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Journal of Computing, Volume 4 Issue 7 July 2012, eISSN 2151-9617, http://www.journalofcomputing.org/

- Approaches for Managing Uncertainty in Learning Management Systems
- Fuzzy Logic
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w

based arithmetic

operations

B. Pushpa, R. Sattanathan and R. Vasuki

Abstract Fuzzy linear regression has been widely studied and applied in various areas. However Tanakas approach

suffered the problem of extremely sensitive to the outlier. In this paper to handle the outlier problem, Chens approach is used

along with Tw based arithmetic operations which can handle fuzzy input-fuzzy output dataset. Some numerical experiments are

performed to assess the performance of the proposed approach.

Index TermsFuzzy linear regression, T

w

-based arithmetic operations, Fuzzy input and fuzzy output.

1 INTRODUCTION

Regression analysis has a wide spread applications in

various fields such as business, engineering and econom-

ics to explore the statistical relationship between input

(independent or explanatory) and output (dependent or

response) variable. In a paper published in 1970, Bellman

and Zadeh [1] proposed the concept of fuzzy set theory.

Since then several authors have constructed different

fuzzy regression models and proposed the associated

solution methods. The article by Tanaka et al [8] is proba-

bly the first research on this topic. In their study, a re-

gression problem with fuzzy dependent variable and

crisp independent variable was formulated as a mathe-

matical programming problem. The main objective of

them was to minimize the total spread of the fuzzy re-

gression coefficients subject to the constraint that the re-

gression model needed to satisfy a pre-specified member-

ship value in estimating the fuzzy responses. The main

drawback of this approach is that it is scale dependent.

Although this approach was later improved by Tanaka [9]

, Tanaka and Watada [10] and Tanaka et al [11], it still suf-

fered the problem of being extremely sensitive to outliers

as pointed out by Redden and Woodall [6]

The problem of outliers was investigated by Peter

[5]. However, Peter considered systems with non fuzzy

input and non fuzzy output data type. The present inves-

tigation focuses on fuzzy input and fuzzy output data

type with fuzzy arithmetic operations based on the sup t-

norm convolution. This approach helps to simplify the

evaluation of fuzzy linear regression whose coefficients

and input data are fuzzy numbers. An LP based method

using weakest t-norm which satisfies scale independent

property is discussed here and also to discuss the effect of

outliers, Chens [2] approach is used for fuzzy input fuzzy

output dataset.

2 FUZZY LINEAR REGRESSION USING SHAPE

PRESERVING OPERATIONS

In this paper, we consider fuzzy linear regression models

based on Tanakas[8] approach using the T

w

based arith-

metic operations, where both input data and output data

are fuzzy numbers,. For computational simplicity, it is

assumed that coefficients and variable are symmetric

fuzzy numbers.

Let us consider the fuzzy output

i i i

Y = (y ,e ) and fuzzy

inputs

i i1 i2 ip

X = (X , X ,...X ), i = 1, 2,...n

where

ij ij ij

X = (x , ), j = 1, 2,...p . The problem is to determine

fuzzy parameters

1 p

A , ..., A

conditions:

(a) The data represented by a possibilistic linear model:

*

i 0 1 i1 p ip i

Y = A +(A X ) +..... +(A X ) = A X ,

i = 1,....n Where

( )

j j j

A = a , , j = 1,...p

(b) Given input output relation

i i

(X , y ), i = 1, ....n and a

threshold h, it must hold that

| | n i Y y

h i i

...., , 1 ,

~

= e

(c)The index of fuzziness of the possibilistic linear model

is defined as

( )

n

j ij ij j

1jp

1

max a , x

Chennai-600123, India.

- R. Sattanathan with D. G. Vaishnava College, Arumbakam,

Chennai-600106, India.

- R. Vasuki with SIVET College, Gowrivakkam, Chennai-600073, India.

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 7, JULY 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617

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2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

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Under the above assumptions, the problem can be solved

as the following mixed LP problem:

Minimize

( )

n

j ij ij j

1jp

1

max a , x

Subject to

( )

p n

1 1

i j ij j ij ij j i

1 j p 1 1

j

y a x L (h) max a , x L (h) e

0, i 1, ....n, j 1, ..., p

s s

s o

o > = =

3 MODIFICATION IN OUTLIERS

When outliers exist in the data, possibilistic fuzzy linear

regression gives incorrect results in the sense that the es-

timated interval is too wide to be useful. Thus a reasona-

ble modified interval should be considered. Chen[2] pro-

posed a probabilistic approach based on the linear pro-

gram given by Tanaka et al. to detect the outliers for crisp

input fuzzy output dataset. The main idea of this ap-

proach is to keep the difference between the spreads of

the estimated outputs and the actual ones less than a user

defined value R k e The linear program of this approach

is given below:

Min

n

0 1 1i 2 2i n ni

i=1

= c + c x + c x +.... + c x

Subject to

T T

i i i i

T T

i i i i

T

i i

a x (1 h)c x y (1 h)e

a x (1 h)c x y (1 h)e

c x e k,

+ > +

s

s

In this approach, by setting k as a large value, the model

become less sensitive to the outliers and modifying the

constraint which is with the outlier as:

T T

i i i i

T T

i i i i

a x (1 h)c x y (1 )(1 h)e

a x (1 h)c x y (1 )(1 h)e

+ > +

s

Where

i -r i + r

i

e + ..... + e

= 1 -

2re

Obviously decides the influence of the abnormal val-

ues on the overall data or decides the degree of impor-

tance of these outliers. In order to make more reliable

and objective, the value of r should be reasonably large.

The above Chens method is incorporated in Tanakas ap-

proach using T

w

based arithmetic operation and the

linear program of this approach is given below:

Minimize

( )

n

j ij ij j

1jp

1

max a , x

Subject to

( )

( )

{ } { }

p n

1 1

i j ij j ij ij j i

1 j p

1 1

j ij ij j i

1 j p

i j

1 i n i j

y a x L (h) max a , x L (h) e

max a , x e k, i 1,....n, j 1,..., p

where k max e max e

s s

s s

s s =

s o

o s = =

=

The above procedure is explained by giving some exam-

ple with fuzzy input-fuzzy output data.

4 EXAMPLES

We shall use the numerical values used by Chens[2]

which is with crisp input and fuzzy output data with

modification in outlier. The results of the proposed ap-

proach for the Chens treatment with outlier in spreads of

fuzzy output data using LINGO are given the Table 1 and

the comparison between the original data with outlier

and the modifying the outlier data are made in figure 1

and figure 2.

Table 1. Crisp input and fuzzy output data used by

Chen [2]

x ( , )

i i

y e

Observed

Interval

Estimated

interval

using

Chens

modified

approach

(h = 0)

Estimated

interval

using the

proposed

approach

(h=0.5)

1 (8.0,1.8) (6.2,9.8) (6.2,10.2) (4.43,8.55)

2 (6.4,2.2) (4.2,8.6) (4.2,12.1) (6.26,10.38)

3 (9.5,2.6) (6.9,12.1) (6.2,14.13) (8.09,12.21)

4 13.5,2.6) (10.9,16.1) (8.2,16.1) (9.92,14.04)

5 (13.0,2.4) (10.6,15.4) (10.2,18.1) (11.75,15.87)

6 (15.2,2.3) (13.1,17.3) (12.2,20.03) (13.58,17.7)

7 (17.0,2.2) (15,19) (14.2,22.0) (15.37,19.57)

8 (19.3,4.8)* (14.5,24.1) (16.2,23.96) (16.9,21.7)

9 (20.1,1.9) (18.2,22.0) (18.2,25.93) (18.43,23.83)

10 (24.3,2.0) (22.3,26.3) (20.2,27.9) (19.96,25.96)

* indicates the outlier

Table 2. Estimated parameter values of A0 and A1

Method A0 A1

Tanakas (3.84,3.85) (2.10,0)

Proposed (4.66,2.06) (1.83,0.3)

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 7, JULY 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617

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2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

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Table 2 shows the estimated parameter values of A0 and

A1 using the proposed approach for fuzzy linear regres-

sion for crisp input and fuzzy output using the shape pre-

serving operations using TW norm and by Sakawa and

Yano[7] method of approach .

The figure 2 shows that the proposed method gives nar-

row spread than the fuzzy linear regression given by

Chen[2] in figure 3.

D.H.Hong et al.,[3] designed an example given in table3

to illustrate their fuzzy regression model with fuzzy input

and fuzzy output.

By applying the proposed algorithm, using LINGO, the

outliers are modified and fuzzy linear regression model is

constructed.

Table 3. Fuzzy input and fuzzy output data used by

D.H.Hong et al .[3] along with estimated interval using

the shape preserving operations in Fuzzy linear regres-

sion.

( , )

i i

x ( , )

i i

y e

Estimated interval

using the proposed

approach

(h = 0.4)

(2.0,0.5) (4.0,0.5) (1.71,7.35)

(3.5,0.5) (5.5,0.5) (2.52,8.16)

(5.5,1.0) (7.5,1.0) (3,59,9.23)

(7.0,0.5) (6.5,0.5) (4.39,10.03)

(8.5,0.5) (8.5,0.5) (5.2,10.84)

(10.5,1.0) (8.0,1.0) (6.27,11.91)

(11.0,0.5) (10.5,2.5)* (6.54,12.18)

(12.5,0.5) (9.5,0.5) (7.34,12.98)

*indicates abnormal values

Table 4. Estimated parameter values of A0 and A1

Table 4 shows the estimated parameter values of A0 and

A1 from fuzzy linear regression for fuzzy input and fuzzy

output using proposed approach using the shape preserv-

ing operations using TW-norm and by Sakawa and

Yano[7] method of approach .

Method A0 A1

Sakawa and

Yano

(3.367,0.4260) (0.559,0.111)

Proposed (3.45,2.81) (0.536,0.0295)

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 7, JULY 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617

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2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

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Figure 4 and figure 5 shows that modifying the outlier

data, we got the best fit for the fuzzy linear regression.

Comparing with the result of Sakawa and Yano[ 7] given

in table 4 , the proposed approach is more effective even

though different methods and different arithmetic opera-

tions are used.

In order to measure the degree of Fuzzy regression, we

can use an index of confidence which is measured as

SSE

IC = 1-

SST

Table 5. IC value of the proposed method in Crisp/

Fuzzy input and fuzzy output.

Type of

data

Original data with

Outlier Fuzzy re-

gression(using Tw

based operations)

Modified outlier

data in the fuzzy

regression(using Tw

based operations)

Crisp in-

put Fuzzy

output

0.4429 0.5253

Fuzzy

input

Fuzzy

output

0.8912 0.9289

From the above table5, it is clear that the proposed me-

thod is mostly suitable for fuzzy input fuzzy output data.

Chens[2] method of treatment to outlier in fuzzy input

and fuzzy output data have higher IC value when com-

pared to crisp input fuzzy output data using T

w

based

arithmetic operations in Fuzzy linear regression.

4 CONCLUSION

Although the proposed mathematical model is a non-

linear problem, it is easily solved with a general software

package LINGO. The performance of the proposed ap-

proach is illustrated by examples from the existing litera-

ture. The results show that our approach is suitable for

fuzzy input and fuzzy output data. In addition the com-

putational efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed

approach seems to be satisfactory which was demonstrat-

ed by using the crisp/fuzzy input and fuzzy output.

REFERENCES

[1] R.E. Bellmann, L.A. Zadeh, Decision making in a

fuzzy environment, Manage. Sci. 17B (1970) 141-164.

[2] Y.S. Chen, Outliers detection and confidence interval

modification in fuzzy regression, Fuzzy Sets and Sys-

tems, 119 (2001) 252-279.

[3] D.H. Hong, S. Lee and H. Y. Do, Fuzzy linear regres-

sion analysis for fuzzy input- output data using

shape preserving operations, Fuzzy Sets and Systems,

122 (2001) 513-526.

[4] A. Kolesaeova, Additive preserving the linearity of

Fuzzy intervals, Tata Mountains Math. Publ. 6 (1995)

75-81.

[5] G.Peters, fuzzy linear regression with fuzzy intervals,

Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 63 (1994) 45-55.

[6] D.T.Redden, W.H. Woodall, Properties of certain

fuzzy linear regression models, Fuzzy Sets and Sys-

tems, 44 (1994) 361-375.

[7] M. Sakawa and H.Yano, Multiobjective fuzzy linear

regression analysis for fuzzy input and fuzzy output

data, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 47(1992), 173-181.

[8] H.Tanaka, S. Uegima and K.Asai, Linear regression

analysis with fuzzy model, IEEE Trans Systems, Man

Cyberbet, 12 (1982) 903-907.

[9] H.Tanaka, Fuzzy data analysis by possibilistic linear

models, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 24 (1987) 363-375.

[10] H.Tanaka and J.Watada, Possibilistic linear system

and their application to the linear regression model,

Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 27 (1988) 275-289.

[11] H.Tanaka, I. Hayashi and J.Watada, Possibilistic

linear regression analysis for fuzzy data, Eur. J. Oper.

Res. 40 (1980) 389-396.

B. Pushpa received her BSc and M.Phil degree in Mathe-

matics from University of Madras, Chennai. She received

her M.Sc degree from Anna University, Chennai. She is

pursuing her Ph.D programme in Manonmaniam Sunda-

ranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu. Curently she

she is an Assistant Professor in Mathematics Department

at Panimalar Institute of Technology, Poonamallee, Chen-

nai. Her research interests include Fuzzy probability and

Fuzzy regression analysis.

R. Sattanathan received his Ph.D degree from University

of Madras. His research interests include Functional

Analysis, Patent Regognition, Fuzzy probability and

Fuzzy regression analysis.

R. Vasuki received her BSc, M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph.D degree

in Mathematics received from University of Madras,

Chennai. She is an Assistant Professor in Mathematics

Department at SIVET College, Gowrivakkam, Chennai.

Her research interests include Fuzzy metric space and

Fuzzy regression analysis.

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 7, JULY 2012, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617

https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing

WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG 73

2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617

http://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing/

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