Craig might be about to change that. Intrigued by the tolerance of Alaska’s bowhead whales to the
large concentrations of oil and other industrial pollutants which have accumulated in their food
chain, Craig began investigating the 1,000 or so species of bacteria that live in the leviathan’s gut,
and found himself staring at a bioremedial bonanza. He found some bacteria which digested hard-
to-break-down oil carcinogens like naphthalene and anthracene, and others which made short
work of[16] PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyl), industrial pollutants which have long been linked to
cancer.
[18]Furthermore, the whale bacteria proved to be anaerobic, capable of converting the
pollutants to non-toxic substances in the absence of oxygen, in contrast to aerobic bio-remediating
bacteria found in sea-water which need oxygen to function. This would make the whale bacteria
particularly useful in tackling oil that has seeped underground.
[19] Craig’s gut instincts have also hit pay dirt[17] with a bacterium found in the stomachs of
sheep and goats which has the ability to break down TNT, a common contaminant at munitions
sites. Craig’s discovery was timely, as other bacteria had only managed to break TNT down into
other toxic substances. TNT is also facing the squeeze from a whale rot fungus which last year
degraded over 97 per cent of TNT in the soil at one US test site. Another weapons material, RDX,
was bioremediated completely at the same site.
[20] Recent research at America’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory has also found amoeba-
associated bacteria packing a powerful punch against weapons material, TNT and napalut, as well
as removing mercury from contaminated soil and The Pentagon has found two new techniques to
deal with, 1,800 tonnes of the nerve gas VX in Indiana, in which bioremediation finishes off a
process of treatment.
[21] A more unexpected triumph for bioremediation came in 1993 when an Australian
researcher, David Bourne, came across a member of the Sphingamonas bacterium which
destroyed the poison in one of the commonest blue-green alga, microcystis. Also known as
cyanobacteria, blue-green algae are being increasingly linked with cancer in humans, and until
now they have proved difficult to deal with. Sphingamonas makes three enzymes which break
down the most powerful toxin produced by microcystis into harmless amino acids, holding out
hope for dealing with deadly algal blooms that are an increasing hazard on summer waterways.
[22] Not all pollutants have fallen to the mean[18] green treatment – 50 percent breakdown is
the best figure so far[19] for dioxins[20], for example. But scientists are now working hard to fill in
the gaps in their knowledge caused by the absence of comprehensive theoretical models
explaining the interactions within variable combinations of bacterial contaminant/soil systems in
the field. Sometimes, though, bioremediation seems simplicity itself, as the Australians proved in
1994. Take one phenol-polluted site at a Melbourne herbicide factory. Spread animal manure.
Wait one year. Phenol gone.
【注释】
[1]Chernobyl:切尔诺贝利,位于乌克兰的前苏联第一座核电站, 1986 年 4 月 26 日凌晨发
生核泄漏事故
[2]strontium, uranium, lead, cadmium, oil and nerve gas:锶,铀,铅,镉,油和毒气
[3]white rot fungus, Indian mustard, sunflowers – and whale gut nacteria:白腐菌、印度芥菜、向
日葵——及大肠杆菌
[4]”Where there’s muck there’s brass” : “要挣钱就别怕脏”,其中 muck 和 brass 意思分别
为“粪肥;垃圾”和“黄铜”

135
[5]impeccable green credentials:完美的绿色保证
[6]bioremediation and phytoremediation :生物还原学和植物还原学,其中 bioremediation 由
bio-( 生命/生物)+remediation(补习/纠正)构成,phytoremediation 由 phyto-(植物)+remediation
构成
[7]rhizofiltration:根茎滤清法,其构成方法为 rhizo-(根茎)+filtration(过滤)
[8]phytovolatolisation:植物探求法,前面的 phytostabilisation 意为“植物稳定法”
[9]dilution:稀释
[10] an American company, Phytotech, took up the baton proffered by academic research :美国
一家名叫“植物技术”的公司接过学术研究的接力棒
[11]drew up:吸收
[12]spurred on:激励;鼓励
[13] The Pig’s Eye Landfill:猪眼垃圾填埋场
[14] the Korean conflict:朝鲜战争,指 1950 年 6 月 15 日开始的朝鲜人民反对美国侵略,争
取祖国统一和独立的战争。
[15] Jonah:约拿,亦称约纳,《圣经·旧约》中的人物。约拿不听上帝要他去尼尼微城宣教的
召唤,登海船企图远走,遇风暴被抛入海,又被大鱼吞下,在鱼腹中 3 日,最后大鱼将其
吐到岸上。
[16] made short work of :迅速解决;除掉;杀死。后面的缩略语 PCBs 指 polychlorinated
biphenyl(多氯化联二苯),其构词方式为 poly(多)+chlorinated(氯化)+bi(二)+phenyl(苯基)。
[17] hit pay dirt:得到有益收获
[18] mean:[俚]高明的;完美的
[19] so far:到目前为止
[20]dioxin:[化学]戴奥辛,用来除草的一种剧毒化合物

Exercises

I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1)What do you know about the Chernobyle accident?
2)What are the “enemies” and the “good guys” according to paragraph 1?
3)Use the word-formation knowledge in English to figure out the meaning of the words
“bioremediation” and “phytoremediation”.
4)Give the full form of the abbreviation “TNT”.
5)Find out the definitions of “phytoextraction” and “rhizofiltration” from the text.
6)Why do certain plants absorb large doses of metal?
7)What are used to deal with lead, uranium-contaminated water and selenium in the U. S.?
8)What is radionuclide? Give a few examples.
9)What can be used to deal with inorganic pollutants?
10) What is the problem with the American soldiers in the Korean War of the 1950s according to
the text?
11)What does PCBs mean?
12) What is the property of the bacteria in bowhead whales according to paragraph 18?
13)What has the ability to break down TNT according to paragraph 19?
14)How does the Sphingamonas bacterium deal with the commonest blue-green alga?

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15)What does the “new way” mean in the title of the text?
2. Paraphrase
1) ”Where there’s muck there’s brass” is a saying that could have been coined for environmental
clean-up.
2) Proper studies using plants in environmental clean-up began in the late 1980s, but it was not
until the early 1990s that an American company, Phytotech, took up the baton proffered by
academic research[10] and turned it into a corporation.
3) Until recently, the most famous thing to come out of a whale’s gut was Jonah, but Oregon State
University toxicologist Morrie Craig might be about to change that.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
strontium, cadmium, fungus, mustard, peptide, selenium, phytostablisation, phenol, phyto-
volatolisation, carcinogen, naphthalene, anthracene, anaerobic
2. Describe the process of the nuclear reaction.
3. Rewrite the following passage to make it satisfy the stylistic or grammatical features of EST.
As people find oil deep in the ground, a study of the surface cannot determine its presence.
Consequently, prospectors must carry out a geological survey of the underground rocks structure.
If people think that the rocks in a certain area contain oil, workers will assemble a “drilling rig”
there. People call the most obvious part of a drilling rig “a derrick”. Workers use it to lift sections
of pipe, which they lower into the hole made by the drill. As some workers are drilling the hole,
some others push down a steel pipe to prevent the sides from falling in. If people strike oil, they
will firmly fix a cover to the top of the pipe and they allow the oil to escape through a series of
valves.
4 Write a 1000-word thesis entitled “Effective Ways of Dealing With Pollutants ”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
Indian mustard, phytovolatolisation, Rocky mountains, nickel-rich soil, high-yield crops, the Pig’s
Eye Landfill, caesium, sulphite-loving bug, PCB, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Phytovolatolisation, by contrast, is where plants take up pollutants (particularly selenium and
mercury) and then release them into the atmosphere – a pollution solution via dilution [9] which is
perhaps more pleasing as a rhyme than as an answer to the problem.
2) The earning potential of bio- and phytoremediation is huge, but British companies have been
painfully slow to grab a slice of the action.
3) Not all pollutants have fallen to the mean green treatment – 50 percent breakdown is the best
figure so far for dioxins, for example.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraphs 19 and 20 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the
transfer.

137
IV. Webquest task
Do a quick electronic search for the measures which have been taken by humans to deal with
toxic waste.

V. Gap-filling (Cloze or fill in the blanks)


1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

property poison chronic expose offspring


hazard alkaline facility dispose radioactive

Hazardous wastes are classified on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical
______. These properties generate materials that are either toxic, reactive, ignitable, corrosive,
infectious, or radioactive. Toxic wastes are ______, even in very small or trace amounts. They
may have acute effects, causing death or violent illness, or they may have ______ effects, slowly
causing irreparable harm. Some are carcinogenic, causing cancer after many years of ______.
Others are mutagenic, causing major biological changes in the of exposed humans and wildlife.
Reactive wastes are chemically unstable and react violently with air or water. They cause
explosions or form toxic vapours. Ignitable wastes burn at relatively low temperatures and may
cause an immediate fire ______. Corrosive wastes include strong acidic or ______ substances.
They destroy solid material and living tissue upon contact, by chemical reaction.
Infectious wastes include used bandages, hypodermic needles, and other materials from
hospitals or biological research ______. Radioactive wastes emit ionizing energy that can harm
living organisms. Because some radioactive materials can persist in the environment for many
thousands of years before fully decaying, there is much concern over the control of these wastes.
However, the handling and ______ of radioactive material is not a responsibility of local
municipal government. Owing to the scope and complexity of the problem, the management of
_______ waste (particularly nuclear-fission waste) is usually considered to be a separate
engineering task from other forms of hazardous-waste management and is discussed separately in
nuclear reactor: Nuclear fuel cycle.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
The fourth Conference of Parties to the Basel Convention _[1]_ waste management, held
under UNEP auspices in Kuching, Malaysia, in February, was attended by more than 300
environment officials from 117 countries. UNEP Executive Director Klaus Tipfer called _[2]_
solidarity in ratifying the 1995 ban _[3]_ the export of toxic waste from industrialized to
industrializing countries. The meeting agreed _[4]_ the content of the list of materials defined
_[6]_ hazardous and on a list of countries that were permitted to trade _[6]_ themselves in toxic
wastes.
UNEP also sponsored a five-day meeting in Montreal _[7]_ June and July that was attended
by delegates from more than 100 countries. Its aim was to reduce or ban the use of what were held

138
to be the 12 most dangerous substances, _[8]_ the hope of drafting a treaty reducing emissions of
them from 2001. The 12 were PCBs, chlorinated furans, dioxins, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, DDT,
chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, toxaphene, and heptachlor.
[1]of on upon about
[2]on upon for off
[3]of about on with
[4]to with on onto
[5]for as by for
[6]between in of among
[7]between across over through
[8]for with at in

Unit 9
Guidelines for Using a Cellphone Abroad

[1] A majority of the world’s cellphone subscribers [1] — 82 percent — use the GSM
technology standard, according to the GSM [2] Association. In the United States, the major
carriers[3] use two systems. Cingular (now AT&T[4]) and T-Mobile [5] use GSM, while Sprint[6] and
Verizon[7] use CDMA[8], an incompatible[9] technology.
[2] CDMA technology is found in North America, as well as some Asian countries, but it is
basically nonexistent in Europe. As a result, Sprint and Verizon customers can use their phones in
just 26 countries. (AT&T and T-Mobile customers can potentially use theirs in over a hundred.)
[3] When traveling in non-CDMA countries, Sprint and Verizon customers can rent or
purchase GSM phones from those providers. Sprint rents a Motorola Razr [10] for $58 for the first
week, and $70 for two weeks, plus $1.29 to $4.99 a minute of airtime. Verizon charges $3.99 a
day to rent, plus $1.49 to $4.99 a minute. Verizon also sells three combo [11] CDMA-GSM models,

139
priced from $150 to $600 with a two-year contract.
[4] Cingular and T-Mobile customers have more options — if their existing phones can pick
up multiple frequencies. To complicate matters, the American GSM standard operates on 850 and
1,900 megahertz [12], while the rest of the GSM world uses 900 and 1,800 megahertz.
[5] To use an American GSM cellphone in a foreign country, the handset [13] you own must be
tri-band [14] or quad-band [15] and able to operate on one or both of the frequencies [16] used outside
the United States. The Cingular and T-Mobile Web sites, as well as Telestial’s and others, list the
predominant frequencies used in each country, and show if your phone can operate on one or both
overseas bands.
[6] To protect against fraud, American cellphones are typically blocked [17] from making calls
when used abroad. Before traveling, call your provider and ask to have that restriction removed.
[7] GSM phones use SIM cards (subscriber identity modules), tiny electronic chips [18] that
hold a cellphone’s “brains,” including the subscriber’s contact numbers and phone number.
(CDMA phones store such information directly in the hardware)
[8] GSM customers can avoid sky-high [19] roaming charges [20] by replacing their American
SIM cards with ones from other countries. For example, travelers to Britain can pick up a SIM
card from the British carrier Vodafone[21]; once inserted, it gives the phone a temporary British
phone number. Calls within Britain and to the United States would be much cheaper.
[9] For example, T-Mobile charges its customers 99 cents a minute for using their phones in
Britain, whether calling a pub in London or your home in New Jersey.
[10] Insert a prepaid British SIM card from a company like Telestial instead, and local calls
drop to 26 cents a minute, while calls back to the United States cost 9 to 14 cents a minute.
[11] Another benefit when using overseas SIM cards is that incoming calls are typically free
in most countries.
[12] Overseas SIM cards can be purchased before you travel from companies like Cellular
Abroad (www.cellularabroad.com) and Telestial (www.telestial.com) or at local shops in foreign
countries.
[13] Even if you have a GSM phone that operates on both overseas frequencies, domestic
cellphone providers do not want you to use your phone with another company’s SIM card,
because they do not make any money when you do. To prevent your doing so, cellphones bought
through Cingular and T-Mobile are electronically locked — they accept only their own company’s
SIM cards.
[14] Before you throw your phone off the Eiffel Tower [22] in frustration, know that there are
several ways to unlock your phone and avoid those high overseas roaming rates.
[15] Cingular and T-Mobile will unlock their customers’ phones under certain conditions.
Cingular will provide unlock codes to customers whose contracts have expired, who have
canceled their service and paid an early termination fee, or who have paid a full rather than
subsidized price for their phones, according to Rich Blasi, a Cingular Wireless spokesman
[16] T-Mobile has more lenient [23] policies. It will provide the unlock code to any customer
after 90 days of service, but no more than one unlock code will be provided every 90 days, said
Graham Crow, a T-Mobile spokesman.
[17] If you do not meet these requirements, you can still get your phone unlocked from a
private company. For a few dollars, the Travel Insider and UnlockTelecom will provide your
phone’s specific unlocking code.

140
[18] Cellphone customers with dual-band GSM phones that cannot be used overseas can
always purchase unlocked quad-band phones from third-party providers. These phones can be
used solely when traveling outside the United States. Since they are unlocked, they can also be
used instead of your current phone on your American network.
[19] Because the phone is not subsidized by a carrier, the price is higher. For example, an
unlocked quad-band Motorola Razr V3 can be bought for $140 from Cellular Blowout. Cellular
Abroad and Telestial also sell unlocked phones.
【注释】
[1]subscriber:用户
[2]GSM:Global System for Mobile Communications 全球移动通信系统
[3]carrier:运营商
[4]AT&T : American Telephone & Telegraph Company :美国电话电报公司,是一家美国电
信公司,前身是由电话发明人贝尔于 1877 年创建的美国贝尔电话公司,曾长期垄断美国长
途和本地电话市场。AT&T 在近 20 年中,曾经过多次分拆和重组。目前,AT&T 是美国最大
的本地和长途电话公司, 总部位于得克萨斯州圣安东尼奥。
[5]T-Mobile :一家跨国移动电话运营商,是德国电信的子公司,属于 Freemove 联盟。 T-
Mobile 在西欧和美国运营 GSM 网络并通过金融手段参与东欧和东南亚的网络运营。该公司
拥有 1.09 亿用户, 是世界上最大的移动电话公司之一,总部位于德国波恩。
[6]Sprint:一家全球性通信公司,美国第四大无线通讯运营商
[7]Verizon:全球顶尖通信服务商之一,美国最大的无线通信服务提供商,提供全球网络解
决方案,相应的数字和 IP 产品服务。
[8]CDMA:Code Division Multiple Access 码分多址
[9]incompatible:不兼容的
[10]Motorola Razr:美国通信企业摩托罗拉公司生产的一款手机
[11]combo:结合体
[12]megahertz:兆赫
[13]handset:手机
[14]tri-band:三波段
[15]quad-band:四波段
[16]frequency:频率
[17]block:阻碍
[18]chip:芯片
[19]sky-high:极其高的
[20]roaming charge:漫游费
[21]Vodafone :沃达丰,全球最大的移动通信运营商,拥有世界上最完备的企业信息管理
系统和客户服务系统,总部设在英国波克夏郡的纽布利和德国的杜塞尔多夫。 Vodafone 的
名称结合了 Voice(语音)-Data(数据)-Fone(电话)三个意思。
[22]Eiffel Tower : 埃菲尔铁塔,位于法国巴黎市中心塞纳河左岸的战神校场上,是 1884
年法国政府为庆祝 1789 年法国资产阶级大革命一百周年,举办世界博览会而建立起来的永
久性纪念物,以其设计者居斯塔夫·埃菲尔的名字命名。
[23]lenient: 宽 松 的

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension

141
1. Questions and tasks
1)What are the two systems major carriers in United States use?
2)What measures can CDMA customers take when they travel in non-CDMA countries according
to paragraph 3?
3)Analyze the formation of “tri-band” and “quad-band” and list some words with the same
formation.
4)Is there any restriction for American cellphones according to the text?
5)What’s the difference between GSM and CDMA in using SIM?
6)What can a GSM customer do to avoid high roaming charges?
7)What are the benefits when the travelers use overseas SIM card?
8)What system do you use as a subscriber? Share your experience with the other readers.
9)How can you unlock the cellphone and avoid high roaming rates?
2. Paraphrase
1)To protect against fraud, American cellphones are typically blocked from making calls when
used abroad.
2)GSM phones use SIM cards (subscriber identity modules), tiny electronic chips that hold a
cellphone’s “brains,” including the subscriber’s contact numbers and phone number.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
subscriber, carrier, incompatible, combo, subscriber identity module, electronic chip, roaming
charge, incoming call, unlock code
2. Describe how to use a cellphone according to the text in your own words. .
3. Write a 300-word composition entitled “My experience of using cellphone when traveling ”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
Carrier, incompatible technology, quad-band, predominant frequencies, sky-high, termination fee,
roaming rates, unlock code
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Before you throw your phone off the Eiffel Tower in frustration, know that there are several
ways to unlock your phone and avoid those high overseas roaming rates.
2) Cingular will provide unlock codes to customers whose contracts have expired, who have
canceled their service and paid an early termination fee, or who have paid a full rather than
subsidized price for their phones, according to Rich Blasi, a Cingular Wireless spokesman.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 3 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “Bluetooth Technology”, which is now widely used for some
mobilephones.

142
V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

take, transfer, store, enter,


avoid, plug, pay, ring, get, add

When ___ numbers in your phone, always _ _ the plus (+) sign and the country code; that
way, the number can be dialed automatically no matter from what country you are calling.
_ __ your GSM phone’s numbers in the phone itself, rather than the SIM card. Then the
numbers will still be available to you when you use an overseas SIM card. To _ _ them to a new
phone easily, store them on a device like Backup-Pal, an external U.S.B. memory unit.
While you will not ___ _any charges for incoming calls when you use a foreign SIM card,
tell your American callers to get an overseas calling plan from their phone company before you
ask them to ___ _ you. If they do not, they could be paying the same sky-high rates that you just
__ .
And if you __ _ your American phone overseas, make sure that its battery charger is dual
voltage; without one, all the effort to__ your phone to work in other countries may go up in
smoke the first time you__ it in.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.

As a T-Mobile subscriber, Ken Grunski, a businessman in San Diego, knew that his
cellphone would work during a trip to Tanzania. What he did not __[1]__ was the bill: $800 for 10
days’ use.
“I didn’t think I was going to use my phone that much,” Mr. Grunski said. “But two to three
10-minute calls a day, and it adds _[2]_.”
What a shame that Mr. Grunski did not_[3]_ his own company’s advice. If he had, he would
have saved himself a bundle.
Mr. Grunski owns Telestial, a company that sells SIM cards, small chips that _[4]_ those in
cellphones sold by T-Mobile and Cingular and lower the costs of calls when overseas.
While his American phone worked abroad without one, Mr. Grunski was paying sky-high
rates because he was _[5]_ in a foreign country. T-Mobile charged him $5 a minute to roam in
Tanzania.
If Mr. Grunski had used one of the SIM cards he sells, he would have paid $1.15 a minute to
call the United States and his calls —_[6]_16 minutes a day — would have cost him $184,
_[7]_$800.
While Americans have embraced the convenience of using cellphones, trying to dial from
overseas often brings __[8]__. Even if the phone works, voice mail may not. Depending on the
handset, coverage can be spotty. Make the wrong choices, and you may find a huge bill.
The right tactics to __[9]__ those headaches depend on which carrier you use, the __[10]__

143
of your trip and your destination.

[1] suppose want expect get


[2] with over up to
[3] listen hear watch heed
[4] change control replace master
[5] roaming walking jogging running
[6] saying averaging supposing imagining
[7] other than but rather than however
[8] happiness joy wonder surprises
[9] cause have avoid strengthen
[10] width height length weight

Unit 10
Closer to Vanishing: Bending Light as a Step toward Invisibility Cloaks [1]
by Davide Castelvecchi

[1]Harry Potter fans, do not despair! Invisibility cloaks may be a long shot, but last year
physicists demonstrated technology that might someday hide you from radar. Now, two groups of
researchers have taken steps toward performing the same trick with visible light.
[2]Light rays passing from one transparent material to another generally refract [2], or change
direction. That's why a pencil looks broken when partially submerged in water. Recently,
physicists have begun to explore materials with a characteristic called negative refraction. If water
had that property, the underwater half of the pencil would appear to stick out above the surface.
[3]The first demonstration of negative refraction used materials that displayed the effect at one
particular microwave wavelength [3]. Last year, researchers showed that a suitably shaped piece of

144
negatively refracting material could hide an object by guiding microwaves around it.
[4]A team led by Henri Lezec of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena has now
achieved negative refraction for visible light over a spectrum [4] of blues and greens.
[5]Lezec's team built a micrometer-size prism [5] of layered metals perforated [6] by a maze [7] of
nanoscale[8] channels. Light striking the prism transforms into plasmons[9], two-dimensional waves
in which electromagnetic fields displace electrons along the metal surfaces. Guided by the
nanochannels, the plasmons travel through the prism, turning back into light when they emerge on
the other side.
[6]Made from a certain combination of metals and maze structures, the prism acted as if it were
made of negatively refracting material. The researchers describe their results in a paper published
online by Science on March 22.
[7]So far, their device works only when light rays striking the prism are in a particular plane.
"We're really doing optics in Flatland [10]," Lezec says, referring to an 1884 novella [11] whose
characters lived in a two-dimensional world.
[8]"This is an ingenious [12] and beautiful experiment," says Vladimir Shalaev of Purdue
University in West Lafayette, Ind. He says that turning light into plasmons may be the only way to
negatively refract a broad spectrum of visible light.
[9]Shalaev and his colleagues have recently come close to achieving direct negative refraction
of light. At a meeting of the American Physical Society in Denver earlier this month, he described
a negatively refracting material that works at infrared [13] wavelengths barely beyond the visible
spectrum.
[10]John Pendry of the Imperial College London doesn't view this material as an advance
toward the invisibility so useful in books. "You could do only cloaking in 2-D, which wouldn't be
very useful to Harry," he says.
[11]But microscopic components such as Lezec's could be useful for integrating optical circuits
into computer chips, he adds. That might increase computer speed because optical components
don't overheat.
【注释】
[1]cloak:斗篷
[2]refract:折射
[3]wavelength:波长
[4]spectrum:光谱
[5]prism:三棱镜
[6]perforate:在…..上打孔
[7]maze:迷宫,错综复杂
[8]nanoscale:纳米级,纳米是一种几何尺寸的度量单位, 1 纳米为百万分之一毫米,即 1 毫
微米,也就是十亿分之一米,略等于四十五个原子排列起来的长度。纳米结构通常是指尺
寸在 100 纳米以下的微小结构,也就是达到了纳米级
[9]plasmon:等离子
[10]Flatland : Edwin A. Abbott 在 1884 年 所著 的经 典故 事( Flatland: A Romance of Many
Dimensions)《平地:多维的罗曼史》描述了“四边形”(A. Square)的冒险经历。四边形是
一个生活在二维世界里的角色,在那里居住着能够活动的各种几何图形三角形、四边形、五
边形等等。在故事接近尾声的时候,即 2000 年的第一天,一个来自三维“空间地带”的球
形生物途径平地(Flatland),将四边形带离他的二维世界,向他展示出更大世界里的三维面

145
貌。当四边形逐渐了解球形世界所展示的一切时,他断定“空间地带”本身可能作为一个
很小的子空间而存在于一个更大的四维宇宙中。
[11]novella:短篇故事
[12]ingenious:设计独特的
[13]infrared:红外线

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1) Why does a pencil look broken when it is partially submerged in water?
2) What will happen to a pencil partially submerged in water if water has negative refraction
characteristics?
3) What is Lezec’s experiment according to paragraph 4 and paragraph 5?
4) Does Lezec’s device work in any situation?
5) What is Shalaev’s comment on Lezec’s experiment?
6) What is Shalaev and his colleagues’ achievement?
7) What is John Pendry’s comment on negatively refracting material?
8) Is the negatively refracting material useful to Harry Potter according to John Pendry?
2. Paraphrase
1) Lezec's team built a micrometer-size prism of layered metals perforated by a maze of nanoscale
channels.
2) Made from a certain combination of metals and maze structures, the prism acted as if it were
made of negatively refracting material.
3) At a meeting of the American Physical Society in Denver earlier this month, he described a
negatively refracting material that works at infrared wavelengths barely beyond the visible
spectrum.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
visible light, negative refraction, microwave wavelength, spectrum, nanoscale, plasmon, infrared
2. Describe the recent achievement on negative refraction according to the text.
3. Write a 400-word composition entitled “If I can make anything invisible”

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
invisibility cloak, visible light, negative refraction, microwave wavelength, nanoscale, two-
dimensional, microscopic components
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Now, two groups of researchers have taken steps toward performing the same trick with visible
light.
2) Light rays passing from one transparent material to another generally refract, or change
direction.

146
3) Last year, researchers showed that a suitably shaped piece of negatively refracting material
could hide an object by guiding microwaves around it.
4) The first demonstration of negative refraction used materials that displayed the effect at one
particular microwave wavelength.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 5 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for a novel named “the invisible man”, which is written by Herbert
George Wells

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

enable, claim, appear, demonstrate


assist, act, become, block, give, need

NEW YORK (AP) — A University of Tokyo professor ___ he and his research team have
developed a system that can make you "invisible." Engineering Professor Susumu Tachi is in the
early stages of technology that he says will eventually __ __ camouflaged (伪装的 ) objects to be
virtually transparent by wearing an optical device. Professor Tachi the technology on
Wednesday. In a photo of graduate student Kazutoshi Obana, it __ __ as if three men walking in
the background can be seen "through" Obana's green overcoat.
The retro-reflective material (回复反射物质) of the coat ____ as a screen and gives a transparent
— or invisible — effect.
For the best effect — one that keeps the correct depth of focus — the observer ___ to look
through a pinhole (针孔).
Tachi's second example shows the image of the skeleton being projected (投射) onto a sheet of the
retroreflective material, ____ the impression the body has ____ transparent.
The technology could be useful in medicine, where surgeons might use it during operations to
avoid having their fingers or surgical tools __ their view.
In aviation, cockpit (驾驶员座舱) floors could become "invisible" to ___ pilots in landing.
Professor Tachi hopes to have a commercially viable (可行的) system within a few years.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
The refractive index is a measure of how light _[1]__as it passes from one medium to another of
different density, like from air to water, or air to glass. If the light is traveling at right _[2]__ to the
surface between the two media, it does not bend at all, but the greater the angle between the light
and the surface, the more it is bent, the more __[3]___ occurs and the greater the difference
between the real and the apparent position of the object. Mathematically, it can be __[4]__ as the

147
ratio of the speed of light in the one medium to the speed of light in the other.
The effects of refraction are __[5]___ to all of us, although we may not know it. We may see it at a
__[6]_, when the sun is low in the sky. The light from the sun passes through the _[7]__ of space
into the air of our atmosphere and is therefore refracted. Since the light is coming into the
atmosphere at a low angle, it is bent a lot, producing great refraction. So much so, that when the
sun is a little below the horizon, the ___[8]___ in the atmosphere allows us to see it just above the
horizon. It is as though the sun has been __[9]___ up in the heavens. And since the light from the
lowest part of the sun comes in at the lowest angle, the lowest part of our star is raised __[10]__
the higher parts, making the sun appear oval and flattened nearest the horizon.

[1] travels bends shines moves


[2] place venue angle way
[3] change phenomenon distortion wonder
[4] expressed designed set said
[5] strange familiar vague clear
[6] sunrise sunset sunshine sunshade
[7] air gas vacuum liquid
[8] reflection refraction interaction function
[9] raising raised putting put
[10] more than less than other than rather than

Unit 11
Self-Serve Brains
--Personal identity veers [1] to the right hemisphere [2]
by Bruce Bower

[1]The concept of identity theft assumes an entirely new meaning for people with brain injuries
that rob them of their sense of self—the unspoken certainty that one exists as a person in a flesh—
bounded body with a unique set of life experiences and relationships. Consider the man who, after
sustaining serious brain damage, insisted that his parents, siblings, and friends had been replaced
by look-alikes whom he had never met. Everyone close to him had become a familiar-looking
stranger. Another brain-injured patient asserted that his physicians, nurses, and physical therapists
were actually his sons, daughters-in-law, and coworkers. He identified himself as an ice skater

148
whom he had seen on a television program.
[2]The sense of "I" can also go partially awry [3]. After a stroke had left one of her arms
paralyzed, a woman reported that the limb was no longer part of her body. She told a physician
that she thought of the arm as "my pet rock." [4]
[3]Other patients bequeath [5] their physical infirmities [6] to phantom [7] children. For instance, a
woman blinded by a brain tumor became convinced that it was her child who was sick and blind,
although the woman had no children.
[4]These strange transformations and extensions of personal identity are beginning to yield
insights into how the brain contributes to a sense of self, says neuroscientist [8] Todd E. Feinberg of
Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. Thanks to technology that literally gets inside
people's heads, researchers now are probing how the brain contributes to a sense of self and to
perceptions of one's body and its control. Scientists expect that their efforts to shed light on the
vexing [9] nature of consciousness, as well as on the roots of mental disorders, such as
schizophrenia [10], characterized by disturbed self-perception.

I spy
[5]Scholars have argued for more than 300 years about whether a unified sense of self exists at
all. A century ago, Sigmund Freud [11] developed his concept of ego, a mental mechanism for
distinguishing one's body and thoughts from those of other people. Around the same time,
psychologist William James disagreed, writing that each person's "passing states of
consciousness" create a false sense that an "I" or an ego runs the mental show.
[6]Researchers still debate whether the self is the internal engine of willful behavior or simply a
useful fiction that makes a person feel responsible for his or her actions. Some investigators argue
that each person harbors many selves capable of emerging in different situations and contexts.
[7]Regardless of philosophical differences, Feinberg notes, evidence suggests that the brain's
right hemisphere often orchestrates [12] basic knowledge about one's self, just as the left
hemisphere usually assumes primary responsibility for language.
[8]Disorders of the self caused by brain damage fall into two main categories, Feinberg
proposes. Some patients lose their personal connection to significant individuals or entities [13],
such as the man who thought everyone he knew was a familiar stranger and the woman who
regarded her lifeless arm as a pet rock. Other patients perceive personal connections where they
don't exist, such as the man who saw his medical caretakers as family and coworkers and the
woman who mentally conceived a phantom daughter.
[9]In both categories, Feinberg says, "right brain damage is much more likely than left brain
damage to cause lasting disturbances of the normal relationship between individuals and their
environments."
[10]Other neuroscientists take a similar view. According to brain-imaging studies conducted by
researchers including Jean Decety and Jessica A. Sommerville, both of the University of
Washington in Seattle, during the past 3 years, a right brain network located mainly in the frontal
lobe[14] organizes neural efforts aimed at discerning[15] one's body and thoughts. That network
overlaps [16] a brain circuit that plays a role in identifying others, perhaps contributing to the two-
sided nature of the self as "special and social, unique and shared," Decety and Sommerville said in
a seminal 2003 article.

149
The right me
[11]In order to coordinate the relationship between the self and the world, the brain takes sides,
according to work by Feinberg and Julian Paul Keenan of Montclair State University in New
Jersey. They analyzed patterns of brain damage in 29 previously published cases of disordered
selves. Injury to the frontal region of the right hemisphere occurred in 28 people, compared with
left-frontal damage in 14.
[12]Ten of the patients had also incurred injuries to other parts of the right brain, compared
with three individuals who displayed damage in other left brain areas, Feinberg and Keenan report
in the December 2005 Consciousness and Cognition.
[13]Research in the past decade on the recognition of one's face reached similar conclusions. In
a study directed by Keenan, adults with no known brain impairment [17] viewed images that
gradually transformed from their own faces into the face of a famous person such as Marilyn
Monroe [18] or Bill Clinton [19]. Participants alternated using their left or right hands to hit keys that
indicated whether they saw themselves or a famous person in each composite image.
[14]When responding with their left hands, volunteers identified themselves in composite
images more often than when they used their right hands. Since each side of the brain controls
movement on the opposite side of the body, the left-handed results implicated the right brain in
self-recognition.
[15]Similar findings came from epileptic [20] patients who underwent a medical procedure in
which one brain hemisphere at a time was anesthetized [21]. Keenan and his colleagues showed
each patient an image that blended features of his or her own face with facial features of a famous
person and later asked whose face the patient had seen. When tested with only the right brain
awake, most patients reported that they had seen their own faces. When only the left brain was
active, they usually recalled having seen the famous face.
[16]A brain-scan investigation of 10 healthy adults, published in the April 15, 2005
NeuroImage, also implicates the right hemisphere in self-recognition. A team led by Lucina Uddin
of the University of California, Los Angeles showed volunteers a series of images that, to varying
degrees, blended their own faces with those of same-sex coworkers. Participants pressed keys
indicating whether they saw themselves or a coworker in each image.
[17]Pronounced blood flow, a sign of heightened neural activity, appeared in certain parts of the
right hemisphere only when the participants recognized themselves, Uddin's group reports.
Previous studies in monkeys indicated that these areas of the brain contain so-called mirror
neurons [22], which respond similarly when an animal executes an action or observes another
animal perform the same action.
[18]A right brain network of these mirror neurons maintains an internal self-image for
comparison with faces that one sees, Uddin and her colleagues propose.
[19]Still, not everyone regards the right brain as central to the self. Todd F. Heatherton of
Dartmouth College in Hanover, N.H., and his coworkers reported in 2003 on a patient who had
had surgery to disconnect the bundle of nerve fibers that connects the neural hemispheres. That
split-brain patient recognized himself in images that blended his features with those of one of the
researchers only when the images appeared in his right visual field and were thus handled by his
left brain.
[20]"Recognition of the self is one of the most basic, yet poorly understood, cognitive
operations," Uddin says.

150
Losing control
[21]Chris Frith, a neuroscientist at University College London, has long wondered why people
diagnosed with schizophrenia often experience their own actions as being controlled by others. A
person with this severe mental disorder may report, for example, that space aliens ordered him to
behave destructively.
[22]Fifteen years ago, Frith thought that schizophrenia robbed people of the ability to monitor
their intentions to act. If their behavior came as a complete surprise, they might attribute it to
external forces.
[23]Frith abandoned that idea after reading neurologists' reports of a strange condition called
anarchic-hand syndrome [23]. Damage to motor areas on one side of the brain leaves these patients
unable to control the actions of the hand on the opposite side of the body. For example, when one
patient tried to soap a washcloth with his right hand, his left hand, much to his chagrin [24], kept
putting the soap back in its dish. Another patient used one hand to remove the other from
doorknobs[25], which it repeatedly grabbed as he walked by doors.
[24]Despite being unaware of any intention to use a hand in these ways, anarchic-hand patients
don't experience their behavior as controlled by space aliens or another outside entity—they just
try to correct their wayward hands.
[25]Frith now suspects that anarchic-hand syndrome and schizophrenia's delusions of being
controlled by others share a neural defect that makes it seem like one's movements occur
passively. However, people with schizophrenia mistakenly perceive the passive movements as
having been intentional.
[26]In support of this possibility, Frith and his colleagues find that when shown scenes of
abstract shapes moving across a computer screen, patients with schizophrenia, but not mentally
healthy volunteers, attribute good and bad intentions to these shapes. Patients with schizophrenia
may monitor their own actions in excruciating [26] detail for signs of external control, Frith
suggests.
[27]In general, people rarely think about their selves but act as if such entities must exist. "The
normal mark of the self in action is that we have very little experience of it," Frith says.
[28]Harvard University psychologist Daniel Wegner goes further. Expanding the view of
William James, Wegner argues that the average person's sense of having a self that consciously
controls his or her actions is an illusion. This controversial proposal builds on an experiment
conducted more than 20 years ago by neurophysiologist Benjamin Libet of the University of
California, San Francisco.
[29]Libet found that although volunteers' conscious decisions to perform a simple action
preceded the action itself, they occurred just after a distinctive burst of electrical activity in the
brain signaled the person's readiness to move. In other words, people decided to act only after
their brains had unconsciously prepared them to do so.
[30]Wegner has since performed experiments demonstrating the ease with which people claim
personal responsibility for actions that they have not performed. In one study, participants looked
in a mirror at the movements of an experimenter's arms situated where their own arms would be.
When the arms moved according to another researcher's instructions, volunteers reported that they
had willed the movements.
[31]Feinberg says that these findings offer no reason to write off the self as a mental mirage [27].

151
【注释】
[1]veer:转向
[2]hemisphere:半球
[3]awry:错误的,歪曲的
[4]pet rock: 宠物石,一个叫做 Gary Dahi 的美国加州人和朋友聊宠物时,突发灵感,想到
石头是理想的宠物,既不会把房子弄的一团糟,也不会花费时间打理.他将这个创意迅速
商品化,于是圣诞最火爆的礼物--石头宠物出现,成为 30 年最受欢迎的礼物
[5]bequeath:遗留
[6]infirmity:缺点
[7]phantom:幻觉的
[8]neuroscientist:神经学家
[9]vexing:苦恼的
[10]schizophrenia:精神分裂症
[11]Sigmund Freud:西格蒙德·弗洛伊德,奥地利精神分析学家。精神分析学的创始人。著作
有《梦的解析》 、
《精神分析引论》等。提出“潜意识”、“自我”、“本我”、“超我”、原 欲
(Libido)、俄底浦斯(Oedipus)情结和厄勒克特拉(Electra)情结等概念,对哲学、心理学、
美学、社会学、文学等都有深刻的影响。
[12]orchestrate:编管弦乐曲
[13]entity:实体
[14]frontal lobe:额叶
[15]discern:辨别
[16]overlap:重叠
[17]impairment:损害
[18]Marilyn Monroe:玛丽莲·梦露,美国 20 世纪最著名的电影女演员之一。她充满激情的
表演风格和英年早逝使得她成为了影迷心目中的性感女神性感符号和流行文化的标志性人
物。
[19]Bill Clinton:比尔·克林顿,美国第 42 任总统(1993-2001),克林顿任期内美国经历了有
史以来最长的经济增长期,他也是现代美国总统中离任时公众支持率最高的总统。
[20]epileptic:癫痫的
[21]anesthetize:使麻痹
[22]mirror neuron:镜像神经元
[23]anarchic-hand syndrome:他人手综合症
[24]chagrin : 懊 恼
[25]doorknobs:门把手
[26]excruciating:极痛苦的
[27]mirage:幻景

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1) What is identity theft according to paragraph 1?
2) What is William James argument to disagree with Freud’s view?
3) According to Feinberg, what are the two main categories of disorders of the self caused by
brain damage?

152
4) In the first sentence in paragraph 13, what dose “the similar conclusion” refer to?
5) Does everybody regard the right hemisphere as the central to the self?
6) Why did Frith abandon his idea that he held fifteen years ago?
7) What is Frith suspicion now when he is researching on anarchic-hand syndrome and
schizophrenia?
8) What is Wegner’s argument based on William James’ view?
9) What had Libet found in his experiment?
2. Paraphrase
1) The concept of identity theft assumes an entirely new meaning for people with brain injuries
that rob them of their sense of self—the unspoken certainty that one exists as a person in a flesh—
bounded body with a unique set of life experiences and relationships.
2) Scientists expect that their efforts to shed light on the vexing nature of consciousness, as well
as on the roots of mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, characterized by disturbed self-
perception.
3) In order to coordinate the relationship between the self and the world, the brain takes sides,
according to work by Feinberg and Julian Paul Keenan of Montclair State University in New
Jersey.
4) In support of this possibility, Frith and his colleagues find that when shown scenes of abstract
shapes moving across a computer screen, patients with schizophrenia, but not mentally healthy
volunteers, attribute good and bad intentions to these shapes.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
hemisphere, ego, schizophrenia, lobe, epileptic, anesthetize, anarchic-hand syndrome, mental
mechanism, mirror neuron, composite image
2. Describe the contribution of right hemisphere to the recognition of self.
3. Write a 300-word composition entitled “the importance of the right hemisphere”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
neuroscientist, neurophysiologist, anarchic-hand syndrome, frontal lobe, mirror neuron, brain
tumor, mental mechanism, disorder of the self, composite image
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Thanks to technology that literally gets inside people's heads, researchers now are probing how
the brain contributes to a sense of self and to perceptions of one's body and its control.
2) When responding with their left hands, volunteers identified themselves in composite images
more often than when they used their right hands. Since each side of the brain controls movement
on the opposite side of the body, the left-handed results implicated the right brain in self-
recognition.
3) Libet found that although volunteers' conscious decisions to perform a simple action preceded
the action itself, they occurred just after a distinctive burst of electrical activity in the brain
signaled the person's readiness to move.

153
4) Feinberg says that these findings offer no reason to write off the self as a mental mirage
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 30 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “Brain hemisphere”,

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

vibrate, bend, measure, locate, adjust,


integrate, place, last, receive, stand

A young woman ______ in neuroscientist J. Henrik Ehrsson's laboratory at London's


University College and ______ her palms on her waist. Cuffs placed over her wrists begin to
_____ tendons (肌腱) just under the skin, creating the sensation that her hands are ______ inward.
At the same time, the woman feels her waist and hips shrink by several inches to accommodate
the imagined hand movements. Dr. Ehrsson's illusory instant-waist-loss program _____ only
about 30 seconds.
Ehrsson and his coworkers used a brain-imaging machine to ______ blood flow in the brains
of 24 people as they experienced this illusion. Parts of the left parietal cortex(顶叶皮层), ____
__ near the brain's midpoint, displayed especially intense activity as volunteers felt their waists
contract (收缩), the scientists report in the December 2005 PloS Biology.
The greater the parietal response, the more waist shrinkage the individual reported.
The scientists suspect that the activated parietal areas ______ sensory information from
different body parts, a key step in constructing an internal image of one's body size and shape.
When the brain _______ a message that the hands are bending into the waist, it ______ the
internal body image accordingly, Ehrsson's team hypothesizes (假定).
The brain can adjust its internal body map in a matter of minutes, the experiment
demonstrates. Researchers who similarly induced illusions of expanding fingers came to that same
conclusion.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.

Despite the proliferation ( 扩散 ) of such studies, the self's special status in the brain is__[1]__
assured. After ___[2]__ relevant brain imaging and psychology studies, neuroscientists Seth J.
Gillihan and Martha J. Farah, both of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, found little
compelling evidence for brain networks devoted solely to physical or psychological aspects of
the self.
At most, work such as Feinberg's with brain-damaged patients indicates that singular brain
networks __[3]__ between one's limbs and those of other people, the researchers say. There are

154
also suggestions that other brain areas foster a sense of control __[4]___ one's limb movements,
Gillihan and Farah reported in the January 2005 Psychological Bulletin.
Still, much of what we typically think of as "the self" may not be assignable ( 可归属的 ) to
brain states or structures, in their view.
Feinberg argues that each of the increasingly complex levels of the brain—__[5]__ the brain
stem ( 脑干 ), the limbic system ( 四肢系统 ), and the cortex ( 皮层 )—contributes to intentional
actions and to __[6]___ meaning in the world, the main ingredients of an "inner I."
Brain-damaged patients vividly illustrate the self's resiliency ( 弹 性 ), Feinberg adds. While
injury to the right frontal brain transforms some patients' identities in odd ways, other comparably
injured patients __[7]__ maintain their old selves.
A person's coping style and emotional resources usually influence responses to right brain
damage, according to Feinberg's clinical observations. For example, one patient, a young man
living half a world away from his family, ___[8]___ to his paralyzed left arm as his brother's arm.
Feinberg asked the man what it meant to him to __[9]__ his sibling's arm rather than his own.
"It makes me feel good," the man responded, in a voice choked __[10]__ emotion. "Having my
brother's arm makes me feel closer to my family."

[1] very completely far from somewhat


[2] looking scanning skimming reviewing
[3] mix combine work distinguish
[4] in on over at
[5] exclude excluding include including
[6] perceive perceiving sense sensation
[7] somehow somewhat anyhow anyway
[8] pointed insisted referred contributed
[9] lose remove use possess
[10] in of with by

Unit 12
The Mind of the Swarm
--Math explains how group behavior is more than the sum of its parts
by Erica Klarreich

[1]Few people can fail to marvel[1] at a flock of birds swooping[2] through the evening sky,
homing[3] in with certainty on its chosen resting place. The natural world abounds with other
spectacular examples of animals moving in concert: a school of fish making a hairpin turn, an ant
colony building giant highways, or locusts marching across the plains.
[2]Since ancient times, scientists and philosophers have pondered how animals coordinate their
movements, often in the absence of any leader. Coordinated groups can range in scale from just a

155
few individuals to billions, and they can consist of an intelligent species or one whose members
have barely enough brainpower to recognize each other.
[3]Despite these differences, similar patterns of motion appear again and again throughout the
animal kingdom. This congruence[4] in behavior has led researchers to speculate for about 70 years
that a few simple rules might underpin[5] many sophisticated group motions. However,
establishing just what these rules are is no easy matter.
[4]"Imagine a space alien looking at rush hour traffic on the L.A. freeway," says Julia Parrish of
the University of Washington in Seattle, who studies fish schooling. "It thinks the cars are
organisms and wonders how they're moving in a polarized way without collisions. The reason is
that there's a set of rules everyone knows.
[5]"We're the space aliens looking at fish, and we don't have the driver's manual," she says.
[6]In recent years, mathematicians and biologists have started to get glimpses of just what may
be in that manual. They have constructed mathematical models of animal swarms and colonies
that take inspiration from decades of physics research. In physicists' studies of magnetism[6], for
instance, they have elucidated[7] how simple local interactions give rise to complex, large-scale
phenomena. Using a combination of computer simulations and experiments with real animals,
researchers are explicating[8] how a trio[9] of physics and engineering principles—nonlinearity[10],
positive feedback, and phase transitions[11]—may be basic ingredients from which a wide variety
of animal-swarming behaviors takes shape.
[7]"This is a more and more exciting area in which to work," says Iain Couzin, who studies
collective animal behavior at the University of Oxford in England and Princeton University. "We
have the mathematical foundations to investigate phenomena quickly and effectively."

Positive food back


[8]Anyone who has left crumbs on the kitchen counter knows the brutal efficiency with which
ants can capitalize[12] on such a mistake. As soon as one ant discovers a tempting morsel[13],
thousands more create and follow a trail between the food source and their nest.
"[9]Ants follow only local rules ... but the resulting trail structure is built on a scale well
beyond that of a single ant," said David Sumpter of the University of Oxford in England in an
article on animal groups in the January Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.
[10]In 2001, using mathematical modeling and lab experiments, Sumpter and two colleagues
studied how foraging[14] pharaoh's ants[15] build trails. The researchers turned up a striking group
behavior: Just as water abruptly turns to ice at the freezing point, foraging behavior undergoes a
"phase transition" at a certain critical colony size.
[11]If an ant colony is small, foragers wander about randomly and, even if some of the ants
discover food, no trail persists. If a colony is large, the ants' trails build into a superhighway to the
food that they find. Somewhere in between—in the case of the experimental ants, at a colony size
of 700 members—the colony's behavior switches suddenly.
[12]While this sharp transition might seem unexpected, the researchers weren't altogether
surprised to find it because the mathematical principles underlying their model of foraging
behavior make such a transition likely. When an ant discovers a food source, it deposits chemicals
called pheromones[16] along its trail back to the nest. If another ant happens to wander across the
trail, it detects the pheromones and tends to follow that trail. Once it discovers the food, it will
deposit pheromones of its own along the trail, reinforcing it and making future ants that encounter

156
it even more likely to follow it—exemplifying[17] what engineers call a positive-feedback loop[18].
However, pheromones gradually evaporate[19], so if a trail is little used, it will eventually vanish.
[13]If a colony is small, few ants wander around and they are unlikely to happen upon a trail
before the pheromones evaporate. The colony collects only as much food as each ant, working
independently, can find.
[14]By contrast, in a large colony, many ants are likely to find a given trail, and their combined
deposits of pheromones have a multiplicative[20] effect on the colony's behavior. There's a jump in
efficiency that makes a large colony more than the sum of independently working ants, Sumpter
says.
[15]In mathematical terms, the ants' behavior is nonlinear: If a colony, say, doubles in size, its
trails more than double in strength. This happens because, at any moment, a trail's growth reflects
the product of how many ants have already found the trail and how many ants are now likely to
stumble upon[21] it.
[16]The result of this nonlinear growth is to eliminate the middle ground. If a trail doesn't
evaporate, it will burgeon[22] into a bustling[23] superhighway.
[17]In each of these extremes, the individual ants are following the same rules, points out
Stephen Pratt, who studies collective animal behavior at Arizona State University in Tempe. "In
the old days, the focus would have been on what has changed about the animal when it goes from
one state to another," he says. "What's new is to move the question up a level and ask how
changing a single environmental variable, like density, can cause these dramatic changes in group
behavior."
[18]Positive feedback and nonlinearity, which are ingredients in a wide range of animal
interactions, enable animal groups to generate behaviors that are more than the sum of their parts,
Sumpter says.

Global swarming
[19]Phase transitions, far from being limited to ant colonies, appear to be a ubiquitous [24] feature
of animal groups. In 2002, for instance, Couzin and his team showed that a few simple rules for
fish interactions yielded phase transitions between swarming behaviors.
[20]Basing their work on a particle-interaction model from physics, the researchers represented
each fish as a single particle. They assumed three rules about how the particles interact: Each fish
tries to avoid colliding with other fish, stays with the group, and aligns its swimming direction
with that of nearby fish within some defined zone around itself.
[21]Variations of these rules have been studied for decades, but only recently has computer
power grown to the point where researchers can simulate the movements of, say, 10,000 fish.
[22]The researchers also assumed that fish can modify their sensitivity to their neighbors, that
is, the size of their alignment zones [25]. The team found that as the individuals' alignment zones
grow, the school's architecture undergoes two sharp transitions.
[23]When the alignment zone around each fish is negligible in size, so that the fish barely pay
attention to their neighbors' directions, each fish swims in a random direction within the group. At
a certain critical size of the alignment zone, the fish suddenly start following each other to
produce a doughnut-shaped swarm. As the alignment zone continues to grow, the fish start
swimming in parallel, as in a migration.
[24]"The model switches very dramatically and quickly between patterns," Couzin says.

157
[25]As fish take into account more and more of their neighbors, the alignment
between them grows nonlinearly, leading to the sharp transitions that the team
observed. While biologists have never, to Couzin's knowledge, studied a fish
school in the act of changing from one of the three swarming patterns to
another, each of the patterns has been observed frequently in nature.
[26]"When we first saw [the doughnut] pattern in the simulations, I thought 'That's really
weird!'" Couzin recalls. "But then we found in the literature that it really does appear in nature."
[27]The model shows that simple rules for how fish interact with their neighbors can give rise
to complex, schoolwide patterns. Couzin reports, "There's nothing in the individual rules that
says, 'Go in a circle,' but it happens spontaneously."
[28]Likewise, the model offers an explanation for how fish schools change their behaviors on
the fly—for instance, if a predator suddenly appears. "Very subtle adjustments in the rules allow
you to create all these structures without complicated actions on the part of the individual,"
Couzin says.
[29]Preliminary experimental evidence suggests that fish can indeed adjust the sizes of their
alignment zones. Parrish and Daniel Grunbaum, also of the University of Washington, have been
filming fish schools in the lab, then using computerized sensing software to track each fish's path.
"Sometimes, they pay attention to a lot of neighbors; sometimes, to just one," Parrish says.
[30]However, Parrish and Grunbaum caution, considerably more experimental data are needed
before researchers can say with confidence that the alignment-zone model captures what fish are
doing. At present, tracking fish is so computationally intensive that Parrish and Grunbaum can
follow only about 16 fish at a time in the lab.
[31]Parrish is optimistic, though, that technological advances will soon enable researchers both
to track fish in their natural habitats and to quickly crunch the resulting data.
【注释】
[1]marvel:惊异
[2]swoop:俯冲
[3]homing:(动物所有的)有返回性的
[4]congruence:一致
[5]underpin:支撑
[6]magnetism:磁力学
[7]elucidate:阐明
[8]explicate:解释,说明
[9]trio:三重唱
[10]nonlinearity:非线形,与之相对的线形(linearity)指量与量之间按比例、成直线的关系,在
空间和时间上代表规则和光滑的运动;非线性则指不按比例、不成 直线的关系,代表不规
则的运动和突变
[11]phase transition:相变,phase(相位)指在体系内部物理性质和化学性质完全均一的一
部分
[12]capitalize:变成资本
[13]morsel:少量
[14]forage:觅食
[15]pharaoh’s ant:法老蚁(小黄家蚁)
[16]pheromone:信息素,在动物组织内产生、并分泌释放到体外能引起同种其它个体的特

158
有行为或发育分化的活性物质的总称。来源于希腊语 phrein(传送)和 horman(刺激)二
字。研究证明,信息素对个体相互间的识别、联系以及社会性昆虫保持群栖昆虫的定位行为
等起着重要的作用
[17]exemplify:例证
[18]loop:圈
[19]evaporate:蒸发
[20]multiplicative:乘数的
[21]stumble upon:偶然间碰到
[22]burgeon:萌芽,迅速发展
[23]bustling:熙熙攘攘的
[24]ubiquitous:无处不在的
[25]alignment zone : 对 齐 区 域

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1) What analogy does Julia Parrish give to us?
2) In recent years, what efforts are being made to explain animal's congruence in behavior?
3) From which three basic ingredients the animal swarming behavior takes place?
4) In what condition the ants foraging behavior undergoes "phase transition"?
5) Why is the ant's behavior nonlinear?
6) Describe the particle-interaction module according to the text?
7) How does alignment zone influence fish swarming?
8) Is the alignment between fish linear?
2. Paraphrase
1) In physicists' studies of magnetism, for instance, they have elucidated how simple local
interactions give rise to complex, large-scale phenomena.
2) While this sharp transition might seem unexpected, the researchers weren't altogether surprised
to find it because the mathematical principles underlying their model of foraging behavior make
such a transition likely
3) Likewise, the model offers an explanation for how fish schools change their behaviors on the
fly—for instance, if a predator suddenly appears. "Very subtle adjustments in the rules allow you
to create all these structures without complicated actions on the part of the individual," Couzin
says.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
homing, magnetism, nonlinearity, pheromone, multiplicative, foraging behavior, positvie
feedback, phase transition, nonlinearity
2. Describe the ants' foraging behavoir according to the text in your own words.
3. Write a 300-word composition entitled “What I thought on the animal group behavior”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques

159
employed.
magnetism, multiplicative effect, foraging behavior, brainpower, positive feedback, phase
transition, nonlinearity, alignment zone
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Coordinated groups can range in scale from just a few individuals to billions, and they can
consist of an intelligent species or one whose members have barely enough brainpower to
recognize each other.
2) Once it discovers the food, it will deposit pheromones of its own along the trail, reinforcing it
and making future ants that encounter it even more likely to follow it—exemplifying what
engineers call a positive-feedback loop
3) When the alignment zone around each fish is negligible in size, so that the fish barely pay
attention to their neighbors' directions, each fish swims in a random direction within the group.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 12-14 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “Animal behavior”, which plays an important role in the
scientific study.

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

progress, rules, reality, laws, simulations,


predictions, rank, population, chaos, bands,

In the meantime, a team made up of Couzin, Sumpter, and several other researchers has made
_______ in explaining one of the most dramatic of all animal swarms: a locust plague. Locust
swarms—which often appear suddenly and seemingly out of nowhere—can quickly grow to a
billion insects that migrate together, eating every scrap of plant matter in their path. Even in
antiquity ( 古 代 ), philosophers marveled at the insects' ability to coordinate their motion: "The
locusts have no King, yet all of them march in ______," the Bible comments.
Couzin, Sumpter, and their colleagues suspected that locusts follow ______ similar to those in
the researchers' fish model. In work published in the June 2 Science, they carried out _______ and
lab experiments to test this hypothesis.
Their simulations suggested that as a locust _______ grows denser, its swarming behavior
changes from ______ to order. When the researchers tracked locusts in a small area and gradually
increased the insects' number, the small group's behavior mirrored the model's _______. When
there were just a few locusts, they wandered randomly, interacting only occasionally. Once the
population reached 10 locusts, the insects formed small ______ that changed direction frequently.
At 30 locusts, the insects suddenly started marching as one.

"I think it's surprising that it worked out that cleanly," Grunbaum comments. "In the

160
overwhelming majority of biological situations, you have a nice, plausible ( 似是而非的 ) theory,
but the _____ works out differently."
The model illuminates why it's so hard to control locust swarms once they reach the density at
which the insects start to march in unison ( 一致): The _____ of physics overwhelm human efforts
to resist the migration.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.

As with the pheromone model of ant foraging, the positive feedback built into the alignment-
zone model helps explain how an animal swarm achieves behavior that is _____[1]____the sum
of its parts. In the Feb. 3, 2005 Nature, Couzin and a group of coauthors ( 合著者 ) demonstrated,
__[2]___ computer simulations, how a handful of informed individuals can __[3]__ the rest of a
group along a migration route or to a food source, even if the group members are incapable of
recognizing which individuals have expert knowledge.
"We're not __[4]___ anything about what these animals know—they don't know if anyone
agrees with them, and they can't tell anyone, 'Follow me,'" Couzin says.
The researchers assumed, simply, that the experts' choice of direction at any given moment is
balanced between their __[5]___ to move in the correct direction and their desire to align with
their neighbors; by contrast, ignorant animals simply do the latter.
These alignment rules create a positive-feedback effect: The more animals are already turned
in the correct direction, the more animals are likely to turn that way in the future. As long as the
number of expert animals is big enough for the correct direction to get a toehold ( 微小的优势 ),
positive feedback amplifies (增强) the experts' _[6]___.
The team found that the larger the group, the __[7]__ the proportion of experts needed to get
the group moving in the correct direction. In the researchers' simulations, for example, a group of
30 ants needed four or five experts to get the group moving in the right direction, while a group of
200 could also be led accurately by just five of its members.
The researchers also studied what happens if the experts __[8]__. They found that the group
will quickly reach a consensus and move in the direction preferred by a slight majority of the
experts—although no individual knows how the experts' preferences stack up ( 累加起来) or even
who the experts are. Once again, positive feedback amplifies the majority's tiny edge ( 优势) into a
commanding lead.
"For humans, to reach consensus is very complicated—it requires language and recognition
capabilities," Couzin says. "But animals can do it using very simple behavioral rules."
This __[9]___ has important implications. Couzin says, "It means natural selection is much
more likely to find this kind of consensus behavior" than it would if consensus building required
fancy cognitive skills.
Couzin and his collaborators are now testing their model in a wide range of systems, including
fish and people. For instance, they're training a few lab-kept fish in the location of a food source
and then seeing whether they lead a group there.
One of the most important ___[10]___ that the mathematical models can make, Couzin says,
is to give biologists concrete, testable hypotheses to pursue. "It's so difficult to do experiments,

161
that starting with a good theoretical basis is important," he says. "Theory can drive new ways of
doing experiments."

[1] more than less than equal same with


[2] through with at on
[3] teach guide play organize
[4] thinking guessing assuming predicting
[5] need demand want desire
[6] power stength influence result
[7] larger smaller same equal
[8] agreee consent reject disagree
[9] complexity complication simplicity briefness
[10] dedication contribution funtions effect

Unit 13
What's a Planet?
--New riddles beyond the solar system
by Ron Cowen

[1]"I found a planet!" Caltech astronomer Mike Brown remembers exclaiming during a phone
call he made to his wife early in 2005. Little did he know that he'd have to eat his words just 18
months later. Brown had found an outer–solar system object heavier than Pluto, so it seemed
reasonable to call the object the tenth planet.
[2]But last August, the International Astronomical Union [1] approved the first formal definition

162
of a planet since the Greeks coined the term some 2,000 years ago. Pluto [2], got the boot [3], and
Brown's proposed tenth planet, a body now called Eris, was disqualified.
[3]The group of astronomers decided to call Pluto and Eris "dwarf planets"—a class that the
scientists say is separate from the solar system's eight official planets. That decision remains
controversial, although many astronomers say that there's merit in the demotion [4]. Both Pluto and
Eris are considerably smaller than the first eight planets discovered. These two orbs [5] ought to be
grouped with the swarm of other icy objects in the Kuiper belt [6], a region beyond Neptune [7] that
may contain millions of such bodies, Brown says.
[4]Although Pluto's planethood is etched [8] in cultural memory—and on lunch boxes, on
postage stamps, and in textbooks—knowledge about the solar system has skyrocketed since the
body's discovery in 1930.
[5]"The new definition essentially corrects an astronomical mistake from 76 years ago and
shows that astronomy can move forward in the face of new information about the solar system,"
Brown wrote recently on his blog. But even as scientists and the public grapple [9] with Pluto's
demotion, new findings from beyond the solar system are eroding [10] the meaning of planet.
[6]Over the past few years, astronomers have found several extrasolar objects that by weight
would qualify as planets, yet they lack what would seem to be the most basic of planetary
prerequisites[11]—a parent star. Many of these free-floating orphans are surrounded by disks of
dust and gas with enough mass to coalesce [12] into their own miniature solar systems. One of the
orphans, which some researchers call planemos [13], may even have a planetary-mass object
orbiting it.
[7]The discoveries are blurring [14] the line between planets and stars—and may bring about a
revolution in thinking about planets that goes far beyond the Pluto debate.

Old theories, new data


[8]In the good old days, circa 1990, stars were stars and planets were planets. For the most part,
astronomers accepted that stars arose from the gravitational collapse of giant clouds of gas. They
shined by fusing hydrogen nuclei [15] into heavier elements.
[9]Planets, on the other hand, arose from disks of gas and dust surrounding stars. In the most
popular theory, planets were spawned [16] by bits of material in the disks gradually coalescing into
larger and larger objects. In a competing scenario, sections of the disk suddenly fragmented [17],
forming planets wholesale. In either case, planets orbited their parent stars and weren't massive
enough to trigger hydrogen fusion.
[10]But in the early 1990s, researchers discovered the first hybrid [18] objects—failed stars
known as brown dwarfs. These bodies, theorized to form as stars do, tip the scales at up to 75
times the mass of Jupiter, the most massive planet in the solar system.
[11]Although the minimum mass of a brown dwarf remains controversial, some researchers peg
[19]
it at 13 Jupiter [20] masses. That's hefty [21] enough to initiate fusion but not to sustain it. After
these failed stars stop that process, they spend the remainder of eternity cooling.
[12]The discovery of planets that orbit sunlike stars further muddied the standard picture of
planet formation. For starters, many of these extrasolar planets are several times as heavy as
Jupiter. Also, around the time of the discovery of these massive orbs, several researchers,
including Gibor Basri of the University of California, Berkeley, were finding dwarfs with lower
and lower masses. Inevitably, note Basri and Brown in the 2006 Annual Review of Earth and

163
Planetary Science, extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs became harder to tell apart. About 5 years
ago, astronomers began finding objects in Jupiter's mass range that weren't orbiting anything.
[13]"Astronomers and planetary scientists were forced to admit that they didn't really have a
clear-cut definition of 'planet,'" Basri and Brown say.

Puzzling findings
[14]"The fact is there is ambiguity ... and this ambiguity will be with us for a while," says
theorist Adam Burrows of the University of Arizona in Tucson.
[15]Consider, for instance, the star HD 3651, which is slightly less massive than the sun and
just 36 light-years [22] from Earth. By measuring the back-and-forth motion of this star,
astronomers deduced several years ago that HD 3651 hosts a planet smaller than Saturn [23] that
whips around the star in a close, 62-day orbit. Now astronomers have directly imaged a much
more distant object orbiting HD 3651. The new find is one of the faintest and coolest brown
dwarfs ever discovered close to Earth. The object lies about 1,500 times farther from HD 3651
than the star's planet does.
[16]The image of HD 3651 demonstrates for the first time that brown dwarfs and planets can
form around the same star—perhaps in the same way—notes Markus Mugrauer of the University
of Jena in Germany. He and his colleagues describe their findings, from several ground-based
telescopes, in the November Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters.
Another team, led by Kevin Luhman of Penn State University in State College and using NASA's
orbiting Spitzer Space Telescope, describes its study of HD 3651 in an upcoming Astrophysical
Journal.
[17]In separate work, reported in the Oct. 1 Astrophysical Journal, Luhman and his colleagues
used the Hubble Space Telescope to photograph an object, about 10 Jupiter masses, orbiting the
star CHXR 73. The orbiting object's mass alone would typically identify it as a heavy planet
spawned from a disk that once surrounded this young star.
[18]However, the newfound object lies about five times as far from CHXR 73 as Pluto's
average distance from the sun. Theory suggests that a gas-and-dust disk isn't likely to contain
enough material that far from a star to make a planet. "Although the object seems to be [of]
planetary mass, we argue that it's not a planetary companion, just a very small brown dwarf
companion," says Luhman.
[19]Distinguishing between brown dwarfs and planets is important, says Luhman. A brown
dwarf could have its own retinue[24] of planets, which astronomers could search for. In contrast, a
planet at such a great distance from its parent star would most likely be a loner.
[20]In a report presented in August at the meeting of the International Astronomical Union in
Prague, researchers suggested that brown dwarfs might form in a different manner from both stars
and planets. According to the new hypothesis, brown dwarfs are much smaller than bona fide [25]
stars because a dwarf arises from the sudden fragmentation of a ring or disk of material
surrounding a pair of brand new stars.
[21]Planets might also arise in this manner, but the fragmentation of a large disk surrounding
two stars favors the formation of a brown dwarf, according to study coauthor Greg Laughlin of
the University of California, Santa Cruz.
[22]In many cases, the stellar pair kicks away the new dwarf but doesn't give the body enough
oomph [26] to escape a surrounding cluster of stars. That would account for the multitude of brown

164
dwarf loners found in young stellar clusters [27], such as the Orion [28] star-forming region. In other
cases, the dwarf remains in orbit around the two stars. Laughlin, Doug Lin, also at Santa Cruz,
and Ing-Guey Jiang of the Central University of Taiwan recently posted their ideas online.
[23]It might be that planet formation proceeds at different rates and in different ways at
different distances from stars, says extrasolar-planet hunter Ray Jayawardhana of the University
of Toronto. Moreover, determining just how little mass an object can have and still qualify as a
star provides critical information about the history of star formation throughout the universe.
【注释】
[1]International Astronomical Union: 国际天文学联合会,是世界各国专业天文学术团体联合组
成的非政府性学术组织,成立于 1919 年,现有会员 8000 多名。IAU 大会每三年召开一次,
被称为天文学界的“奥林匹克”。
[2]Pluto :冥王星,是在 1930 年 1 月,由美国天文学家克莱德 (Clyde William Tombaugh) 在
罗威尔天文台所发现,后来命名为普鲁托 (Pluto),意思是罗马神话中的冥界之王,并且被
归类为九大行星之一。
[3]get the boot: 俚语,被开除
[4]demotion: 降级
[5]orb: 天体
[6]Kuiper belt:科伊伯带,是一个盘状的区域,它经过海王星 (Neptune)的轨道,距离太阳
大约 30 到 100 个天文单位 (A.U),这个区域中有许多结冰的小型星体,目前我们认为科伊
伯带就是短周期彗星的来源地。
[7]Neptune: 海王星,是距离太阳远近顺序的第八颗行星,人们是通过它对天王星轨道的摄
动作用而发现它的。
[8]etch: 铭刻
[9]grapple: 抗争
[10]erod: 侵蚀,削弱
[11]prerequisite: 先决条件
[12]coalesce: 结合
[13]planemos: 平面星盘。由两颗不是行星也不是恒星的星星,围绕一个不可见的中心旋转,
而且它不围绕任何星体,在宇宙间自由活动。
[14]blur:使模糊
[15]hydrogen nuclei: 氢核
[16]spawn: 产生
[17]fragment: 打碎
[18]hybrid: 混合物
[19]peg: 钉紧
[20]Jupiter:木星,在太阳系的八大行星中体积和质量最大,有着极其巨大的质量,是其它
七大行星总和的 2.5 倍还多,是地球的 318 倍,而体积则是地球的 1321 倍。按照与太阳的
距离由近到远排,木星位列第五
[21]hefty: 重的
[22]light year: 光年,长度单位,指光在一年时间中行走的距离,即约九万四千六百亿公里
[23]Saturn: 土星,太阳系八大行星之一,按离太阳由近到远的次序排列为第六颗。土星是一
个巨型气体行星,是太阳系中仅次于木星的第二大行星
[24]retinue:随从
[25]bona fide: 拉丁语,“with good faith”,正直的

165
[26]oomph: 吸引力
[27]stellar cluster:恒星团
[28]Orion: 猎户座,位于天球赤道上,是冬季星座的中心,形状似一个左手持盾、右手挥刀
的猎人

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1) Why would Mike Brown have to eat his words 18 months after he discovered a planet?
2) What did the astronomers call “Pluto” since it was demoted?
3) What discoveries are blurring the line between planets and stars?
4) Why is brown dwarf being called failed stars?
5) What does the image of HD3651 demonstrate for?
6) How do we distinguish brown dwarfs and planets according to the text?
7) In what different manner brown dwarfs form?
8) What is the reason that many brown dwarf loners have been found in young stellar clusters?
2. Paraphrase
1) Although Pluto's planethood is etched in cultural memory—and on lunch boxes, on postage
stamps, and in textbooks—knowledge about the solar system has skyrocketed since the body's
discovery in 1930.
2) The discovery of planets that orbit sunlike stars further muddied the standard picture of planet
formation.
3) Planets might also arise in this manner, but the fragmentation of a large disk surrounding two
stars favors the formation of a brown dwarf, according to study coauthor Greg Laughlin of the
University of California, Santa Cruz.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
planet, stellar, solar system, orb, planemos, light year, brown dwarf, hydrogen nuclei, stellar
cluster
2. Describe the brown dwarf according to the text in your own words. .
3. Write a 150-word composition entitled “our earth in solar system”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
planethood, astrophysical, hydrogen fusion, light year, stellar pair, disk of gas and dust, brown
dwarf, stellar cluster
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Pluto, got the boot, and Brown's proposed tenth planet, a body now called Eris, was
disqualified.
2) In the most popular theory, planets were spawned by bits of material in the disks gradually
coalescing into larger and larger objects.

166
3) According to the new hypothesis, brown dwarfs are much smaller than bona fide stars because a
dwarf arises from the sudden fragmentation of a ring or disk of material surrounding a pair of
brand new stars.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 12 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “Galaxy” and “Big Bang”

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper preposition or adverb given in the following box, some
prepositions or adverbs may be used more than once.

of, together, as, from, to, for

Given the shifting definition _____ stars and planets, what are astronomers to do?
Basri and Brown each suggests a different way out of the planetary puzzle. Basri proposes
lumping ( 归在一起 ) _____ all objects massive enough to have ever undergone nuclear fusion—
whether they did so for less than a million years as a brown dwarf or billions of years_____ a
sunlike star. He would call all such objects fusors, which he maintains are fundamentally different
______ objects that never had enough mass to fuse nuclei.
Basri would call the lower-mass objects planemos. Only those planemos that orbit a fusor
would be considered planets.
Brown, Luhman, and some other astronomers prefer to categorize objects the basis of how
they formed, not how big they are. A low-mass object would qualify ______ a planet only if it
formed _____ a gas-and-dust disk surrounding a star, even a brown dwarf.
There's a hint that nature itself distinguishes objects on the basis of how they form, Brown
says. The universe appears ______ have separate methods and locations ______ forming star
companions, depending on their mass. Within the immediate neighborhood of a star—a few times
the Earth-sun distance—orbiting objects tend to be either less than five or more than 60 times
Jupiter's mass.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.

The gap in mass suggests that nature has __[1]__ distinct ways to make an object that will
orbit a star, Jayawardhana notes. One mechanism, the traditional planet-formation scenario, may
dominate __[2]__ low masses, while another, which tends to make brown dwarfs, may dominate
at high masses.
Determining how an object formed, however, is a daunting task, notes Luhman. Telescopes
take snapshots but not movies __[3]__ a body back in time to its origin.
Using the proposed successor to Hubble, the James Webb Space Telescope, as well as

167
sharpened optics soon to be __[4]__ on the ground-based Gemini North and South telescopes,
astronomers hope to determine whether planets exist farther away from stars' neighborhoods. This
may provide additional clues about planet formation. The sharper resolution will also give
astronomers a __[5]__ to directly glimpse extrasolar planets like __[6]__ in our own solar system.
"At some level, I don't' really care" what people call planets and stars, says Jayawardhana. "To
me, the main sort of motivation and fascination with this business ... is that we've learned in the
last couple of years that nature seems to be able to make planetary-mass objects in more than one
way." He adds, "We haven't __[7]__out details of the story, but it's saying something really
fundamental" about the universe.
For now, Burrows ___[8]___ that astronomers hold back on a rigid definition of planet.
"People just want ... to name things or to stuff objects into cubbyholes (鸽笼式文件夹) ," he
says. "I prefer a bit of __[9]__ to the illusion of clarity and the pretense of certainty. When there is
fog, to __[10]__its presence is more honest than to try to ignore it."

[1] unique several two many


[2] with on by at
[3] seeing following noticing glancing
[4] completed finished constructed installed
[5] moment chance timing time
[6] this these that those
[7] spoke figured reached thought
[8] orders considers suggests wonders
[9] accuracy distinctiveness diversity ambiguity
[10] forget keep deny acknowledge

Unit 14
Earthshaking Event
[1]
--Lessons from the temblor that produced tsunamis [2] and other global effects
by Sid Perkins

[1]Dec. 26, 2004 dawned calm in Southeast Asia, but things didn't stay that way for long. At
7:59 a.m. local time, deep beneath the seafloor west of Sumatra [3], two of Earth's tectonic plates [4]
began to slip past one another, releasing stress that had built up between the overlapping slabs [5]
for decades. An earthquake, the largest anywhere on Earth in more than 40 years, had begun.

168
[2]The tip of the rupturing area [6] quickly spread upward to the ocean bottom and then raced
along the seafloor faster than a bullet shot from a rifle. Vast expanses of seafloor, along with the
ocean above it, were thrust [7] upward as much as 5 meters. Tsunamis raced away from the sudden
bump in the ocean at jetliner speeds and crashed into coasts.
[3]According to official tallies [8] by the 11 countries struck by tsunamis that day, the huge
waves killed nearly 180,000 people. Eight months later, another 50,000 or so are still missing. The
deaths of so many people, including tourists from dozens of nations, made the event a global
tragedy.
[4]The physical effects of the massive quake were felt worldwide as well. Beyond the area of
high-frequency rumbling [9], the surface of the ground slowly heaved [10] up and down at least 1
centimeter. That motion, though imperceptible [11], triggered a swarm of small earthquakes in
Alaska[12], a quarter of the way around the globe from the epicenter [13] of the quake.
[5]The tsunamis, which towered a dozen or more meters high along the western coast of
Sumatra, were detected at heights of at least 1 cm at many tide gauges [14] around the globe.
[6]Global Positioning System (GPS) [15] equipment in Southeast Asia chronicled [16] the ground's
sudden horizontal surge of several centimeters in a matter of minutes during and after the quake.
[7]Ever since Dec. 26, scientists examining such data have been discovering how Earth behaves
during and after a massive earthquake. Postquake analyses indicate that constant monitoring of a
dense network of GPS instruments near earthquake-prone regions could play a critical role in
future tsunami-warning systems.

Rip, tide
[8]In the early 1960s, the last time there was an earthquake as big as December's, seismic
instruments traced ground motions on paper charts with colored pens. Today, however, many
seismometers are digital, simultaneously recording in high fidelity [17] at many different
frequencies the tiniest of ground motions. To log the same amount of data with 1960s-era
technology, a strip-chart recorder would require paper 180 m wide.
[9]Furthermore, the modern seismometers [18] are deployed worldwide in broad regional
networks—a configuration [19] that enables scientists to analyze what happened during the
Sumatran quake from many different angles, both literally and figuratively. [20]
[10]Even modern seismometers, however, offer mostly a look back at an event. Because
detailed analysis of their data takes hours—or even days—the machines make a poor early-
warning system for tsunamis from earthquakes.
[11]The fastest vibrations to emanate [21] from December's temblor—and therefore the first to
arrive at seismometers worldwide—were the so-called P waves, which travel through rock as
pressure waves. By analyzing when those waves reached seismometers, scientists have pinned
down [22] the quake's epicenter as about 30 kilometers below Earth's surface and 150 km off the
western coast of Sumatra. That spot lies along the line where the India tectonic plate is forcing its
way beneath the Burma[23] plate at an average rate of about 6 cm per year.
[12]During the first minute or so after the forces holding the two tectonic plates in place began
to give, the tip of the rupture spread up to the ocean floor and then raced northwest at a speed of
about 500 m per second, says Thorne Lay, a seismologist at the University of California, Santa
Cruz. If the slippage had stopped after that first minute, the quake would have registered a
respectable[24] magnitude[25] of around 7.

169
[13]However, the rupture next accelerated to a speed of about 3 km/sec for 4 minutes. Then, it
slowed somewhat but continued north for another 6 minutes. In all, slippage during the Dec. 26
quake occurred along a 1,200-to-1,300-km-long stretch of the two plates' intersection, or
subduction zone[26]. That's the longest rupture ever recorded for an earthquake, say Lay and his
colleagues. At the northernmost reaches of the rupture zone, the tectonic plates probably slipped
only 1 or 2 m during the quake. But deep within Earth, at the southern end of the Sumatran
temblor's rupture zone, the tectonic plates probably slipped past each other between 15 and 30 m
in less than a minute, says Lay.
[14]Magnitude estimates, based on both the size of the fault zone [27] and amount of slippage,
range as high as 9.3, Lay notes. He and his colleagues described the Sumatran quake in the May
20 Science.
[15]In just 11 minutes, the temblor released energy equivalent to that stored in 250 million tons
of TNT [28], says Roger Bilham, a seismologist at the University of Colorado in Boulder. That's
approximately the same amount of energy released by all earthquakes worldwide during the
previous 10 years, notes Lay.
[16]The quake initiated, in addition to P waves, a rolling motion called Rayleigh waves that
spread through the ocean floor and dry land. These waves, for instance, caused the ground to
move up and down 9 cm in Sri Lanka [29], more than 1,500 km away.
[17]A blast of Rayleigh waves spaced 20 to 30 seconds apart went around the world repeatedly
for days after the quake. In most spots, they passed without fanfare [30]. In Alaska, though, the first
pass of the ground motions triggered a swarm of small earthquakes near Mount Wrangell, a
volcano about 330 km east-northeast of Anchorage [31] and more than 11,000 km from Sumatra.
[18]The Rayleigh waves reached the network of six seismometers around Mount Wrangell
about an hour after the quake occurred in Sumatra, says Michael West, a seismologist at the
University of Alaska in Fairbanks [32]. Data from those instruments suggest that each vibration
moved the ground in the region up and down about 1.5 cm. During the 11 minutes in which the
first Rayleigh waves passed through, the seismometers recorded a swarm of 14 quakes. Scientists
located six of these quakes with precision.
[19]The Alaskan quakes were spaced about 30 seconds apart, the same interval at which the
peaks of Rayleigh waves were sweeping through the region, says West. Furthermore, a tally of the
seismic activity around Mount Wrangell in the 2 days before and the 2 days after the Sumatran
quake suggests less than a 1 percent chance of having six random earthquakes in the span of 10
minutes.
[20]The clincher [33], says West, is that every one of the Alaskan quakes occurred at a point in
the cycle when Rayleigh waves would have caused horizontal ground motions that weaken the
forces holding together a fault, making an earthquake more likely. West's team reports its analyses
in the May 20 Science.
[21]Rayleigh and other seismic waves from the Sumatran quake circled the globe many times,
growing weaker with each circuit. The planet vibrated as if it were a bell struck by a giant
hammer, Jeffrey Park of Yale University reported in May at the meeting of the American
Geophysical Union (AGU) in New Orleans.
[22]Some vibrations match the frequency of Earth's so-called breathing mode, in which the
entire surface of the planet rises in unison [34] and then falls. As of the beginning of July, Earth's
surface was still vibrating from the 2004 quake, each cycle moving the ground up and down about

170
0.5 micrometer every 20 minutes or so.

Wave action
[23]On Dec. 26, seafloor upheavals [35] triggered tsunamis that scoured [36] coasts around the
Indian Ocean. In the decades before the quake, the Burma tectonic plate had been slowly flexing
[37]
, absorbing the energy of its collision with the India plate.
[24]When plate-to-plate friction gave way, the Burma plate snapped back toward its relaxed
shape. In minutes, a broad expanse of seafloor about 300 km west of Sumatra rose as much as 5
m. Closer to shore, some regions of ocean bottom dropped about 2 m during the same interval.
The resulting bump and trough [38] in the surface of the Indian Ocean spawned that day's deadly
tsunamis. Overall, shifts in the seafloor during the quake displaced about 160 cubic km of water,
says Bilham.
[25]The first wave, possibly with a height of 15 m or more, slammed into the Sumatran coast
within minutes of the quake. Thailand was struck about 75 minutes after the temblor, and water
levels began to rise at Colombo [39], on the southwestern shore of Sri Lanka, almost 3 hours after
the quake. The waves killed people in several East Africa nations, more than 5,000 km away from
the quake. On the coasts of North and South America, Antarctica, and the Arctic Ocean, tsunami
waves washed in but measured just a few centimeters.
[26]For the first time, instruments on several Earth-orbiting craft caught glimpses of tsunamis
as they spread. The Jason satellite, which is jointly operated by the United States and France and
is equipped with a radar altimeter [40], happened to pass over the eastern Indian Ocean about 2
hours after the quake occurred. The satellite spotted a tsunami, which measured only 90 cm tall in
the open ocean, speeding along at speeds of about 700 km per hour. Although this sighting was
more than an hour before the first waves struck Sri Lanka, the Jason-satellite data couldn't have
been used to warn tsunami victims because scientists needed several hours to analyze the
information.
[27]About 4 hours after the quake, NASA's Terra satellite passed over the strait between Sri
Lanka and southeastern India, says Michael J. Garay of the University of California, Los Angeles.
Its cameras captured an unprecedented series of orbital images showing the tsunamis in action. As
the tsunamis approached the Godavari River delta in India, they encountered shallow water,
slowed down, and grew to several meters high.
[28]Analyses of the Jason-satellite photos of the same area suggest that the tsunamis were
traveling about 45 km/hr when they washed ashore. The handful of deadly waves that inundated
[41]
the river delta that day were spaced about 9.3 km apart and struck land every 12 minutes, says
Garay, who described the images at the AGU meeting in New Orleans.
【注释】
[1]temblor:地震
[2]tsunami:海啸,源自日语“津波”,即“港边的波浪”(津即港)。海啸是由于大规模
海水水下骚动而产生的一系列巨大的波浪。
[3]Sumatra:苏门达腊,印度尼西亚西部大岛,东北隔马六甲海峡同马来半岛相望,东南
临南海和爪哇海,西南临印度洋。面积 43、4 万平方公里
[4]tectonic plate :地球板块,地球板块学说把地球分成了六大板块,即太平洋,亚欧,印
度洋,非洲,美洲和南极洲。
[5]overlapping slabs:重叠板块

171
[6]rupturing area:破裂区域
[7]thrust:推动
[8]tally:计算
[9]rumbling:隆隆声
[10]heave:起伏
[11]imperceptible:细微的
[12]Alaska:阿拉斯加州是一个位于美国西北太平洋沿岸的州,是第 49 个加入合众国的州。
“阿拉斯加”一名最可能源于阿留申语的“Alyeska”,意思是“很大的陆地”。
[13]epicenter:中心
[14]tide gauge:验潮仪
[15]GPS:Global Positioning System,全球定位系统,它通过接受卫星所发射的导航信号,
可以在任何地点,任何时候准确的测量到物体瞬时的位置,准确的说是物体的经纬度、高
度、速度等位置信息。
[16]chronicle:记录
[17]high fidelity:高保真,是指准确而真实地记录和重放原有声源的特性其系统必须达到
频带宽、畸变小、动态范围大和无方向感畸变等要求。
[18]seismometer:地震检波器
[19]configuration:配置
[20]literally and figuratively:字面上和形象上
[21]emanate:发出
[22]pin down:查明
[23]Burma:缅甸
[24]respectable:可观的,不少的
[25]magnitude:震级,弱震震级小于 3 级。如果震源不是很浅,这种地震人们一般不易觉察。
有感地震震级等于或大于 3 级、小于或等于 4.5 级。这种地震人们能够感觉到,但一般不会
造成破坏。中强震震级大于 4.5 级、小于 6 级。属于可造成破坏的地震,但破坏轻重还与震源
深度、震中距等多种因素有关。强震震级等于或大于 6 级,其中震级大于等于 8 级的又称为
巨大地震。
[26]subduction zone:隐没带,俯冲带。Subduction, 隐没作用,即如果海洋板块的密度比大
陆板块的密度大,当海洋板块与大陆板块相碰撞时,较重的海洋板块会隐没(及没入)到
大陆板块之下。
[27]fault zone:断层带
[28]TNT:TriNitroToluene(三硝基甲苯)的缩写,一种威力很强的炸药,平时化学性质稳
定,但用雷管引爆则会在瞬间产生几十万个大气压,可以摧毁坚固的岩石和城堡。
[29]Sri Lanka:斯里兰卡,原名锡兰,印度洋上的一个热带岛国
[30]fanfare:喇叭或号角嘹亮的吹奏声
[31]Anchorage:安克雷奇,美国阿拉斯加州最大城市
[32]Fairbanks :费尔班克斯,美国阿拉斯加州的矿业城市,位于州中东部,是北美洲最接
近北极圈的城市
[33]clincher:决定因素
[34]in unison:一致地
[35]seafloor upheaval:海底上升
[36]scour:冲刷
[37]flex:弯曲

172
[38]trough:凹槽
[39]Colombo:科伦坡,斯里兰卡首都,位于斯里兰卡人口稠密的西南海岸,素有“东方十
字路口”之称
[40]radar altimeter:雷达测高仪
[41]inundate:泛滥

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1) What happened to Sumatra according to the first few paragraphs?
2) What does postquake analysis indicate?
3) Why do modern seismometers mostly offer a look back at an event?
4) What leads to the magnitude estimates of Sumatra quake ranges as high as 9.3 rather than 7?
5) What is the decisive factor according to West?
6) Why was Earth’s surface still vibrating after the quake?
7) What had been caught by Jason Satellite before the first waves struck Sri Landa?
8) What has been suggested by analysis of Jason Satellite photo?
2. Paraphrase
1) That spot lies along the line where the India tectonic plate is forcing its way beneath the Burma
plate at an average rate of about 6 cm per year.
2) The Alaskan quakes were spaced about 30 seconds apart, the same interval at which the peaks
of Rayleigh waves were sweeping through the region, says West.
3) When plate-to-plate friction gave way, the Burma plate snapped back toward its relaxed shape.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
tsunami, tectonic plate, rupture area, tide gauge, GPS, seismometer, high-fidelity, subduction
zone, fault zone, magnitude, radar altimeter
2. Describe how the seafloor upheavals triggered the tsunami.
3. Write a 300-word composition entitled “the lessons we learn from temblor”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
tectonic plate, rupture area, tide gauge, high-fidelity, pressure wave (P wave), Rayleigh wave,
subduction zone, fault zone, radar altimeter, breathing mode
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) At 7:59 a.m. local time, deep beneath the seafloor west of Sumatra, two of Earth's tectonic
plates began to slip past one another, releasing stress that had built up between the overlapping
slabs for decades.
2) The fastest vibrations to emanate from December's temblor—and therefore the first to arrive at
seismometers worldwide—were the so-called P waves, which travel through rock as pressure
waves.

173
3) The handful of deadly waves that inundated the river delta that day were spaced about 9.3 km
apart and struck land every 12 minutes, says Garay, who described the images at the AGU
meeting in New Orleans.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 13 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “tsunami prediction”

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

maintain, gather, measure, alert


relay, supply, occur, position

The tsunami-warning network now in place in the Pacific Ocean depends on seafloor sensors
that ______ signals from tethered buoys(系缆浮标) to satellites. These instruments are geared to
______data about a spreading tsunami and to ______ shoreline civil defense authorities within
minutes. However, no such warning system exists in many tsunami danger zones, including the
Indian Ocean.
The current GPS system, by reading land movements on the shores of oceans, could _____
warnings almost as quickly as does the Pacific Ocean system, with its seafloor sensors and buoys,
says Freymueller.
If GPS equipment that relayed its data round-the-clock was _______ every 200 km or so along
subduction zones where large earthquakes _______, scientists would have much of what they
need to provide some measure of tsunami warning, he notes. GPS systems would be cheaper to
install and ______ in some vulnerable areas than a sensor-buoy system would be, yet they could
be as rapid in their response.
Freymueller says, "When a tsunami's on the move, you don't ______ time in weeks or in days,
but in minutes."

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.

Seismometers and satellites weren't the only sentries ( 哨 兵 ) on duty during the December
quake and tsunamis. GPS equipment installed throughout Southeast Asia __[1]___ the movements
of Earth's crust ( 外壳 ). These devices constantly receive __[2]__ from orbiting satellites, which
enables scientists to track ground movements within centimeters.
Although GPS equipment isn't currently part of any earthquake monitoring system, postquake
analyses of data gathered by the devices in Southeast Asia __[3]__ that it could be.
GPS equipment across a broad region, including sites in China, recorded a __[4]__ as a result
of the Sumatran quake. Most of this slippage occurred along the southern portions of the rupture

174
zone.
Some spots in the Andaman Islands, near the northern end of rupture, moved more than 4 m to
the west during the first few hours after the quake, and the __[5]__ plates deep within Earth
scraped past each other another by 7 to 20 m during this slow-slip phase.
In Medan, Indonesia, about 300 km east of the quake's epicenter, the ground surged westward
14 cm in the 15 minutes or so after the quake began, says Jeffrey T. Freymueller of the University
of Alaska in Fairbanks. Equipment at many other sites in Southeast Asia observed sudden shifts of
a similar magnitude—a sure __[6]__ that the earthquake was huge, he noted at the AGU meeting.
In the 4 hours after the Sumatran quake, seismologists updated their __[7]__ of the temblor's
magnitude—always upward—at least four times. That's because the traditional method of
estimating magnitude depends on the slow-moving seismic waves produced by a quake.
However, scientists have shown that analyses of GPS data could have revealed the
approximate energy __[8]__ by the earthquake in less than 10 minutes, says Freymueller. That's
quick enough and accurate enough for a system that would issue tsunami warnings on the basis of
undersea seismic activity, he adds.

[1] overheard bugged monitored found


[2] words messages digits signals
[3] reveal suggest point indicate
[4] breakage collapse shift upheaval
[5] tectonic constructive structure organization
[6] signal sign mark gesture
[7] figures data estimates prediction
[8] sent given freed released

Unit 15
Deep Impact[1]
--A spacecraft breaks open a comet's secrets
by Ron Cowen

[1]Moving serenely through space some 130 million kilometers from Earth, Comet Tempel 1
appears no different than it did before July 4, the day a NASA spacecraft called Deep Impact fired
a 372-kilogram copper projectile [2] into the comet's icy surface. But if the impact left barely a dent
in this 9-kilometer-long, fist-shaped body, the data collected from the collision have made an
indelible [3] mark on studies of comets and the formation of the solar system.

175
[2]Observations of the crash suggest that scientists are for the first time "directly measuring
pristine[4] material from deep inside a comet, material that has been locked away since the
beginnings of the solar system," says Deep Impact researcher Carey Lisse of the University of
Maryland in College Park and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md.
[3]The fireworks generated by the impact, along with close-up portraits of Tempel 1 taken just
before the collision, have also revealed several surprises. The data, says Lisse, are at odds with a
leading model for the structure of comets called the dirty-snowball model. The model assumes
that comets, born during the era of planet formation 4.5 billion years ago, consist primarily of an
agglomeration [5] of frozen carbon dioxide [6], water, and other ices, mixed with a smattering of [7]
hydrocarbon gunk [8] and grains of dust.
[4]But the data from the Deep Impact mission indicate that although Tempel 1 contains some
ices, its primary constituent may be dust particles finer than talcum power [9]. The comet—and
perhaps many others—may resemble an icy dirt ball more than it does a dirty snowball, says
Lisse.
[5]Held together only by gravity, the comet is much weaker and far more porous [10] than a solid
chunk of ice. Its structure is more fragile than that of a soufflé [11], says Jay Melosh of the
University of Arizona in Tucson.
[6]What's more, the comet isn't a mere hodgepodge [12] of different materials and structures.
"The damn thing is layered like a frozen onion," says Deep Impact scientist Joseph Veverka of
Cornell University.
[7]The Deep Impact team, led by Michael A'Hearn of the University of Maryland at College
Park, presented its early findings this week at the annual meeting of the American Astronomical
Society's Division for Planetary Science in Cambridge, England. Researchers also describe their
analyses in a trio of papers posted online this week for publication in an upcoming Science.
[8]Deep Impact's revelations "are going to change lot of our ideas about comets," predicts
Melosh.
[9]Planetary scientists study comets to learn about the early solar system. These icy relics
formed from a swirling cloud of gas, dust, and ice that circled the young sun 4.5 billion years ago.
Now, comets serve as time capsules [13] from that long-ago era. Researchers also suspect that
comets ferried the organic compounds, water, and other ingredients to Earth that set up the
chemistry that made life possible on our planet.
[10]Although planets and asteroids [14] coalesced from that same cloud of matter, those big
bodies underwent episodes of violent heating and melting that obscured or erased signs of their
early history. Comets, on the other hand, spend most of their time in the deep freeze of the outer
solar system. There, they remain quiescent [15] and their materials stay relatively unaltered. Only
when comets come near the sun do they come alive, vaporizing gas and dust and flaunting [16] their
classic tails.
[11]But despite the importance of these icy outposts [17], astronomers have only the barest
storyline of how comets form. "We simply don't have any idea how you go from ... tiny pieces of
dust and ice, one-tenth to one-hundredth the width of a human hair, to building a comet," notes
Lisse.
[12]From the impact mission, which was monitored by some 80 telescopes in space and on the
ground, "we're learning about the initial recipe for making comets—how much carbon, how much
rock, how much water," says Lisse. "If we give theorists the recipe, they can tell us how planet

176
formation happens, and that's a giant step."
[13]Much of the information comes from images and spectra of the dust and vapor that belched
[18]
from Tempel 1 for some 2 days following the Independence Day blast.
[14]Just milliseconds after the impact, the spacecraft recorded a faint flash that faded away in
less than a second. Melosh and his collaborators propose that the flash denotes the instant when
the 1-meter-wide bullet, coming in at an angle of about 60° from the vertical, hit the surface.
[15]A fraction of a second later, as the bullet began boring into [19] the comet, an incandescent
[20]
, hot spray erupted, traveling about 10 km per second. "[That] explosion is so violent that
everything in its path is boiled off [21] and swept out," says Lisse.
[16]Consisting of searing vapor and droplets [22] of melted silicate [23] at a temperature of 3,800
kelvins[24], the spray was so bright that it completely overwhelmed the solid-state detectors on the
flyby spacecraft, stationed about 800 km away. Infrared spectra indicate the droplets were 10 to
100 nanometers in diameter [25].
[17]The high-velocity spray, which lasted for less than a second, was most likely created as the
copper bullet vaporized comet material some 20 to 30 m beneath Tempel 1's surface. The bullet
melted or boiled about 10 times its weight in ice and rocky particles.
[18]Like a hammer that has hit a sand pile [26], the bullet left behind a slow-moving sound wave
or shock wave. This shock wave, spreading gradually through the comet's interior for as long as 5
minutes, appears to have carved out a deep crater [27]. That's an indication that the comet is fluffy
[28]
, Lisse notes. In a more-solid object, the shock would have bored a shallower hole, he says.
[19]The wave kicked up a plume of cool, extremely fine dust that lingered for more than 40
hours. Although the shock ejected an estimated 10 million kg of material—roughly the weight of
10,000 cars—that's still only about one-ten-millionth of the comet's mass.
[20]Most of the dust lofted into space by the shock wave had an average velocity of about 1
meter per second. That low speed was still enough to overcome the comet's weak gravity, which is
about one-millionth that of Earth, notes Jim Richardson of Cornell University. He likens the dust
particles in the plume to[29] baseballs lofted into the air in slow motion and taking as long as 2 days
to fall back to the surface.
[21]Richardson estimates that in 2 days, about 95 percent of the dust particles had fallen back
onto the comet. Because the particles were so small—most no more than 100 micrometers in
diameter—they scattered nearly all the sunlight falling on them, rendering the funnel-shaped
plume opaque [30]. "It was almost a solid fountain of dust," says Lisse.
[22]The dust shroud hid the crater gouged [31] by the bullet during a critical period, the first 800
seconds after impact, when the craft's high-resolution camera would have had a close-up view [32]
of the comet. A'Hearn and his colleagues had intended to image the bottom of the crater to
measure its depth and determine its composition.
[23]Team members are now debating whether they can see signs of the crater in close-up
images taken by Deep Impact's high-resolution camera. A flaw discovered after Deep Impact's
launch had left that camera with a less-than-perfect focus. The researchers have developed
software to sharpen the images, using a technique similar to the one used to deblur images taken
by the Hubble Space Telescope before shuttle astronauts inserted new optical elements to correct
for its flawed mirror.
[24]During the last minute or so of the close-up images taken by Deep Impact, some of the dust
had begun to clear. While the crater isn't apparent, the scientists got a blurry glimpse of the bottom

177
part of the plume, Richardson says. From those observations, the researchers estimate that the
crater is about 100 m wide and 30 m deep, in good agreement with Spitzer Space Telescope
estimates of the total amount of dust ejected.
[25]Those dimensions imply that the impact excavated cometary material that's pristine and
primitive, from the earliest days of the solar system, notes Melosh. A shallower crater would
probably contain material altered by the sun. Warming during Tempel 1's repeated passages near
the sun over thousands of years might have caused sudden eruptions of gas and dust and altered
the composition of material several meters beneath the comet's surface, but not 30 m deep.
[26]The extremely fine texture of the cool dust ejected from the comet in the minutes following
the initial violent impact, adds Richardson, also is likely to reflect conditions in the early solar
system. The dust could have been trapped in an icy matrix when the comet formed 4.5 billion
years ago.
[27]Despite scientists' difficulties in imaging the crater, other observations reveal that Tempel 1
is extraordinary fragile, composed of small particles bound together only weakly.
[28]The depth to which the bullet penetrated, for example, attests to the fragility of the comet,
Melosh adds. Had the comet contained denser, more strongly bound material, the bullet wouldn't
have penetrated to a depth of 30 m.
[29]By analyzing images of the dust plume taken by the Deep Impact craft 45 and 75 minutes
after the collision, Richardson and his colleagues measured the expansion rate of the plume. That
rate is controlled by the comet's gravitational field, so once the gravity of the comet is known,
researchers can estimate its density.
[30]The expansion measured indicates that the comet is highly porous, with an estimated
density just 60 percent that of solid ice, and less than one-quarter that of the lowest-density rocks
on Earth.
[31]As weak as the comet's gravity is, it still managed to keep the expanding plume anchored to
the surface during the entire 40 hours that it remained visible. That's another hint that the gravity
is sufficient to hold together the comet as a loose agglomeration of particles.
[32]"You're talking about something the size of a mountain held together with the strength of
the meringue [33] in a lemon meringue pie," says Lisse.
[33]That may be just what's expected, Lisse says, if the comet formed gently and gradually,
built up over millions of years from the chance collision of tiny particles within the infant solar
system's protoplanetary disk [34]. Such a gradual accumulation of material might also account for
the comet's layering, says Lisse.
[34]Melosh's calculations suggest that when the comet coalesced, it did so at pressures and
temperatures too low for water to be liquid. Liquid water glues together dust and ice particles in
many other materials. For the same reason it's hard to make a snowball on a day too cold to melt
ice, the grains of ice and dust that make up Tempel 1 just barely stuck together. As the object grew
in size, however, its gravity, although weak, held the pieces in place, conjectures [35] Melosh.
[35]The spectra obtained from both the Deep Impact spacecraft and the Spitzer Space
Telescope reveal that the composition and temperature of the plume remained the same from a
few minutes to hours after the bullet hit. That's an indication, says A'Hearn, that the composition
of the comet material remains the same from near the surface to 30 m down.
[36]It may also suggest that if Tempel 1 has any crust at all, it's very thin, says Melosh.
【注释】

178
[1]标题 Deep Impact 指美国宇航局 2005 年 7 月实施的对坦普尔彗星一号(Tempel-1) 的“深
度撞击”计划
[2]projectile:抛射体;弹丸
[3]indelible:难以磨灭的
[4]pristine:原始的
[5]agglomeration:凝块
[6]carbon dioxide:二氧化碳
[7]a smattering of:少数
[8]hydrocarbon gunk:含烃(只含有碳和氢的一大类有机化合物之一)泥状物
[9]talcum power:滑石粉
[10]porous:可渗透的
[11]soufflé:直译为舒芙蕾,也被译为蛋奶酥,源于法文的原形动词 souffler, 意思是"吹气"
(blow). 字尾变化成为被动名词, 也就是"被吹起来" (blown) 的意思. 这个被吹起来的东西就
是打的绵绵密密, 以酱料调味的蛋白. Soufflé 通常只有在高级法式餐馆才吃得到, 而且非得
在用餐之前先点
[12]hodgepodge:混合物
[13]time capsule:历史存贮器
[14]asteroid:小行星
[15]quiescent:静止的
[16]flaunt:炫耀
[17]outpost:哨兵;边缘村落
[18]belch:喷出
[19]bore into:钻进
[20]incandescent:白热的
[21]boil off:汽化
[22]droplet:小滴
[23]silicate:硅酸盐
[24]kelvin:开尔文(绝对温度)的标示单位,以 K 来表示。摄氏温度的标定是以水的冰点
为一个参照点作为 0 ℃,相对于开尔文温度上的 273.15K 。开尔文温度的标定是以水的三相
点为一个参照点作为 273.16K ,相对于摄氏 0.01 ℃,即水的三相点高于水的冰点 0.01 ℃,
摄氏温度与开尔文温度(绝对温度)的换算公式: K =C+273.16
[25]diameter:直径
[26]sand pile:砂堆
[27]crater:陨石坑
[28]fluffy:蓬松的
[29]liken…to…:把…比喻成…
[30]funnel-shaped plume opaque:漏斗形羽毛状透明物
[31]gouge:凿
[32]close-up view:近视图特写镜头
[33]meringue:蛋白糖霜,是将蛋白加糖打发后所得的细白泡沫,具有可塑性,可以直接食
用,lemon meringue pie 即为柠檬蛋白派
[34]protoplanetary disk:原行星盘,是指围绕新生恒星的气体和尘埃组成的盘,盘中粒子间
的碰撞最终会产生行星. Protoplanet,原行星,是指正在吸积气体、尘埃和石块,以便形成
真正意义上的行星的天体。

179
[35]conjecture:推测

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1) What has been suggested by observations of the crash according to paragraph 2?
2) What surprises have been revealed by the fireworks and close-up portraits of Temple 1?
3) Why do we say that comets serve as time capsule?
4) Why is the Deep Impact mission a giant step according to Lisse?
5) How is the deep crater formed?
6) What issue are the team members debating?
7) What do the scientists learn from the crater?
8) What might explain comet’s layering phenomenon?
2. Paraphrase
1) Although planets and asteroids coalesced from that same cloud of matter, those big bodies
underwent episodes of violent heating and melting that obscured or erased signs of their early
history.
2) Had the comet contained denser, more strongly bound material, the bullet wouldn't have
penetrated to a depth of 30 m.
3) That may be just what's expected, Lisse says, if the comet formed gently and gradually, built up
over millions of years from the chance collision of tiny particles within the infant solar system's
protoplanetary disk.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
comet, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon gunk, asteroid, Kelvin, crater, protoplanetary disk
2. Describe the importance of this Deep Impact mission according to the text in your own words.
.
3. Write a 150-word composition entitled “comet’s secret”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon gunk, deep impact, close-up view, grain of dust, high-resolution,
time capsule, protoplanetary disk
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Moving serenely through space some 130 million kilometers from Earth, Comet Tempel 1
appears no different than it did before July 4, the day a NASA spacecraft called Deep Impact fired
a 372-kilogram copper projectile [2] into the comet's icy surface.
2) Held together only by gravity, the comet is much weaker and far more porous than a solid
chunk of ice.
3) Warming during Tempel 1's repeated passages near the sun over thousands of years might have
caused sudden eruptions of gas and dust and altered the composition of material several meters

180
beneath the comet's surface, but not 30 m deep.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 18-19 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “Deep Impact”, which was a popular science fiction movie in the
US.

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

worth, miss, resolution, preserve


variety, expose, smooth

Even if Deep Impact's bullet had _______ the comet, the extreme close-ups taken by the
spacecraft might have been well ______ the visit. A camera aboard the projectile took pictures up
to a few seconds before the collision, revealing features only 1 m across.
"We have a _______ better than any previous mission to a comet," says Veverka. The
pictures, which portray about one-third of the comet, show a puzzling _____ of smooth and
rugged terrains, he notes.
Craterlike outlines on some parts of the surface indicate that, unlike other comets seen close-
up, it's been repeatedly beat up by solar system debris( 残骸 ) for eons ( 亿万 年 ). It's as if "the
whole cratering history [of the solar system] is _______ on its surface," says Veverka.
Yet some other regions show a ______, flat, 20-m-high line of cliffs that defies ( 藐视 ) any
ready explanation, Veverka notes. Some of the smoothing, he notes, may result from frozen
material sublimating ( 升 华 ) from the surface, ______ terrain that lies beneath but then falling
back to create a fresh deposit.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.

The comet also shows layering of different structures, with each segment 20 to 30 m deep.
"We went into this mission talking about the so-called icy conglomerate ( 集块 ) model—a chunk
of ice and dirt and organic gunk, all __[1]___ together," Veverka says. "But__[2]___, we have this
frozen onion."
One possible __[3]___ is that sunlight triggered an icy volcanic eruption meters below the
surface. The erupting material, trapped underground, might have spread out __[4]__ in the porous
interior, like the frosting (霜糖) between the layers of a cake.

Several years before Deep Impact was __[5]__ last January, Veverka had already __[6]__ a
follow-up mission to bring back a sample of a comet to Earth. NASA didn't fund that proposal,
and now the agency is concentrating most of its exploration plans on the moon and Mars.

181
But only when scientists have a __[7]__, says Veverka, will they know for certain what
comets are made of and what role they might have played in __[8]__ life on our planet.

[1] scrambled mixed combined mixture


[2] however opposite unfortunately instead
[3] definition solution explanation suggestion
[4] vertically horizontally upward downward
[5] started ejected launched fired
[6] considered planned decided proposed
[7] comet material sample model
[8] devastating destroying spawning flourishing

Unit 16
Save the Flowers
[1]
--Would-be scent engineers aim to resurrect lost floral fragrance
by Ivan Amato

[1]Vince Agnes, as well-appointed as the flowers that he has been selling for more than 60
years in his shop in Silver Spring, Md., remembers when all his roses smelled as good as they
looked. When he opened for business in the 1940s, there were only a few varieties: red, white,
yellow, and pink, he recalls. "Now, there are thousands," Agnes says, " but only a few have a lot

182
of scent."
[2]No one knows what's responsible for this waning of fragrance by roses and other
ornamental-flower varieties, including carnations and chrysanthemums, but scientists who
investigate floral scent suspect that the flower breeding that's led to an estimated 18,000 rose
cultivars [2] in an ever-widening spectrum has run roughshod over [3] fragrance.
[3]"Pigment[4] compounds are derived from the same biochemical precursors[5] [as scent
compounds are], so it makes sense that if you make more of one you get less of the other," notes
floral-scent biochemist and geneticist Eran Pichersky of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.
[4]Floral scent may be dwindling [6] because breeders for the $30 billion ornamental-flower
industry pay scant attention to this most emblematic [7] attribute of flowers. "In order of
[commercial] priority, color is number 1 through 10," says Alan Blowers, head of flower
biotechnology for Ball Helix, a biotech company in West Chicago, devoted to the ornamental-
plant industry. Beyond color, breeders have been targeting improvements in flower longevity,
shape, size, disease resistance, and other traits likely to improve the growers' bottom lines.
[5]Fragrance is different. It's invisible, and its sensory impression is as subjective as taste. And,
as it turns out, fragrance is a genetically complex trait that's difficult to manipulate by ordinary
breeding methods. Despite those obstacles, Blowers predicts, "fragrance will become important
again," as the molecular biology [8] underlying floral scent becomes better understood.
[6]With a nose both for understanding the molecular origins of floral scents and for engineering
what could be blockbuster flower varieties, researchers have been teasing out the complex
biochemical orchestration [9] underlying one of life's simplest pleasures. They've been uncovering
fragrance-related genes, the enzymes[10] encoded by those genes, the in-cell reactions that these
enzymes catalyze[11], and the fragrant performance of all this molecular biology—a vast aromatic
harmony of alcohols, aldehydes[12], fatty acids, terpenoids[13], benzenoids[14], and other volatile[15],
and therefore sniffable, chemicals.
[7]In the past few years, flower scientists have assembled enough knowledge and technology to
consider resurrecting scents in flowers that have lost them or engineering plants that produce
scents never before experienced by a bee, beetle, or gardener.
[8]The researchers "have pushed the envelope [16] in terms of our eventual ability to change
floral scent," says Michael Dobres, head of the Philadelphia biotech company NovaFlora, which
is developing genetic methods for controlling various traits of ornamental flowers.

Deconstructing scent
[9]The plant world perfumes, or sometimes stinks up, the environment with a vast roster of [17]
volatile organic chemicals. Scientists have so far identified about 1,000 of these compounds
emanating from petals, leaves, and other tissues.
[10]"There could be up to 50, maybe 100, chemicals involved in a particular scent," says
Pichersky.
[11]Usually, only a few of the volatile chemicals in a fragrance are obviously noticeable to
human noses. One whiff [18] of 2-phenylethanol [19], for instance, and images of roses come to mind,
even though scores of volatile chemicals contribute to the fully detailed scent of roses. Like
harmonics [20] that help the ear distinguish a middle C played on a piano from one played on a
violin, the minor chemical components of a scent provide the olfactory subtleties [21] that
individualize the scent of a particular rose variety.

183
[12]Pichersky, who grew up on a kibbutz[22] growing flowers and other crops in his native Israel
and now lives on a 30-acre farm outside Ann Arbor, has been gardening all his life. He has made it
his mission to uncover as much as he can about the biosynthesis of floral scents and the biological
roles that these scents play. In 1996, he and his colleagues in Michigan were the first to discover a
gene that produces a floral scent.
[13]Not only do the volatiles in botanical scents [23] attract pollinators [24] and delight the human
nose, he notes, but they also serve to protect plants from pathogens [25] and pests. For example,
when some plants come under attack by munching caterpillars, they emit specific chemicals as
clarion [26] calls for parasitic wasps [27]. The wasps alight on [28] the marauding [29] caterpillars and lay
eggs, which hatch into larvae [30] that eat the caterpillars alive. "It's a chemical arms race out
there," says Pichersky.
[14]As the first step in analyzing the complex biochemical choreography [31] behind a floral
scent, Pichersky and his coworkers in 1994 worked out the amino acid sequence [32] of the enzyme
linalool synthase[33] from petals of Clarkia breweri[34], a purple wildflower native to California.
They then used that information to identify the enzyme's gene.
[15]Through painstaking biochemical analysis, the researchers discovered that this enzyme
converts the substrate geranyl pyrophosphate [35] into linalool, a volatile compound with what
Pichersky describes as a "wine-sweet" smell. Geranyl pyrophosphate was already known as an
intermediate in the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol [36] compounds.
[16]Since then, Pichersky's group and others have uncovered about 25 more floral-scent genes.
Natalia Dudareva, a former postdoc[37] student of Pichersky who now runs her own floral-scent
laboratory at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Ind., estimates that the present list of known
scent genes and their associated enzymes can account for the cellular synthesis [38] of no more than
5 percent of the plant volatiles that scientists have identified.
[17]The enzymes encoded by floral-scent genes fall into a few functional categories with names
such as synthases[39], methyl transferases[40], and carboxymethyltransferases[41]. Enzymes in a given
category impose a particular kind of biochemical transformation on cellular chemicals that arise
from the basic, or primary, metabolism [42] that all plants share.
[18]The outcome of the transformation differs according to the specific plant. For example, in
snapdragons [43], one particular methyltransferase enzyme adds a methyl group (a central carbon
hub bonded to three hydrogen atoms) to benzoic acid [44], producing methyl benzoate [45]. In C.
breweri, the same enzyme instead methylates salicylic acid [46], producing methyl salicylate.
Scientists call such species-specific biochemical products secondary metabolites [47].
[19]Mixing and matching enzymes and substrates in varying sequences of reactions creates a
bazaar [48] of secondary metabolites, Pichersky notes. That's how a lilac [49] or honeysuckle [50], for
example, can produce its own intoxicating cocktail [51] of fragrance compounds.
[20]Discovery in floral-fragrance biochemistry is on a fast track, now that lab devices can
identify and analyze the activity and interactions of hundreds to thousands of genes and proteins
at once. For example, Pichersky and a large collaboration of researchers working primarily in
Israel, a flower-exporting country, compared the genetic activity of Fragrant Cloud, a scented rose
cultivar, with that of Golden Gate, an unscented one. From an initial roster of more than 2,000
genes that the researchers identified as active in these two cultivars, the team pinpointed a few
genes that appeared to be involved in scent production. This led the search to previously
unrecognized enzymes, which the researchers demonstrated were required in the biosynthesis of

184
various rose-scent chemicals, among them geranyl acetate [52] and germacrene D [53].
[21]Those are just a few chemical pixels [54] in the vast picture of floral scent. Nevertheless,
Robert Raguso, a chemical ecologist at the University of South Carolina in Columbia,
characterizes the pace of discovery in the field as explosive. "We are in this beautiful growth
phase where everything is new... and worthwhile. Now, the most interesting challenge is putting it
together," says Raguso, who was a graduate student in Pichersky's lab in the early 1990s and
whose work led to the discovery of the linalool synthase gene.
【注释】
[1]would-be:未来的,有希望的
[2]cultivar:培育植物
[3]run roughshod over:毫不顾虑
[4]pigment:颜色
[5]precursor:先驱;前体;母体
[6]dwindle:减少
[7]emblematic:作为象征的
[8]molecular biology:分子生物学
[9]orchestration:管弦乐曲
[10]enzyme:酶
[11]catalyze:催化
[12]aldehyde:乙醛
[13]terpenoid:萜类化合物
[14]benzenoid:苯环型
[15]volatile:挥发的
[16]push the envelope:做明智的,革新的而别人没有做过的事,以超越某人的潜力
[17]a roster of:一串
[18]whiff:一阵香气
[19]phenylethanol:苯基乙醇
[20]harmonics:和声;和声学
[21]olfactory subtlety:嗅觉的灵敏度
[22]kibbutz:以色列的集体农场
[23]botanical scent:植物学香味
[24]pollinator:授花粉者,主要指蜜蜂。
[25]pathogen:病菌;病原体
[26]clarion:号角
[27]parasitic wasp:寄生黄蜂
[28]alight on:落在…上面
[29]marauding:掠夺;袭击
[30]hatch into larvae:孵化出幼虫
[31]choreography:舞蹈
[32]amino acid sequence:氨基酸序列
[33]enzyme linalool synthase:芳樟醇合成酶
[34]Clarkia breweri:产于美国加州的仙女扇;山字草
[35]substrate geranyl pyrophosphate:香叶酯焦磷酸培养基
[36]cholesterol:胆固醇

185
[37]postdoc:博士学位取得后的
[38]cellular synthesis:细胞合成
[39]synthases:合成酶
[40]methyl transferases:甲基转移酶
[41]carboxymethyltransferases:羧甲基转移酶
[42]metabolism:新陈代谢
[43]snapdragon:金草鱼
[44]benzoic acid:苯甲酸
[45]methyl benzoate:甲基苯
[46]methylates salicylic acid:使水杨酸甲基化
[47]secondary metabolite:次生代谢物
[48]bazaar:市集
[49]lilac:丁香花
[50]honeysuckle:忍冬,金银花
[51]intoxicating cocktail:醉人的鸡尾酒
[52]geranyl acetate:乙酸香叶酯
[53]germacrene D:大根香叶烯
[54]pixel:像素

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1) Why is floral scent decreasing according to the first few paragraphs?
2) What efforts are being made by scientists to resurrect scents according to paragraph 6—8?
3) Describe how some plants protect themselves from caterpillars?
4) What information cold help scientists to identify the enzymes gene?
5) What discovery the researchers had found according to paragraph 15?
6) What enzymes in functional categories are mentioned in the text?
7) What is secondary metabolite according to the text?
8) How does Robert Raguso see the discovery in floral-fragrance biochemistry?
2. Paraphrase
1) No one knows what's responsible for this waning of fragrance by roses and other ornamental-
flower varieties, including carnations and chrysanthemums, but scientists who investigate floral
scent suspect that the flower breeding that's led to an estimated 18,000 rose cultivars in an ever-
widening spectrum has run roughshod over fragrance.
2) With a nose both for understanding the molecular origins of floral scents and for engineering
what could be blockbuster flower varieties, researchers have been teasing out the complex
biochemical orchestration underlying one of life's simplest pleasures.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
enzyme, catalyze, pollinator, amino acid, linalool, cholesterol compound, synthases, methyl
transferases, metabolism, benzoic acid, fatty acid, pixel
2. Describe enzyme according to the text in your own words. .

186
3. Write a 200-word composition entitled “What would it be like if there’s no floral fragrance”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
biosynthesis, botanical scent, enzyme linalool synthase, cholesterol compounds, cellular synthesis,
methyl transferases, carboxymethyltransferases, secondary metabolite, amino acid sequence
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) In order of [commercial] priority, color is number 1 through 10," says Alan Blowers, head of
flower biotechnology for Ball Helix, a biotech company in West Chicago, devoted to the
ornamental-plant industry.
2) Floral scent may be dwindling because breeders for the $30 billion ornamental-flower industry
pay scant attention to this most emblematic attribute of flowers.
3) Discovery in floral-fragrance biochemistry is on a fast track, now that lab devices can identify
and analyze the activity and interactions of hundreds to thousands of genes and proteins at once.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 17-19 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “fragrance and emotion”

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

manipulating, engineering, applying


using, ,bearing, dulling, winning

Roman Kaiser, director of the natural-scents research unit for the Geneva-based company
Givaudan, favors studying, rather than _______, floral fragrances. However, he predicts that
would-be fragrance engineers such as Pichersky, Clark, and Dudareva will eventually have their
day.
The growing body of knowledge about floral scents is likely to have a _______ on the
perfume industry as well as on flower sellers, Kaiser says. "I could imagine that very special
fragrance chemicals found in nature, but difficult to synthesize, might be produced by _______
such techniques" in a way that improves the yield of these chemicals in the flowers that naturally
make them, he says.
If researchers do approach a time when they can engineer flowers to have novel ( 新 奇 的 )
scents, they may discover, as have scientists in the genetically modified food business, that
_______ public support for such manipulations is the toughest challenge of all. ______ genetic
techniques to alter floral scent is, in Clark's words, "a double-edged sword."
Opponents of genetically engineered food may add scent-altered flowers to their list of

187
products that could pose dangers. Consider a project in which agriculturally minded genetic
researchers alter fragrance genes and the flower attracts different pollinators. "If we end up with a
plant that is covered in flies, someone will say, 'This is a freak show ( 畸形秀 ),'" Clark predicts.
Such a scenario could easily nip scent _______ in the bud, he says.
Even if future scent engineers can win over public opinion, they may have to contend with a
host of low-tech factors that Silver Spring, Md.–florist Agnes suspects have a _______ effect on
floral scent. He remembers fondly when he could buy all his flowers fresh from local
greenhouses. "Now, I get my flowers from California, from Israel, Holland, all over the place," he
says.
Flowers lose their scent while they're refrigerated during long journeys on planes and trucks,
he says. And that could be a problem, even for high-tech flowers of the future.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.

Even as researchers uncover more of the molecular story behind floral scent, the goal of
controlling __[1]___ flowers smell remains elusive ( 难以捉摸的 ). The genetic and biochemical
complexity of fragrance continues to thwart ( 阻 碍 ) scientists. "Many attempts at [scent]
engineering have been done, but so far there hasn't been a lot of success," says Dudareva.
Pichersky says that scent engineering would be useful for more than just __[2]__ human
noses. For starters, he suggests that it will someday empower growers to choose the pollinators
that __[3]__ specific plants and to __[4]__ some chemical pesticides with living pest controllers
such as parasitic wasps.
In one approach to manipulating plants' biochemical pathways, a team of scientists in the
Netherlands inserted into petunias ( 矮 牵 牛 花 ) the C. breweri gene for linalool synthase that
Pichersky's team had discovered. The team, led by Harro Bouwmeester of Plant Research
International in Wageningen, the Netherlands, confirmed that the __[5]__ gene was working and
that the transgenic petunias were making __[6]___ in their tissues, but the linalool never made it
out of the plant.
A related project, led by Alexander Vainstein of Hebrew University in Rehovot, Israel, got a
bit further. It produced transgenic carnations that released linalool, but in amounts too small for a
person to smell. While Raguso says that the aroma of linalool reminds him of Earl Grey tea,
David Clark of the University of Florida in Gainesville describes the smell as "Fruit Loopy."
Clark has been approaching scent engineering by manipulating the native genes of a single plant,
a petunia, __[7]___ transferring scent genes from one species to another. Using current techniques
of genetic analysis and engineering, he intends to first identify genes that might play roles in
petunia scent. Then, he'll either deactivate ( 使无效) those genes or __[8]__their activity. His goal
is to make the plants produce unusually small or large amounts of the enzymes encoded by the
genes.
"We are just now figuring out where all of the pieces are in the pathways," says Clark. He
notes that petunia fragrance emerges largely from 8 to 10 volatiles, each one created by the
__[9]___ of several enzymes and substrates. Manipulating the plant's fragrance with finesse ( 灵
巧 ), therefore, would require commandeering several genes, a dauntingly difficult task since

188
researchers are only sporadically ( 偶 发 地 ) successful at achieving a __[10]__ goal when
engineering even single genes.

[1] what which how when


[2] pleasing suiting fitting strengthening
[3] eat roam stamp visit
[4] choose select replace use
[5] mixed synthesized created transplanted
[6] amino acid enzyme methyl transerases linalool
[7] other than but rather than however
[8] put up keep up stay up pump up
[9] mixture influence interplay relations
[10]expected impossible exciting desired

Unit 17
Cool Birds
--How can emperor penguins [1] live like that?
by Susan Milius

[1]Holding an unhappy penguin can drive even a careful person to take risks. In her first field
season in the Antarctic, Barbara Wienecke was struggling to fasten a small radio transmitter to a
penguin that was struggling to get away. To finish the job quickly, Wienecke took off her gloves

189
for a few minutes.
[2]As she worked frantically [2], her fingers paled and then "went from something white colored,
which still looked a bit like skin, to something rather waxy [3] that looked nothing like skin," she
says. The fingers then started to swell, a sign that ice crystals were forming, and soon went numb.
"Then, thank God, the bird was ready to go," she says. She'd exposed her hands for only 7
minutes or so, but the temperature hung near –25°C and the wind was up.
[3]Although the technique is not ideal, Wienecke dipped her hands into a bucket of seawater
scooped [4] from a hole in the ice and waited to see if her fingers would regain feeling. "Initially,
there was just nothing, and then suddenly—the only thing I can think of that would give you an
idea of the pain was if anybody were to pour boiling oil over your fingers," she says.
[4]Wienecke, a biologist at the Australian Antarctic Division in Kingston, Australia, still has all
her fingers. She also has a profound appreciation for the emperor penguin, the only vertebrate [5]
besides people to spend winters on the skirt of solid ice around Antarctica.
[5]Male emperor penguins, which stand 1 meter tall, spend the whole winter barefoot on the
ice. Their only protection against cold is to huddle together. Indeed, the emperors do more than
just survive. Unlike most birds and all other penguins, the emperors court and then lay and
incubate [6] their eggs in winter. And during those 4 months, the dads eat only snow.
[6]The birds' survival in the face of such extremes of family life made a hit of this year's
documentary film March of the Penguins. These unusual skills have also inspired scientists. Just
about every phase of the penguins' annual cycle offers something unusual to study, whether it's the
birds' diving prowess [7] and feeding binges [8] of fall, their winter courtship [9] and chick rearing [10],
or their abrupt molts [11] in summer. And the birds survive it all without nests or burrows [12]. Or
gloves.

Depth findings
[7]Emperor penguins fish for a living, and right before the breeding season, they binge fish.
The first scientist to see how deep their fishing dives take them was physiologist Gerald Kooyman
of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography [13] in La Jolla, Calif.
[8]In the late 1960s, he attached a depth recorder to an emperor penguin and made the first
measurements of this species' diving capacity. That bird plunged as deep as 265 m. It was the
deepest avian dive [14] recorded, although mammal champs [15] such as sperm whales [16] can go
deeper.
[9]Now, Kooyman dismisses 265 m as [17] "modest." Later studies observed emperor penguins
going as deep as 500 m. Most dives are in the modest range and last only 5 or 6 minutes, but the
birds have been known to remain underwater as long as 20 minutes.
[10]"Hydrodynamically, penguins are better designed than most marine mammals," Kooyman
says. Seals, for example, flex their bodies dramatically as they swim, and that flexing increases
drag [18]. In contrast, emperor penguins motor along with their bodies almost rigid.
[11]Paul Ponganis, a Scripps researcher and a practicing anesthesiologist [19]—for people—in
San Diego, has joined Kooyman in studying how deep-diving penguins manage their oxygen.
First, he says, they load up on [20] it by taking advantage of "the major adaptation" in some animals
for epic dives, an abundance of the compound myoglobin[21] in their tissues.
[12]Myoglobin has an even stronger affinity [22] for oxygen than does its close relative
hemoglobin[23]. This attraction makes it possible for tissues to receive the oxygen that hemoglobin

190
carries in the bloodstream. Deep-diving mammals such as Weddell seals [24] have unusually high
concentrations of myoglobin in their cells, and so do emperor penguins.
[13]Also, emperors have some 100 milliliters [25] of blood per kilogram of body weight, says
Ponganis. That's not as much as extreme-diver seals, with 220 ml/kg, but more than a person's 70
ml/kg.
[14]The penguins also ration [26] these oxygen stores using physiological tricks unavailable to
landlubbers [27]. A person plunging into the water and swimming downward feels a rise in
heartbeat. When an emperor penguin dives, however, its heart slows, as does its use of oxygen. A
penguin heart may pound at 180 to 200 beats per minute when the bird is on land, but during a
dive, the heart rate drops to as low as 60 beats per minute, Ponganis says.
[15]Plenty of mysteries remain about penguins' diving prowess. Ponganis, his Scripps colleague
Torrence Knower Stockard, and an international team found that when diving, penguins nearly
deplete[28] the oxygen in the special avian air sacs[29] attached to their lungs. The team measured
oxygen remaining in the air sacs during the last 15 seconds of an emperor penguin's dive.
[16]For 42 percent of about 70 dives made by four test birds, air-sac oxygen dropped below 20
millimeters of mercury (mmHg), the researchers report in the Aug. 1 Journal of Experimental
Biology. Should a person's lung-oxygen supply drop below 25 mmHg, "we're passing out [30],"
says Ponganis.
[17]Coming up from an extreme dive in theory should present penguins with the same risks that
beset[31] stroke patients when tissues starved for oxygen suddenly get blood after a blockage [32] is
removed. This rush produces chemically damaging free radicals that typically do more damage
than the initial oxygen starvation did.
[18]Penguins don't seem to suffer from their dives, and researchers are now searching for
enzymes that protect the animals.
[19]Emperor penguins don't seem bothered by the bends, either. Human divers who plunge to
penguin depths and then surface as briskly as these birds do develop dangerous nitrogen bubbles
[33]
in their blood. Kooyman doesn't have an explanation for the birds' resistance to the bends. "I
could wave my arms around," he offers.
[20]The birds not only avoid the bends but also end their dives with flair [34]. Ponganis and his
colleagues have seen many of the birds' acrobatic [35] exits from water onto ice.
[21]To study diving, the researchers corral [36] the penguins near two isolated holes in the ice.
When the birds, often with expensive instrumentation attached, plunge through the holes to fish,
researchers wait nearby anticipating that the birds will return through the same hole.
[22]Leopard seals [37], connoisseurs [38] of penguin meat, often lurk [39] near these ice holes too.
To avoid predators, penguins jetting up from a hole get out of the way as quickly as possible.
"They hit the ice and keep scooting [40]," Ponganis says.

Extreme dieting
[23]In fall, after a frenzy[41] of fishing, Antarctica's emperor penguins splash out of the water
and begin their storied long march across the ice to some 40 breeding sites typically well away
from the water. Some spots attract only a few hundred bird pairs, but 10,000 couples meet at
others.
[24]In 1994, when Wienecke herself migrated to a penguin colony, daytime shrank [42] until she
and the birds had only 3 hours of dim light each day between the hours of total blackness. She

191
reports that it wasn't all bad. "You could step outside at 10 o'clock in the morning and see raging
auroras [43]," she recalls.
[25]As the looming [44] winter chills Antarctica, seawater around it freezes, nearly doubling the
summertime surface area of the continent. This ice ruff [45] around solid ground will melt as spring
returns, so the penguins have to hike far enough for their breeding ground to stay solid until the
chicks can cope with water. Penguins travel south for dozens of kilometers by waddling [46] upright
and sledding on their bellies.
[26]Physiologist René Groscolas of the Center for Ecology and Metabolic Physiology in
Strasbourg, France, has watched the penguins march in Antarctica. "It was very impressive to see
living beings appearing at the horizon and walking in a complete silence," he says.
[27]When emperor penguins start marching after weeks of foraging at sea, they're as fat as they
ever get.
[28]Once the penguins mate [47] at their breeding site, the female lays one egg and then heads
back to sea. The male stands on the ice snuggling [48] the egg under his belly and on top of his feet
for 7 weeks or so. If a chick hatches early, its dad feeds it a liquid secreted [49] by his esophagus [50].
[29]If all goes well, the father can keep junior and himself alive until his mate shows up with a
bellyful of baby food.
[30]Part of what enables the male to limit his energy expenditure is huddling behavior [51].
Hundreds, sometimes thousands of emperor penguins crowd together conserving body heat.
Densities can reach up to 10 birds per square meter, not counting the babies, says Groscolas. In
such close quarters, the need for warmth seems to override male-bird territoriality.
[31]Physiologists have calculated that a lone male has the energy to keep himself warm only if
the temperature stays above –10°C. Groscolas says that a huddling male can drop his metabolic
rate 40 percent compared with that of a lone dad. A huddler loses no more energy than he would
standing around in a temperate environment.
[32]"Actually, it appears that emperors may get too warm while in a huddle and have to
regularly go outside it to refresh," Groscolas says.
[33]"They're toasty [52]," Wienecke agrees, speaking relatively. Temperatures inside the huddle
reach about 20°C. Emperor penguins now and then stretch their highly extensible necks above the
hunkered [53] mass. "They're like periscopes [54]," says Wienecke. "And you can see this puff [55] of
hot air."
[34]When the female returns, she takes over chick care and lets her mate waddle back to the sea
for his first meal in 4 months. He also picks up the next load of baby food.
[35]Yet Groscolas and his colleagues argued in 2001 that full-bellied parents arrive at the
colony starving themselves metabolically.
[36]When the team analyzed various metabolites, such as triglycerides [56], in the birds' blood,
the biochemical profiles didn't fit those of animals digesting food after plentiful meals. Emperor
penguins seem to block their digestion and fast with their stomachs full.
[37]The only other animals known to do this are king penguins brooding chicks and gastric-
brooding [57] frogs in Australia, Groscolas says. The possibly extinct frogs shut down digestion
while their tadpoles [58] use their mom's stomach as a nursery.
[38]Eventually, the emperor penguin chick gets big enough to regulate its own body
temperature, and both parents can go off foraging. They leave their chick in an avian version of a
playgroup, which ornithologists [59] call a crèche [60]. If a storm blows in, the youngsters crowd into

192
a junior huddle of gray fluff [61].
[39]The spring weather can actually be tough on animals as well insulated as emperor penguins
are. On a sunny day with no wind, the temperature can soar to –10°C to –5 °C. "If it's a hot day,
they'll be gobbling snow [62]," says Ponganis. Chicks throw themselves down on the ice with their
stubby [63] wings outstretched.
【注释】
[1]emperor penguin:皇企鹅;帝企鹅,唯一在南极大陆沿岸过冬的鸟类,并在冬季繁殖
[2]frantically:疯狂的
[3]waxy:苍白的
[4]scoop:舀
[5]vertebrate:脊椎动物
[6]incubate:孵化
[7]prowess:超凡技术
[8]feeding binge:无节制的摄取食物
[9]courtship:求爱
[10]chick rearing:育雏
[11]molt:换毛
[12]burrow:洞穴
[13]Scripps Institution of Oceanography:加利福尼亚大学斯克利普斯海洋研究所
[14]avian dive:鸟类潜水
[15]mammal champs:哺乳动物中的冠军
[16]sperm whale:巨头鲸
[17]dismiss…as…:对某事物不予理会或不屑一提
[18]drag:减速
[19]practicing anesthesiologist:临床麻醉学
[20]load up on it:获取很多
[21]myoglobin:肌红蛋白
[22]affinity:吸引力
[23]hemoglobin:血色素
[24]Weddell seal:威德尔海豹
[25]milliliter:毫升
[26]ration:配给
[27]landlubber:新水手
[28]deplete:耗尽
[29]air sacs:气囊
[30]pass out:昏倒,失去知觉
[31]beset:包围
[32]blockage:封锁
[33]nitrogen bubble:氮气气泡
[34]with flair:独具眼光
[35]acrobatic:杂技式的
[36]corral:围住
[37]Leopard seal:豹斑海豹
[38]connoisseur:鉴识家

193
[39]lurk:潜伏
[40]scoot:溜走
[41]frenzy:狂暴
[42]shrink:收缩
[43]aurora:极光
[44]looming:朦胧的;临近的
[45]ice ruff:冰轴;冰架;冰环
[46]waddle:蹒跚而行
[47]mate:交配
[48]snuggle:紧贴着
[49]secret:分泌
[50]esophagus:食道
[51]huddling behavior:挤堆行为
[52]toasty:暖和舒适的
[53]hunker:蹲着的
[54]periscope:潜望镜
[55]puff:一阵喷烟
[56]triglyceride:甘油三酸脂
[57]gastric-brooding:用胃部孵化的
[58]tadpole:蝌蚪
[59]ornithologist:鸟类学家
[60]crèche:托儿所
[61]gray fluff:绒毛
[62]gobbling snow:咯咯作响的雪球
[63]stubby:短而粗的

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1) What happened to Wienecke? Why did her fingers pale?
2) What unusual skills of emperor penguins have inspired scientists?
3) What maybe the reason of Kooyman’s ignorance of 265m?
4) With what material do emperor penguins take in enough oxygen?
5) What’s the difference in penguins’ using oxygen when it is on land and underwater?
6) List the remaining mysteries of penguins’ diving prowess.
7) What’s the responsibility for the male and female penguins when the egg is laid?
8) Why do male emperor penguins have huddling behavior?

2. Paraphrase
1) As she worked frantically, her fingers paled and then "went from something white colored,
which still looked a bit like skin, to something rather waxy that looked nothing like skin," she
says.
2) First, he says, they load up on it by taking advantage of "the major adaptation" in some animals
for epic dives, an abundance of the compound myoglobin in their tissues.

194
3) Coming up from an extreme dive in theory should present penguins with the same risks that
beset stroke patients when tissues starved for oxygen suddenly get blood after a blockage is
removed.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
emperor penguins, myoglobin, hemoglobin, millimeters of mercury, huddling behavior,
vertebrate, air sacs
2. Describe how emperor penguins manage their diving according to the text in your own words. .
3. Write a 200-word composition entitled “the emperor penguins in Antarctic”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
emperor penguin, feeding binge, chick rearing, practicing anesthesiology, air sacs, nitrogen
bubble, triglyceride, gastric-brooding, huddling behavior
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Just about every phase of the penguins' annual cycle offers something unusual to study, whether
it's the birds' diving prowess and feeding binges of fall, their winter courtship and chick rearing,
or their abrupt molts in summer. And the birds survive it all without nests or burrows. Or gloves.
2) In fall, after a frenzy of fishing, Antarctica's emperor penguins splash out of the water and
begin their storied long march across the ice to some 40 breeding sites typically well away from
the water. Some spots attract only a few hundred bird pairs, but 10,000 couples meet at others.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 11-12 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “March of the penguins”, which was a popular movie in the
summer of 2006.

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and some words may be used
for more than once.

without, over, on, onto, off

Fasting isn't ______ for the penguins. They again can't eat during their summertime molt
because they can't swim ______ a fully protective body suit. To prepare, penguins leave their
chicks to fend for themselves and take _____ on long fishing trips.
To see where penguins go to fatten up, Wienecke's group fastened satellite trackers and dive
recorders _____ birds at two colonies along the Mawson Coast. Instrument packages on nine
penguins showed the birds swimming north _____ a great feeding expedition of 22 to 38 days. On

195
the longest trip, a penguin traveled up to 1,900 kilometers and reached points 600 km from the
breeding ground.
Rather than returning to the nesting colony site to molt, the tagged emperor penguins settled
____ some large, free-floating hunks of ice, Wienecke and her colleagues report in the January
2004 Polar Biology. Then, the birds molted.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
Emperors, like other penguins, grow much denser feather coats than do flying birds. An
emperor's feathers keep an air layer for__[1]__on land. During diving, the water compresses the
outer layer of oiled feathers so that it loses much of its insulating power. Even a modest dive
__[2]__ the birds to 20 atmospheres of pressure.
The __[3]___ feathers provide a waterproof dive suit, explains Wienecke. It protects the skin
from direct contact with the chilly water and keeps the undercoat of down ( 绒毛 ) from getting
waterlogged (浸水).
Airborne birds lose and replace feathers gradually so that they're never grounded. Emperors
and other penguins, however, __[4]__ all their feathers during a single month. A molting penguin
will actually ___[5]___ if it ventures into the water, Wienecke says. Molting birds stroll around or
stand in "pools of feathers," says Wienecke.
As each new feather works its way up through the skin, it pushes the old one aside. Just
before the old feather drops off, it loses its sleek ( 光滑的 ) penguin styling and __[6]__ straight
out. The birds never get naked, but the new feathers grow in patchily ( 杂乱的 ). The birds look
"terribly raggedy and moth-eaten," says Wienecke. "It must itch something horrendous."
Yet most of the birds ___[7]___ in growing back their feathers in time to go back to sea and
fatten up before beginning—again—their long march.
Kooyman welcomes the ___[8]____ for emperor penguins that The March of the Penguins
has engendered (产生). He says, "I've been telling people they're remarkable for years."

[1] insulation loneliness separation isolation


[2] causes makes subjects objects
[3] suppressed oppressed depressed compressed
[4] lose replace substitute vanish
[5] floated dived swimming drown
[6] stands sets sticks rises
[7] fail succeed devote dedicate
[8] fantasy imagination illusion enthusiasm

196
Unit 18
Blood Work
--Scientists seek to identify all the proteins in plasma
by John Travis

[1]In his 1998 book Blood: An Epic History of Medicine and Commerce, author Douglas Starr
traced the rise of blood as a commercially exploited tissue. In the preface, he compared blood to
oil and suggested that the former is more valuable. At the time of the book, a barrel of crude oil
sold for about $13, whereas Starr estimated that the same quantity of whole blood would fetch

197
$20,000 -- and more than $67,000 if it were processed. "Just like the oil industry, the blood trade
involves collecting a liquid resource, breaking it into components and selling the product
globally," he wrote.
[2]Consider the intense demand for plasma[1], the clear liquid portion of blood that contains
therapeutic molecules[2] such as clotting factors[3] and albumin[4], a protein regularly used to treat
shock and other conditions. The companies selling these natural compounds process more than 22
million liters of plasma each year, according to the Plasma Protein Therapeutics Association in
Annapolis[5] , Md.
[3]The annual worldwide revenue from plasma-derived therapeutic products is around $5
billion, according to one estimate cited in Starr's book.
[4]Plasma proteins also provide a wealth of diagnostic tools. For instance, physicians look at
high blood concentrations of a protein called prostate-specific antigen[6] as an indication of
prostate cancer. And people view their blood concentrations of HDL and LDL [7], two cholesterol-
carrying proteins[8] , as signs of the health of their heart.
[5]Still, there may be a lot more value hidden within plasma. To date, scientists have identified
only several hundred of the estimated thousands of proteins typically coursing through a person's
bloodstream.
[6]Between 1977 and 2001, scientists screening human plasma for new proteins added only
about 20 proteins to the tally, says N. Leigh Anderson, who founded the Plasma Proteome
Institute[9], a nonprofit research organization in Washington, D.C. "That's just astoundingly,
amazingly bad," he says.
[7]Indeed, Anderson and other scientists suggest that human plasma contains some of every
protein produced by the human body, perhaps hundreds of thousands of different molecules.
Identifying this repertoire[10] of plasma proteins could offer new ways to detect -- or even treat and
prevent-- many diseases.
[8]"It's a very broad and bold opportunity," says Gilbert Omenn of the University of Michigan
in Ann Arbor, who leads an international consortium [11] of scientists seeking to characterize
plasma proteins.
[9]The search for plasma proteins is speeding up. Last December, a team at Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory in Richland, Wash., reported that it had identified almost 500 proteins in a
sample of human plasma. That nearly doubles the number previously known, says team leader
Joel G. Pounds.
[10]"We're right at the cusp[12] of a huge revolution in the field," says Anderson.

Too much of a good thing


[11]Spin a vial[13] of blood in a centrifuge[14] and the red and white blood cells, as well as the
disklike platelets[15] responsible for normal clotting, sink to the bottom. A clear liquid remains
above them. That fluid, the plasma, consists of water with salts, hormones[16] , enzymes,
antibodies[17], and other proteins dissolved in it.
[12]Over the past few decades, Anderson and other scientists have largely used a process called
gel electrophoresis[18] to identify plasma proteins. In this approach, investigators put plasma at one
end of a slab of gel and run an electric current through it. Migrating with the current through the
gel at speeds based on their molecular weight and electric charge, plasma proteins separate from
each other. The researchers then extract purified proteins from the gel.

198
[13]In a review of plasma-protein research published in the November 2002 Molecular and
Cellular Proteomics, Anderson and his father, Norman G. Anderson, estimate that about 290
plasma proteins have been identified in this way. They argue that gel electrophoresis used by itself
will find few additional blood proteins.
[14]There's no doubt that many more proteins lurk[19] in serum[20], say the researchers. Blood
comes into contact with almost all tissues in the body, and damaged or dying cells regularly dump
their contents into the bloodstream[21] . An important example is the protein creatine-kinase MB[22]
, which some dying heart cells release. Physicians use the protein's presence in plasma to diagnose
heart attacks, and its concentration reflects the amount of heart tissue that has been damaged.
[15]Plasma "is a great place to look for proteins that leak out of tissues," says N. Leigh
Anderson. "The circulatory system is like the canals of Venice. It transports all the good things,
and it also transports a lot of junk."
[16]But it's not easy to see many of the good things or the junk in plasma because they're often
obscured by a few overwhelmingly abundant proteins. The most plentiful is albumin, which
transports several other proteins and maintains blood pressure.
[17]By itself, albumin makes up about 60 percent of the serum-protein content [23] , says Pounds.
The 10 most abundant proteins which include antibodies, the iron transporter called transferring,
and fibrinogen[24] account for more than 90 percent of all plasma protein. Many other proteins are
present at extremely low relative concentrations. For example, albumin's concentrationis[25] 5 to 10
billion times that of the immune system signal interleukin-6[26].

All broke up
[18]Researchers are sorting out the best way to search for additional plasma proteins. Some add
enzymes to their plasma samples to prevent the natural breakdown of proteins, yet others argue
that these enzymes may hinder discovery. Investigators are also divided on whether to remove the
albumin before they analyze a sample. That strategy might aid identification of low-abundance
proteins[27] , but it runs the risk of accidentally discarding plasma proteins that adhere to the
abundant molecule. "Albumin is a sticky protein," notes Pounds.
[19]Therefore, in their recent analysis, he and his colleagues didn't remove albumin from
plasma samples. They did, however, seek to simplify their analysis by stripping the plasma of
clotting factors. This creates a liquid commonly known as blood serum.
[20]Also, by running the liquid over beads[28] coated with[29] a molecule that binds antibodies,
they removed most of these immune proteins. They then added the enzyme trypsin [30] to carve
up[31] the remaining proteins into small, but still recognizable fragments, or peptides[32].
[21]The scientists next used a series of chromatography techniques[33] that disperse[34] peptides
in a liquid or gas environment rather than on slabs of gel. This process separates albumin-derived
peptides from those generated by other proteins, says Pounds.
[22]Finally, the scientists injected each group of peptides into a tandem mass spectrometer [35], a
device that weighs each peptide and then shatters it into its component amino acids and weighs
each of them. From that information, the researchers deduced the amino acid sequence of each
peptide and then identified the blood proteins that it came from.
[23]When Pounds' team applied this complex procedure to a few drops of plasma from a
healthy woman, it identified 490 proteins, including some low-abundance ones such as human
growth hormone and prostate-specific antigen. In their analysis, reported in the December 2002

199
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, Pounds and his colleagues describe finding most, but not all,
of the previously documented plasma proteins.
[24]One protein that was missing was C-reactive protein[36], whose elevated presence in the
blood may serve as a predictor of heart attacks. The plasma donor's heart may have been so
healthy that she had little C-reactive protein in her blood, or some facet[37] of the group's approach
may have obscured the protein's detection. For example, some peptides aren't easily broken apart
in a mass spectrometer.
[25]Two proteins that typically function in the retina[38] were unexpectedly found in the plasma.
The woman might have some retinal damage that caused the proteins to leak into her bloodstream,
speculates Pounds. Another explanation is that these proteins function in other tissues where
scientists haven't yet detected them.
【注释】
[1]plasma:血浆
[2]therapeutic molecules:治疗性分子
[3]clotting factors:凝血因子
[4]albumin:蛋白素
[5]Plasma Protein Therapeutics Association in Annapolis:安那波利斯的血浆蛋白治疗协会
[6]prostate-specific antigen:前列腺特异性抗原
[7]HDL and LDL : HDL(high density lipoproteins) 高 密 度 脂 蛋 白 ; LDL(low density
lipoproteins)低密度脂蛋白
[8]cholesterol-carrying proteins:胆固醇携带蛋白
[9]Plasma Proteome Institute:血浆蛋白质组研究所
[10]repertoire:保留剧目;指令表
[11]consortium:联合
[12]cusp:尖头
[13]vial:小瓶
[14]centrifuge:离心分离机
[15]platelet:血小板
[16]hormone:荷尔蒙
[17]antibody:抗体
[18]gel electrophoresis :凝胶电泳,是一大类技术,被科学工作者用于分离不同物理性质
(如大小、形状、等电点等)的分子
[19]lurk:潜伏
[20]serum:血清
[21]bloodstream:血液
[22]creatine-kinase MB:肌酸激酶MB
[23]serum-protein content:血清蛋白含量
[24]fibrinogen:纤维蛋白原
[25]concentration:即blood concentration 血浓度
[26]interleukin-6:白细胞介素6
[27]low-abundance proteins :低丰度蛋白,在细胞内可能具有重要的调节功能,代表蛋白质
组研究的“冰山之尖”,故分离低丰度蛋白是一种挑战
[28] beads:珠子
[29]coated with:涂有

200
[30]trypsin:胰岛素
[31]carve up:划分
[32] peptides:肽;缩胺酸
[33]chromatography techniques:色谱法
[34]disperse:分散
[35]tandem mass spectrometer :串联质谱仪,串联质谱检测 (tandem mass spectrometry)
是高通量蛋白质组学的核心技术, 特别用于蛋白质复合物的鉴定
[36]C-reactive:C反应蛋白
[37]facet:方面
[38]retina:视网膜

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1) What therapeutic molecules are contained in plasma?
2) Give two examples to illustrate plasma proteins' diagnostic function.
3) What can be seen after a vial of blood was put in a centrifuge?
4) How do scientists extract purified proteins from gel?
5) By which method can physicians diagnose heart attack according to the text?
6) What is the divergence of opinion toward the search of additional plasma proteins?
7) What would the scientists do with peptides after they dispersed this material?
8) Is it true that the more C-reactive protein we have, the more healthy we are?
2. Paraphrase
1) But it's not easy to see many of the good things or the junk in plasma because they're often
obscured by a few overwhelmingly abundant proteins.
2) One protein that was missing was C-reactive protein, whose elevated presence in the blood
may serve as a predictor of heart attacks.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
plasma protein, clotting factor, albumin, blood concentration, cholesterol-carrying protein,
hormone, antibody, platelet, gel electrophoresis, serum, low-abundance protein, C-reactive protein
2. Describe plasma protein according to the text in your own words. .
3. Write a 200-word composition entitled “the identification of plasma proteins”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
plasma protein, clotting factor, blood concentration, prostate-specific antigen, cholesterol-carrying
protein, antibody, gel electrophoresis, low-abundance protein, C-reactive protein

2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Consider the intense demand for plasma, the clear liquid portion of blood that contains

201
therapeutic molecules such as clotting factors and albumin, a protein regularly used to treat shock
and other conditions.
2) The scientists next used a series of chromatography techniques that disperse peptides in a
liquid or gas environment rather than on slabs of gel.

3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 21-23 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “Plasma substitute”

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

routine, global, handful, various,


known, diagnostic, formidable

Pounds says that his group's work is just a first step toward compiling( 编译) the master list(万
能) of proteins in plasma. Members of the international Plasma Proteome Project are testing many
other analytical strategies using chromatography and mass spectrometry, notes Omenn. "The
whole idea is to have a _____ effort that characterizes the advantages and limitations of _____
technologies," he says.
N. Leigh Anderson predicts that the number of ______ plasma proteins will double by the end
of this year.
Once a low-abundance plasma protein is identified, it's still a _______ challenge to develop an
inexpensive and effective assay( 化验分析 ) to detect it or measure its concentration. Such assays
are needed if the protein is ever to be used to diagnose or predict a disease.
"Only a ______ of proteins are currently used in ______ clinical diagnosis, and the rate of
introduction of new protein tests approved by the [Food and Drug Administration] has
paradoxically declined over the last decade to less than one new protein _______ marker( 标记 )
per year," N. Leigh Anderson and Norman G. Anderson note in their review.

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
A promising advance on the horizon( 初露端倪) may speed development of such tests. Several
companies are rushing to create simple __[1]__ that can detect hundreds if not thousands of
proteins at a time. Similar in concept __[2]__ the so-called DNA chips that were invented and
quickly marketed about a decade ago, these protein chips are wafers( 圆 片 ) dotted with
microscopic pools of molecules such as antibodies. As DNA chips enable scientists to monitor the
activity of thousands of genes, protein chips could show the __[3]__ of thousands of proteins in a
single blood test. When a liquid such as plasma is run over a protein chip, the antibodies __[4]___
their target protein, revealing its presence.

202
With such chips, suggests Pounds, researchers will __[5]__ better diagnostic assays for cancer.
Whereas a single marker, such as prostate-specific antigen, may __[6]__ a physician,
simultaneous readings of multiple plasma proteins should be more definitive.
This wealth of new plasma-protein information could pose a challenge, however. "Physicians
are not ___[7]___ to looking at 10 different proteins in a certain pattern as an indication of
disease," notes N. Leigh Anderson.
Ultimately, through the analysis of proteins in plasma, researchers may capture a "molecular
image" of a person's normal physiology or of a disease state, says Pounds. They will also be able
to study __[8]__ a person's diet, genetic background, lifestyle, and environment influence the
contents of plasma, he adds.
"If we have all this information, we'll probably be in a much better position to identify and
design new drugs," says Pounds. "We think there are thousands of proteins in plasma, and there's a
lot of opportunity here to improve human health."

[1] equipments facilities infrastures devices


[2] with to as by
[3] presence attendence presentation attendant
[4] combine integrate bind unite
[5] devise work plan rectify
[6] puzzle confuse baffle mislead
[7] used good accustomed skillful
[8] what whatever how however

Unit 19
When Genes Escape
--Does it matter to crops and weeds?
by Susan Milius

[1]This may not sound like boffo[1] material, but genetic engineering-policy specialist Michael
Rodemeyer knows his crowd. "As I was coming out here, I thought about making bumper
stickers[2] that say, 'Gene flow happens.'" The line gets a good laugh; after all, Rodemeyer, a
director of the Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology[3] in Washington, D.C., is addressing a
roomful of botanists[4]. They routinely think about genes moving from plant to plant, and they get
his reference to worries that engineered genes will jump from a crop to a wild cousin and create a

203
real Godzilla[5] of a weed.
[2]Judging by the questions they ask and the eyebrows they arch [6] , the folks at the Botany
2003 meeting in Mobile, Ala., in late July hold a range of attitudes about genetically engineered
crops. Yet just about everyone laughs with Rodemeyer.
[3]The discussion of gene flow[7] has changed in the past decade. The question is no longer, Can
genes move? By now, scientists have tested some of the basic scenarios and reported their
observations. The current consensus is that genes certainly can flow, says Allison Snow of Ohio
State University in Columbus. Her tests and others' have shown that much. "The important
question now is, 'What are the consequences?'" she says.
[4]Researchers are starting to examine that question. The answers may strongly influence the
future of genetic engineering in agriculture.

Roots
[5]When bioengineers first inserted foreign genes, or transgenes [8], into plants in the 1980s, the
scientists generally expected crop-to-wild hybridizations[9] to be only "rare and idiosyncratic[10],"
says Norman Ellstrand of the University of California, Riverside. However, interest in how
cultivated plants consort with[11] wildlings had started long before genetic engineering was even a
glimmer in a test tube.
[6]Ellstrand, a dedicated investigator of gene-flow questions, points out an 1886 treatise[12] on
domesticated plants[13] that mentions their capacity for mating with wild relatives. Even the term
superweed goes back at least to 1949, in a book on hybridizing plant species. The author raised
the possibility that a traditional farm plant's wild side pairings [14] might yield especially tough but
undesirable[15] offspring.
[7]In a few cases, scientists have traced a trait moving from a conventional crop into the wild.
For example, Ellstrand notes a 1959 report of a brainstorm that fizzled[16] in India. Agriculturists
encouraged farmers to plant a rice variety with red seedlings[17], easy to distinguish from a pale,
weedy form that farmers had been removing from their paddies[18]. The venture failed when the
red color quickly migrated into the weed.
[8]Scientists continue to examine conventional crops to gain insight into what genetic
engineering might yield. For example, in 1998, Randal Linder of the University of Texas at Austin
and his colleagues, including Snow, reported their study of wild sunflower patches [19] that had
grown near farmed sunflowers for up to 40 years. All of the 115 wild plants that the researchers
tested carried at least one genetic marker[20] characteristic of the commercial plants.
[9]Tracking a rare genetic marker from a conventional alfalfa crop[21], Paul St. Amand of
Kansas State University in Manhattan and his colleagues have documented the gene in stray
plants outside farm fields. In some cases, the gene turned up as far as 230 meters away. "Data
suggest that complete containment of transgenes within alfalfa-seed or hay-production fields
would be highly unlikely using current production practices," the researchers commented in their
2000 paper.
[10]Ellstrand has built the case that opportunities abound[22] for crossings of crops and weeds.
In 1999, he reviewed the world's top 13 crops for human consumption (ranked by area harvested)
and found reports that 12 crops hybridize with a wild relative somewhere in their range. Wheat,
for example, has given rise to at least 21 natural hybrids, and certain crop-weed crosses[23] of rice
have yielded unusually fertile offspring. The exception was peanut plants, which typically self-

204
fertilize[24].
[11]Less-prominent crops, too, often mate with their wild relatives, Ellstrand says. He's added
31 plants, including grapes, avocados[25], lettuce[26], coffee, chocolate, and watermelons, to his list
of crops that in some part of the world have hybridized with a wild mate.

Loose genes
[12]The movement of genes from engineered plants has triggered more concern than gene flow
from conventional crops ever did. Genetic engineering enables scientists to transplant a much
wider range of genes than is available through traditional breeding.
[13]Some experiments have observed neighboring barley[27] picking up genes introduced into
crops by genetic engineering. A marker from transgenic barley, for instance, traveled to up to 7
percent of conventional barley plants nearby that don't produce competing pollen. However, rogue
pollination[28] dwindled rapidly in frequency the farther researchers got from the source plants[29].
Anneli Ritala of VTT Biotechnology in Espoo, Finland, reported in the January - February 2002
Crop Science.
[14]Perhaps the most famous studies of transgene escapes[30] aren't intentional experiments at
all. For example, Mexicans are watching their traditional maize versions, or landraces [31], to see
whether they'll pick up genes from the abundant U.S. crops of transgenic corn. Mexico itself has
banned the growing of transgenic corn.
[15]The ancestral home of corn lies in Mexico, where rich variety in the old landraces persists.
Even today, the original lineage[32] of crop corn survives in a lanky[33] grass called teosinte[34],
which has tiny stubs[35] of seeds that only a botanist could love.
[16]In 2001, California biologists reported traces of transgenes in landraces. Other researchers
challenged some of the findings as artifacts of the genetic techniques, and Nature eventually took
the unusual step of saying there hadn't been enough evidence to justify its publishing the paper.
[17]Now, other labs have found signs of transgenes in maize landraces in Mexico. Sol Ortiz-
Garcia of the Ministry of Environmental and Natural Resources in Mexico City described the
findings of two research teams at the July botany meeting. Farmers who bought U.S. corn as
animal feed may have tried growing some of it, or the feed corn may have sprouted
spontaneously.
[18]The teams are gathering further data to confirm the presence of the transgenes, but Snow
says, "I believe it."
[19]Canadian scientists have described transgene movement from a different crop. Farmers
grow canola[36] for the oil in its seeds, and controlling weeds in the fields had ranked high among
canola-grower headaches. Starting in 1996, strains genetically engineered[37] to withstand
treatment by one of two herbicides have become popular in Canada. These strains could then be
doused[38] with pesticide powerful enough to wipe out troublesome weeds. About 70 percent of the
country's crop carry a transgene to aid in weed control.
[20]Those transgenic plants are hybridizing with Brassica rapa[39], one of the weedy parents of
crop canola, according to Suzanne Warwick at Agriculture Canada in Ottawa. She and her
colleagues documented the first crop-wild hybrid from a regular commercial field in the August
2003 Theoretical and Applied Genetics.
[21]Transgenes also move from one type of crop canola to another. A canola field planted with
one variety sprouted hybrid volunteers that combined the herbicide resistances of their parents,

205
Linda Hall of Agriculture Canada in Edmonton, Alberta, and her colleagues reported in 2001.
[22]The canola-transgene movement can complicate life for farmers, Hall says. Canola seeds
that stay in the ground after the farmer has rotated crops [40] can pop up[41] as weeds in a wheat or
barley field. If those volunteers have picked up unexpected herbicide resistance, the farmer's
herbicide regimen may be insufficient.
【注释】
[1]boffo:风行的
[2]bumper sticker : 美 国 人 常 在 汽 车 后 面 的 保 险 杠 上 (bumper), 贴 些 标 签 (sticker),bumper
sticker就是保险杠标签
[3]Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology :农业皮氏食品与生物科技资讯基金会( Pew
Initiative on Food and Biotechnology)位于美国华盛顿特区为农业生物科技的争议提供中立
而客观的资讯
[4]botanists:植物学家
[5]Godzilla :最早出现于日本电影中,是一种怪兽,1998年美国拍摄电影“哥斯拉”,说
的是在太平洋上的玻利尼西亚群岛由于长年辐射不断,一只普通的蜥蜴变成了高达90英尺
的“哥斯拉”,危害人间
[6]arch:成弓形
[7]gene flow:基因流
[8] transgenes:转基因
[9]crop-to-wild hybridizations:栽野杂交
[10]idiosyncratic:特殊的
[11]consort with:与…..协调
[12]treatise:论述
[13]domesticated plants:家庭种植作物
[14]pairings:配对
[15]undesirable:不受欢迎的
[16]fizzle:失败
[17]seedling:幼苗
[18]paddy:稻田
[19]patch:片
[20]genetic marker:遗传标记
[21] alfalfa crop:苜蓿
[22]abound:富于,充满
[23]crop-weed crosses:作物杂草交叉
[24] self-fertilize:自我施肥
[25]avocados:鳄梨
[26]lettuce:莴苣
[27]barley:大麦
[28]rogue pollination:四处游走的授粉器
[29]source plant:源株植物
[30]transgene escapes:转基因的逃逸
[31]landraces:墨西哥昆沙甲(Qaxaca)地区原产的玉米原生种
[32]lineage:血统
[33]lanky:瘦长的

206
[34]teosinte:墨西哥类蜀黍
[35]stub:断株
[36]canola:蓖麻
[37]strains genetically engineered:基因工程株
[38]douse:弄湿
[39]Brassica rapa:白菜型油菜
[40]rotate crop:轮种作物
[41]pop up:冒出

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension
1. Questions and tasks
1) In Botany 2003 meeting, what worries botanists have when Rodemeyer is addressing them?
2) What consensus has been reached and what questions will be examined according to paragraph
3 and 4?
3) In a book on hybridizing plant species in 1949, what possibility was mentioned by the author?
4) Why do scientists continue to study o conventional crops?
5) Compared with gene flow from conventional crops, what has aroused people's more concern?
6) What has been found in the study of Mexican Landrace?
7) What's the use of strains genetically engineered according to the text?
8) Why does Hall say that canola-transgene movement can complicate life for farmers?
2. Paraphrase
1) The movement of genes from engineered plants has triggered more concern than gene flow
from conventional crops ever did.
2) Genetic engineering enables scientists to transplant a much wider range of genes than is
available through traditional breeding.
3) Some experiments have observed neighboring barley picking up genes introduced into crops by
genetic engineering.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
hybrid, transgene, gene flow, genetic marker, domesticated plants, herbcide, breeding, crop-to-
wild hybridization
2. Describe transgene escape research according to the text in your own words.
3. Write a 150-word composition entitled “What transgene escape brings to us”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
transgene escape, gene flow, crop-to-wild hybridization, genetic marker, crop-weed cross, strains
genetically engineered, rotate crops, dometicated plates, herbcide, pestcide, self-fertilize
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) When bioengineers first inserted foreign genes, or transgenes, into plants in the 1980s, the

207
scientists generally expected crop-to-wild hybridizations to be only "rare and idiosyncratic," says
Norman Ellstrand of the University of California, Riverside.
2) Ellstrand has built the case that opportunities abound for crossings of crops and weeds.
3) Even today, the original lineage of crop corn survives in a lanky grass called teosinte, which
has tiny stubs of seeds that only a botanist could love.

3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 14-16 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “Yuan Longping and superhybrid rice”

V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and use the correct form of the
word where necessary.

spread, receive, leave, confer


monitor, resist, report, make

Is the canola-gene flow a lot or a little? It doesn't matter, says John Burke, now at Vanderbilt
University in Nashville. In 2001, he and Loren Rieseberg of Indiana University in Bloomington
published an analysis of what it takes for a new form of a gene to get established if it moves into a
weed or other species. They _______ that the rate at which a gene migrates makes little
difference, compared with whether it helps the plant survive and reproduce.
According to Burke and Rieseberg, if a transferred gene supercharges( 增 强 ) a plant into
leaving more offspring, the gene will ______. "If it's disadvantageous or neutral, it won't do
much, no matter how high the rate of gene flow," he says.
Some scientists looking for benefits to plants that ______ stray transgenes have studied crops
instead of weeds. They pitted( 使竞争 ) the engineered version of a crop against its old-fashioned
counterpart in a survival marathon. In the first test of survival advantages ______ by a transgene
in a natural setting, Mick J. Crawley of Imperial College in Berkshire, England, and his
colleagues chose 12 habitats( 产 地 ). In each, they planted adjacent patches of transgenic and
traditional versions of several crops: rape, maize, beets, and potatoes. The researchers then
______ the plants to fend(生存) for themselves.
After ______ the experiment for 10 years, Crawley and his team reported in 2001 that none of
the transgenic-plant populations had lasted significantly longer than the conventional ones did,
and none of the patches had gained ground.
The experiment made the transgenics look pretty tame( 乏味的 ). Yet Crawley cautions that the
crops his team examined had been engineered to ______ herbicides, moth( 蛾 ) and butterfly
caterpillars, and perhaps those qualities didn't matter much in the wild. Transgenes that confer
different advantages, such as tolerance to drought or to other pests, might ______ more of
difference.

208
2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
Snow and Burke are approaching the problem by __[1]__ transgenes into wild relatives of
commercial plants. They both used wild sunflowers but studied different genes and got different
results.
Snow and her colleagues began with wild sunflowers engineered to make the Bt pesticide, a
toxin( 毒素 ) named __[2]__ the Bacillus thuringiensisbacterium( 苏芸金杆菌 ), in which the gene
__[3]__. The researchers used traditional breeding methods to move the gene into the wild
sunflowers, which they planted in contained fields.
The souped-up(经过加工变得更为吸引人的) wildlings __[4]___ 50 percent more seeds than
the regular wild ones did. "We were surprised," says Snow. Her team's results appeared in the
April Ecological Applications.
In a series of studies, Burke and his colleagues are tracking a genetic construct called OxOx,
which fortifies(加强) commercial sunflowers against white mold. The pathogen's abundant oxalic
acid( 草酸 ), or oxalate, breaks __[5]__ plant tissue, and the transgene OxOx encodes the amino
acid sequence for oxalate oxidase( 草酸氧化酶). The transgene is "making an antacid( 制酸剂 ),"
Burke explains.
Earlier work showed that about two-thirds of all commercial U.S. sunflower fields lie near wild
sunflowers that bloom at the same time. He calls gene flow between commercial and wild
sunflowers "a virtual certainty." To mimic( 模拟 ) this potential spread, Burke and Rieseberg bred
OxOx into a wild species and planted the enhanced offspring in cages in California, Indiana, and
North Dakota.
The researchers __[6]__ all the offspring plus unenhanced wild plants to white mold. Burke
says that the gene gave different levels of __[7]__ from mold in the different states.
In none of the three states, however, did the genetically enhanced plants set significantly more
seeds than the wild ones did, the researchers reported in the May 23 Science. If results from more
years confirm these findings, the gene probably won't create __[8]___ weeds, they conclude.
Burke says his work "provides a nice counterpoint" to the study on the Bt gene. The disparity in
outcomes, he says, emphasizes that for transgenes, "we need to be assessing the risks and benefits
on a case-by-case basis."

[1] plug stick insert thrust


[2] by with for in
[3] derive originate start begin
[4] set boot get plant
[5] away up down in
[6] disclose expose uncover reveal
[7] prevention coverage protection safety
[8] productive fertile appealing aggresive

209
Unit 20
The Nature of Things
--Attempts to change the periodic table[1] raise eyebrows[2]
by Alexandra Goho

[1]One day, during the spring semester of 1999, L. Bruce Railsback turned against one of
science's most visible icons: the periodic table of chemical elements. He was using a conventional
periodic table mounted on the wall to illustrate a geochemistry lecture about the behavior of
minerals in natural waters. That's when he realized how confusing the table's organization was, at
least for his purposes. "I looked like a contortionist [3] trying to point to different elements in

210
different places," says Railsback. "That's what pushed me over the edge [4]."
[2]To most people, the periodic table is the epitome [5] of science at its most orderly. The table's
tidy rows and columns [6] slot all of the 110 or so elements into fixed groups. However, to
Railsback, an earth scientist at the University of Georgia in Athens, the table represents complete
chaos.
[3]"I thought, 'There ought to be a way to group the elements that would make sense to
someone interested in natural and geological processes,'" says Railsback. Back in his office, he set
to work designing a new periodic table that would be more scientifically, and therefore more
ergonomically [7], suited to an earth scientist.
[4]Earth scientists encounter elements mainly in their ionic forms [8], where they carry a positive
or a negative charge [9]. So, Railsback organized his table around ions rather than the neutral atoms
[10]
featured in the conventional periodic table.
[5]"It's a very nice tool, kind of like an expert system for viewing the periodic table in the
context of a variety of applications," says Laura Crossey, a geologist at the University of New
Mexico in Albuquerque.
[6]Railsback's table is also emblematic of an ongoing quest [11] among scientists to find the
perfect format for the periodic table.

Labor of love
[7]It took Railsback more than 4 years to produce a new chart--a project that culminated [12] in the
publication of "An earth scientist's periodic table of the elements and their ions" in the September
Geology.
[8]In this new version, Railsback changed the way the elements are grouped, although within
those groups, he more or less maintained the order in which the atoms appear in the conventional
table, that is, according to the number of protons [13] in the atom's nucleus. Blocks of elements
make up six separate groups that are connected by colored lines. All the positively charged ions,
or cations [14], are together on the right side of the collage [15], and all the negatively charged ions,
or anions [16], are on the left. Uncharged elements constitute their own cluster, situated to the left of
the table's center. Two copies of the column with the noble gases [17], such as helium [18] and neon
[19]
, bracket the table like bookends [20].
[9]Many elements appear in the table more than once. Sulfur [21], for instance, appears four
times S, S2+, S4+, and S6+. "It reflects the different ways sulfur can behave in nature," says
Railsback, adding that sulfur is found in dissolved forms[22] in the ocean as well as in various solid
mineral forms.
[10]In his chart, a colored shape within the box for each element indicates where in the
environment a particular ion is concentrated on Earth's mantle and crust [23], soils, seawater and
rivers, the atmosphere, or living organisms.
[11]Elaborate contour [24] lines add another dimension to the table. Much as markings delineate
[25]
a topographic [26] map, a series of lines meander [27] around groups of ions. These lines demark
[28]
similar ionic potential [29], which is a measure of how tightly an ion's charge is packed. The
larger the potential, the more the ion will attract particles of opposite charge or repel particles of
similar charge.
[12]"That's going to have a lot to do with how that ion behaves in solution," says Railsback. A
positively charged ion with a high ionic potential will react more readily with the negatively

211
charged ends of water molecules than will a cation with a smaller ionic potential.
[13]Because ions with similar ionic potentials tend to concentrate in the same sorts of
environments, the contour lines link groups of elements with same colored symbols. The overall
effect: Speckles [30] of different colors cluster in swaths [31] across the table. A swath of blue
represents ions in seawater, and a band of brown represents ions in soils.
[14]"It's a fabulous piece of work," says Richard Wanty, a research chemist at the United States
Geological Survey in Denver. Wanty was particularly pleased to see his favorite element,
vanadium [32], appear three times in the ionic forms V3+, V4+, and V5+. "In the normal periodic
table, you get one shot at vanadium and that's it," he laments.
[15]From the behavior of gold in mineral deposits to the uptake [33] of potassium [34] ions by
plants, "there's something for everybody in this periodic chart," says Wanty.
[16]For example, a scientist specializing in dating ancient rocks might want to investigate
potential problems in using the decay rates of radioactive uranium [35] to determine the age of
materials. Railsback's chart shows that the uranium ion, with a charge of +6, falls among materials
with very high ionic potentials and therefore high solubilitie [36] in water. There's plenty of water in
geologic settings [37], such as limestone caves [38], so uranium will leach away [39].
[17]Says Railsback: "If we start losing material, then our data is no longer correct."
[18]The new ionic organization of elements could also be useful for materials scientists,
Crossey suggests. In recent years, researchers have made great strides in fabricating a wide range
of biomaterials that interact with ions. Examples include materials made from proteins and
synthetic polymers [40] that can remove mercury ions from water, and polymers that release drugs
in the body when concentrations of calcium or magnesium ions [41] are high enough.
[19]Now that the table is publicly available, Railsback hopes that researchers and educators
will take note. Wanty, for one, is an early convert. "If I were to teach a geochemistry class, I
would start here," he says.

Table manners
[20]Railsback isn't the only one inclined to modify the conventional periodic table into a more
specialized and revealing reference suited to his specialty.
[21]In fact, there is a long tradition of modifying the chart among geologists, metallurgists [42],
and even biologists, says Eric Scerri at the University of California, Los Angeles. "People in
different disciplines will want different things out of the periodic table," says Scerri, who
specializes in the historical and philosophical aspects of the periodic system of elements. Keeping
the order of the elements fixed, the table can be molded in any number of ways. "It's infinitely
flexible. . . . That is one of the strengths of the periodic table," he says.
[22]From spirals [43] and trees to three-dimensional pyramids, numerous alternative tables have
been proposed.
[23]While many of these tables bring the conventional table to life [44], some are downright
wacky [45], says William Jensen, a chemistry historian at the University of Cincinnati. Last year, he
notes by way of an example, a high school teacher drove across the country to show Jensen his
own version of the table. "He had a 1957 Cadillac, and on it was painted the periodic table," says
Jensen.
[24]The Internet, with its hundreds of Web sites dedicated to the periodic table, has added a
hypertextual dimension [46]. Through links and interactive features, users can retrieve a wealth of

212
data on the chemical and physical properties of different elements, including animated visuals of
an element's orbiting electrons and a brief history of each element's discovery.
[25]Despite many creative variations, the fundamental organizing principle of the periodic table
has remained largely unchallenged for more than 130 years. It's survived a number of scientific
revolutions such as quantum mechanics.
[26]The table was devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev[47]. His
tack [48] was to order the elements on the basis of their atomic weights that is, the number of
protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus. Moreover, he arranged the elements in columns on the
basis of the number of chemical bonds [49] an atom can form.
[27]Early in the 20th century, one of these fundamental rules for the table changed slightly.
Elements have since been ordered according to their atomic numbers, or number of protons.
[28]The last major change to the table was in the 1940s, when Nobel Laureate Glenn Seaborg
[50]
at the University of California, Berkeley created a separate group for the lanthanides [51] and
actinides [52]--the rare earth and radioactive elements.
[29]Before Seaborg's revision, these elements were mixed in with the transition metals in the
middle of the chart. While bombarding uranium with neutrons in the lab, Seaborg discovered that
the actinides shared their chemistry primarily with the lanthanides. Therefore, he concluded, the
two types of elements warrant their own block.
[30]"That resulted in a very fundamental change in the whole structure of the periodic table,"
says Jensen.
[31]All subsequent changes to the conventional table have revolved primarily around esthetic
[53]
issues, says Jensen. The questions tend to be, "Do we want the table in the shape of a cone [54]
or a fan?" he says. "But all these things are really devoid of [55] any real scientific content. They are
not really telling us anything new or insightful about the nature of the elements."
【注释】
[1]periodic table:元素周期表
[2]raise eyebrow:字面义为“扬起眉毛”,实际义为令人怀疑,惊奇
[3]contortionist:软体杂技表演者
[4]push sb over the edge:激怒,让人变得忍无可忍
[5]epitome:缩影
[6]tidy rows and columns:整齐的行列
[7]ergonomically:人机工程学地;人体工学上地
[8]ionic form:离子态
[9]positive or negative charge:正电或负电
[10]neutral atom:中性原子
[11]ongoing quest:新动向
[12]culminate:使达到顶峰
[13]proton:质子
[14]cation:阳离子
[15]collage:抽象派绘图;此处指新设计的周期表
[16]anion:阴离子
[17]noble gase:惰性气体
[18]helium:氦
[19]neon:氖

213
[20]bookend:书挡
[21]sulfur:硫
[22]dissolved form:溶解态
[23]earth's mantle and crust:地幔和地壳
[24]contour:轮廓;等高线
[25]delineate:描绘
[26]topographic:地形学的
[27]meander:迂回曲折
[28]demark:区别
[29]ionic potential :离子势,是无机化学中的常用术语,它以阳离子的电荷和半径这两个因
素综合考虑对物质性质的影响
[30]speckle:小班点
[31]swath:一行足迹
[32]vanadium:钒
[33]uptake:摄入;摄取
[34]potassium:钾
[35]uranium:铀
[36]solubility:溶解度
[37]geologic setting:地质环境
[38]limestone cave:灰岩洞
[39]leach away:过滤掉
[40]synthetic polymer:合成聚合体
[41]magnesium ion:镁离子
[42]metallurgists:冶金学家
[43]spirals:螺旋
[44]downright wacky:非常古怪的
[45]hypertextual dimension:超文本维度
[46]Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev :门捷列夫,俄国化学家,最大贡献是发现了化学元素周期

[47]tack:行动,工作
[48]chemical bonds:相邻的两个或多个原子之间强烈的相互作用叫做化学键.直接相邻的
原子间强烈的相互作用,破坏这种作用需较大能量
[49]Nobel Laureate Glenn Seaborg : 西 博 格 , 美 国 核 化 学 家 。 1940 年 他 与 麦 克 米 伦
(E.M.Mcmillan)等人共同发现了94号元素钚。在第二次世界大战期间,他领导创立了
生产原子弹材料钚的化学流程,这是核武器研制成功的一个关键环节
[50]lanthanide:原子序数 57,71 间的稀土元素
[51]actinide:锕类
[52]transition metal:即过渡元素,是指元素周期表中d区的一系列金属元素,又称过渡金属
[53]esthetic:审美的
[54]cone:圆锥体
[55]be devoid of:没有

Exercises
I. Reading comprehension

214
1. Questions and tasks
1) Why was Railsback dissatisfied with conventional periodic table?
2) What is the inconvenience for earth scientists to use the conventional periodic table?
3) What's the feature of Railsback's new version of periodic table?
4) What's the response of users to Railsback's new version according to the text?
5) Is Railsback the only one that has tried to change the conventional periodic tabel?
6) On what basis did Mendeleev create the periodic table?
7) What is the last major change to the periodic table?
8) What is the focuse of subsequent changes to the table after Seaborg's revision?

2. Paraphrase
1) It took Railsback more than 4 years to produce a new chart--a project that culminated in the
publication of "An earth scientist's periodic table of the elements and their ions" in the September
Geology.
2) These lines demark similar ionic potential, which is a measure of how tightly an ion's charge is
packed. The larger the potential, the more the ion will attract particles of opposite charge or repel
particles of similar charge.

II. Writing task


1. Define the following technical terms
periodic table, ion, neutrual atom, positive/negative charge, cation, anion, proton, neon, solubility,
transition metal
2. Describe Railsback's new version of periodic table according to the text in your own words. .
3. Write a 200-word composition entitled “the importance of peiodic table in scientific research”.

III. Translation practice


1. Translate the following words and phrases into Chinese and point out the translation techniques
employed.
periodic table, neutral atom, ionic potential, geologic setting, synthetic polymer, hypertexual
dimension, chemical bond, transition metal
2. Translate the following sentences into Chinese and point out the major technique used in the
translation of each sentence.
1) Examples include materials made from proteins and synthetic polymers that can remove
mercury ions from water, and polymers that release drugs in the body when concentrations of
calcium or magnesium ions are high enough
2) His tack was to order the elements on the basis of their atomic weights that is, the number of
protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus. Moreover, he arranged the elements in columns on the
basis of the number of chemical bonds an atom can form.
3. Paragraph translation
Translate paragraph 8-10 into Chinese and point out the major techniques used in the transfer.

IV. Webquest task


Do a quick electronic search for “periodicity and the periodic table”.

215
V. Gap-filling
1. Fill in each blank with a proper word given in the following box and some words may be used
for more than once.

down, about, from, with, of

Most scientists agree that the order ______ atoms in the table will never change, unless, of
course, a major revolution turns upside ______ everything known today ______ matter. Even so,
many researchers contend that the current organization of the table is far _____ perfect.
"Should the form of the table be the conventional form, which is rather ugly and asymmetrical,
or could it be more symmetrical?" asks Scerri. This is only partly a matter ______ aesthetics.
Getting the entire world to adopt the same, new periodic table will be a challenge, especially
because the table will need to garner( 得到 ) approval _____ the International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemistry. Traditionally, chemists have not taken well to attempts to change the table. "I
call this 'the tyranny of the chemist,'" says Scerri.
In the meantime, researchers like Railsback are less concerned ______ the wholesale adoption
______ a new table than molding the table to suit their needs. As more scientists pursue that end,
the periodic table will continue to evolve into a diversity of forms, each one filling a niche(缝隙).

2. Cloze
Directions: Decide which of the choices below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks.
Scerri and other chemists have begun scrutinizing( 检查 ) the placement of helium( 氦 ) at the
top of the right-hand column in the conventional table. That's the column housing the noble gases,
so-called because of their penchant( 喜好 ) for not ____[1]___ with other elements. What makes
helium odd among the noble gases is that ___[2]___ having six electrons in its outer subshell( 外
亚层 ), it has only two electrons. This suggests, says Scerri, that helium belongs on the far left of
the chart with the alkaline( 碱的 ) earth metals, ___[3]___ also have two electrons in their outer
shells.
"Chemists are a bit horrified by the idea of putting helium ___[4]___ with a bunch of metals,"
says Scerri. But he argues that ___[5]___ helium with the alkaline earth metals results in a more
regularly shaped structure that can take two forms. One form, referred to ___[6]___ a pyramid, is
a stack of blocks with increasing length from top to bottom. The other ___[7]___ a set of stairs
descending to the left. Helium sits next to hydrogen at the top of the stairs. This left-step table
places atoms in different rows on the basis of the size and shape of an atom's electron orbitals.
Other scientists have proposed this particular structure before, Scerri notes, but the idea has
been gaining ___[8]___ in recent years. "Now, something might actually happen," says Scerri.

[1] dealing engaging communicating connecting


[2] because of owing to for instead of
[3] that which those these
[4] on at in into
[5] combining binding placing defining

216
[6] as with on by
[7] looks simliars seems resembles
[8] power strenth momentum benefits

附录一 课文参 考译文


(一至八单元)

第一单元课文参考译文
有利健康的 细菌
克里斯廷·戈曼 著

[1]说起细菌一词,大多数人都会联想起像葡萄球菌或沙门氏菌这些能真正致病的非常

217
有害的病菌。但是大多数细菌对人体是无害的。事实上,额外地摄取某些细菌能真正促进健
康。这些有益的细菌不用凭处方在药店和保健品商店就可以买,还可从像酸乳一类的食物
中获取。到目前为止,细菌用于腹泻的治疗已取得最佳效果,尤其在儿童中。此外,研究者
们还在探索有益细菌抵御妇女阴道感染、预防儿童某些食物过敏,以及减轻克罗恩氏病
(一种较罕见且痛苦的胃肠疾病)症状的可能性。
[2]那么,这些有益的细菌在你的一生中一直潜伏在哪里呢?在肠道里,左右靠下的叫做
结肠的那一部分,地里至少聚集在 400 种细菌。你的结肠中都是些什么样的细菌则主要依据
你所处的环境及你的饮食而定。结肠中大量的有益细菌一般能将食物中个别有害的细菌排
除掉。但是如果有害细菌的数目超过有益细菌的数目——例如,对鼻窦或中耳感染进行抗
生素治疗后,正常的肠道细菌也被杀死了——结果可能导致腹泻。
[3]人们世世代代通过吃酸乳、酪乳或其它由发酵的牛奶制在的奶制品来保持这一平衡。然
而今天,你还可以吞服几粒含有冻干细菌的药丸。这些制剂叫做原生物,以区别于抗生素。
遗憾的是,你不能永远确保你买的药丸中包含的细菌与标签上列出的是同一类菌株,甚至
不敢保证这些细菌还是活的。原生物通常对温度和湿度都较敏感。
[4]研究最彻底也最有前景的原生物之一是乳酸杆菌的 GG 菌株,它是由塔夫茨大学医学
院的舍伍德·戈尔巴奇博士和生物化学家巴里 ·戈尔丁发现的。现在被称作 L-GG 的这种菌株
已经被用于治疗旅途腹泻和由抗生素经起的肠道不适。甚至更令人惊奇的是,L-GG 似乎还
对一些病毒有效,包括轮状病毒。这种病毒是美国及全世界儿童腹泻最常见的原因之一。疗
效是间接的。不管怎样,L-GG 有助于免疫系统辨认病毒造成的威胁。
[5]约翰·霍普金斯大学的儿科医师们正在研究另一种病菌,即双岐杆菌的 Bb-12 菌株。它
是由 CHR 汉森生物系统公司的研究人员发现的。与 L-GG 一样,Bb-12 可刺激人的免疫系
统。由于还不清楚的原因,吃母乳的婴儿在他们的肠道里存有大量双岐杆菌,他们患肠道
不适也较少。若泽·萨韦德拉博士及其在约翰·霍普金斯的同事们已经证明,在小至四个月的
住院婴儿中,Bb-12 可抑制好几种腹泻,包括轮状病毒引起的腹泻。此外,Bb-12 也已经用
于治疗各种年龄段儿童的腹泻。(戈立 译)

第二单元课文参考译文
普通草 药能用来 治疗癌症
芭芭拉·摩西斯 著

[1]当你停下脚步闻一闻玫瑰的香味时,你也许会点头赞赏一下玫瑰旁边的地被类小植物。
研究人员说,从佛罗里达到密歇根遍地长着一种普通的草药——美国鬼臼果。它的叶子可
用来代替一种几近灭绝的亚洲植物,提供一种化合物,用于制成治疗肺癌和睾丸癌的药品。
[2]科学家们用一种简单的工艺从这种植物的叶子中提取一种叫做鬼臼素的化合物,用它
制成抗癌药 etoposide。迄今为止,这种化合物主要来源于一种与鬼臼果类似的亚洲植物的
根茎,但取出根茎该植物就会死亡,且已近乎灭绝。只用叶子,就能避免将植物置于死地。
[3]美国农业部与密西西比大学合作,对这项研究提供了赞助。在美国农业部供职的分子
生物学家卡米罗·卡纳尔说:“这种产于印度的植物种群将不会面临厄运了,因为有了另一
种资源,而且这种资源可以恢复,这是再好不过的事情。我们不会把这种植物毁掉,只是
用它的叶子。”
[4]科学家们已经为这项提取工艺申请了专利,卡纳尔称其为一套简单的工艺,包括碾叶,
烘干,然后加水搅拌 15 到 30 分钟。卡纳尔说,目前他们正与同家制药公司就如何将这种化
合物用于治疗进行商谈,但还没得到“任何公司确切的承诺。”
[5]美国鬼臼果只有一根枝芽,约 1 英尺高,顶着 1 个小伞状的大叶子。纽约植物园植物

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研究实验室经理,植物化学家埃里卡 ·基普说,人们早就知道,鬼臼果具有药用价值。她说,
北美印地安人用它的根茎和成熟的果实来治疗疣和睾丸癌,所以“它的叶子蕴藏着抗癌功
效并不出人意料。”基普说,这听起来很不错,但这项研究还处于萌芽阶段,“到用于临
床,并且被制药公司采用时,前景就会更为光明了。”
[6]据美国癌症协会说,用从鬼臼果中提取的化合物鬼臼素制造的药物 Etoposide,常与其
他药品结合起来,用来治疗多种癌症,包括肺癌,睾丸癌,前列腺癌,胃癌和眼癌。研究
表明,这种药对酶的活性有抑制作用,而酶是癌细胞复制必不可少的,从而能防止癌细胞
的扩散。
[7]纽约的肿瘤学家亚伯拉罕 ·查乔亚说,不过,Etoposide 的用途可能越来越少,至少对
肺癌是如此。他说,最近 5 年里,其他药品,比如 Taxol,经证明对最常见类型的肺癌更有
效。查乔亚说:“Teoposide 已经丧失了(治疗肺癌)的优势。”他说,只有在治疗小细胞肺
癌,一种不常见的肺癌时,才用到 Etopodside。(周永娣 译)

第三单元课文参考译文
代用能 源在世界 各地发展
丹恩·约翰逊 著

[1]太阳能和风能的利用目前得到了迅速的发展,随之而来的是人们希望这些代用能源技
术能够显著减少温室气体的排放并创造新的就业机会。
[2]例如,全球风能工业已成为一项每年 20 亿美元的实业,并以每年 25%的比率扩展。印
度、中国及十二个欧洲国家已安装了成千上万个发电用的风力涡轮机,其费用与新建燃煤
电厂不相上下。90 年代,德国已在它的风能工业创造了 10,000 个新的就业机会。风力发电目
前在世界总电力中不到 1%,但据世界观察协会的研究人员认为,这一数字在未来的 50 年
内会上升到 20%或更多。
[3]太阳能是今天第二位增长最快的能源。购买可发电一千瓦的太阳能光电池所花的费用
从 70 年代的 70,000 美元降至 1997 年的 4,000 美元,而且在十年后它会低至 1,000 美元。大
约有 40 万户家庭(许多家庭位于边远的地区而无法用电线联网供电)早已使用太阳能发电。
世界观察协会的研究表明:用太阳能硅片覆盖现有建筑牧的屋顶可满足每年半数以上的电
力需要。
[4]“ 在过去的几年中,许多有潜力的新技术已悄无声息地但确实无疑地由实验室里的新
奇事物变成了商业的事实。”世界观察协会能源分析专家克里斯托弗·弗莱文和塞思·邓恩在
他们的报告《升起太阳,采集清风:制定政策以稳定气候并增强经济》中写道。电子、生物技
术方面的进步及合成材料的利用能够迅速以更洁净和更有效的方式来产生能量。
[5]新一代轻型混合电动车辆每加仑能行使 100 英里以上,这是综合应用了燃料电池、小
活塞发动机、涡轮发电机及高效电动马达的结果。应用微型涡轮机和燃料电池的相似技术能
够为商业建筑物和私人住宅户供电、供热,而这样所排放的气体仅占现在电厂的 10% 至
20%。位于建筑物内的微型电厂效率极高,它们所使用的燃料的 90%可转换成电力、适用的
空间热量及给水加热的热量。
[6]在日本,由于政府的鼓励,房地产公司已计划建造 70,000 户覆盖了硅瓦的房屋,它能
够产生足够的电力以满足大多数住户的需要。在美国和欧洲,相似的计划也在紧锣密鼓的
实施之中。
[7]印度已成为第四大利用风能的先进国家,这是由于它为风力发电提供了富有吸引力的
投资税收扣除以及一个保证购买价。一个负责可再生能源的政府部门提供贷款和担保以进
一步刺激发展。

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[8]自 1989 年以来荷兰政府已与占 90%全国工业用能源的 1,000 有公司签署了 28 个单独
的长期协定。政府与每一家工业集团,无论是大型的造纸和化学公司还是小型的行业如洗
衣店,就效率目标进行了协商。这些协定号召到 2,000 年平均提高 20%的效率。这些协定当
中的三分之二已使效率从 1989 年的程度平均提高了 9%。
[9]“那些已取得显著进步的国家是在许多微小的事情上做出了正确的决策——制定了
综合的互为支持的一揽子政策,从而使市场的力量来解决气候问题而发挥作用。”弗莱文
和邓恩写道。(高小林 译)

第四单元课文参考译文
量子发条装 置

[1]假设你住在这样一个世界,在这里你轻轻地来回推动轿车就能让轿车驶上山坡,或只
是晃动台球桌就能让台球直接落入你选择的落袋。
[2]对于少数研究人员来说,这样的世界并不奇怪。这些研究人员研究的领域即使按照边
缘物理学的标准来看也是崭新的。他们相信,电子像人们预计的那样在任何电路中自动远
离电路负极的时代很快就要结束了。他们已经发现让电子在不施加任何有向电压的情况下
来回运动的方法。
[3]这就是崭新的量子棘轮学。通过一个振荡信号或随机变化信吃,你可以从看似混乱无
序的状态中得到可以控制方向的有用运动。德国奥格斯堡大学的彼得 ·亨吉是在这一领域处
于领先地位的科学家之一。亨吉兴奋地说:“你可以让电子转圈运动,或上下运动,还可
以让电子爬坡。我们可以像在城市里开轿车和公共汽车那样操纵电子运动,就好像儿童做
游戏一样。”
[4]借助于让电子从一个电器元件跳跃到另一个电器元件,我们可以制造出不用电线连接
的电子设备。随意分流的单个电子可以用来存储量子信息,经过专门设计的电路块可以构
建新一代量子计算机的逻辑门。量子棘轮带来的意外收获是,它甚至可以帮助我们理解肌
肉是如何把散布体内的化学能转化为定向运动的。
[5]任何棘轮在周期性力的作用下都产生单向运动。例如,来回拧一个带棘齿的螺丝起子,
螺丝就会不断地向深处钻。这靠的是向一侧倾斜的不对称的一圈棘齿:向一方扭转可使挂
栓落在齿轮的凹处,从而推动整个棘轮转动。自行车的传动装置、十字旋转门和押钟的摆轮
里都用了棘轮。摆钟的摆轮把钟摆的来回摆动变成钟表指针的单向运动。
[6]后来,亨吉和他的同事们发现,量子理论可以让事物变得上下颠倒,或者甚至前后翻
转。在低温下,处于槽的底部的电子无法逾越两侧的壁垒。经典物理学认为,这些电子应被
永久地俘获。
[7]然而根据量子理论,这些电子是可以逃逸的。因为电子是一种概率波,它没有明确的
方位,不会永远被势能壁垒完全封闭起来。因此,电子存在着逃到势能壁垒另一端的小权
率,这一逃逸过程称为隧道效应。
[8]电子可以从两个方向贯穿棘齿型槽,但是贯穿薄壁垒的概率要比贯穿厚壁 垒的概率
高得多。
[9]再者,电压周期的另一半和另一方向有纯电子运动。
[10]这只是理论观点。位于悉尼的新南威尔士大学的海纳·林克和他来自瑞典隆德大学的同
行们证实了这一理论观点。
[11]但是,电子学并非量子棘轮唯一的用途。林克指出,由于电子携带有热量,量子棘轮
可能用作热力泵,也许可以给芯片上的单个微细元件降温。
[12]量子棘轮可能还会帮助研究人员了解分子马达。这些微型的发动机是生物体内的棘轮,

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它们吸收化学反应释放的无方向能量,然后以某种方式产生单向运动。我们身体上的肌肉
就是协调一致工作的分子马达巨阵。虽然肌肉极不可能是真正的量子棘轮,但是肌肉内部
可能存在量子效应。
[13]亨吉指出,我们如今正在制造和种尺寸的棘轮,从几个微米大小到人体般大小。在量
子世界中运行的棘轮可能很快就会用于电子设备中。生物学家正在研制窄细的锯齿形沟槽,
用以分割出不同重量的脱氧核糖核酸片段。(木子 译)

第五单元课文参考译文
微积分 的漫长历 程
谢伊曼·K·斯泰恩 著

[1]微积分的起源可以追溯到两千多年前古希腊人对面积和切线的探索。阿基米德(公
元前 287-212 )发现了求抛物线弓形面积的方法,这项成就相当于现代数学 语言的求解
b

0
x 2 dx ;他还发现了求椭圆面积、球表面积和球体各的方法。阿波罗尼奥斯(约公元前

260-200)记述了椭圆、抛物线和双曲线的切线;阿基米德论述了一种螺旋形曲线的切线。他
们没有想到,许多世纪以后,“面积”和“切线”的问题将会汇集在一起讨论。
[2]公元 529 年,查士丁尼一世下令关闭了柏拉图创建的、幸存一千年的雅典学院,标志
着古代希借世界的崩溃;是阿拉伯世界保存和延续了古希腊数学家们的研究成果。在自由
的学术空气中,阿拉伯、基督教和犹太教的学者们一起工作,翻译和译注古代的文献,偶
尔也加进他们自己所作的修改。例如,阿尔哈曾(965-1039)计算了几种立体的体积,本质
b b
上是求解 ∫
0
x 3 dx 和 ∫ x 4 dx 。
0

[3]直到 17 世纪,几条思路才汇集到一起形成微积分。1673 年,笛卡儿(1596-1650)和费


尔马(1601-1665)创立了解析几何。笛卡儿借助代数研究一条给定的曲线;而费尔马则采
取了相反的路径——探求在一给定方程中隐含的几何图形。比如,费尔马指出方程
ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 + dx + ey + f = 0 的图像总是一个椭圆、双曲线、抛物线或是它们的某种

不完全形式。

[4]同一时期,卡瓦列里(1598-1647)求出了曲线 y = x (n = 1,2,3……) 下的面积,所


n

用方法的计算过程随着指数的增长而迅速加长。他计算到 n=9,由此猜测该模式对更大的指
数亦然。在其后的 20 年中,几位数学家证实了他的猜测。因此,即使是我们所假设的对任意

正整数 n, y = x 曲线下的面积求解,也是一个不易获得的成就。
n

[5]我们自然会想到:“对其他的指数,情形怎样呢?” 1665 年之前,方程中没有别的指

数。然而,我们可以通过将函数 Y 描述为 y = x 来处理函数 y = x


q p p/q
,其中 p 和 q 均为正

整数。沃利思( 1616——1703)求出了这一曲线下的面积,所用的方法更多地像是魔术而
非数学。不过,费尔马借助于一种无穷几何级数,得到了同样的结果。
[6]在 17 世纪上半叶,确定曲线切线的问题仍旧流行。笛卡尔指明了如何确定一条过曲线
上一点 p 垂直于该曲线的直线(通过建立一个只在 p 点与该曲线相切的圆);切线即是过
P 点与上述直线相垂直的直线。费尔马则以一种与我们今天相类似的方法找到切线并把它应
用于求解极大值和极小值问题。

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[7]这一阶段的工作是将求“切线”和“面积”的技巧结合起来。实际上,巴罗( 1630—
1677)——牛顿在剑桥大学的老师——得出了一个相当于微积分基本定理的结果,但却未
能以实用的形式将它表达出来。
[8]牛顿(1642——1727)于 1661 年来到了剑桥。从 1665 年到 1666 年两年期间,他在自
家的农场里躲避瘟疫,并推演出了徽积分的基本原理,意识到求切线和求面积实际上是互
逆的过程。在这一时期牛顿的一篇手稿中,发现有他编制的最早的积分表。但牛顿当时并未
发表他的成果,这可能是由于 1665 年伦敦那场大火之后出版业不景气的缘故。在那不平常
的两年中,他还引入了负指数和分数指数,由此表明诸如一个数自乘若干次、取它的倒数、
x
求它的若干次方根等不同的运算都只是一个单个普通指数函数 a 的特例,其中 x 可以是正

整数、-1 或者分数。
[9]然而莱布尼兹(1646—1716)也独立发现了微积分。他是律师、外交家和哲学家,数学
只是他热衷的一种业余爱好。莱布尼兹于 1673—1676 年间完成了他的工作,并于 1684 年和
1686 年发表了他的研究成果,这比 1711 年牛顿研究成果的首次发表要早得多。我们今天所
用的符号 dx 和 dy、术语“微积分”和“积分学”、积分号以及“函数”一词,都莱布尼兹
的首创。牛顿的记号沿用下 x,表示对时间而言的微积分,至今仍在物理学中使用。
[10]大约经过了两个多世纪的时间,微积分才达到今天这样的准确和严格。函数的概念也
逐渐由“曲线”演变为“公式”,进而学演变为泛指由任何一个量确定另一个量的规则。
1748 年出版的由欧勒编写的出色的微积分教科书强调解释了函数的概念而连一个图表也没
用。
[11]在 19 世纪 20 年代出版的几部教科书中,柯西( 1789—1857)给“极限”和“连续函
数”所下的定义已接近今天的概念。他还给出了定积分的定义,这个定义经过黎曼( 1826
—1866 )于 1854 年稍作修改之后就成了今天的标准形式。这样,到 19 世纪中叶,牛顿和
莱布尼兹的发现终于被置于坚实的基础之上。
[12]1833 年,刘维尔(1809—1882 )指出:微积分基本定理不能用来求所有初等函数的

积分。事实上,他表明了使不定积分 ∫ 1 − x 2 1 − kx 2 dx 有初等函数解的常数 k 的值只有

0 和 1。
[13]但仍有一些基本问题悬而未决,如“面积的含义是什么?”(例如,某一区域中所有
坐标均为有理数的点的集合是否具有面积?如果有,它又意味着什么?)直到 1877 年,皮
亚诺(1858—1932)才给出了面积的精确定义,在此之前,数学家们是靠直觉来理解面积
的。
[14]这样,微积分的历史大致诃分为三个阶段:首先是对切线和面积问题的长期探索,其
间并未有线索显示二者之间有联系;其次是从 17 世纪末贯穿整个 18 世纪,发现二者联系
并进一步探究这个关系;最后在随后的一个世纪的时间中,纷乱的头绪有了终结。
[15]20 世纪,微积分被应用于许多新的领域,因为它是处理连续过程的自然语言,例如
随时间而发生的改变。在这一世纪中,数学家们还获得了关于微积分基础的一些最深刻的
理论成果。很显然,微积分不仅具有蓬勃的生命力,而且仍在继续发展。(高小平 译)

第六单元课文参考译文
营养素 中的“超 级明星”
简·布罗迪 著

[1]钙是人体中最丰富的矿物质,长期以来一直被认为在强壮的骨骼和牙龄的形成和保

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持方面作用至关重要。但这并非是钙的最终用途,从某种意义上说,骨事实上只是其用途
的一个起点。
[2]骨充当着钙的贮存器,以供机体来提取利用。而机体也有一种机制能从外来资源即饮
食中吸收中补充钙。在以上这两个过程中,维生素 D 起着关键性的作用,促进机体对钙的
吸收和利用。
[3]在亚洲各地,钙的推荐摄入量并不相同。在新加坡,成年人被建议每日摄入 500 毫克
的钙。在台湾,日推荐量为 600 毫克,而在马来西亚则是 450 毫克。虽然如此,整个亚洲地
区的专家们都认为钙确是一种重要的营养素。人体如不能从饮食中汲取足够的钙以维持血
液中所需的钙含量水平,甲状旁腺激素(由人体中的四条甲状旁腺产生)和维生素 D 就会
让骨头中的钙释放出来。如果人长期缺钙或缺维生素 D,骨头就会逐渐变得脆弱。
[4]近来的研究表明钙可能对以下三方面的健康问题有着极为重要的影响:
[5]高血压:一个人的血压受到诸多因素的影响,包括遗传因素、体重、体育活动,并且在
某些病例中还涉及盐的摄入量。自 20 世纪 80 年代早期以来,许多的观察研究都显示钙对血
压有影响。
[6]那么,钙的摄入量低可能就是造成一些人群中高血压发病率高的部分原因。 1994 年香
港的一项政府报告中指出:在这一地区治疗的门诊病人中,高血压占了最多数。香港中文
大学的营养专家乔治亚 ·古尔丹副教授说,其原因部分应归咎于中国人饮食中高含量的盐份 ,
但可能也和钙的低摄入量有关。她说:“虽然不能把任何高血压的发生都归因于钙的摄入
量低,但在一些病人中,两者之间可能有着一定的联系。”缺钙还可能促成通常因年老而
出现的血压升高。
[7]1997 年美国的一项大范围的试验表明,富含低脂乳制品、水果和蔬菜的饮食(每日钙
含量约为 1200 毫克)使得患高血压的老年人血压显著降低,甚至恢复正常。
[8]一些专家支持这样的观点:高钙的食物比低钠的饮食对于控制高血压更为有效。使古
尔丹教授忧虑的是很大一部分亚洲城市里的孩子饮食不平衡。她在香港所做的一项研究发
现,超过半数的 10 岁至 12 岁儿童钙的摄入量不够。
[9]除此之外,孩子们体育锻炼不够也令人忧虑。古尔丹解释道:“虽然有一项研究发现
中国的孩子比西方的孩子吸收的钙多,但由于缺乏经常性的体育活动,骨形成的速度比骨
分解来得缓慢——骨形成和骨分解是在骨中同时进行的两个动态过程,贯穿我们生命的始
终。”因此,父母除了让自己的孩子多吃富含钙的食物诸如大豆和绿叶蔬菜外,还应鼓励
他们多进行锻炼。
[10]癌症:机体组织的内部附有一种像组成皮肤外层那样的上皮细胞。这些细胞生长、成
熟、脱落,并为新的细胞所取代。在结肠的内表,上皮细胞这种更新过程通常需要三至十天。
[11]但有时这些细胞分裂得太快,不能正常地成熟。有研究表明结肠癌与高脂饮食联系了
起来。有一理论指出,被释放出来处理高脂食品的脂肪酸和胆汁酸破坏了这些细胞并促使
它们生长异常。
[12]去年,纽约圣路加-罗斯福中心医院胃肠病学主任彼得·霍尔特在《美国医学协会杂志》
上载文说,他和同事们对已切除了良性息肉(这些息肉有时会病变成结肠癌)的 70 名成人
做了研究。当参加者消耗的低脂高钙乳制品日含钙量达 1500 毫克时,结肠中的细胞生长就
趋于正常。
[13]经前综合症:多达四成的妇女深受经前综合症之苦,这些引起体内紊乱的症状包括
情绪不稳、肿胀、嗜食和疼痛。圣路加-罗斯福中心医院骨代谢中心主任、内分泌学家苏珊·泰
思-雅可布斯认为长期缺钙是造成这种情况的主要原因。
[14]泰思-雅可布斯与其他医疗中心的 11 位同行对 466 名受累于经前综合症的妇女进行研
究,以试验钙对缓解其每月不适的作用。钙日摄入量达 1200 毫克的受试者发现其症状得以

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缓解的为 48% ,相比之下,安慰剂服用组则为 30% 。四个钙服用分组之一的受试者中有
54%的人觉得疼痛减弱,而安慰剂服用组则有 15%的人觉得疼痛加剧。
[15]泰思-雅可布斯认为经前综合症患者可能血液和尿液里的钙含量正常——只是由于甲
状旁腺激素高得异常,这种激素不断从骨头里提取钙,才造成这种症状。
[16]泰思-雅可布斯另外担忧的是:“可能人体中 80%的维生素 D 是皮肤暴露在阳光下时
产生的——但现在许多年轻妇女避免晒太阳,那样她们体内的维生素 D 含量可能会很低。

[17]富钙食品表
食品 数量 钙(毫克)
酸乳酪(天然低脂肪) 200 克 420

沙丁鱼(罐装或干鱼) 100 克 380


牛奶(撇去奶皮) 1 杯(约半品脱) 320
中国甘蓝 100 克 240
捷达干乳酪 30 克 233
大豆豆腐 100 克 150
水田芥 100 克 114
中国卷心菜 100 克 102
柑橘 适量溶剂 70
水菠菜 100 克 60

(邹红云,马仁蓉 译)

第七单元课文参考译文
三种疲劳
简·布罗迪 著

[1]疲劳是人们向医生、朋友和亲人最常抱怨的问题之一。或许你会认为在这个拥有各种节
省体内的装置和方便的交通设施的时代,很少人会有理由感到如此疲劳。然而,今天与用
手捆干草、用搓衣板洗衣服的草日相比,抱怨疲劳的人也许还更多了。
[2]现代疲劳症的原因各种各样,只是很少与过多的体力消耗活动有关。相对人数不多的
整天从事重体力劳动的那些人几乎从不抱怨劳累,也许因为他们知道本该那样的。今天,
据医生们说,疲倦更可能是由于过少的活动所致,而不是过多的活动所引起的。其实,增
加体力活动往往是治愈人们体力消耗的一个方法。
[3]疲劳主要有三种类型:
[4]身体上的 。这是人们所熟知的由于肌肉过多运动而产生的新陈代谢物——二氧化碳和
乳酸——在血液里积累并耗尽你体力的结果。你的肌肉不可能在这些化学物质的溶液中继
续有效地工作。身体上的劳累通常是一种令人愉快的疲惫,比如你在激地打过一场网球、劈
木柴或者爬山之后就会有的那种体验。其治愈方法既简单又快捷:休息一下,给你的身体
一个消除累积的废物和恢复肌肉能量的机会。
[5]病理上的 。在此,疲劳是某种潜在的身体功能紊乱的警报或后果,比如常见的感冒、
流感或其它更为严重的疾病,如糖尿病、癌证等。通常,除了疲劳外,还会出现表明真正病
因的其它症状。
[6]即使病愈之后,你很可能在一周或一周多的时间里仍感到疲劳。纵使你得的只是一场
感冒,你也应将疲劳感看做是一个叫你悠着点儿的信号,让身体得到完全恢复的机会。催

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促自己重新投入全部活动的进程太快可能引起旧病复发并几乎极可能延长你的疲劳期。
[7]尽管生病并不是长期疲劳的经常性原因,但非常重要的一点是不要忽视它。所以,无
论是谁,如果连续几周觉得没有力气,都应该进行一次彻底的体检。即使通过各种医疗检
查也未出你有什么病,那也并不意味着你一点毛病都没有。
[8]心理上的 。情绪问题和烦恼,特别是忧郁和焦虑,显然是长期疲劳最常见的原因。疲
劳可以是一种防御机制,阻碍你去正视你感到压抑的真正原因,比如,你厌恶你的工作。
它也是你体内的一种安全阀,用以渲泄被压抑的情绪上的烦恼,比如,你感到陷进了一个
不能发挥作用的工作或者不幸的婚姻之中。当这种情感不能公开得以表现时,往往在身体
上出现某些症状,疲劳则是最常见的表现形式。“许多极度疲劳的人甚至不知道自己患了
抑郁症,”布莱特博士说。“他们忙于分散自己的注意力或者只是担心自己的疲劳,以至
于没有意识到自己的抑郁症。”
[9]情绪引起的疲劳可能因潜在的心理问题造成的睡眠失调而加重。一个人可能患失眠症
或者睡的时间足够但睡得不好,辗转反侧,做着各种烦恼的梦,并不时地醒来,正如一位
妇女所说,感觉好像她“被一辆卡车碾过似的”。
[10]治疗心理疲劳的关键第一步就是了解潜在的情绪问题,而这一点本身常常便会大大
地减少疲劳感。此外,可能需要专业的心理帮助或者职业和婚姻咨询。
[11]你自己也可以做很多事来解决严重的长期疲军症和那些阶段性的疲劳感。维生素和镇
静剂台终不是什么正确的解决办法;安眠药和酒精有相反的作用;而咖啡因充其量也只能
暂时解决问题,如果滥用还会适得其反,引起终生麻烦的焦虑症状。相反,你不妨试一试
以下的做法:
[12]饮食 。如果你只吃少许的早餐或者根本不吃早餐的话,你在上午的中段时间里就很可
能感到疲乏,这是你的身体和大脑赖以活动的能量——血糖降低的结果。为在上午时间获
取最大能量,你一定要进一些合适的早餐,含糖量要低、蛋折质要高些,这样的早餐将在
整个上午给你稳定的血糖供应。咖啡和面包圈几乎比不吃还糟,它们只能使你在短时间内
精神抖擞,而后便会陡然不振。
[13]一天中别的时间里情况也是如此:经常吃甜食是一种不可取的快速获取能量的方式 ,
它会迅速地使你比一开始的情形还要糟糕。坚持定时、适量、均衡的饮食有助于保持完美的
身体。身体过重会令人身体和心理上都疲倦。而把体重降至标准水平使青春焕发,则可能要
花很大的功夫。
[14]锻炼身 体。与你想象的相反,体育锻炼不是消耗体力而是增强体力。有规律的体育锻
炼,比如慢跑、骑车或游泳,能增强身体承受工作负荷的能力,从而抵制疲劳。于是,你便
不会那么快地感到疲劳了,因为你身体的承受力增强了。
[15]体育锻炼同时还具有人们公认的安心静神的效果,这有助于你以更为轻松愉快的心
态工作,而不至于被一天的紧张拖垮。一天结束时的体育锻炼能缓解你积累的紧张,给你
的晚间补充更多的能量,帮助你更平静地入睡。
[16]睡眠 。如果你知道自己因睡眠不足感到疲劳,解决办法很简单:早些上床睡觉。每个
人睡眠所需的时间不尽相同,一般是随着年龄的增长而减少。找到对你最合适看待眠量,
并朝着这个目标去做。对于失眠症和其它的睡眠病症不应用安眠药、酒精或镇静剂来治疗,
它实际上会恶化病情。
[17]自知之 明。尽量把最困难的工作安排在你一天中精力最佳的阶段去处理。有些人属于
一到下午就累的“上下工作最好的人”;而另外一些人则在晚上工作最好。不要使自己承
担过多的事情,总想以最快的步伐攀登成功的阶梯或者去满足每个人的需要或期望。弄清
楚你要做什么和你能轻松地处理什么,学会对额外的要求说不。认识你自己的能量周期,
并且据此做出计划。许多妇女在月经期前都有一个情绪低潮点,这时需要额外的睡眠,而

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困难的任务则尤其令人筋疲力尽。
[18]休息 。不论你的工作多么有趣或要求多么高,如果你能间或停下来,伸展一下肢体,
换换空气,便能以更充沛的精力来从事它。休息时不要喝咖啡、吃甜食,试试冥思,做一做
瑜伽术、健美操,或者去轻松地散散步。甚至沿着楼梯上下来回跑也能给你久坐的工作带来
清新的感觉。如果你从事的是体力劳动,那么就找一个安静的地方放松一下。“做一些不同
的事情”来休息的原则也适用于假期;“完全远离工作”一周、两周或更长时间会使你恢
复活力,有助于你正确处理事情,并使你休假回来后能更从容地工作。(高桂珍 译)

第八单元课文参考译文
处理危险有 毒废弃物 的新途径
诺曼·米勒 著

[1]切尔诺贝利是一个环境战的最新阶段中最著名的战场,在这场战斗中,敌人是谁广为
人知,友军是谁却名不见经传。一边是锶、铀、铅、镉、油和毒气;另一边则是白腐菌、印度芥
菜、向日葵——及大肠杆菌。
[2]“要挣钱就别怕脏”这句谚语说不定是为环境净化而创造的。用传统的技术处理,仅美
国现存的有害垃圾预计就将耗资至少 4000 亿美元。但如果真有另一种更经济、更少破坏性并
能带来完美的绿色保证的方法,情形会怎样?噢,方法是有的。
[3]生物还原学和植物还原学是有害垃圾处理方法的学术名称,它是指用细菌类微生物和
植物来处理从有害金属和烈性黄色炸药到原油和化学武器等的各种污染物。生物还原法包
罗万象,泛指使用细菌净化剂的方式,而植物还原法分为四种方式。
[4]植物萃取法是利用能聚积金属的植物从泥土中将金属吸民到植物可收割的地上部分,
这部分可以被割下、晒干并烧成富含金属的草灰——马里兰大学植物研究家鲁弗斯 ·钱尼把
这一过程比作收割干草。他说:“焚烧可重新得到并回收利用这些金属。”他还建议:“这
些草灰同商业矿一样,可以做为‘生物矿’出售。”
[5]根茎滤清法指的是一种净化作业,即通过植物根茎从被污染的废水中汲取并聚积有害
金属,这是一种专用于治理水污染的方法。对于泥土中的金属残存物也可用植物来吸取和
回收,这种方式称为植物稳定法。相对照的,还有一种方式叫植物探求法,即通过植物吸
收污染物(尤其是硒和汞),然后再把它们释放到大气中——通过稀释的方法来解决污染,
这种与大自然协调解决问题的方式或许比那种直接的解决方法更招人喜欢更得人心。
[6]利用植物进行环境净化的正式研究始于 20 世纪 80 年代末期,但直到 90 年代初期才由
美国的一家植物技术公司接过学术研究的接力棒并将其引入一项合作之中。支持植物还原
学的基本知识可追溯到更早的时期。据知,在苏联,在 20 世纪 50 年代就发现某些半水生植
物如水生风信子和浮萍等可以从被污染的水中汲取如铅笔镉等有害金属,而某些植物如野
草类的高山水芹在富含锌和镍的土壤中生长茂盛——阿尔卑斯山和美国落基山的探矿者们
过去就是借助这一现象寻找矿藏的。
[7]据目前推测,某些植物在茎叶中积存大量金属所显现出的对金属的偏好,是为了抵抗
某些霉病和虫蚀。但植物究竟如何汲取、储存和耐受金属的,至今仍然是个谜。
[8]加利福尼亚州奥尔巴尼植物基因表达研究中心的研究人员最近的一项发现,或许已经
揭示出对重金属有耐受性的基因键,那是从酵母菌中找到的,并被命名为“hmtl”。
[9]许多植牧能产生称为肽酶的分子,它们将金属包覆起来储存在液泡里,液泡是一些既
能保存植物所需要的东西又能把不需要的东西排除出去的细胞腔。但是亲金属植物也使用
有机酸(如柠檬酸)来包覆高含量的金属。hmtl 基因似乎在促进一种蛋白质的生产,这种
蛋白质将更多被束缚的金属注入到液泡中。如果研究人员能够搞清如何在高产作物中复制

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hmtl 基因的金属加工活动,这些作物就可能成为超级的金属清道夫。采用烟草所做的初期
试验尚未完全成功,但奥尔巴尼的研究人员仍预言:在十年之内这类改变了基因的喜食金
属植物将会投入实际应用。
[10]正如早年间的矿工利用金属聚积类植物去探寻矿藏含量一样,许多生物技术公司也
正在找寻获得财源的迹象。到 20 世纪末,生物还原学在北美和欧洲的市场预计每年至少值
10 亿美元,而利用植物还原技术治理有害金属污染的市场预期每年价值 4 亿美元左右,前
提是公司和政府机构不再实施目前采用的开辟场地进行倾卸、不再用昂贵的化学方法清除
金属或将其埋入地下以免扩散。
[11]生物和植物还原的潜在利润非常大,但英国公司迄今只艰辛地迈出了一小步。在美国
由于受严格环境立法的激励,新技术一直受到最热烈的支持——投入大量现金、增强科研
工作。然而具有讽刺意义的是,尽管植物还原学的潜在优势首次在商业方面的成功展示出
现在美国,却是由两家英国学术机构艾伦·贝克研究所和史蒂夫·麦格拉思研究所管理、欧洲
联盟资助的项目。
[12]明尼苏达的猪眼垃圾填埋场曾作为试验战场,武器则是高山蕲黄,这种植物叶子的
耐锌程度可高达足以使大部分其它植物致死量的 60 倍。经生物工程处理的蕲黄对锌的吸收
速度现可望加大三倍,该植物可把净化全部猪眼垃圾场的时间从目前预计的 16 年缩短为 4
年。
[13]尽管英国人取得了开拓性的成功,在越来越多的公司紧随植物技术而形成一个新产
业之时,英国公司的反应却廖廖无几。植物治理法正在全美越来越多的地区实施,在新泽
西种植印度芥菜来清除铅,在俄亥俄用向日葵来净化被铀污染的水,以及在加利福尼亚用
蔗草来对付硒污染。
[14]印度芥莱(芸台灯芯草科)还用于整治切尔诺贝利地区被破坏的环境。芸台属植物聚
积铅的能力令人吃惊地大,能占其干根重量的 60%,此外还显现出耐放射性核素(如锶、
铯和铀)的能力。它对锶尤其偏爱,集中在该植物根部锶的含量比在土壤中的高出 12 倍。
[15]植物是对付无机污染物(如有毒金属)的有力武器,而油类等有机污染物是微生物
攻击的目标。正如某些植物适应了对付含金属的土壤,一些天然菌类也早学会了利用从油
类和碳氧化合物中转化出的能量。油毕竟是一种天然产物,它既然能给汽车以足够的能源,
也就能给微生物以足够的能源。而且一旦亲油菌类把碳氧化合物中的能量汲取完毕,原来
的复合分子链便降解为两种无害物质:二氧化碳和水。更好的是,一些生物还原菌还留下
了极具商业用途的副产品,像能生成甲烷的亲亚硫酸盐的细菌。起生物净化作用的细菌所
使用的基本方式,同通过发酵生产实用产品——啤酒和葡萄酒——的方法是一样的。
[16]碳氢化合物是生物还原学要对付的两大难题中的一个。另一个则是冷战后遗留下的危
险的军事残留物,比如化学武器。实际上,正是军事上的一项难题导致了现代生物还原学
产业的创建。在 20 世纪 50 年代初期的朝鲜冲突中,美国军队发现他们的军服在潮湿的气候
中易破,霍华德·沃尔尼被美国政府委派去调查该情况,他找出这一罪魁并不是什么新武器 ,
而是一种微生物,它可以降解原来被认为不会被生物分解的织物。沃尔尼于是开始了一项
研究,企图找到是否有类似能力的其他微生物存在,他最终分离出一种微生物,可以降解
苯酚——一种常见的有机污染物。他的工作由其他人接手,以更多能降解污染物的细菌不
间断的探索自此推动了生物还原学的发展。
[17]这一探索把科学家们带入了一些陌生的领域。此前人们认为,从鲸的肠中发现的最重
要的东西莫过于约拿,但最近俄勒冈州立大学的毒理学家莫里埃 ·克雷格有可能改变这一看
法。阿拉斯加弓头鲸对聚积在它们食物链中高含量的油污和其它工业污染物的耐受性引起
了克雷格的好奇心,他开始对生活在这种庞然大物肠子里的 1000 余种细菌进行研究,一个
生物还原学的宝藏使他目瞪口呆。他发现某些细菌居然消化了很难降解的原油中的致癌物

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——萘和蒽,另一些细菌竟吞食了多氯联苯——这种工业污染物长期以来一直被认为与癌
症有关。
[18]另外,鲸鱼体内的细菌证明是厌氧性的,即在缺氧的条件下能将污染转换成无害物
质,与在海水中发现的需要氧气才能起作用的氧生物还原菌形成了对照。这会使鲸鱼体内
的细菌在处理渗到地下的油污时特别有用。
[19]克雷格有关肠菌功能的直觉还从绵羊和山羊的胃里发现的一种细菌上得到了验证,
这种细菌能够降解烈性黄色炸药——一种在军火库地区常见的污染物。克雷格的发现很及
时,因为此前一直使用的另一种细菌只能把烈性黄色炸药分解为其他有害物质。人们还正
在用一种白腐菌来对付烈性黄色炸药,去年使用这种菌降解了美国一个试验场土壤中 97%
的烈性黄色炸药。同一个试验场中的咖一种军火材料 RDX(旋风炸药,三次甲基三硝基胺)
也全部被生物净化。
[20]美国的橡树岭国家试验室最近的研究也已发现,阿米巴伴生菌能有力地对付武器材
料 TNT 和凝固汽油,还可以清除受污染土壤里的汞,而且五角大楼业已找到了两种新的技
术来处理存于戴阿米兰基地的 1800 吨芥子气和存在印地安那的 1400 吨神经毒气 VX ,整
个处理过程是通过生物还原学来完成的。
[21]生物还原学一个更出人意料的成就的取得是在 1993 年,当时一个澳大利亚研究人员
大卫·伯恩无意中发现了一个 Sphingamonas 细菌,这种菌破坏了一种最常见的蓝绿藻中的
毒物微毒胞。如同已知的藻青菌一样,蓝绿藻也被认为与人类癌症有日益紧密的关联,而
迄今为止它们仍难以对付。Sphingamonas 产生三种酶来分解由微毒胞产生的最厉害的毒素,
使之成为无害的氨基酸,这样便有望对付致命的藻类的滋生——其对夏天输水系统造成日
益增长的危害。
[22]不是所有的污染物都能被完美地净化处理,比如到目前为止,对戴奥辛剧毒的降解
处理能达到 50%已属最佳数字。(王小树,张月中 译)

第九单元课文参考译文
海外使 用手机指 南

[1] 据全球移动通信系统协会发布的数据,世界上大多数手机用户( 82% 的用户)使用


GSM 技术标准。在美国,主要的通信运营商使用两个通信系统。Cingular (现在的美国电话电
报公司 )和 T-Mobile 使用 GSM,Sprint 和 Verizon 使用 CDMA,一种与 GSM 不能兼容的技
术。
[2]在北美和一些亚洲国家, CDMA 技术得到了使用,但在欧洲,这一技术基本上无人
问津。因此,Sprint 和 Verizon 的客户只能在 26 个国家使用他们的手机( AT&T 和 T-Mobile
的客户可能能够在 100 多个国家使用他们的手机)
[3]Sprint 和 Verizon 的客户在去一个不使用 CDMA 技术的国家时,可以向其通信服务
提供商租用或购买 GSM 手机。Sprint 租出一部 Motorola Razr 手机的价格为一周$58,两周
$70 , 外加 每分 钟通 话费 $1.29--4.99 , Verizon 的 收费 是每 天 $3.99 ,外 加每 分钟 通话 费
$1.49--4.99,Verizon 同时也出售三款 CDMA-GSM 结合的手机,售价在$150 到$600 之间,
并与客户签定两年的服务合同。
[4]如果 Cingular 和 T-Mobile 的客户目前使用的手机可以接受多频率的话,那么他们会
有更多的选择。复杂的是,美国的 GSM 标准在频率为 850 至 1900 兆赫时才有效,而世界其
他地区的 GSM 标准使用 900 至 1800 兆赫的频率。
[5]在国外使用美国的 GSM 手机时,您必须保证手机是三波段或四波段的,并且能够
在美国以外地区的一个频率或几个频率上使用。Cingular 和 T-Mobile 的网站,以及 Telestrial

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和其他一些通信运营商的网站上都列出了每个国家的主频率,你可以对照自己的手机,看
它是否能够在一个或几个国外波段上使用。
[6]为防止欺诈行为,美国国内手机在国外使用时通常会被限制呼出。在去国外前,请
通知您的通信服务提供商,让其取消这一限制。
[7]GSM 手机使用 SIM 卡(用户身份识别模块),一种控制手机“大脑”的微型电子
芯片,其中包括了用户联系号码和手机号码(CDMA 手机将这些信息直接存入手机硬件)。
[8]GSM 用户可以通过将美国的 SIM 卡更换成其他国家的 SIM 卡来避免支付高昂的漫
游费。例如,去英国的旅行者可以选择英国通信运营商沃达丰公司提供的 SIM 卡,一旦将
卡插入手机,手机便有了一个临时的英国手机号。向英国国内和美国呼出的电话就要便宜很
多。
[9]例如, T-Mobile 对其客户在英国使用电话收取每分钟 99 美分的费用,不论其客户
是打给伦敦的酒吧抑或是新泽西州的家里。
[10]相反,在手机中插入一张由诸如 Telesial 这样的公司所提供的话费预付的英国 SIM
卡,则会将本地话费降至每分钟 26 美分,同时,打回美国的电话费一分钟也只要 9--14 美
分。
[11]使用海外 SIM 卡的另一个好处是在多数国家接听来电通常是免费的。
[12] 海 外 SIM 卡 可 以 在 你 出 发 前 从 Cellular Abroad(www.cellularabroad.com) 和
Telesial(www.telestial.com)够得,也可以在海外的当地商店够买到。
[13]即使你有一部 GSM 手机在国外频率上也能使用,国内手机通信服务商也不会让你
使用其他公司的 SIM 卡的,因为那样的话,他们根本不赚钱。为防止你使用其他公司的
SIM 卡,经 Cingular 和 T-Mobile 处购买的手机都被电子锁定了 --- 他们只接受自己公司的
SIM 卡。
[14]在你失落至极,准备将手机从埃菲尔铁塔上扔下来之前,记住其实有一些方法可
以为你的手机解锁并避免昂贵的海外漫游费。
[15]Cingular 和 T-Mobile 为他们的客户手机解琐是有一定条件的。根据 Cingular 无线公
司发言人 Rich Blasi 的说法,Cingular 会将解琐码提供给手机服务合同到期的客户,想要终
止服务合同并提前支付终止费用的客户,或是全额付款购买手机而非通过补助价格购买的
客户。
[16]T-Mobile 有更为宽松的政策。T-Mobile 的发言人说,T-Mobile 在每一位客户接受其
服务 90 天后便向这位客户提供解锁码,但每 90 天仅提供一个解锁码。
[17]如果你未能达到上诉要求,也仍然可以让私人公司帮你解锁。你只要花上一些钱,
旅行行家公司和解锁电信公司便可以为你提供手机的特定解锁码。
[18]使用双波段 GSM 手机的用户无法在海外使用手机,但通常可以从第三方手机提供
商处购得未上锁的四波段手机。这些手机可以在美国境外使用,因为是未上锁的,因此也可
以替代现有的手机在美国的通信网络上使用。
[19]由于这样的手机得不到通信运营商的补助,所以价格较高。例如,一部已解锁的四
波段摩托罗拉 Razr V3 手机 Cellular Blowout 的售价是$140。Cellular Abroad 和 Teletial 也出
售未上锁的手机。
(沈晓华 译)

第十单元课文参考译文
近乎消 失:使光 线弯曲, 让“隐形 斗篷”成 为可能
作者:大卫·卡斯特里维奇

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[1]哈里波特迷们,请不要失望!隐形斗篷也许只是一个长镜头,但去年物理学家们证
实了一项技术,有了这一技术,也许某一天你就能马上遁形,躲避雷达的监测。目前,这同
样的把戏已经由两组研究人员通过可见光设法实现了。
[2]光线穿过一个透明物质进入另一个物质时通常要反射,或改变方向,这就是为什么
将一只铅笔部分地没入水中,它会看起来是折断的原因了。最近,物理学家们已经开始探索
某些材料,这些材料具有一种特性,被称为负折射。若水具有这种性质,水面以下的铅笔部
分就会像是直立在水面上一样。
[3]首次证实负折射时所使用的材料是针对一个特定的微波波长演示出效果的。去年,
研究人员表示,一块大小合适的负折射材料可以通过引导微波绕过物体而使物体隐身。
[4]由帕萨迪那市加州理工学院的亨利莱茨领导的团队已经在研究 蓝绿可见光谱负折射
现象时取得了成功。
[5]莱茨的团队构建了一个微米级的分层金属三棱镜,上面打了错综复杂的纳米级管路 。
打到三棱镜上的光转换成等离子波,这是一种二维波,是由于电磁场使电子沿着金属表面
发生位移而产生的。由纳米管路引导,等离子波穿过三棱镜,当其出现在三棱镜另一端时又
变成了光。
[6]三棱镜由金属和复杂的迷宫状结构组成,它发挥作用时就好像其本身是由负折射材
料构成似的。这是研究人员于 3 月 22 日《科学》杂志在线发布的一篇论文中,对他们研究成
果的描述。
[7]到目前为止,只有在打到三棱镜上的光线处于特定平面时,他们的装置才起作用。
莱茨说,“我们确实是在‘平地’上做光学实验”,他所指的“平地”是 1884 年的一本短
篇小说,其中主人公就生活在二维的世界中。
[8]印第安那州西拉法叶市普渡大学的弗拉基米尔谢立夫说,“这是一个设计独特而
又完美的实验”,他又说,“将光转换成等离子波可能是唯一能够使可见光谱发生负折射
的方法。”
[9]最近,谢立夫和同事们对光的直接负折射研究已经很接近成功的目标了。本月早些
时候在丹佛举行的美国物理学会会议上,他描述了一种能对红外线波长起作用的负折射材
料,而红外线波长几乎不会超过可见光光谱。
[10]伦敦帝国学院的约翰潘德瑞并不认为这种材料已经接近了书中所说那种实用的隐
形衣。他说:“凭借这种材料,你只可能在二维空间隐形,而这对于哈里来说是没什么用的。

[11]但微观部件,比如莱茨的装置,对于将光学电路集成到电脑芯片上可能会发挥作
用。那将提高电脑运行速度,因为光学部件不会产生过热现象。
(沈晓华 译)

第十一单元课文参考译文
自助型 大脑
----个人识别依 赖右脑半 球
作者:布鲁斯·鲍文

[1]大脑受损的人被剥夺了自我意识,不言而喻,这样的人受到躯体的束缚,却拥有一
套独特的生活体验和人际关系,身份盗用这一概念做出的假定,让我们对于这部分人有了
一个全新的理解。想象一下,一个人在遭受严重的脑部创伤之后,坚持认为他的父母,亲属,
朋友已经被换成了他从没见过的长相相似的人。每个接近他的人都已变成熟悉的陌生人了。
另一位脑部受损的病人声称,给他看病的医生,护士还有理疗师其实都是他的儿子,儿媳

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和同事。他认为自己就是电视节目上他所见过的一位滑冰选手。
[2]对“自我”的认知也可能会发生部分的偏差。一位妇女在中风以后,其中一只胳膊
瘫痪了,她就认为那只胳膊不再是身体的一部分。她跟一位医生说,她把那只胳膊当成她的
宠物石。
[3]另一些病人将他们自身的疾病赋予根本不存在的孩子。比如,一位因脑瘤而导致失
明的妇女开始相信是她的孩子生了病,眼睛失明,然而她并没有孩子。
[4]纽约市贝斯以色列医疗中心神经学家托德 E 费恩博格说:“这些怪异的个人识别转
移和扩展行为一直有助于我们深入研究大脑是如何对自我意识起作用的。”多亏现在的技术
可以透过头部表面进入人脑,研究人员可以探测到人脑是如何对个人意识,躯体感知和躯
体控制起作用的。科学家们希望通过他们的努力可以弄清令人百思不得其解的意识本质以及
精神紊乱,比如以紊乱的自我知觉为特征的精神分裂症,的根源所在。

自我探 究
[5]学者们就是否存在一个统一的自我意识已经争论了 300 多年。一个世纪以前,西格
蒙德·弗洛伊德提出了本我的概念,本我是一种区别个人与他人的躯体和思想的精神机制。
大约是在同一时期,心理学家威廉詹姆斯提出异议,他写道:“每个人的‘意识传递状态
’造成了一种错觉,使人们认为自我或本我在精神领域唱主角”。
[6]研究者们仍在争辩自我是有意行为的内在动力还是仅仅作为一种实用的虚构理论在
帮助人们对自己的行为负责。一些调查者认为,每个人隐藏了许多在不同场合和情境下表现
出的自我形态。
[7]尽管存在哲学层面上的理解差异,费恩博格指出,有证据表明右脑半球总是构建起
对自我的基本认知,就像左脑半球通常担负起掌握语言的基本职责一样。
[8]费恩博格提到,由大脑受损而导致的自我紊乱分为两大类。某些病人无法建立起与
重要个体或实体的联系,比如那位男病人认为他所认识的每个人都是熟悉的陌生人,那位
女病人将自己毫无生气的胳膊当成宠物石。另一部分病人建立起的是实际并不存在的联系,
比如,那位男病人将自己的医疗护理人员当成家人和同事,那位女病人在心理上认为她有
一个根本不在的女儿。
[9]费恩博格说:“在这两个类别中,右脑损伤比左脑损伤更能导致个人与其环境在建
立正常关系时产生持续性障碍。”
[10]其他神经学家持相同的观点。由包括同是西雅图华盛顿大学的让·德塞蒂和杰西卡 A
萨默维尔在内的研究人员在过去 3 年中所进行的脑部成像研究表明,主要位于脑部额叶的
右脑网络组织神经活动以分辨人的躯体和思想。德塞蒂和萨默维尔在 2003 年的一篇原创性
文章中说,这一网络与识别他人时发挥作用的大脑回路相重叠,也许是自我具有“特殊化
和大众化,独有性和共享性”这种两面性的原因。

右脑决 定自我
[11]据费恩博格和新泽西州蒙特克莱尔州立大学的朱立安保罗奇男的研究,为协调自
我与外部世界的关系,大脑会倾向于某一侧。他们针对 29 例已公布的自我紊乱案例进行了
脑部受损模式的分析。28 人右脑半球前额区域受损,与之相比,14 人左脑半球前额受损。
[12]费恩博格和奇男在 2005 年 12 月的《意识与认知》杂志上称,十个病人的右脑其他
区域也受损了,与之相比,只有三个病人的左脑其他区域受损。
[13]过去十年对人脸部认知的研究取得了相似的结论。在奇男主持的一项研究中,脑部
未遭受已知的脑部创伤的成年人在浏览图片时,那些图片上他们自己的面孔会逐渐转换成
一位名人,比如玛丽莲·梦露或是比尔·克林顿的面孔。参与者交替使用左手或右手击键以示

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他们在每一张合成图片中是看到了他们自己还是名人。
[14]志愿者用左手做出反应时在合成图中认出自己的次数要比用右手做出反应时来的
多。因为大脑的每一侧分别控制身体中与之相反的一侧,所以左撇子的行为就暗示了右脑在
自我认知中发挥了作用。
[15]相似的调查结果从癫痫病人那里得来,这些病人在接受医疗的过程中,一侧的脑
半球每次都被麻痹掉。奇男和同事们给每一位病人看这位病人的面部特征与名人面部特征的
合成图,然后问他们见到了谁的脸。当病人右脑清醒时接受测试的话,多数病人称他们看到
了自己的脸。当只有左脑处于兴奋状态时,他们通常会回忆说看到了名人的脸。
[16]2005 年 4 月 15 日的《神经影像》杂志发布了对 10 名健康成年人的脑部扫描观察结
果,同样显示了右脑半球在自我认知上的作用。洛山基加州大学的卢西娜尤丁领导的团队给
志愿者们展示了一系列图片,而这些图片不同程度地将志愿者的面孔同他们的同性同事的
面孔合成,参与者按键示意他们看到了自己的影像还是那位同事的影像。
[17]明显的血液流动是神经活动强化的标志,只有当参与者认出自己时,它才会在右
脑半球的特定区域出现。以前对于猴子的研究显示,大脑的这一区域含有一种所谓的镜像神
经元,其反应机制与动物做出一种行为或观察其他动物做出相同行为的反应机制相同。
[18]尤丁和他的同事们提到,这些镜像神经元构成的右脑网络保留了一个人的内部自
我影像,以区分他所看到的其他人的面孔。
[19]即使如此,不是每个人都视右脑为自我的中心。新罕布夏州汉诺威地区达特蒙学院
的托德 F 海瑟顿和他的同事们在 2003 年的一篇报告中称,一个病人接受了外科手术,医
生将与神经半球相连的神经纤维束切断,让那名裂脑病人浏览图片,这些图片是将他的特
征与其中一名研究人员的特征合成的,只有当图片出现在他的右脑视觉区域并因此由左脑
处理后,他才能认出自己。
[20]尤丁说,“自我认知是最基本的认知活动,虽然我们对它的了解还很欠缺。”

失控
[21]格里斯弗里斯,伦敦大学的一位神经学家,对于精神分裂症病人总是感到自己的
行为被他人所控制的原因进行了长期的研究。比如,一个严重的精神紊乱病人也许会告诉你
外星人命令他进行破坏。
[22]十五年前,弗里斯认为精神分裂症剥夺了人们检测自己行为意图的能力。如果他们
自己的行为令人感到很意外的话,他们就会将原因归结于外部力量。
[23]在看过神经学家关于他人手综合症这种奇异病症的报道后,弗里斯摒弃了这一观
点。位于脑部一侧的检测区域受损会使得这些病人无法控制与躯体相反一侧手的运动。例如,
当一个病人试图用右手在湿布上打上肥皂时,令他苦恼的是,左手却不断将肥皂放回皂盒
中。另一个病人要用一只手去将握住门把手的另一只手移去,因为在他经过门边时那只手总
是要不停抓住门把手。
[24]如此控制手的意图是他人手综合症病人意识不到的,除此之外,他们感觉不到自
己的行为受到外星人或其他外部实体的控制----他们只是要试图矫正自己不听话的手。
[25]弗里斯现在怀疑他人手综合症和精神分裂症中的被他人控制的错觉存在同一个神
经缺陷,这一缺陷让人的行为被动的发生。然而,精神分裂症病人错误地将被动的行为视为
有意的举动。
[26]为证明这种猜想的可行性,弗里斯和他的同事们发现,当所展现出的抽象图形在
电脑屏幕上移动时,精神分裂症病人,而非精神健全的志愿者,会将他们好的和坏的意图
都归因于这些图形。弗里斯表示,精神分裂症病人可能会通过极其痛苦的描述来检测自己的
行为,以向别人示意他们受到了外部控制。

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[27]弗里斯说,“总的来说,人们很少去考虑自我,但表现得就好像这些自我实体肯
定存在似的。”
[28]哈佛大学心理学家丹尼尔魏格纳做了进一步的研究。魏格纳扩展了威廉詹姆斯的观
点,他认为一个普通人具有的有意控制个人行为的自我意识是一种错觉。这一具有争议的主
张是建立在 20 年前三藩市加州大学的神经生理学家本杰明李伯特进行的实验基础上的。
[29]李伯特发现,尽管志愿者有意识的决定做出简单举动先于这个动作本身,但是动
作却是在脑部出现一阵明显的电活动后发生的,这一电活动是人们准备做出动作的信号。换
句话说,人们只有在脑部无意识的做好准备后才会决定做出举动。
[30]魏格纳自此进行了实验,实验证明,人们会很轻松的对自己未做过的行为负责。在
一项研究中,参与者在镜中观察到,实验者的手臂放在他们自己手臂的位置并做出动作。当
手臂按照另一位研究人员的指示移动时,志愿者称他们想过要做同样的动作。
[31]费恩博格说,这些研究发现没有理由抹杀掉作为“精神幻景”的自我。
(沈晓华 译)

第十二单元课文参考译文
群体观念
-----群体行为大 于个体总 和的数学 解释
作者:艾丽卡·克雷区

[1]当一群鸟儿从晚空中俯冲而下,确定无疑地返回它们选择的栖息地时,很少有人对此
不感到惊讶。自然界充满了其他类似的例子,都是动物统一行动的壮观场面:突然急转弯的
鱼群,忙于造路的蚁群,以及掠过平原的蝗虫。
[2]自古以来,科学家和哲学家一直都在思索动物在没有领导人的情况下如何协调它们之
间的行动,协调一致的群体在规模上从一部分个体到数百万个体不等,他们能够组成一个
智能种群,而种群中成员的智力都无法使他们相互辩识彼此。
[3]尽管存在这样的差异,相似的行为模式还是一次又一次地在动物王国中出现。研究者
们对动物行为的一致性进行了 70 年左右的思考,一些简单的规则可能能够解释许多复杂的
群体行为。然而,构建这些规则并不是一件简单的事情。
[4]“设想一下,一个外星人看到了洛山基高速公路上的交通高峰时刻”,研究鱼群行为的
西雅图华盛顿大学的朱立安帕里什说,“外星人会把车当成生物,并思考这些生物是如何
单向运动而不相撞的。其实原因在于这里面有一套每个人都清楚的规则。”
[5]“我们就是看到鱼群的外星人,但不知道那些‘驾驶员守则’是什么。”
[6] 近些年,数学家和生物学家开始关注那些守则中究竟包含了什么。他们已经构建了动
物群体的数学模型,这一灵感来自数十年的物理学研究成果。例如,在磁力的物理学研究中,
他们已经阐释了物体间简单局部的相互作用是如何产生复杂的大规模运动现象的。利用电脑
模拟和在实体动物上做实验相结合的方法,研究人员阐释了物理学和工程学的三个原则 -----
非线性,正向反馈和相变,是如何形成的。这三个原则也许是各种动物群体行为的基本组成
成分。
[7]“我们研究的这一领域越来越振奋人心”,在英国牛津大学和普林斯顿大学研究动物群
体行为的伊恩库辛说,“我们拥有数学基础,能够快速有效地研究这一现象。”

正向反 馈
[8]曾经将食物碎屑遗留在厨房灶台上的人都清楚,蚂蚁会以我们所犯的这个小错误为资
本,形成惊人的捕食效率。一旦一只蚂蚁发现了诱人的少量食物,成千只蚂蚁就会在食物源

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和他们的巢穴之间形成一条路径,并循此路径来回往返。
[9]“蚂蚁只遵循局部规则… ..但是所形成的路径结构却建立在一个远远超越单个蚂蚁所遵
循规则的规模上”英国牛津大学的大卫森普特在发表于一月份的《英国皇家学会会报》B 辑
上的一篇研究动物群体的文章中这样说。
[10]2001 年,森普特和两名同事使用数学模型和室内实验研究了觅食的小黄家蚁是如何
构建觅食路径的。研究人员发现了一个令人瞩目的群体行为:就像水在冰点突然变成冰一样,
觅食行为在蚂蚁群达到一个特定的临界规模时会发生“相变”。
[11]如果蚁群规模很小,觅食的蚂蚁在四处随意徘徊,即使一些蚂蚁发现了食物,觅食路
径也不会持续很久。如果蚁群规模很大,蚂蚁的觅食路径就会变成通向他们所寻食物的高速
公路。如果蚁群达到这其中的一个规模-----以实验蚁为例,700 只蚂蚁的规模----蚁群行为就
会马上转变。
[12]虽然这一急剧的转变看上去似乎出人意料,但研究人员发现它之后并不感到很意
外,因为用于解释觅食行为模式的数学原则已告诉他们这一转变的可能性。当一只蚂蚁发现
食物源后,它会沿着返回巢穴的路径存放一种叫做信息素的化学物质。当另一只蚂蚁碰巧经
过这一路径,就会探测到信息素并循路径而行。一旦它发现了食物,就会沿路存放自己的信
息素,路径因此得到加强并使后面碰巧遇到这条路径的蚂蚁也寻路径而行。-----这例证了工
程师们所说的正反馈圈的概念。不过,信息素会逐渐蒸发,所以如果路径未得到使用的话,
它最终将会消失掉。
[13]如果蚁群规模很小,很少有蚂蚁会在周围徘徊,所以它们不大可能在信息素蒸发
前碰上路径。整个蚁群所能获得的食物就只能是每只蚂蚁独立找寻到的食物。
[14]相反,在大规模的蚁群中,很多蚂蚁都有可能找到既定的路径,他们合起来存放
的信息素对蚁群的行为具有乘数效应。森普特说,效率上的大跃进使得大规模蚁群的行为大
于单独行事的蚂蚁行为之和。
[15]在数学术语中,蚂蚁的行为是非线性的,如果一个蚁群在规模上增加了一倍,那么
它所形成的路径强度就会增加不止一倍。这一现象发生的原因是,在任何时候,有多少蚂蚁
已经发现了路径以及有多少蚂蚁现在可能会碰到路径所产生的效果都会反映在路径的增加
上。
[16]非线性增长的结果是可以消除中间地带的。如果一条路径没有蒸发,那么它会迅速
发展成为一条熙熙攘攘的高速公路。
[17]在每一种极端情形下,单个蚂蚁都遵循同样的规则,在 坦佩城亚利桑那州立大学
研究群体动物行为的斯蒂芬普瑞特指出。“以前,当动物从一种状态变成另一种状态时,我
们的关注点可能会放在动物发生了什么变化上”他说,“新的情况是我们将问题提升了一
个层次,开始关注能引起群体行为显著变化的环境变量,如密度,是如何变化的。”
[18]森普特说,正向反馈和非线性是各种动物交互行为的组成部分,能够使得动物群
体产生的行为比它们的部分之和还大。

全球性 的群体行 为
[19]相变远不局限于蚂蚁群,这一动物群体特征好像无所不在。例如,2002 年,库辛和
他的团队表示,一些简单的鱼类交互原则会导致群体行为的相变。
[20]以物理学粒子交互模式研究为基础,研究人员以单个粒子来表示每一条鱼。他们假
定了三条粒子互动的原则:每条鱼尽力避免与其他鱼相撞,与鱼群待在一起,在其周围的
特定区域内游动,并与附近的同伴对齐方向。
[21]研究人员已研究这些规则的变化数十年了,但也只是在最近,随着电脑技术发展
到一定程度,研究人员才能进行,比如说,10000 条鱼的仿真运动研究。

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[22]研究人员同时假定,鱼能够改变其对附近同伴的感应度,也就是,对齐区域的大
小。研究团队发现,当个体的对齐区域增长时,鱼群结构发生了两次显著的转变。
[23]当每条鱼周围的对齐区域大小可以忽略不计时,鱼就很少关注附近同伴的游动方
向了,每条鱼在鱼群中以任意方向游动。当对齐区域达到一定的临界规模后,鱼突然开始一
条跟着一条形成一个面圈状的群体。随着对齐区域的增长,鱼开始平行游动,就如同迁徙一
般。
[24]“鱼群在不同模式间显著快速地变换。” 库辛说。
[25]随着鱼所要顾及的周围同伴越来越多,它们间的对齐区域呈非线性地增长,随之
便出现了研究团队所观察到的那些急剧转变。据库辛所知,虽然生物学家从未在鱼群从三种
群体模式的一种转变为另一种的过程中对鱼群进行过研究,但自然界中的鱼群却是频繁地
遵循着每一种模式。
[26]“当我们第一次在防真研究中看到面圈模式时,我想‘那太奇特了!’” 库辛回
忆说,“但接着我们就在文献中发现,自然界的确存在这一现象。”
[27]这一模型显示,鱼与其附近同伴的简单交互原则能够产生复杂的群体性模式。库辛
说:“在个体规则中没有‘成圆圈形游动’的规则,但它却自发地形成了。”
[28]同样地,模型解释了鱼群如何在快速游动时,比如,一旦捕食者突然出现的话,
改变它们的行为。“个体无须做出复杂的动作,只要在规则中做出细微的调整就可以形成这
些结构” 库辛说。
[29]初步的实验证据表明,鱼的确可以改变对齐区域的大小。帕里什和同是华盛顿大学
的丹尼尔格吕鲍姆一直在实验室拍摄鱼群,然后用计算感应软件追踪每条鱼的路径。“有时,
它们会注意许多同伴,有时,只注意一个同伴。”帕里什说。
[30]不过,帕里什和格吕鲍姆提醒说,在研究人员充满自信地说对齐区域模型能捕捉
到鱼的行动之前,他们需要大量可观的实验数据。目前,追踪鱼群需要进行大量集中的计算
工作,即使这样,帕里什和格吕鲍姆也只能在实验室一次追踪大约 16 条鱼。
[31]不过,帕里什非常乐观,技术进步将很快使得研究人员既能够追踪到鱼的自然习
性,又能够快速分析产生的数据。
(沈晓华 译)

第十三单元课文参考译文
行星是什么
----太阳系 以外新的 谜团
作者:罗纳德·克文

[1]“ 我找到了一颗行星!”美国加州理工学院天文学家迈克布朗回忆起 2005 年他给妻子


打电话时大声呼喊的那句话。他并不知道仅仅 18 个月后他就不得不食言了。布朗已经发现了
太阳系以外比冥王星还要重的一个物体,所以将之称为第十颗行星看似很合理。
[2]但是去年八月,国际天文学联合会自 2000 年前希腊人创造出行星这个词汇后,首
次通过了行星的正式定义。冥王星被开除出行星行列,布朗所提议的第十颗行星,那颗被称
为厄里斯的天体,也不够资格。
[3]天文学家决定称冥王星和厄里斯为“矮行星” ----一个用以区别于太阳系八大正式行
星的等级。虽然许多天文学家说,让冥王星降级是有其价值的,但这一决定仍存在争议。冥
王星和厄里斯都要比已发现的前八个行星小的多,这两个天体应该是由一群科伊伯带的冰
状物体组成,科伊伯带是海王星以外的区域,其中可能有数百万冥王星和厄里斯这样的天
体,布朗说。

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[4]虽然冥王星的行星地位印刻在我们的文化记忆中 -----午餐盒上,邮票上,课本上-----
但自 1930 年它被发现后,我们对于太阳系的认识也已经突飞猛进。
[5]“新的定义基本上更正了 76 年前的天文学错误并显示出天文学在获取太阳系新动
向后又向前迈了一步。”布朗在自己的博客中写道。就算科学家和公众都在为冥王星的降级
据理力争,太阳系外新的发现也正在撼动行星的概念。
[6]在过去的几年中,天文学家已经发现了一些太阳系外物体,在重量上这些物体都有
资格成为行星,但是它们缺乏作为行星而言看似最基本的先决条件---一颗母恒星。许多这
些自由浮动的孤星被灰尘盘和气体盘围绕,灰尘盘和气体盘的质量足以聚合在一起形成一
个小型的太阳系。其中一种孤星被研究者们称为平面星盘,其周围甚至可能有一颗行星质量
的物体围绕。
[7]这些发现使得行星与恒星间的界限变得模糊,并有可能引发远比冥王星辩论更大的
行星思维革命。

旧理论 ,新数据
[8]在行星概念鼎盛时期,大约是 1990 年,恒星是恒星,行星是行星。多数情况下,天
文学家承认恒星产生于巨型气云的引力坍塌。它们通过氢核聚变而溶和形成更重的元素,并
且因此发光。
[9]另一方面,行星产生于围绕恒星的气体盘和灰尘盘。在最为盛行的理论中,行星由
逐渐聚合成更大物体的盘内物质产生。与之相抵触的一个理论认为,盘的许多部分先分裂成
碎片,然后形成整个行星。无论是哪一种情形,行星都围绕着它的母恒星,且不足以产生氢
核聚变。
[10]但是在 20 世纪 90 年代初,研究人员发现了第一种混合天体 -----以褐矮星闻名的失
败的恒星。这些天体,理论上同恒星的形成过程一样,其质量规模是太阳系最重行星木星的
75 倍。
[11]虽然最小的褐矮星质量仍有争议,但一些研究者将之与 13 个木星质量挂钩。这一
质量足够引发聚变,但却不能维持下去。当这些失败的恒星停止聚变过程后,剩余下来的物
质就会永远冷却。
[12]当人们发现了围绕类似太阳的恒星旋转的行星后,行星形成的标准模式变得更加
模糊。在发现者看来,许多太阳系外行星的重量只是木星的几倍。而且,在发现这些大质量
天体时,一些研究者,包括加州大学伯克利分校的基博•巴斯瑞在内,已经发现了质量更小
的矮星。巴斯瑞和布朗在 2006 年的《地球与行星科学年度评论》上指出,很显然,太阳系外
行星与褐矮星变得很难区分了。大约在 5 年前,天文学家开始寻找质量比木星小且不围绕任
何物体旋转的天体。
[13]“天文学家和行星学家不得不承认他们并未真正拥有明确的行星定义。” 巴斯瑞和
布朗说。

令人困 惑的发现
[14]“事实是,这里面有歧义,并且这一歧义要伴随我们一段时间。”土桑亚利桑那大
学的理论学家亚当伯罗斯说。
[15]比如,以恒星 HD3651 为考虑对象,其质量比太阳要小一些,距离地球只有 36 光
年。通过测量其前后运动,天文学家于数年前就做出推理,HD3651 有一个比土星还小的行
星,每 62 天为一圈,在闭和轨道上围绕其旋转。现在天文学家已经能够直接描绘出一颗更
远的围绕 HD3651 的天体。新发现的天体靠近地球,是至今发现的最暗淡,最冷的褐矮星。
这个天体与 HD3651 的距离是 HD3651 的行星与 HD3651 距离的 1500 倍。

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[16]HD3651 的图像第一次证明,褐矮星和行星能够在同一颗恒星周围形成 ----也许以
相同的方式----德国耶拿大学的马库斯穆格洛指出。穆格洛和同事们在《皇家天文学会月刊通
讯》描述了他们通过几架地基望远镜所获得的发现。国立大学宾夕法尼亚州立大学的凯文鲁
曼所领导的另一个团队使用美国国家航空航天局的斯必泽太空轨道望远镜,在即将出版的
《天体物理学报》中描述了他们对于 HD3651 的研究。
[17]《天体物理学报》10 月 1 日的报道称,在另一项研究中,鲁曼和同事们使用哈博太
空望远镜拍摄到一个围绕 CHXR73 的天体,其质量大约是木星质量的 10 倍。单就这个环绕
天体的质量而言通常就可以将其视为一颗大行星,并且它由曾环绕在年轻恒星周围的盘所
形成。
[18]然而,新发现的天体与 CHXR73 的距离是冥王星与太阳间平均距离的五倍。理论
表明气体灰尘盘不太可能具备足够的物质形成一个远离恒星的行星。“虽然这个天体看上去
具有行星的质量,我们还是认为它不是似行星伴天体,而仅仅是一颗很小的褐矮星伴天体。
” 鲁曼说。
[19]区分褐矮星和行星是很重要的,鲁曼说。一颗褐矮星有自己的行星伴侣,这是天文
学家可以找到的。相反,一颗距离自己的母星如此远距离的行星多数情况下是一个孤家寡人。
[20]在 8 月布拉格国际天文学会议上一个报告中,研究人员提出,褐矮星的形成也许
与恒星和行星的形成都不同。根据最新的假设,褐矮星比真正的恒星要小得多,因为褐矮星
由环绕在一些全新恒星周围的星环或物质盘的突然分裂而形成。
[21]据此项研究报告合撰人圣克鲁斯加州大学的格雷格罗富林的说法, 行星也许同样
因此而形成,但环绕在两颗恒星周围的大盘的分裂更倾向于形成一颗褐矮星。
[22]在很多情况下,恒星对会将新褐矮星逐走,但不会给这个天体足够的引力以让其
摆脱周围的星团。这可以用来解释为什么一群褐矮星总是孤独地处在恒星团中,比如猎户
座恒星形成区。在其他情况下,矮星待在两颗恒星周围的轨道中。同样来自圣克鲁斯的劳林,
道格林以及台湾中央大学的江瑛贵最近在线发布了他们的观点。
[23]“行星可能以不同的比例,不同的方式,在与恒星呈不同距离的情况下形成”,太
阳系外行星猎手多伦多大学的贾亚瓦哈纳说。此外,如果一个天体的质量很小却仍有资格成
为恒星的话,对这一质量大小的界定将为我们提供了宇宙中恒星形成历史的关键信息。
(沈晓华 译)

第十四单元课文参考译文
地震事 件
-----导致海啸和 其他全球 性效应的 地震给我 们的教训
作者:西德·佩金斯

[1]2004 年 12 月 26 日,东南亚的破晓时分格外平静,但这样的景象并没有持续多久。
当地时间上午 7:59,苏门达腊以西的海底深处,两个地球大陆板块开始相互滑动,释放
出重叠板块数十年形成的压力。40 年来地球上最大的地震已经开始。
[2]破裂区域顶部迅速向上曼延至海底,接着沿海底以快于出膛子弹的速度继续曼延。
大片的海底以及海底以上的海洋区域被向上推高达 5 米。海洋上突然产生的撞击掀起了海啸,
海啸以喷气式飞机的速度冲击海岸。据当天遭受海啸袭击的 11 国官方统计计算,巨大的海
浪夺去了 180000 的人生命。8 个月后,另有 50000 人左右仍处于失踪状态。死亡的人当中包
括来自几十个国家的旅游者,这是一次全球性的灾难。
[3]巨大震动所产生的物理效应也波及到了全球。在隆隆作响的高频区域上方,地表缓
慢地上下起伏了 1 厘米。地表的这一运动虽然细微,但却诱发了阿拉斯加地区一连串的小地

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震,阿拉斯加距震中距离是地球周长的四分之一。
[4]海啸冲击苏门达腊西海岸后掀起的高度达到数米或更高,全球许多验潮仪检测到的
海啸高度至少在 1 厘米以上。
[5]东南亚的全球定位系统记录下了地震发生时和发生后数分钟内突然出现在地表的几
厘米高的水平海潮。
[6]自 12 月 26 日以来,分析这一数据的科学家一直在研究地球在地震发生时和发生后
的反应。震后分析显示,在地震易感区域利用全球定位设备构成的密集系统进行持续监测对
以后的海啸预警系统能起到关键作用。

断裂, 海潮
[7]20 世纪 60 年代初曾发生过的一次地震与 12 月的这一次一样大,地震仪器在彩色图
表上记录下了地表的运动。现在,许多地震检波器是电子的,能够同时以不同的频率清晰地
记录地表最微小的运动。若利用 20 世纪 60 年代的技术记录同样的数据,纸带记录器需要的
纸张宽度就要达到 180 米。
[8]此外,在全球配置的现代地震检波器基于宽泛的区域网络,这种配置能让科学家从
不同角度直观深入地分析苏门达腊地震时的情况。
[9]然而,即使是现代地震检波器多数情况下也只能回顾地震的发生情况。因为数据的
具体分析过程要花上数个小时,甚至数天,这样的设备造成,对由地震引起的海啸无法形
成良好的提前预警机制。
[10]12 月地震产生的最快震波被称为 P 波,由于是最快,因此是最先被全球的地震检
波器检测到的。P 波作为压力波穿过岩层。通过分析这些震波到达地震检波器的时间,科学
家们查明,震中位于地表以下 30 公里,距离苏门达腊西海岸 150 公里。这一位置正处在一
条线上,依着这条线印度洋板块在缅甸板块下方以平均每年 6 厘米的速率强行移动。
[11]在支撑两个大陆板块,让其处于适当位置的力量开始释放的一分钟左右,破裂区
域的上部向上曼延至海底,接着以每秒 500 米的速度向东北方向运动,圣克鲁斯加州大学
的地震学家索恩·雷说。如果破裂滑移在第一分钟后停止,地震就可能达到令人惊叹的 7 级
左右。
[12]然而,破裂区域在接下来的 4 分钟内加速曼延开,速度达到 3 公里/秒。接着它放
缓了速度,但仍在 6 分钟内继续向北运动。总的来说,在 12 月 26 日的地震中,破裂区域的
滑移沿着两个板块的交界处,或俯冲带,曼延了 1200 至 1300 公里。这是对地震有记录以来
最长的破裂带,雷和他的同事们说。在破裂带最东端,陆地板块在地震中可能仅滑移了 1 或
2 米。但在地球深处,苏门达腊地震破裂带的南端,陆地板块可能在不到一分钟内就相互错
位滑移了 15 到 30 米,雷说。
[13]雷说,基于断裂带和滑移的大小,震级预计会达到 9.3。他和同事们在 5 月 20 日的
科学杂志上描述了苏门达腊地震。
[14]科罗拉多大学波德分校的地震学家罗吉比尔哈姆说,仅仅 11 分钟,地震就释放出
相当于 2 亿 5 千万吨 TNT 存量的能量。雷指出,这一数量可能与前 10 年全球发生的所有地
震释放出的能量相当。
[15]地震引发了除 P 波以外的一种横摇运动,称为瑞雷波,它在海底和旱地曼延开。这
种波导致 1500 公里以外的斯里兰卡地表上下移动了 9 厘米。
[16]在震后数天内,一阵瑞雷波每隔 20 到 30 秒不断经过全球。在多数位置,它们经过
时悄无声息。而当这些地表运动第一次经过阿拉斯加时却诱发了兰格尔山附近一连串的小地
震,兰格尔山是安克雷奇东北偏东 330 公里,距苏门达腊 11000 公里的一座火山。
[17]苏门达腊地震发生后一个小时,瑞雷波到达兰格尔山周围六个地震检波器所构成

238
的网络中,费尔班克斯阿拉斯加大学的地震学家迈克威斯特说。这些仪器记录的数据显示每
一次震波使得这一区域的地表上下移动了约 1.5 厘米。瑞雷波经过的 11 分钟内,地震检波
器记录下了一连 14 次地震。科学家精确的找到了六次地震发生的位置。
[18]阿拉斯加地震每隔 30 秒发生一次,这一间隔与瑞雷波波峰经过这一区域的间隔一
样,威斯特说。另外,苏门达腊地震前两天和后两天兰格尔山周围地震活动的记录显示,在
10 分钟内发生 6 次无序地震的几率不到 1%。
[19]威斯特说,关键是,阿拉斯加每一次地震周期性地发生时,瑞雷波已引起水平地
表运动,削弱了支撑断裂层的力量,这使得地震更有可能发生。威斯特的团队在 5 月 20 日
的《科学》杂志上发表了他们的分析结果。
[20]耶鲁大学的杰佛瑞帕克在 5 月新奥尔良美国地球物理学学会会议上的报告中指出
苏门达腊地震产生的瑞雷波和其他地震波环绕地球多次,每一圈之后都变得微弱一些。地球
由此发生的震动就像是大钟被巨型锤子敲过后一样。
[21]某些震动波与所谓的地球呼吸模式相吻合,这时整个星球表面一致地起伏然后跌
落。7 月初,2004 年地震导致的地球表面震动仍在继续,每一个震动周期都会使地表每 20
分钟左右,上下移动约 0.5 微米。

波浪运 动
[22]12 月 26 日,海底上升诱发了冲刷印度洋周围海岸的海啸。在地震前数十年,缅甸
板块已开始缓慢弯曲,聚集了与印度洋板块撞击的能量。
[23]当板块间的摩擦逐渐退去,缅甸板块折回舒张状态。几分钟内,苏门达腊以西约 30
0 公里的大片海底上升达 5 米。在同一时段,接近海岸的某些海底区域下沉了约 2 米。在印度
洋表面产生的撞击和凹槽导致了当天致命的海啸。比尔哈姆说,地震中发生的海底移动排出
了 160 立方千米的水。
[24]第一个波浪可能高达 15 米或更高,在地震发生后数分钟内猛烈撞击了苏门达腊海
岸。地震发生大约 75 分钟后,泰国遭到海啸袭击。地震 3 小时后,斯里兰卡西南海岸的科
伦坡水平面开始上升。波浪也夺走了五千万米以外一些东非国家人民的生命。海啸进入南北
美洲海岸,南极洲和北冰洋时只有几厘米高。
[25]当海啸曼延开时,一些地球轨道飞行器上的仪器捕捉到了海啸。由美国和法国联合
操控的杰生卫星配备有雷达测高仪,在地震发生 2 个小时后碰巧经过东印度洋。卫星所发现
的海啸在开阔的海面上高达 90 厘米,以大约每小时 700 千米的速度全速前进。虽然杰生卫
星在第一阵波浪袭击斯里兰卡前一个多小时看到了这一幕,但其数据未能用于提醒海啸受
难者,因为科学家需要几个小时分析这些信息。
[26]洛山基加州大学的迈克尔 J 格雷说,地震发生约 4 个小时后,美国航空航天局的泰
拉卫星经过斯里兰卡和印度东南部之间的海峡。泰拉上的照相机抓拍到了不计其数的海啸动
态轨道图像。当海啸接近印度哥达瓦里河三角区域时,遇到了浅水,放慢速度,并增加到几
米之高。
[27]同一地区的杰生卫星图片分析显示,当海啸冲刷海岸时,其运动速度是 45 公里/小
时。格雷在新奥尔良美国地球物理学学会会议上描述说,少部分致命的波浪当天使该河三角
区域泛滥成灾,波浪间间隔 9.3 千米,每 12 分钟袭击陆地一次。
(沈晓华 译)

第十五单元课文参考译文
深度撞 击
--宇宙飞 船揭开坦 普尔一号 彗星之迷

239
罗恩·柯文 著

[1]在远离地球1.3亿公里的太空中,坦普尔一号彗星静静地移动着,看起来和 7月4日之
前没有什么两样。7月4日这天,美国宇航局(NASA)的一艘名叫“深度撞击号”的宇宙飞
船将一块重三百七十二公斤的铜质弹丸射向该彗星为冰层所覆盖的表面。虽然此次撞击只
是在这个九公里长、拳头状的星体中留下一个小小的凹痕,但通过撞击所搜集到的数据,
却在彗星和太阳系形成的研究领域留下了不可磨灭的印痕。
[2]撞击的观察结果表明,科学家们首次“直接探测到了彗星内部深处的原始物质, 即
那些在太阳系最初形成之时就一直被密封在里面的物质,”深度撞击项目研究专家卡雷 ·利
斯说道。他同时供职于位于学府园的马里兰大学,以及马里兰州罗拉尔的约翰 ·霍普金斯应
用物理实验室。
[3]撞击所产生的火花,以及撞击之前所拍摄的坦普尔一号彗星的近距离照片,也给人们
带来不少惊喜。利斯说,所得到的数据与称为泥雪混合球体模型的关于彗星结构的典型模
型不相一致。该模型认为,彗星诞生于 45亿年前行星形成时期,主要由冷凝的二氧化碳,
水,其它冰体,少量碳水凝结物以及尘埃颗粒混合而成的块状物构成。
[4]但是深度撞击计划所获得的数据表明,坦普尔一号含有冰体,不过其主要构成物质可
能是比滑石粉还细的尘埃颗粒。利斯说,该彗星(也许还有其他许多彗星)可能更像是一
个冰泥混合的球体,而不是一个雪泥混合球体。
[5]位于图森的亚利桑那大学的杰伊·麦罗什说,仅仅由引力凝束在一起,该彗星比固体冰
块要松散许多,多孔、渗水性更强。其构造比法式蛋奶酥更脆弱。
[6]而且,该彗星并不是由不同物质和结构组成的一个大杂烩。“这家伙就像冷冻的洋葱
一样,一层一层的,”来自康乃尔大学的深度撞击项目科学家约瑟夫·维维卡说道。
[7]由来自位于学府园的马里兰大学的迈克尔·阿汉恩领导的深度撞击计划小组,于本周在
英国剑桥召开的美国天文学会行星科学分会的年会上提交了初步发现结果。
[8]深度撞击计划的新发现“将改变我们对彗星的许多看法,” 麦罗什预测说。
[9]行星科学研究专家研究彗星的目的是想了解太阳系统早期的情况。这些冰体残留物是
由四十五亿年前环绕早期太阳运行的由气体、尘埃和冰块所构成的旋涡状云团所形成的。现
在,彗星成了远古历史的储存器。研究人员还怀疑,彗星将有机化合物、水和其他成分运送
到地球。这些物质进行化学反应,使我们这颗行星有了诞生生命的可能。
[10]虽然结合成一个整体的行星和小行星诞生于由同样物质形成的云团,但行星这种较
大的天体经历了温度急剧上升和融化阶段,以至于其早期的历史痕迹已不可辨或者完全消
失。而彗星,大部分时间都是在太阳系边缘的深冻区域度过的。在那里,彗星安静不受打扰,
其构成物质相对说来没有什么变化。只有当彗星运行到太阳附近,它们才活跃起来,气体
蒸腾,灰尘飞扬,出现耀眼的彗尾。
[11]但是,虽然这些为冰层所覆盖的边远星体非常重要,但科学家们目前对彗星的形成
知之甚少。“我们根本不知道彗星是如何由小得只有人类头发的十分之一至百分之一大小
的微尘和冰粒发展到庞大的星体的。”
[12]深度撞击计划由地面和太空中的大约八十架望远镜进行监控。从此计划中“我们得知
了彗星形成的大致成分,诸如碳、岩石和水的比例,”利斯说道。“如果我们将这些成分告
诉理论研究人员,他们就会告诉我们行星是如何形成的,这可是人类巨大的进步。”
[13]在美国国庆节(7月4日)深度撞击引发爆炸后,坦普尔一号彗星上喷发出大量的尘
埃和蒸汽。科学家们从所拍摄到的尘埃和蒸汽的照片和光谱上得到大量的信息。
[14]就在撞击发生后的几毫秒内,宇宙飞船拍摄到了持续不到一秒钟的一道暗淡的亮光。
麦罗什和同事们认为,这道亮光就是宇宙飞船发射的一米宽的弹丸以大约 60度的垂直倾角

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撞击彗星表面那一瞬间的情景。
[15]转瞬之间,弹丸深入到彗星表层里面,引发炽热物质以大约每秒十公里的速度喷发。
“爆炸如此猛烈,喷射物质所经之处,任何东西都被蒸发,摧毁得荡然无存,”利斯说道。
[16]喷射物质由灼热的蒸汽和熔化的硅酸盐液滴组成,温度高达 3800度,而且其光亮如
此强烈,停留在大约 800公里之外的正飞越彗星的宇宙飞船上的固体探测仪器无法清晰地
捕捉正在发生的情景。红外线光谱表明,硅酸盐液滴的直径在10至100纳米之间。
[17]那持续了不到一秒钟的高速喷射物质,极有可能是铜质弹丸深入到彗星表面以下大
约20至30米时汽化所接触的物质所致。
[18]就像锤子击中沙堆,弹丸在其后留下了缓慢移动的声波,或者叫做冲击波。此冲击波
在彗星内部逐渐扩散,时间达五分钟之久,似乎在彗星表面凿出了一个深坑。利斯说,这
表明该彗星表面松软。他说,若是固体特性更强的物体,此冲击波凿出的坑要浅一些。
[19]冲击波掀起了一团特细的凉尘,持续时间逾四十40小时之久。虽然冲击波喷射出估计
约为一千万公斤的物质(约略为一万两轿车重量的总和),那不过仅约为该彗星质量的千
万分之一。
[20]绝大部分由冲击波抛向太空的尘埃的平均速度约为每秒一米。康乃尔大学的吉姆·理察
德逊说,此速度虽然很慢,但已足够逃离彗星微弱的引力束缚,因为坦普尔彗星的引力只
有地球的百万分之一。他把尘团中的尘埃颗粒比作缓慢飞向空中的棒球,需要长达两天的
时间才能落回到彗星表面。
[21] 理察德逊估计,两天之内,约百分之九十五的尘埃颗粒落回彗星表面。由于这些颗粒
如此之小(绝大多数尘粒的直径不到 100微米),它们将射向自己的几乎所有阳光分散开
去,因此形成一个漏斗形的不透明尘团。“它差不多就像一个固体状的尘埃喷泉,”利斯
说道。
[22]在撞击发生之后的最初八百秒这一关键时段,尘团遮蔽住了由弹丸在彗星表面凿出
的深坑,此时,飞船所携带的高分辨率的摄像机正准备对彗星作近距离拍照。阿汉恩和同
事们打算将深坑的底部拍摄下来,借此测量其深度,确定其构成物质。
[23]小组成员们现在正在讨论他们能否通过深度撞击号宇宙飞船上的高分辨率摄像机拍
摄到深坑的近距离照片来寻找蛛丝马迹。由于深度撞击号发射时对所携带的摄像机的焦距
造成影响,使之不如原先那样完美,致使所拍照片上出现一个暗斑。研究人员研制出提高
图像清晰度的软件,所使用的技术与提高哈勃太空望远镜所拍摄照片清晰度的技术相似。
哈勃太空望远镜在航天飞机上的宇航员为其输入光学元素加以矫正之前,其镜面曾出现斑
点。
[24]在深度撞击号拍摄近距离照片的最后一分钟左右,有些尘埃开始变得清晰起来。理察
德逊说,深坑目前仍然看不清楚,科学家们仅获得尘团底部的模糊图像。研究人员估计,
从观察结果来看,深坑大约 100米宽,30米深,与斯皮策太空望远镜对所喷射的尘埃总量
的估计完全吻合。
[25] 麦罗什说,这些尺寸数据表明,撞击所凿出的彗星物质是非常原始而久远的,可追
溯到太阳系形成的最初时期。如果坑浅一些的话,那坑中的物质就有可能被太阳所改变。千
万年来,坦普尔一号周而复始地一次又一次在太阳附近掠过,其表面温度升高,可能引发
了汽体尘埃喷发,改变了该彗星表层以下几米深处的物质构成,但二十米以下的物质构成
应该没有变化。
[26] 理察德逊补充说,在最初猛烈撞击后几分钟内彗星上喷发而出的极细质地的凉尘,
也有可能反映早期太阳系的状况。这些尘埃可能在四十五亿年前彗星形成之初就被密封在
一个冰体结构中。
[27]尽管科学家们难于清晰地拍摄到深坑的照片,其他观测结果则表明,坦普尔一号特

241
别脆弱,所构成的细小颗粒很松散地束缚在一起。
[28] 麦罗什说,例如弹丸穿透的深度证明了该彗星的脆弱性。如果这个彗星的物质密度更
大一些,束缚得更紧一些,弹丸就不可能穿透三十米的深度。
[29]通过分析深度撞击号飞船在撞击发生四十五至七十五分钟后所拍摄的尘团的照片,
理察德逊及其同事测出了尘团扩散的速度。该速度受控于该彗星的引力场,因此,一旦得
知该彗星的引力数据,研究人员就能估计出它的密度。
[30]所测出的扩散速度表明,该彗星的渗透性很强,估计密度只有固体冰的百分之六十,
不到地球岩石最低密度的四分之一。
[31]尽管该彗星引力微弱,它还是在我们可以见到它的整整四十个小时里成功地将正在
扩散的尘团束缚在其表面。这又表明,该引力足够将此彗星的松散颗粒团束缚在一起。
[33]“这就好比我们在谈论用柠檬蛋白派中的蛋白糖果的粘力将一座山大小的东西束缚在
一起,”利斯说道。
[33] 利斯说,如果该彗星以不剧烈的、渐进的方式而形成,即在早期太阳系的原行星盘内
通过数百万年过程的细小颗粒的偶然碰撞而逐渐变大,那或许就是实情。利斯说,这种逐
渐的物质积累或许也能解释该彗星的分层结构。
[34]麦罗什的计算结果表明,当该彗星结成一个整体时,压力和温度过低,不足以让水
成为液体。在其他许多物质里,液态水将尘埃和冰粒粘在一起。 出于同样的原因,很难在
一天里让构成坦普尔一号的冰体、冰粒和尘埃结合为一个雪球,因为温度太低,无法融化
这些物质,他们几乎粘不到一块。麦罗什推测说,不过,当该星体体积增大时,其引力虽
然弱小,却能将物质碎片束缚在一起。
[35]从深度撞击号飞船和斯皮策太空望远镜上获得的光谱显示,尘团的构造和温度在弹
丸撞击后的几分钟至几小时内保持不变。阿汉恩说,这表明该彗星由近表面到三十米深的
物质是一样的。
[36] 麦罗什说,这也表明,如果坦普尔一号彗星有外壳的话,那一定非常薄。
(田传茂 译)

第十六单元课文参考译文
拯救花朵
--未来香 气工程师 力图再造 失去的花 香
伊万·阿马托 著

[1]温斯·阿格尼斯,穿着整齐,就像他花店里品种齐全的鲜花。他在马里兰州银泉的花店
已经卖了60多年的鲜花。他还记得,曾几何时,他卖的所有玫瑰,既好看,味又香。他回忆
说,二十世纪四十年代他刚开始卖花的时候,花色品种极为有限,只有红色,白色,黄色
和粉红色。“现在,有成千上万的品种,” 阿格尼斯说道。“但香气浓的品种却极其有限。

[2]谁也不知道究竟为什么玫瑰,还有其他观赏性花卉,如康乃馨和菊花的香味无缘无故
地就消失了呢。不过,研究花香的科学家们怀疑,花种培育(约一万八千种玫瑰变种被培
育出来,而且品种数量还在扩大),是花香消失的罪魁祸首。
[4]“ 颜色化合物均来自于相同的生物化学前体(就像香味化合物一样),因此就能理解
为什么颜色更鲜艳了,而香味却更淡了,”位于安阿波的密执安大学的花香生化学家和遗
传学家伊万·皮切斯基说道。
[4]花卉的香味之所以正在逐渐减少,是因为产值高达三百亿美元的观赏性花卉产业的育
种者们几乎不看重花卉这一最具象征性的品质。“从商业化的优先顺序来看,在前十位需

242
要考虑的因素中颜色排在第一位,”阿兰 ·布罗尔说道。布罗尔是波尔赫利克斯公司的花卉
生物技术项目主任。该生物技术公司,位于西芝加哥,经营观赏性花卉产业。除了颜色,育
种者们一直致力于改善花卉的寿命,形状,大小,抗疾病能力,以及其他能提高种花者收
益底线的花卉特质。
[6]香气就是另外一回事了。它看不见,摸不着。它和味道一样,感觉印象比较主观化。再
者,人们发现,香气具有复杂的遗传特质,利用寻常育种方法很难操控。尽管存在这些障
碍,布罗尔预测,随着研究花卉气味的分子生物学的进展,“人们将再次意识到香气的重
要性。”
[6]研究人员一方面在探索了解花卉气味的分子来源,一方面又在探索培育出受人青睐的
花卉品种。他们接近于揭开品尝花香这一人生中最为普通的乐趣背后的复杂的生物化学控
制方法。他们正在揭开与香味有关的基因,由这些基因编码的酶,靠这些酶催化的细胞内
部反应,以及所有这种分子生物群落的香味的性质—包括酒精,乙醛,脂肪酸,类萜烯,
苯环形化合物,以及其他具有挥发性因而可嗅闻的化学物质所构成的庞大的气味芬芳的和
谐整体。
[7]最近几年,花卉科学家已经积累了足够的知识和技术,正考虑使早已失去的花香“复
生”,或者干脆培育出植物新品种,使其具有以前蜜蜂、甲虫和园丁从未闻到过的香气。
[8]“ 就我们改变花香的最终能力而言,研究人员已经做了革命性的工作,”迈克尔 ·多布
里斯说道。多布里斯是费城诺瓦弗罗拉生物技术公司的主管。该公司目前正在研究控制观赏
性花卉各种特性的遗传方法。

解构香 气
[9]植物界各种挥发性有机化学物质,既能使我们周围的环境香气弥漫,也能使其臭气熏
天。到目前为止,科学家们已经识别出约一千种由花瓣、树叶以及其他生物组织散发的化合
物。
[10]皮切斯基说,“香气的化学物质可能高达五十至一百种。”
[11]通常说来,人类的鼻子只能嗅闻到香气中有限的几种挥发性化学物质。例如,一阵苯
基乙醇的香气迎面扑来,人们的脑海中立刻就会浮现玫瑰的形象,尽管玫瑰整个香气的产
生与好几十种挥发性化学物质有关。就像和声有助于人们的耳朵区分钢琴或手风琴上弹奏
出的中央C(即60)音符,香气中的次要化学成分能导致嗅觉上的微妙差异,从而使不同
的玫瑰品种具有自己独特的香气。 。
[12]皮切斯基,在他的祖国以色列栽种花卉和其他庄稼的农场长大,现在在安阿波市外
的一座三十英亩的农场里生活。他一生一直从事园艺栽培。他为自己设定的目标是尽可能揭
开花香生物合成的秘密,以及这些香气所发挥的作用。 1996年,他和芝加哥的同事们首次
发现了一种产生花香的基因。
[13]他说,植物气味中的挥发性物质不仅能吸引那些传授花粉的蜜蜂,愉悦人的鼻子,
还有助于保护植物免受病菌和害虫的侵害。例如,当某些植物遭到啃噬类毛虫攻击时,它
们能释放某些化学物质,就像号角,可以召来寄生的黄蜂。这些黄蜂落在进行攻击的毛虫
身上下蛋,蛋然后孵化成幼虫,幼虫最后将活的毛虫吃掉。皮切斯基说,“这是花气中的
一种化学武器。”
[14]作为分析花气中复杂生物化学反应的第一步,皮切斯基和他的合作者在 1994年发现
了芳樟醇合成酶的胺基酸序列。这种合酶来自于山字草的花瓣,是原产于加利弗利亚的一
种紫色的野花。然后他们运用该信息识别酶的基因。
[15]经过坚持不懈的生物化学分析,研究人员发现,这种酶将香叶酯焦磷酸培养基转化
成芳樟醇。皮切斯基描述说,芳樟醇是一种挥发性化合物,带有酒香味。人们已经知道,香

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叶酯焦磷酸是产生胆固醇化合物的新陈代谢过程中的一种媒介物质。
[16]从那时起,皮切斯基小组和其他研究小组又发现了二十五种花香基因。纳塔莉亚·杜得
里娃,皮切斯基以前的博士后研究生,现在在印第安那州西拉法亚特的普度大学主持着自
己的花香实验室。她估计,目前所知道的气味基因以及与其相联系的酶已能解释科学家们
已经识别出来的所有植物挥发物中不超过百分之五的细胞合成过程。
[17]经过花香编码的酶分为几种功能类型,其名称包括合成酶、甲基转移酶、羧甲基转移
酶。某一特定类型的酶使细胞化学物质发生某种生物化学变化。这些化学物质产生于所有植
物共有的基本或首要的新陈代谢过程之中。
[18]这种生物化学变化的结果因植物而异。例如,金鱼草中有一种特殊的转甲基酶,它将
一个甲基(中央的碳原子与三个氢原子结合)添加到苯甲酸中,形成甲基苯。在山字草中,
同一种酶则使水杨酸甲基化,形成甲基水杨酸盐。科学家们称此种特殊的生物化学产品为
次生代谢物。
[19]皮切斯基说道,将酶及其作用物混合匹配,改变反应顺序,就能产生大量的次生代
谢物。例如,丁香或金银花能够酿造出自己特有的含有香味化合物的醉人的鸡尾酒,就是
这个道理。
[20]花香生物化学领域的发现正在取得快速进展。现在实验室设备能快速识别和分析数以
百计甚至数以千计的基因和蛋白质的活动和相互作用情况。例如,皮切斯基目前正与许多
研究人员进行合作研究,绝大部分都是花卉出口大国以色列的研究人员。他们将一种叫做
“香云”的香玫瑰变种的基因活动与叫做“金门”的无香气玫瑰变种进行了比较。从这两
种玫瑰变种中初步发现的逾;两千种活跃的基因中,研究小组查明了似乎与香气生产有关
的几种基因。这一发现又将探索工作引向以前未认识的酶,研究人员说,这些酶在各种玫
瑰香气化学物质的生物合成过程中是必不可少的,其中就包括乙酸香叶酯和大根香叶烯。
[21]在构成花香的众多化学物质这幅大图之中仅仅只有几种化学像素。 不过,哥伦比亚
南卡大学的化学生态学家罗伯特 ·拉古索还是将该领域发现的速度描绘为爆炸式的。他说,
“我们的研究现在正处于美妙的高速进展时期,一切发现都是前所未有的……极有价值的。
现在最有趣的挑战就是将这些发现整合在一起。” 拉古索在二十世纪九十年代初期是皮切
斯基的研究生,他发现了芳樟醇合成酶基因。
(田传茂 译)

第十七单元课文参考译文
“酷鸟”企鹅
--皇企鹅 的严酷生 活
苏珊·米列斯 著

[1]怀抱一只可怜不幸的企鹅,会使一位细心体贴之人甘愿冒任何风险。在第一次南极田
野考察时,芭芭拉 ·温尼斯基正努力将一只小型无线电发射器固定在一只挣扎着试图逃离的
企鹅身上。为了快点把事情弄好,温尼斯基脱掉手套,长达几分钟之久。
[2]她拼命地工作着。她的手指变成了灰色,接着“又几乎完全变成白色,但此时看起来
还有点皮肤的模样,最后则变成蜡白色,已完全不是皮肤的样子,”她说道。再接着,手
指开始发肿,这是冰晶开始形成的迹象,很快手指就变得麻木,没了感觉。“唉,谢天谢
地,鸟儿终于可以走了,”她说道。她的手暴露在外面,大约只有七分钟,但温度接近摄
氏零下二十五度,而且还迎着风。
[3]虽然办法不是很理想,温尼斯基还是将手浸在一桶从冰窟窿里舀起来的水里,看看手
指能否恢复感觉。“刚开始,手指没什么反应,接着突然—手指有了感觉,我想就像是有

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人将滚烫的油浇到手指上的那种钻心的疼痛,”她说道。
[4] 温尼斯基是澳大利亚金斯敦的澳大利亚南极研究所的一位生物学家,现在手指还在她
手上。她仍然对皇企鹅有着很深的感情,这是南极周围固体冰盖上除了人以外生活着的唯
一脊椎动物。
[5]雄性皇企鹅,身高一米,赤着脚在冰层上度过整个冬天。他们抵御寒冷的唯一方法就
是拥挤在一起。实际上,皇企鹅们除了生存,还做其他一些事情。与大多数鸟类和其他类型
的企鹅不同,在冬天,皇企鹅们求爱,然后下蛋,孵蛋。在此间四个月里,企鹅爸爸们仅
以雪为生。
[6]这些鸟儿们如此特别的家庭生活,今年被成功地拍成了纪录片,片名叫做《企鹅进行
曲》。皇企鹅这些不寻常的谋生技能也给科学家以灵感。皇企鹅一年之中的每一个生活阶 段
都给科学家们提供了研究的大好机会,如鸟儿们的潜水技能,秋天的觅食狂欢,冬天的求
爱和养育幼鸟,以及夏天的突然换毛。并且鸟儿们生存下来,不靠筑窝,也不靠打洞,当
然也不戴什么手套。

深度发 现
[7]皇企鹅以捕鱼为生,并在繁殖季节来临之前猛吃鱼。第一位观察到皇企鹅捕鱼潜水最
大深度的是加州拉约拉斯克里普斯海洋研究所的生理学家杰拉德·库伊曼。
[8]1960年,他将一个深度记录仪系在一只皇企鹅身上,首次对这种企鹅的潜水深度进行
了测量。这种企鹅潜水深度可达二百六十五米。这是当时所记录到的鸟类潜水的最大深度,
不过,哺乳动物中的冠军巨头鲸潜水的深度更大。
[[9]现在,库伊曼认为二百六十五米只是一个保守数字。后来的研究表明,皇企鹅可以潜
到五百米的深度。不过,皇企鹅大多数潜水深度都不太大,时间也只有五到六分钟,目前
为止人类已知这些鸟儿呆在水下的最长时间为二十分钟。
[10]库伊曼说,“从流体力学的角度看,企鹅的身体构造比其他海洋哺乳动物都要优越。
”例如,海豹在游泳时身子会过度弯曲,而这种曲身会增加水的阻力。与之形成鲜明对照
的是,皇企鹅几乎笔直着身子向前游动。
[11]鲍尔·潘格尼斯,一位斯克里普斯海洋研究所的研究员和圣迭戈的临床麻醉(对人进
行麻醉)学者,与库伊曼携手研究深潜企鹅们是如何成功地保证供氧的。他说,首先他们
利用某些动物具备的长时间潜水的主要调适功能,从而获得了大量的信息,即在他们的机
体组织里发现了丰富的肌红蛋白化合物。
[12]同其近亲血红蛋白相比,肌红蛋白对氧有更强的亲合力。这种吸引力使机体组织有可
能接收到血流里血红蛋白所携带的氧气。像威德尔海豹之类的哺乳动物,其细胞里的肌红
蛋白含量特别高,皇企鹅也是如此。
[13]潘格尼斯说,此外,皇企鹅每一公斤的体重就包含有约一百毫升的血液。同每公斤体
重两百毫升血液的特种潜水海豹相比,这不算多,但要比人的每公斤体重七十毫升血液要
多。
[14]皇企鹅还会利用“旱鸭子”所不具备的生理技巧定量配给这些储存的氧气。一个人跳
入水中,向深水中游去,会觉得心跳加速。而皇企鹅潜水时,它的心速变慢,氧气消耗也
随之减少。潘格尼斯说,在陆地上时,企鹅的心脏每分钟跳一百八十至两百次,而在潜水
时,它的心跳降至每分钟六十次。
[15]关于企鹅的潜水技能,还有许多未解之秘。潘格尼斯,他的斯克里普斯海洋研究所同
事托伦斯 ·诺尔·斯托克德,以及一个国际研究小组发现,企鹅潜水时几乎耗尽其肺上特殊
鸟气囊中的氧气。该小组测量了皇企鹅潜水最后15秒钟时气囊中残存的氧气。
[16]研究人员在八月号《实验生物学杂志》上报告说,所测试的四只企鹅进行约七十次潜

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水,其中百分之四十二的潜水,其气囊中的氧气降到二十毫米水银柱以下。如果人的肺氧
供给降到潘格尼斯说二十五毫米水银柱以下,“那我们就会失去知觉,” 潘格尼斯说道。
[17]理论上假设企鹅进行极深潜水,那么它所冒的风险同中风病人在极度缺氧的机体组
织的障碍排除后突然获得血液时所冒的风险是一样大的。这种血液喷涌会产生破坏性自由
化学基。一般说来,这比最初的极度缺氧的破坏性更大。
[18]企鹅潜水似乎没有什么不适应的。研究人员目前正在搜寻保护这些动物的酶。
[19]皇企鹅似乎不受潜函病的影响。人类潜水者潜到企鹅的潜水深度,然后像这些鸟儿一
样迅速上浮,其血液中会出现危险的氮泡。库伊曼未解释为什么企鹅对潜函病具有抗力。“
要是我会受不了,”他说道。
[20]这些鸟儿能避免潜函病,而且能依靠其本领结束潜水。潘格尼斯和同事们观察到企鹅
许多杂技般的离水上到冰面的动作。
[21]为了研究企鹅潜水,研究人员将企鹅围在两个隔开的冰窟窿附近。当鸟儿们绑着昂贵
的仪器跳进冰窟窿里捕鱼时,研究人员耐心地在一旁等着,期望鸟儿们能从这个冰窟窿里
回来。
[22] 豹斑海豹,喜食企鹅肉,也经常潜伏在这些冰窟窿附近。为了避开这些肉食动物,
从冰窟窿里出来的企鹅们拼命地逃走。“他们翅膀击打冰面,飞快地逃走,”潘格尼斯说
道。

极端的 饮食习惯
[23]秋天,经过大肆捕鱼之后,南极的皇企鹅从水里出来,开始了冰层上的长途行军,
到远离水域的大约四十个繁殖地点去。一些地方只吸引了几百对企鹅,而另外一些地方则
吸引了上万对。
[24]1994年,温尼斯基本人移居到一个企鹅聚居地,白天变短,每天在天色完全黑下来
之前只有三个小时的昏暗时光。她报告说,当时情况还不太糟糕。“上午十点钟你可以走出
门去,欣赏耀眼的极光,”她回忆道。
[25]随着冬季临近,南极逐渐寒冷起来,周围的海水结成了冰,整个南极洲的冰面比夏
季翻了一倍。这个固体地面上的冰架在春季来临时会融化。因此,企鹅们不得不远行至足够
坚硬的地方繁殖,直到小企鹅能够在水中生活。企鹅们摇摆着身子,拖着大肚子,向南迁
移几千公里。
[26]法国斯特拉斯堡生态学和代谢生理学研究中心的生理学家瑞纳 ·格罗斯科拉斯,对南
极皇企鹅的迁移进行了观察。“看到有生命的事物出现在地平线上,并一声不响地前行着,
真是令人印象深刻,”他说道。
[27]当皇企鹅经过数周的海中觅食之后开始迁移时,它们的体内已储存了足够的脂肪。
[28]一旦企鹅们在繁殖地交配,雌企鹅就会生下一个蛋,然后又回到海中。雄企鹅站在冰
层之上用它的腹部孵蛋,一站就是七周左右。如果幼鸟出生早,企鹅爸爸会用从其食道里
分泌出来的液体喂食它。
[29]如果一切正常,企鹅爸爸能够让自己和幼鸟一直活着,直到企鹅妈妈装着一肚子婴
儿食品露面。
[30]雄企鹅能够使自己节省能量消耗的部分原因是它们拥挤在一起。成百上千,有时是成
千上万的皇企鹅拥挤在一起,以便节省身体热量。格罗斯科拉斯说,每平方米的拥挤密度
可达到十只企鹅,这还不算幼鸟。
[31]生理学家们经过计算发现,一只孤零零的雄企鹅只有在温度为摄氏零下十度以上时
才有能量维持自己的温暖。格罗斯科拉斯说,拥挤在一起的雄企鹅,同孤零零的雄企鹅相
比,其新陈代谢速度可减低百分之四十。一只拥挤在一起的雄企鹅消耗的能量并不比其在

246
温和环境下站着消耗的能量多。
[32]格罗斯科拉斯说,“实际上,雄企鹅们似乎因拥挤在一起可能觉得太热,需要经常
地离开鸟群,呼吸一点新鲜空气。”
[33]温尼斯基表示同意,相对说来“他们太暖和了。”拥居地内的温度高达二十摄氏度。
皇企鹅不时地将它们伸缩性很强的脖颈在蜷缩着的身子上方高高伸起。温尼斯基说,“它
们就像潜望镜。”你可以看到从它们身上冒出的热气。
[34]雌企鹅回来之后,就开始接替雄企鹅照看幼鸟,让配偶摇摇摆摆地回到大海,去觅
食四个月来的第一餐美食。当然,它也得储备下一轮的婴儿食物。
[35]2001年,格罗斯科拉斯和同事们却认为,肚子鼓鼓的企鹅爸爸妈妈到达聚居地后却
靠新陈代谢的方式来让自己忍饥挨饿。
[36]研究小组对企鹅血液中各种各样的代谢物诸如甘油三酸脂进行了分析,其生化机制
与那些饱餐后消化食物的动物生化机制并不一致。皇企鹅似乎阻止自己食物消化的进程并
在肚子装满食物之后不进饮食。
[37]格罗斯科拉斯说,具有此特点的唯一的另两种动物是孵幼鸟的王企鹅和澳大利亚以
胃液哺食的青蛙。可能已经绝种的这种青蛙,在小蝌蝌将妈妈的胃袋当作“托儿所”后,
会将自己的消化系统关闭。
[38]终于,幼皇企鹅长大了,可以调节自己的体温了。父母可以离开觅食去了。它们将幼
鸟留在鸟儿玩伴“游戏组”里,鸟类学家将其称为“托儿所”。
[39]实际上,春天的气候对动物们来说仍然是严酷的,对与世隔绝的皇企鹅们也是一样。
晴朗无风的日子,温度可升到摄氏零下十度至零下五度。潘格尼斯说,“如果天气热,它
们会吞吃雪。”幼鸟们躺在冰面上,短粗的翅膀伸得开开的。
(田传茂 译)

第十八单元课文参考译文
血液运动
--科学家 们力图揭 穿血浆蛋 白质的身 份
约翰·特拉维斯 著

[1]在其1998年出版的著作《血液:一部医学和商业的辉煌史》中,作者斯塔尔追溯了作为
商业用途的生物组织的血液的兴盛的历史。在书的前言中,他把血液比作石油,并认为前
者更有价值。在此书面世的时候,一桶石油的价格是十三美元,而斯塔尔估计,同样数量
的血液可值两万美元—如果血液经过加工之后再销售,价格将超过六万七千美元。他写道,
“就像石油工业,血液买卖牵涉到收集血源,将其分解成各种成分,然后在全球销售。”
[2]人们对血浆的需求非常高。血浆是血液中清澈的部分,含有治疗性分子,如凝血因子
和蛋白素。蛋白素是一种蛋白质,用于治疗休克和其他疾病。据马里兰州安那波利斯血浆蛋
白治疗协会的统计,每年销售这些天然化合物的公司加工超过二千二百万公升的血浆。
[3]据斯塔尔著作中的一项估计,每年全世界来自血浆治疗产品的收入达五十亿美元左右。
[4]血浆蛋白还提供了丰富的诊断手段。例如,内科医生通过蛋白中一种称为前列腺特质
性抗原的高血液浓度的蛋白质来判定前列腺癌。还可通过观测人们血液中高密度脂蛋白和
低密度脂蛋白(两中携带胆固醇的蛋白质)的血液浓度来判定心脏是否健康。
[5]可能还有很多血浆的价值仍未挖掘出来。到目前为止,科学家们仅仅识别出几百种常
见的在人类血流中流动的蛋白质,而估计的数量有几千种。
[6]N·雷·安德森说, 1977年至2001年,过滤血浆以寻找新型蛋白质的科学家们仅发现
了约二十种新蛋白质。安德森在华盛顿特区创建了一家非赢利性的研究机构--血浆蛋白质

247
组研究所。他说道,“那(只发现了约二十种新蛋白质)太令人吃惊了,太糟糕了。”
[7]安德森和其他科学家认为,实际上人类血浆中由人体产生的每个蛋白质可能包含几十
万个不同的分子。识别血浆蛋白中如此众多的分子能够提供治疗的新途径—甚至能够治疗
和预防许多疾病。
[8]“机会多多,但需要人们大胆尝试,”吉尔伯特·澳曼说道。澳曼是安阿波密执安大学的
研究人员,目前领导着一个由各国科学家组成的研究小组,目标是描绘出血浆蛋白质的特
点。
[9]对血浆蛋白的搜索目前正在加快速度。去年十二月份,华盛顿州里奇兰的西北太平洋
国家实验室的研究小组报告说,它已经在一个人类血浆标本中识别出约五百种蛋白质。小
组组长约尔·J·庞兹说,这几乎将人们以前知道的蛋白质数量翻了一倍。
[10]安德森说,“我们正处于该领域发生巨大革命的历史关头。”

血浆未 解之秘
[11]将离心分离机中的血液小瓶旋转,红血球,白血球,还有负责血液正常凝结的圆盘
状的血小板,会沉淀到瓶底。浮在上面的是清澈的液体。这些流体物质,即血浆,包括水份,
盐,激素,酶,抗体以及溶解于其中的其他蛋白质。
[12]过去几十年来,安德森和其他科学家在很大程度上一直使用一种称为凝胶电泳的方
法来识别血浆蛋白。这种方法是,研究人员将血浆放在凝胶板的一头,然后让电流通过其
中。与电流一起穿过凝胶(穿越速度由血浆蛋白分子重量和电荷决定),血浆蛋白相互分
离开来。然后研究人员从凝胶中提取已经提纯的蛋白。
[13]在2002年十一月号的《分子和细胞蛋白质组学》杂志上发表的一篇关于血浆蛋白质的
评论中,安德生与其父诺曼 ·G·安德生估计,约二百九十种血浆蛋白质已用这种方法识别
出来。他们认为,仅仅依靠凝胶电泳方法将很难发现新的血液蛋白质。
[14]研究人员说,毫无疑问,血清中还隐藏着更多新的蛋白质。血液与人体中几乎所有的
肌体组织发生联系。受损或行将死亡的细胞常常将其自身所含物质像倒垃圾一样倾倒进血
流中。一个有说服力的例子是由行将死亡的心脏细胞排放的蛋白质肌酸激酶MB。内科医生
利用血浆中存在蛋白质这一现象诊断心脏病,蛋白质的浓度反映受损的心脏组织的数量。
[15]N·雷·安德生说,雪浆“是寻找从肌体组织中漏出来的蛋白质的好地方。”“血液
循环系统就像威尼斯纵横交错的运河,有用的东西和无用的大量垃圾都在其上运输。”
[16]但要看到血浆中有用和无用的东西却不容易,因为他们经常被几种特别丰富的蛋白
质所遮蔽。最为丰富的是蛋白素,其作用是运送其他几种蛋白质,并维持血液压力。
[17]庞兹说,仅蛋白素就占血清蛋白质含量的约百分之六十。最为丰富的十种蛋白质(包
括抗体,即称为转运的铁运输体,和纤维蛋白原)占所有血浆蛋白的百分之九十以上。所
存在的其他许多蛋白质的相对浓度则非常低。例如,蛋白素的浓度是免疫系统信号白细胞
介素6的五十亿至一百亿倍。

一切都 分解了
[18]研究人员目前正在挑选最好的办法来搜寻新的血浆蛋白质。有些研究人员将酶添加到
血浆标本中以阻止蛋白质自然衰竭,而另外一些研究人员则说,这些酶可能会阻碍新的发
现。在分析血浆标本之前是否除去蛋白素,研究人员也分成两派。这种方法可能有助于识别
低丰度的蛋白质,但这比较冒风险,因为偶尔会丢弃那些粘在高丰度分子上的血浆蛋白质。
庞兹说,“蛋白素是一种有粘性的蛋白质。”
[19]因此,在最近的分析中,庞兹和同事们未将蛋白素从血浆标本中除去。不过,他们通
过去掉血浆中的凝血因子以图简化分析。

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[20]而且,通过让血液在覆有一个束缚抗体的分子的血球上方流过,他们除去了大部分
免疫蛋白质。然后他们添加酶胰岛素将残留的蛋白质切成很小的、但仍然可以辨认的碎片,
即缩胺酸(肽)。
[21]接着,科学家们运用一连串的色谱法,在液体或固体环境中而不是在凝胶板上分散
缩胺酸。庞兹说,这种方法将来自蛋白素的缩胺酸同那些来自其他蛋白质的缩胺酸分离开
来。
[22]最后,科学家将每组缩胺酸注入串联质谱仪,这种装置先称量缩胺酸的重量,然后
将其粉碎成胺基酸成份,最后再称量胺基酸的重量。
[23]当庞兹的研究小组运用这一复杂方法分析来自一位健康妇女身上的几滴血浆时,他
们识别出四百九十种蛋白质,包括一些低丰度蛋白质,如人类生长激素和前列腺特有抗原。
2002年十二月号的《分子和细胞蛋白质组学》杂志报道了庞兹和同事们的分析方法。他们说,
发现了以前文献记录的血浆蛋白质中的大多数,但不是全部。
[24]未发现的一种蛋白质叫做C反应蛋白,其在血液中的数量增加可用来预测心脏病。血
浆捐赠者的心脏可能非常健康,因此血液中可能没有 C反应蛋白,或者说研究小组的方法
中的某一环节可能阻碍了此种蛋白的发现。例如,在质普通仪中,有些缩胺酸不易破碎。
[25]在视网膜中起代表性作用的两种蛋白质出人意料地在血浆中被发现。庞兹认为,该妇
女的视网膜可能部分地破损,从而导致蛋白质漏进血流里。另一种解释是,这些蛋白质在
另外一些肌体组织里工作,而科学家们目前还没有发现这些组织。
(田传茂 译)

第十九单元课文参考译文
当基因逃走 之时
--这对庄稼和 杂草有影 响吗?
苏珊·米利尔斯 著

[1]这听起来可能并不像流行话题,但基因工程政策专家迈克尔·罗德麦耶了解他的听众。
“当我要来这儿的时候,我就在想说点标新立异的话—基因流动发生了。”这句话使在座
之人哄堂大笑。罗德麦耶毕竟是华盛顿特区农业皮氏食品与生物科技资讯基金会会长。他正
在对济济一堂的植物学家们发表讲话。他们例行公事地思考着基因从一种植物转移到另一
种植物,他们明白罗德麦耶的担忧:人造基因将会从一种庄稼跑到一种野生植物中去,从
而产生一种有如怪兽“哥斯拉”式的杂草。
[2]从他们所提的问题和紧锁的眉头来看,在七月下旬于阿拉斯加州莫拜尔召开的 2003年
植物学大会上,与会专家对基因作物的态度迥异。
[3]人们对基因流动的讨论在过去十年里已发生了变化。问题已不再是:基因会转移吗?
到目前为止,科学家们对一些基本情况进行了验证,并报告了其发现。哥伦比亚俄亥俄州
立大学的艾利森·斯诺说,目前比较一致的观点是,基因当然会流动。
[4]研究人员目前正在研究这个问题。问题的答案可能对农业领域的基因工程前景产生深
远的影响。


[5]里维塞德加州大学的诺曼·埃尔斯特兰说,二十世纪八十年代,生物工程师首次将外来
基因,即转基因,移入各种植物中。科学家们的基本看法是,栽野杂交的品种就是“稀罕
而独有的”新品种。不过,人们对人工培育的植物与野生植物交配的兴趣早已有之,那时
基因工程还处在试管研究的最初阶段。

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[6] 埃尔斯特兰,一位基因流动问题的执著研究者,指出早在1886年一篇关于人工培育植
物的研究论文中,就提到培育植物同野生近亲植物交配的能力。甚至“超级杂草”这个术
语,至少可以从1949年出版的一本关于杂交植物品种的著作中找到。该书作者提到这样一
种可能性,即农场里传统植物同野生植物交配可能会产生生命力特别强而又不为人类所需
要的后代。
[7]在几个个案研究中,科学家们追踪考察了传统作物的一种特征向野生植物转移的情况。
例如,埃尔斯特兰提到1959年的一份报告:一种极有创意的想法在印度失败了。农业学家
们鼓励农民栽种一种红色秧苗的水稻品种,这种稻谷易于与灰色杂草相区别,有利于农民
从稻子中拔除杂草。可是这个项目失败了,因为稻子的红色很快就移入杂草中。
[8]科学家们继续研究传统作物,以便了解基因工程究竟能为人类带来什么。例如,奥斯
汀德克萨斯大学的伦道尔和同事们,还有斯诺,他们一起报道了他们对野生向日葵切片的
研究。这些野生向日葵与农场培育的向日葵毗邻而生,长达四十年之久。研究人员测试的所
有一百一十五种野生植物都携带着至少一种商业化作物所特有的基因标志。
[9]通过从传统紫花苜蓿作物中追踪一种稀有基因标志,曼哈顿堪萨斯州立大学的鲍尔·圣·
阿曼德和同事们记录了农田外蔓生植物的基因。在有些情况下,这种基因在二百三十米远
的地方出现。研究人员在2000年的文章中评论说,“数据显示,完全将转基因限制在紫花
苜蓿种子中或者限制在生产草料的农田范围内,对于目前的农业生产实践来说几乎是不可
能的。”
[10]埃尔斯特兰已经建立起的档案表明,作物和杂草有大量杂交的机会。1999年,他考察
了世界上供人类食用的排位前十三名的作物(按收获面积排序),发现人们报告说,有十
二种作物与其临近地区的近亲野生植物杂交。例如小麦,已经产生至少二十一个天然杂交
品种,而水稻的栽野杂交则产生了特别能繁殖的后代。例外情况是花生植物,它们主要是
自我受精。
[11]埃尔斯特兰说,那些不太重要的作物同样也经常与野生近邻交配。他列举出另外三十
一种作物,包括葡萄,鳄梨,莴苣,咖啡,巧克力和西瓜,添加到他的作物名单上,这些
作物在世界某些地区已经与野生植物杂交。

松散的 基因
[12]来自基因作物的基因移动比来自传统作物的基因流动引起了人们更多的关注。基因工
程比起传统育种来能够使科学家移植种类更多的基因。
[13]有些实验表明,邻近的大麦接收了通过基因工程引进的基因。例如,转基因大麦的一
种标志转移到附近高达百分之七的不产生竞争性花粉的传统大麦作物中。但是,研究人员
距离源株植物愈远,劣种植物受粉的频率迅速降低。芬兰爱斯普 VTT生物科技公司的安尼
利·瑞特拉在2002年1/2月号《作物科学》杂志上作了上述报道。
[14]也许有关转基因逃离的最为著名的研究根本不是有这方面目的的实验。墨西哥人目前
正在观察其传统的玉米品种,即兰德瑞斯玉米,看看这些玉米是否会从大量美国转基因玉
米作物中接收其基因。墨西哥本国已经禁止种植转基因玉米作物。
[15]墨西哥是玉米的故乡,在古老的兰德瑞斯玉米中还存在着丰富的玉米变种。甚至在今
天,玉米作物的原始血统仍残留在一种叫做墨西哥类蜀黍的长草中,这种草有很小的残株,
种子就在其中,这些种子只有植物学家才会喜欢。
[16]2001年,加利弗利亚生物学者报道说,兰德瑞斯玉米中存在转基因的踪迹。其他研究
人员对其中的某些发现结果持有不同看法,认为这些发现是转基因技术带来的结果。最后,
美国《自然》杂志采取非常规措施宣布,没有足够证据来证明该论文发表的合理性。
[12]现在,其他实验室在墨西哥兰德瑞斯玉米中发现了转基因的踪迹。墨西哥城国家环境

250
与自然资源部的索尔奥提兹·加西亚描述了在七月份举行的植物学会议上两个研究小组的
发现。购买美国玉米作为动物饲料的农民已经试验种植一些美国玉米,或者玉米饲料可已
经自然发芽。
[18]这两个小组目前正在进一步收集数据来证实兰德瑞斯玉米中转基因的存在,而且斯
诺说,“我相信能收集到。”
[19]加拿大科学家描述了来自另一种作物的转基因移动情况。农民种植油菜以获得种子中
的油,而控制田里的杂草已经成为油菜种植者最为头痛的事情。从1996开始,能够抵挡半
除数草剂侵害的基因油菜品种一直在加拿大很受欢迎。这些品种可以浸泡在威力强大到能
除去讨厌杂草的杀虫剂中而不受损害。该国约百分之七十的作物都携带某种有助于除去杂
草的转基因。
[20]据渥太华加拿大农业部的苏珊尼·沃里克说,那些转基因作物正在与大头菜杂交。大头
菜是油菜作物的一种母草。她和同事们在2003年八月号的《理论与应用遗传学》杂志中描述
了来自一块经常作为商业化用途的田里的第一个栽野杂交品种。
[21]转基因还从一种油菜作物转移到另一种油菜作物。2001年,阿尔伯特省艾德蒙顿加拿
大农业部的林达·霍尔和同事们报道说,一块种着一个油菜品种的田里长出了天然杂交变种 ,
这个变种将其父母的除草剂抗力结合在一起。
[22]霍尔说,油菜转基因移动会使生命复杂起来。在农民进行作物轮作之后留在地里的油
菜籽就像小麦或大麦地里的杂草一样会长出来。如果这些自然生长的油菜具有了人们意想
不到的杀虫剂抗力,那农民的杀虫剂数量可能就会不够用。
(田传茂 译)

第二十单元课文参考译文
事物的本质
--改变元素周 期表的主 张令人称 奇
亚历山大·郭何 著

[1]1999年春季学期的一天,L·布鲁斯·雷尔斯巴克对科学界最为显著的图标之一—化
学元素周期表提出了挑战。当时他正在用挂在墙上的一张传统周期表讲授一堂关于自然水
体中矿物质特性的地球化学课。就在那一刻,他意识到周期表的排列多么混乱,至少从他
的教学目的的角度看是如此。“我就像一个柔体演员,努力地伸长着身子用手指向不同地
方的不同元素,”雷尔斯巴克说道。“而这正是使我变得忍无可忍的地方。”
[2]对大多数人来说,元素周期表是科学最为有序的缩影。周期表的横栏和竖栏组成的方
格将所有一百一十个元素排成固定的组群。但是,在雷尔斯巴克这位雅典乔治亚大学的地
球科学家看来,周期表再现的完全是一团混乱。
[3]雷尔斯巴克说,“我曾认为,‘应该用某种办法将化学元素排列组合在一起,以使那
些对自然和地质过程有兴趣的人容易理解’。”回到办公室,他开始着手设计更为科学、因
而在人体工学上也更适合地球科学家的周期表。
[4]地球科学家碰到的主要是离子形式的元素,这些元素携带正电荷或者负电荷。因此,
雷尔斯巴克以离子而非中性原子来设计新的周期表。传统周期表的特点是围绕中性原子来
进行设计。
[5]“ 这个表是一种很好的工具,有点像在各种应用场合下观看周期表的专家系统,”罗
拉·克罗塞说道。克罗塞是阿布克克新墨西哥大学的一位地质学家。
[6]雷尔斯巴克所设计的表也是科学家们为寻找元素周期表完美形式所付出不懈努力的象
征。

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[7]雷尔斯巴克花了四年多的时间才设计出一张新表。此项工作的成果是在九月号《地质学》
杂志上发表的文章“地球科学家的元素周期表及其离子”。
[8]在这张新的周期表中,雷尔斯巴克改变了元素排列组合的方式。不过在该表的排列组
合中,雷尔斯巴克还是或多或少地保留了传统周期表中各种原子出现的顺序,即根据原子
核中质子的数目来排列。一块块元素构成了六个分离的组合,这些组合之间由彩色线条连
接。所有带正电的离子,即阳离子,一起置于表的右边;所有带负电的离子,即负离子,
则置于表的左边。不带电的中性元素构成一个组合,位于表中偏左的地方。两张以竖栏形式
描绘诸如氦和氖等惰性气体的纸片像书挡一样把表围在中间。
[9]在该表中许多元素出现不止一次。例如,硫出现了四次,分别标记为 S,S2+,S4+和
S6+。“这反映了硫在自然界中活动的不同方式,” 雷尔斯巴克说道,并补充说,硫以溶
解形式出现在海洋中,同时也以各种固体矿物质形式存在着。
[10]在雷尔斯巴克的表中,代表每种元素的方格中的彩色形状表示某一离子在环境中集
中出现的位置