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... I. INTRODUCTION Cement is a material which has a binding property, being able to set&harden and bind other materials together. But when it comes to hydraulic cement, the ability to set harden underwater and survive in the presence of water creates a distinct class between those two cement types: Hydraulic, Non-hydraulic. Hydraulic cements possess this name from some sorts of reactions of molecules within itself with water. Through a series of reactions, the chemical structure changes and the cement particles gain binding property. Hydraulic cements retain their strength in the presence of water whereas non-hydraulic cements must be kept dry in order to keep their strength. We can understand the difference between hydraulic and non-hydraulic cements by comparing lime/gypsum plaster and portland cement as the most common example. Through the history, human being had been using countless types of cementitious material to raise civilizations, building places, use in artwork, repair etc. But nowadays, the most commonly used hydraulic cement is Portland Cement, which is named after Portland stone which it looks like very much. Composition of Portland Cement is very complex, yet understandable. So is the behavior. A civil engineer is the one who should be able to analyze, calculate and compensate the needs changing according to the circumstances and conditions.

For example; For concrete mix design, an engineer needs to have sufficient knowledge to analyse the requirements and decide the fractions of materials which will compensate them. More specifically, if we need to produce concrete for hot weather, a less heat generating portland cement is a wiser choice than an ordinary portland cement, thus different proportions of compounds needed. From all the explained, we can understand that, not only a binding property is enough, but also conditions, the environmental effects, the potential reactions between constituents and with outer materials etc. are needed to be considered. So the main objective of this report is to study the parameters and make use of the versatility of the portland cement for the best performance. II. TWO MAIN INGREDIENTS A. LIME B. GYPSUM Firstly, to understand the behaviors of these cements, the behavior of the constituents of these cements needed to be understood well. Portland or Non-Portland, generally hydraulic cements includes lime. In Portland Cement, Gypsum also plays an important role by its retarding function. LIME Limestone is a sedimentary rock which has a large variety of abundancy in different derivations as . Despite pure limestone is , like other minerals, limestone is also found in impurities as etc. In order to utilize the limestone in different locations and workmanships, the lime is subjected to different processes like calcination and slaking. Through crushing/grinding, lime is kept fine during those processes. In portland cement, or to make use in cementitious materials, calcination process in which the limestone becomes quicklime is enough. But for other purposes, slaking, seasoning and pulverizing are important.

Calcination is the process in which limestone becomes quicklime. Here refers to as lime. (Quicklime)

If CaO is subjected to water in any method even with moisture, it slakes and becomes ( ) ( ) But slaked lime is not necessary before clinkering, even it loses its bonds with water under high temperature, thus becoming lime again. The important point is the volume change during hydration of quicklime. This is important during the setting and hardening of the cement it has been a part of. GYPSUM Gypsum is not considered as a hydraulic binder. However its been being extensively used in hydraulic cements like Portland Cement. So as an additional material, gypsum worths considering while studying hydraulic cements. Gypsum is a soft mineral of which pure formula is can go by . Its impurities

Like lime, Gypsum goes some changes in its structure when exposed to heat. This is called Calcination of Gypsum. When Gypsum rock is heated upto 100-190C, it loses of its water, becoming Gypsum Hemihydrate.

Remaining part;

is called plaster of paris

When gypsum rock is further heated over 190C, The rock loses all its water and becomes gypsum anhydrite

Remaining part; III.

is called gypsum anhydrite.


HYDRAULIC LIME Lime can have hydraulic property for some reason. Its when lime is obtained by calcination of siliceous or clayey limestone at higher temperature. (As can be seen, the compounds behave like a portland cement clinker.) When this kind of impure lime is subjected to calcination, between 400-600C, alumina-includingclay decomposes. At higher temperatures like 950~1250C, Alumina, Silica and Lime forms Tricalcium-silicate and Tricalcium-aluminate which both have a significantly high-early setting time. So, this kind of lime is preferred in extreme conditions like underwater or cold weather concreting. In some conditions, despite the extensive usage of portland cement, hydraulic lime is still also preferred. PORTLAND CEMENT Portland Cement, today is the most commonly used hydraulic cement. The reasons may be founded on abundancy of materials, versatility and many other subjects like bond strength. Despite a unique name, portland cement is a composite material which can also be used with other materials, admixtures and cements together. The composition and reactions are complex, so the behavior of each component should be carefully understood that our designs should answer the conditions and compensate the requirements. Even the high unit cost and high priority of portland cement in materials like concrete make this analyses more crucial. Portland Cement can be considered as an advanced version of Hydraulic lime. More modern needs, more modern techniques and technological developments today brought more expectations and portland cement has been one of the most succesful solutions for them. Portland cement can be defined as a hydraulic cement consisting of essentially calcium silicates, calcium aluminates and optionally calcium sulfate for retarding effect. Despite the composition looks like a hydraulic lime, the reactions and

compound formations especially after hydration are extremely different. So is the bond strength. Portland cement consists of Portland Cement Clinker and Gypsum. Clinker is usually obtained by intergrinding and burning calcareous and clayey materials in appropriate proportions. Clinker, the final product of rotary kiln burning (also called clinkering) is a grey powder of which color comes from iron oxide within the raw materials. Gypsum has a retarding effect on portland cement setting, thus also needed. As will be discussed, the rates of setting (gaining rigidity) and hardening (gaining strength) are controlled by fineness of particles and proportins of the compounds which were formed during clinkering aforementioned above. Not only the rates of compounds and fineness define the properties of a portland cement, but also after mixing, many parameters like water/cement ratio, curing etc. has a vital effect on the properties of portland cement. All of those will also be discussed in next titles. Due to high unit cost of portland cement, engineers needed to lower this unit cost while still make use of this strong bonding capacity of portland cement. So in appropriate ratios, portland cement were mixed with sand+water to make mortar, and for further, with water+sand+gravel (called aggregates) to make concrete, which has the widest proportion in todays civil engineering constructions. Since cement paste is plastic, its workable in the presence of water. But workability of cement paste decreases as hardening starts. So before hardening, cement paste can take any shape we want when molded well. MANUFACTURE OF PORTLAND CEMENT CLINKER As mentioned, Portland cement consists of two main components, named P.C Clinker and Gypsum anhydrite. Portland cement clinker is obtained by the mixture and interburn of oxides derived from calcareous and clayey materials in high temperatures by a series of reactions. These reactions take place in rotary kilns, where the temperatures can raise upto 1500C. The manufacturing process can be grouped into four distinct stages. Those are; - Quarrying - Raw material preparation - Clinkering - Cement Milling

Step 1 Quarrying: The raw material for clinker is obtained from about %80 calcareous and %20 clayey materials. Most of CaO needed for P.C comes from calcareous rocks. Other four oxides mostly comes from clays and shales (argillaceous rocks). The lime and silica provide the main strength of the cement, while iron reduces the reaction temperature and gives the cement its grey color. Step 2 Raw material Preparation: There are two kinds of processes in this stage. These are dry and wet processes accordingly whether theres water presence or not. The dry process uses more energy in grinding than in the kiln, and wet process has lower overheads than dry process. For example; in wet process, 1400kcal coal / kg of cement; where as, in dry less than half of this energy. Dry Process: The quarried limestone and clay particles are crushed and screemed until nothing larger than a tennis ball diameter remains. After that, those particles are brought to the laboratory for analysis. During analysis, the particles were analyzed whether they have appropriate amount of minerals. According to the result, minerals are then added to or removed from the particles until calculated proportions are present. Then those particles are ground until more than 85% of the particles are below 90m in diameter. Wet Process: The clay is mixed with water in washmill. While pulverization, crushed lime is added and the whole mixture is further ground. Then the slurry is tested to ensure that it contains appropriate amounts of minerals, if not, further blending is made.

Step 3 Clinkering: This is the characteristic step of Portland Cement. The finely ground material is dried, heated, and then cooled again. Through these steps, major reactions occur in mineral structure, which will define the behavior of portland cement.

Due to the previous step being dry or wet, the clinkering process may have some differences. The mixture coming from dry process does not contain water except a little moisture. So a pre-heater with low heating capacity is enough for pre-clinkering. During this heating process, as the particles fall through the tower, they are gradually heated from about 70 to 800 C. This takes about 30 seconds. During this process, also %20 of total decarbonation occurs in limestone particles. Freed CaO catches mostly prefound in clayey particles and an intermediate phase forms

After this step, the mixture is fed into rotary kiln. On the other hand, the mixture coming from wet process contains naturally high amount of water. To free the mixture from water, we need a more complex system. So a longer rotary kiln without preheating mechanism was thought to be more efficient for both evaporation and clinkering process. It can be said that wet or dry process is an important factor in choosing a single rotary kiln or a rotary kiln with a pre-heating mechanism. However its not ALWAYS the only factor, only a major one instead.

Usually while the length/diameter in kilns without preheater is ~30 whereas with pre-heaters, it may be ~15. The working principle of the kiln is simple. Rotary kiln is a rotating cylinder with 1 in 30 inclination in which reactions occur as the materials slide to the heater through gradually increasing temperatures. The mixture of raw materials is fed from the upper end of the kiln. These materials move toward the lower end by the effect of rotation and inclination. The materials are subjected to higher temperatures as they travel towards the lower end. A kiln today has a capacity to exceed 1000 tons a day. Although the behaviors of the compounds are known, the time and place of reactions in the kiln are yet to be understood well due to uncontrollable conditions, variable raw-mix chemistry and physical properties. Instead, breaking the reactions into simple zones means we can make some approximations about the cement information process. We can group the processes as pre-clinkering and clinkering. Its since before about 900C, theres decomposition, after 900C theres composition. However, as mentioned in dry process with pre-heaters, there maybe some compositions. For example;

But the possibility and majority of this compound formation is small, thus ignored. Pre-Clinkering: I. II. III. IV. A considerable amount of loosely bound water is lost from the clay in the range of 150 to 350 C The decomposition of clay minerals occurs at a temperature range of 350~650C. are obtained. Any magnesite ( ) present in the raw materials decomposes and loses its at about 600C The limestone loses its at about 900C, leaving CaO behind.

At 900C, clinkering begins. Infact, decarbonation continues until 1100C. However, decarbonation and Tricalcium-aluminate composition is simultaneous so that we can include both decomposition and composition.

Zone 1: 0-35 min, 800-1100C: Decarbonation. Melting of

Zone 2: 35-40 min, 1100-1300C. Exothermic reactions and the formation of secondary silicate phases as follows:

Zone 3: 40-50 min, 1300-1450-1300 : Sintering and reaction within the melt to form Tricalcium-silicates and tetracalcium-alumino-ferrites.

Zone 4: 50-60 min, 1300-1000C: Cooling and recrystallization of the various mineral phases formed in the kiln. Once the material passed the flame, it enters a short cooling zone and drops off in temperature. The clinker leaves the kiln at about 100C and falls into a cooler. All the exhausted gases leave the kiln through the stack at the upper end of kiln. Manufacture of Portland Cement Portland Cement is manufactured by intergrinding the P.C clinker with some gypsum rock. This process occur in ballmills. After grinding, the cement is ready to use. Its packed in paperbags or in bulk for marketing. OXIDE COMPOSITION OF PORTLAND CEMENT There are four main minerals in Portland cement. Those can be grouped as major and minor oxides according to the quantities. Major oxides are In addition to the major oxides, portland cement also contains minor oxides among which magnesia (MgO), soda ( ), potassa ( ) and sulfuric anhydrite ( ) is found in relatively higher proportions. Approximate composition limits of Oxides in Portland Cement are given below Oxide Common Name Lime Silica Alumina Iron Magnesia Soda and Potassa (Alkaline) Sulfuric Anhydride Content, % 60-67 17-25 3-8 0.5-6.0 0.1-4.0 0.2-1.3 1.0-3.0

From the major oxides, CaO and are the strength giving compounds, thus the minerals formed by them also play the major role in strength gaining. (Tricalcium-silicates, Dicalcium-silicates), Tricalcium aluminates and Tetracalcium-alumino-ferrites dont contribute in strength property very much.

But when excessively used, they lead to harmful expansions in hardened cement paste and concrete. PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PORTLAND CEMENT A. COMPOUND COMPOSITION OF PORTLAND CEMENT As can be remembered, in clinkering, these four oxides react each other forming new complex compounds. Those are given in table: Name Tricalcium silicate Dicalcium silicate Tricalcium aluminate Tetracalcium-alumino-ferrite Chemical Formula Abbreviation

In cement chemistry, instead of long formuli, the compounds are further abbreviated by their first letter and the amount written as a subscript after the letter. Commonly used abbreviations are given in table below.

Common Name Lime Silica Alumina Iron Magnesia Soda Potassa Sulfuric Anhydride Carbondioxide Water Limestone Gypsum Rock

Chemical Formula

Abbreviation C S A F M N K H

To determine the composition of each particle, three methods were developed. Those are; 1. Microscopy 2. X-Ray Diffraction 3. Bogues equations. BOGUES EQUATIONS

Bogues equations serve us via a number of coefficient for the oxides to calculate the compound composition in a single particle. Those equations are; % ( ) ( ) ( ( ( ) ) ( ) ) ( ( ) ) ( )

In the presence of water, compounds in the cement undergo chemical reactions with water and each calculated compound plays a different role complementing the whole structure. According to the needs, the engineer or manufacturer decides and calculates the proportions. Those properties are given in table below.

Rate of Reaction Heat Liberation Early Cementitious Value Ultimate Cementitious Value

Moderate High Good Good

Slow Low Poor Good

Fast Very High Good Poor

Moderate Moderate Poor Poor

According to the graph, its understood that increases the strength in early times whereas slowly increases. Anyway, ultimately approaches in compressive strength. As also seen, does not contribute into strength much, however it has high heat liberation and extremely high reaction rate which causes flash setting even thats why gypsum is added for retarding effect.

B. TYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT The properties of portland cement are generally based on the proportions of oxides, their compounds and the fineness of cement particles. Each compound of which P.C consists has different role in properties of P.C. due to its particular characteristics. In this section, typical compound composition of five different portland cement types will be analysed and interpreted.

Cement Type I II III IV V

ASTM C 150 General Purpose Moderate High early strength Low heat of Hydration Sulfate-resistant

49 46 56 30 43

25 29 15 46 36

12 6 12 5 4

8 12 8 13 12

Fineness ( 370 370 540 380 380

As seen in the table, in all types of P.C, Calcium silicates dominate the percentage by mass. This means portland cement can be called a calciumsilicate based cement. Type I is ordinary portland cement which has standard mix proportions. Type II is called modified portland cement, which is for moderate heat of hydration. As seen from the graph due to high heat liberation of , it was lessened while increasing . To provide high early strength, was increased while was decreased. In type IV, For low heat of hydration, like type II, was decreased and also heat liberating has given some of its proportion to which has low heat of hydration. In Type V, which is reactive against sulfate attack was significantly decreased while . We can also consider Type II against sulfate attack as their composition are similar to each other. But in Type V, according to ASTM, must be less than 5% and The specifications in table are relied by manufacturers today, yet other personalized specifications are also available. Rather than prescribe what the cement must contain, these specifications measure conformance through cements ability to meet certain physical test parameters such as strength, setting time and expansion. These specifications can be examplified while blending different resources like pozzolans, fly ash, blast furnace slag etc. HYDRATION OF PORTLAND CEMENTS Hydration is the process during which the portland cement reacts with water and form new compounds. Forming new compounds changes the properties

of portland cement and shows the expected the potential of binding property. During this process, unhydrated cement particles react with water by interaction of its surface area and become cement gel. This is called early stiffening. As the reaction proceeds, the particles form a skeletal structure and hardening begins. During this period, capillary pores and cavities may occur. At any stage of hydration the hardened cement paste consists of; I. Hydrates of various compounds referred to collectively as gel. II. Crystals of Calcium Hydroxide (CH) III. Some minor compound hydrates IV. Unhydrated cement V. The residual of water filled spaces (pores) As the hydration proceeds, the deposits of hydrated products on the original cement grains make the diffusion of water to unhydrated nucleus more and more difficult. So, the rate of hydration may take several years. Capillary pores are the pores 12 diameter with varying sizes and shapes which are randomly distributed in the paste. Volume of capillary pores decreases as hydration proceeds. Water in capillary pores is mobile, can not be lost by evaporation or water can get into pores if the hardened cement paste is in a wet environment. They are mainly responsible for permeability. w/c ratio and the degree of hydration affects capillary porosity. Hydration of : The chemical reactions of the calcium silicates with water are given below.

As seen, both calcium silicates form the same compound even if early or late. Only differences are water used and hydrated lime amount produced. is called tobermorite gel and also called C-S-H; Calcium-SilicateHydrate Gels Its known that CH produced here does not contribute in strength of cement much, so mainly the strength comes from C-S-H gels. Hydration of : This compound has a high heat liberation capacity with early stiffening (flash-setting) effect. This is an undesirable because in early times, we need a workable cement. So in order to prevent this, gypsum

added into clinker. They all interreact together to form Calcium-sulfoaluminates.

If theres enough gypsum, with more water, a different compound forms called ettringite which causes great expansions which are undesirable due to cracking effect. ( )

Insufficient gypsum is not enough to prevent flash setting. Thus an appropriate amount of gypsum should be carefully mixed. Calcium sulfo aluminates are prone to sulfate attack, so during mixering, for such conditions should be less than 5%. : The hydration of ferrite phase is not well understood. It has less role in development of strength. During reactions; alumina and iron oxide may occur interchangably in the hydration products. HEAT OF HYDRATION Hydration process is exothermic. But since concrete is a fair insulator, this released heat should be controlled to overcome expansion & cracking. For example in cold weathers, high heat of hydration has advantages, whereas in hot weathers, heat liberation is needed to be lowered. This can be provided by adjusting the composition of portland cement. ( has primary factor in heat of hydration) The heat of hydration of O.P.C is about 85-100cal/g. About 50% of this heat is liberated within 1-3 days, and %75 within 7 days.

Heat of Hydration (cal/g) 120 62 207 100 The amount of heat liberated is affected by the fractions of the compounds in the cement. To find heat of hydration, we need to multiply the

percentage of each of compounds with heat of hydration corresponding to them. FINENESS OF CEMENT For a given weight of cement, if the particles are finer, the total area will be greater. This will increase rate of reaction, yet, require more water naturally. Furthermore, for grinding cost requirement will also be high. Due to great total surface area, they will be more prone to reactions like deteoriation, alkali aggregate reactions or flash setting. So more gypsum will be required. Fineness of cement is determined by sieving or air permeability methods. For example, in Blaine permeability method, a known volume of air is passed through cement. The time is recorded and the specific surface is calculated by formula. Fineness is expressed in terms of specific surface of cement. For O.P.C specific surface is 2600-3000 SETTING When we talk about setting, we mean the change in the state (phase) of P.C from liquid state to solid state, in other word, stiffening of cement. As soon as the portland cement and water react, Firstly begin reaction. Gypsum added to retard As those reactions proceed, paste loses plasticity and gains rigidity. Setting time is the interval between initial set and final set, at which mixture is done and paste starts hardening. During this time paste is workable and shapeable. Normal consistency of O.P.C is between 20-30% by weight of cement. According to ASTM C150; Initial setting time > 45 min Final setting time < 375 min According to TS19 Initial setting time > 1 hr Final setting time < 8 hr Temperature, humidity, w/c ratio, chemical composition of cement and fineness of cement affect setting time. In abnormal conditions, two kinds of undesirable settings may occur. Those are;

Flash Setting: Due to deficiency of Gypsum, quickly reacts with water and the paste loses plasticity and workability quickly. False Setting: False setting is also a premature setting of the paste after a few minutes of mixing. In false set no heat is generated unlike flash set. a. When gypsum rock is interground with too hot clinker, some amount of gypsum rock loses its water and becomes hemihydride or anhydride. In making paste, again those products react with water and show stiffening. b. If the alkali ( ) in the cement as carbonated during storage, alkali carbonates react with calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) produced by the hydration of calcium silicates which leads the formation of which gives rigidity to the paste. By furter mixing, false set can be tolerated and paste does not lose anything from its properties SOUNDNESS OF CEMENT When referring to portland cement, "soundness" refers to the ability of a hardened cement paste to retain its volume after setting without delayed destructive expansion (PCA, 1988). This destructive expansion is caused by excessive amounts of free lime (CaO) or magnesia (MgO). Most portland cement specifications limit magnesia content and expansion. The typical expansion test places a small sample of cement paste into an autoclave (a high pressure steam vessel). The autoclave is slowly brought to 2.03 MPa (295 psi) then kept at that pressure for 3 hours. The autoclave is then slowly brought back to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The change in specimen length due to its time in the autoclave is measured and reported as a percentage. ASTM C 150, Standard Specification for Portland Cement specifies a maximum autoclave expansion of 0.80 percent for all portland cement types. Also Le Chatelier method is used to determine only free CaO.

Cement paste strength is typically defined in three ways: compressive, tensile and flexural. These strengths can be affected by a number of items including: water-cement ratio, cement-fine aggregate ratio, type and grading of fine aggregate, manner of mixing and molding specimens, curing conditions, size and shape of specimen, moisture content at time of test, loading conditions and age (Mindess and Young, 1981). Since cement gains strength over time, the time at which a strength test is to be conducted must be specified. Typically times are 1 day (for high early strength cement), 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 90 days (for low heat of hydration cement). When considering cement paste strength tests, there are two items to consider:

Cement mortar strength is not directly related to concrete strength. Cement paste strength is typically used as a quality control measure. Strength tests are done on cement mortars (cement + water + sand) and not on cement pastes.

BLENDED CEMENTS As lower cost alternatives to Portland Cement, blended cements are increasingly being used in a great many construction applications. Blended cements are made by intergrinding Portland Cement with another material. Fly Ash, blast furnace slag and condensed silica fume are all common components of blended cements, and each of them results in a different type of blended cement with an unique set of properties.

Blended cements are not a new idea. As far back as Roman times, pozzolanic materials such as volcanic ash were being added to cements in order to create long lasting strong concretes. To see the evidence of how long wearing these cements were, one merely needs to visit Rome and see some ancient cements still standing their ground against time and the elements. Modern blended cements have been slow to gain popularity for a variety of reasons. For a long time there were no real standards for blended cements, so it was hard to source a reliable product. In many cases the additives which were blended with Portland cement to create blended cements actually weakened the end product and made it less reliable due to unforeseen alkali aggregate reactions More recently however, blended cements have come into their own as increasing care has been taken to develop high quality, high performance blended cements which far outperform traditional cements at a far lower price. Portland cement is the most widely used cement on the globe, and there are several types of Portland cement which can successfully be used in almost any construction application, so why use blended cements at all? Here are a few reasons why blended cements are being both developed and used more and more frequently. Blended cements: 1. Are cheaper than Portland cement. 2. Are more long lasting and durable than Portland cement.

3. Have higher strength tolerances than Portland cement. 4. Have less drying shrinkage than Portland cement. 5. Can, unlike Portland cement, be made to the buyers specifications. 6. Are more environmentally friendly than Portland cement, as they are comprised of recycled materials. 7. Blended cements have been developed to both lower the cost of cement, and also to combat problems which are traditionally encountered with OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) such as susceptibility to sulfates, cracking, steel corrosion, and susceptibility to freezing failure and carbonation. Blended cements can be categorized according to the contents. Type I-P for Pozzolanic Blended Cements. It contains %25-30 of fly ash. Low heat of hydration, develops strength over time. Type I-S is for slag. It contains 50-60% blast-furnace-slag. Fly Ash Pozzolanic Blended Cements: Blended cements made with fly ash are pozzolanic cements. Pozzolanic materials are silica or alumina based materials which are not cements on their own, but which react with calcium hydroxide at room temperature to form cementious compounds. A relatively popular component of blended cements, fly ash in the form of coal ash is often used as an additive in blended cement production, especially in China and the United States. Blast Furnace Slag Blended Cements: Blast furnace slag is a material which is high in silicates. When silicates are combined with Portland cement they improve the workability of concrete, and create a product which has low permeability, and does not allow alkali aggregate reactions to take place. Condensed Silica Fume Blended Cements: A waste product from silicone production, condensed silica fume is perhaps the best additive of the three substances commonly used to create blended cements. Silica fume blended cements are high performance cements which have very little permeability and very high strength. Because silica fume is so effective at increasing the performance of cement, small amounts of silica fume may also be

added to other types of blended cement as a secondary additive to develop the overall quality of the cement. Modified Portland Cement Modified Portland Cements may be categorized according to the different characteristics appearance, setting time etc. of the cement. Those are; Type K Shrinkage Compensating Cement Jet Set Cement Fast setting (3-5 min) Oil Well Cement White Cement NON-CALCIUM SILICATE CEMENTS Calcium Aluminate Cement: High Early Strength Hardening even at low temperatures Superior durability to sulfate attack Fast Hydration. PORTLAND CEMENT TYPES IN TS EN 197-1 In TS EN 197-1, cement is classified by the name CEM cement. CEM cement is the cement of which calcium and silica content is totally at least %50 by mass. Those cements can consist of additional mineral, gypsum and admixtures. Main Types: I. II. III. IV. V. CEM I Portland Cement CEM II Portland Composite Cement CEM III Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement CEM IV Pozzolanic Cement CEM V Composite Cement

In TS EN 197-1, cement is classified by the name CEM cement. CEM cement is the cement of which calcium and silica content is totally at

least %50 by mass. Those cements can consist of additional mineral, gypsum and admixtures. Those five cements can consist of further branches. To deepen the classification, additional symbols are used.

Type and main component Symbols: A: The type of cement which contains at least one type of mineral B: The type of cement which contains more than mineral of A class C: The type of cement which contains more than mineral of B class. K: Clinker S: Granulated Blast furnace slag D: Silica Fume P: Natural Pozzolan, Q: Natural calcinated pozzolan V: Silica Fly Ash W: Calcerous Fly Ash. T: Baked Schist L: Calcerous (TOC<0.5%) LL: Calcerous (TOC>0.5%) (TOC: Total Organic Carbon) There maybe additional minor mixtures in Cement. This maybe in range of 0-5% by mass. Strength classes: Three strength classes were defined for Portland Cement. Those are 32.5, 42.5, 52.5 Those values correspond the 28-day-strength under compressive stress

Some examples are given for classifications TS EN 197-1 CEM I 32.5 R TS EN 197-1 CEM II / A-P 42.5 N TS EN 197-1 CEM II / A-M (S-V-LL) 32.5 R

REFERENCES: 1. CE 244 Materials of Construction, by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mustafa ahmaran 2. The Manufacture of Portland Cement, The Cement and Concrete 3. 4. 5. 6.
Association of New Zealand; 1989 100 years helping build a nation; Milburn Cement; 1988 Bogue, Robert Herman; The Chemistry of Portland Cement (2nd. edition); Reinhold Publishing Corporation; 1955 Lea, F. M.; The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete (3rd edition); Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd.; 1970 ACI Education bulletin E3-01, developed by committee E-701 - Materials of Construction. http://www.concrete.org/general/fE3-01.pdf

7. Portland Cement Manufacture, by Dr. Kimberly Kurtis

http://people.ce.gatech.edu/~kk92/manu.pdf 8. Materials of Construction by T.Y. Erdoan. 9. Pavement Interactive www.pavementinteractive.org 10. Ordinary Portland Cement website www.ordinaryportlandcement.com 11. Hydraulic Cements Slides by California University. 12. Transition to new cement standards in Turkey. By Asm Yeinobal