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Training Manual Principle of LCD Display

FILE NO.

CONTENTS
Pages 1. Construction of LCD Display ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 - 5 1-1 Principle of LCD Display ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 1-2 Construction of LCD Display --------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 - 3 1-3 Main Component of LCD Display --------------------------------------------------------------- 4 - 5 2. Principle of Liquid Crystal --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 - 8 2-1 Liquid Crystal --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 2-2 Rubbing-process------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 - 7 2-3 Operation of Liquid Crystal ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 3. Principle of LCD --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 - 11 3-1 Operation of Polarized Board for LCD Panel (Shutter)----------------------------------------- 9 3-2 Operation of Alignment Film------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 3-3 Operation of LCD Panel ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 10 - 11 3-4 Transparent Electrode -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 4. Type of LCD Display Construction ------------------------------------------------------------ 12 - 13 4-1 Twisted Nematic (TN) Type -------------------------------------------------------------------- 12- 13 4-2 Super TN (STN) Type---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12- 13 4-3 Triple STN (TSTN) Type / Film STN (FSTN) Type --------------------------------------- 12- 13 5. System of LCD Display ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 - 20 5-1 Dot-Matrix System ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 5-2 Colorization ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 5-3 Drive System -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16 5-4 Passive Matrix System-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16 - 17 5-5 Active Matrix System ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 - 19 5-6 Drive of Active Matrix System----------------------------------------------------------------- 19 - 20 6. Improvement Technology of LCD Display -------------------------------------------------- 21 - 27 6-1 Subject of LCD Display ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21 6-1-1 Angle of View ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21 6-1-2 Response Characteristic--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21 6-2 Angle of View-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 6-3 Multi-Domain System --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23 6-4 MVA (Multi-domain Vertical Alignment) System ----------------------------------------------- 24 6-5 IPS (In-Plain Switching) System ------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 6-6 Optically Compensated Film ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 26 6-7 OCB (Optically Compensated Birefringence) System ---------------------------------------- 26 6-8 Improvement of Response Speed ----------------------------------------------------------------- 27 6-8-1 Inpulse System--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 6-8-2 FFD (Feed Forward Driving) System ----------------------------------------------------------- 27 7. Appendix ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28 - 31 7-1 Backlight-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28 7-2 LVDS Circuit--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29 7-3 Block Diagram Example ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30 - 31

REFERENCE NO. TI5110LCD

I Construction of LCD Display 1. Construction of LCD Display


1-1 Principle of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

The LCD (Liquid Crystal Device) Display is used to display the electric signal, converted from picture data similar to a CRT display. The transistor (TFT) switched by the electric signal changes the transmission to light in small picture elements (pixels) of the LCD. The LCD display makes the picture by grouping these elements of each RGB color.

1-2 Construction of LCD Display


LCD Display
Liquid Crystal is packed between the board modules (TFT and Common) and the LCD panel (or LCD shutter) is constructed. A back light is attached to the LCD panel for LCD Display.

Board Module (Common Electrode)


The Common Electrode consists of a polarized board, a color filter, and a transparent electrode on a glass plate. An alignment film is formed on the transparent electrode.

Board Module (TFT Electrode)


The TFT Electrode consists of a polarized board and a transparent electrode (pixel electrode and drive transistor) on a glass plate. An alignment film is formed on the transparent electrode.

Backlight
A fluorescent light is used for the Backlight.

TFT: Thin Film Transistor LCD Panel and LCD Shutter: They are the same things, but in the explanation LCD panel is used
for structure and LCD shutter is used for function.

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Construction of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

Backlight Polarized Board Glass Plate Pixel (Picture Element) Transparent TFT Electrode (Pixel, TFT) Transparent Electrode (Common) Color Filter Glass Plate Polarized Board Board Module (TFT side) LCD Layer

Board Module (Common side)

The light of each picture element is transmitted by switching the drive transistor (TFT) on and off.

Note: Alignment film is not shown in this figure.

Fig. 1 Construction

of LCD Display

(Transparent Type TFT LCD) -3-

Construction of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

1-3 Main component of LCD Display


LCD Shutter
Supplying voltage to the transparent electrodes between the pixel and common sides changes the arrangement of liquid crystal. By assembling two polarized boards, the transfer of light from the backlight can be controlled by the transparent ratio of the LCD Shutter.

Liquid Crystal
Liquid Crystal is a material whose state is between a solid and a liquid. It has both characteristics of solids and liquids, and generally it is a white turbid liquid. Its molecules are normally arranged comparatively opaque and change to transparent with the application of voltage or heat.

Transparent Electrode (Film)


An LCD shutter is operated by supplying voltage derived from the video signal. Transparent film is used for its electrode.

Alignment Film
This is a film for arranging liquid crystal molecules and is made of Polymid resin.

Polarized Board
The light with a specified direction passes through a polarized board.

Drive Transistor
The thin film transistor (TFT) is used to drive the LCD shutter of each pixel.

Color Filter
It is a filter with three colors (R, G, B) arranged for each pixel.

Backlight
Liquid crystal does not emit light. A light source is needed for display. The light source placed on the reverse side of the LCD panel is called Backlight.

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Construction of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

Backlight

Polarized Glass Board Plate Transparent Electrode (Pixel, TFT) Module (Back) LCD Shutter LCD Layer Module (Front) Alignment Film Liquid Crystal Alignment Film Transparent Electrode (Common) Color Filter Glass Plate Polarized Board

Fig. 2 Construction
(Cross Section)

of LCD Display

Backlight

LCD Panel (LCD Shutter)

LCD Display

LCD Module TFT Display Drive Circuit (with IC)


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Fig. 3 Assembly of LCD Display

I Principle of Liquid Crystal 2. Principle of Liquid Crystal


2-1 Liquid Crystal
What is Liquid Crystal?

Training Manual Principle of LCD

Liquid Crystal is a material whose state is between a solid and liquid. It has characteristics of both solids and liquids, and generally is a white turbid liquid. Its molecules are normally arranged comparatively opaque and change to transparent with the application of voltage or heat. Almost all the materials consist of an organic compound taking the form of a slender stick or a flat plate. There are three types of liquid crystal as shown in Fig. 4, and they depend on the construction and arrangement of molecules. Generally Nematic liquid crystal is used for the display apparatus.

(a) Smectic
Molecules are in layers and arranged parallel to each other. The center of gravity is arranged at random in the layer.

(b) Nematic
Molecules are not in layers. They are arranged parallel. The center of gravity is able to move freely to the major axis.

(c) Cholesteric
Molecules are in layers and arranged parallel. The arranging direction of the major axis for the neighboring layers is shifted gradually. In order to use liquid crystal for display, it is necessary to regularly arrange the molecules of Nematic (Rubbing-process).

2-2 Rubbing-process
After chemicals for arranging are put on the glass plate, they are hardened, and then the surface on the plate is rubbed with a cloth to fix the direction of the gaps that are made. The arranging direction of molecules is settled in the gaps. This process is used to change the characteristics so the molecules that touch the rubbed surface are arranged to the major axis of the rubbed direction. This thin film on the glass plate is called Alignment film.

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Principle of Liquid Crystal

Training Manual Principle of LCD

(a) Smectic

(b) Nematic

(c) Cholesteric

Fig. 4 Liquid Crystal

Liquid Crystal Molecule Natural Condition Arranging

Rubbing Direction Alignment Film

Fig. 5 Rubbing-Process

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Principle of Liquid Crystal

Training Manual Principle of LCD

2-3 Operation of Liquid Crystal


The chemistry substance required for liquid crystal material is one that reacts so that the arrangement direction is changed according to an applied electric field. In the LCD display, a liquid crystal is placed between two electrodes. When the voltage is supplied between them, an electric field is generated in the liquid crystal, and liquid crystal molecules are moved and arranged. The Backlight applied to the liquid crystal is either passed or blocked according to the arrangement of the molecules. If an electric field from an external source is applied to liquid crystal, electric dipoles will be generated that will react to the intensity and direction of the electric field. Through the operation of these electric dipoles and the electric field, the power changing direction of liquid crystal molecules is generated. Therefore, according to an external electric field, liquid crystal molecules move and change direction from horizontal to vertical.

Transparent Electrode

Liquid Crystal

Electric Field

Electric Field

Liquid Crystal Molecule

Electric Dipole

Fig. 6 Operation of Liquid Crystal

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I Principle of LCD 3. Principle of LCD


3-1 Operation of Polarized Board for LCD Panel (Shutter)

Training Manual Principle of LCD

Light is an electromagnetic wave that is oscillating at right angles to the direction of advance. In fact, the oscillating directions of all light is mixed. A polarized board can let only the light in the specific direction pass from the light with which these various oscillating directions were mixed. Therefore, only the light of the same direction as the polarization direction of a polarized board can be taken out by letting the light pass through this polarized board. That is, if the oscillating direction of light and the direction of a polarized board are in agreement, the light will pass through a polarized board. Moreover, if the direction of a polarized board differs from the oscillating direction of light, the light cannot pass through a polarized board. When the oscillating direction of a polarized board and light are shifted 90(right-angled), the light is blocked completely. The light passes and looks bright if the two boards are in the same direction when looking at two polarized boards in piles, however, if shifted at right-angles, the light is blocked and looks dark. Oscillating direction of light Oscillating direction of light

Polarized Board

The oscillating direction of light and the direction of a polarized board are in agreement.

The direction of a polarized board differs from the oscillating direction of light

Fig. 7 Operation of
Polarized Board

Passage
Light The two boards are
the same directions.

Interception
Light The two boards are
shifted right-angled.

Fig. 8 Operation of
Polarized Board

White

Black

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Principle of Liquid Crystal

Training Manual Principle of LCD

3-2 Operation of Alignment Film


Liquid crystal is inserted into alignment films of an upper and lower plate that have the direction of grooves shifted by 90 on the LCD display. The liquid crystal molecules of upper alignment plate are arranged along with the upper alignment film. The liquid crystal molecules of lower alignment plate are arranged along with the lower alignment film. The liquid crystal layer between these alignment films is twisted little by little and is arranged so that a spiral is formed. Light entering through the first alignment plate will have its oscillating direction twisted 90 by the liquid crystal layer between the alignment films. Now the direction of oscillation is aligned with the second alignment plate and the light will pass through.

Alignment Plate

Alignment Film

Direction of Groove
By the upper-and-lower alignment films, spirally, a liquid crystal molecules are twisted 90 and arranged.

Liquid Crystal Molecule

Alignment Film

Direction of Groove

Fig. 9 Operation of
Alignment Film

3-3 Operation of LCD Panel


In the LCD panel, a liquid crystal is inserted and enclosed between two glass plates. The polarized board, transparent electrode, and the alignment film are formed on these glass plates. The light can be passed or blocked by supplying voltage or not to this LCD panel. In the condition (Switch-Off) that the voltage is not supplied, the liquid crystal molecules are twisted 90 sideways and arranged spirally. The oscillating direction of the light that passed the upper polarized board is changed by the twisted liquid crystal molecule arrangement. Therefore, the direction of a polarized board and the oscillating direction of the light which is shifted 90 and arranged become the same, and this light can now pass through a polarized board. This is the liquid crystal shutter-on condition and an LCD panel (LCD shutter) passes the light.
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Principle of Liquid Crystal

Training Manual Principle of LCD

On the contrary, in the condition (Switch-On) that voltage is supplied, the liquid crystal molecules are arranged in a line at right angles to a glass plate. Since vertical liquid crystal molecules do not affect the oscillating direction of light, the light that passed the upper polarized board passes as it is without changing the oscillating direction. Since the oscillating direction of this light differs from direction of the lower polarized board which is shifted 90 and arranged, the light collides with this polarized board and cannot pass. This is the liquid crystal shutter-off condition and the LCD panel (LCD shutter) blocks the light. This is the basic structure (OnOff of the light by the LCD shutter) of an LCD panel. It is a sandwich structure of the upper and lower sides of transparent electrodes, alignment films, and polarized boards, with an enclosed liquid crystal material between them. The LCD panel shown in Fig. 10 is a type of panel that changes the light into a passage condition when voltage is not supplied between the upper-and-lower polarized boards that are arranged at 90. This type of panel has the advantage that black contrast is improved, and it usually works well. This mode is called Normally White Mode. An LCD panel that passes light when voltage is not supplied is referred to as Normally Black Mode. In practice, with this type (when the upper-and-lower polarized boards are arranged in the same direction), displaying perfect black becomes difficult due to the leakage of light caused by variations in the arrangement of the liquid crystal molecules.

Lig
Polarized Board Transparent Electrode (Upper) Alignment Film Liquid Crystal Alignment Film Transparent Electrode (Lower) Polarized Board

ht

Lig

ht
Polarized Board Transparent Electrode (Upper) Alignment Film Liquid Crystal Alignment Film Transparent Electrode (Lower) Polarized Board

Fig. 10 Operation of
Passage Interception
LCD Panel

3-4 Transparent Electrode


In order to generate an electric field in liquid crystal, voltage is supplied to the upper-and-lower electrodes. If metal is used for these electrodes, the light is interrupted by this metal and cannot pass into the liquid crystal. Therefore, a transparent electrode that passes light is used for the electrode of the LCD shutter.
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I Type of LCD Display Construction 4 Type of LCD Display Construction


4-1 Twisted Nematic (TN) Type

Training Manual Principle of LCD

A Nematic type of LCD Display where the liquid crystal molecules are twisted 90 between upper and lower boards is called a Twisted Nematic type (TN type) liquid crystal. Most LCD displays are of this type and feature high contrast (ratio) under low voltage and power.

4-2 Super TN (STN) Type


Super TN type (STN type) LCD Displays are used for LCD televisions, personal computer monitors, cellular phones, etc. A liquid crystal material developed to improve visual characteristics, such as contrast ratio is used. In this STN type liquid crystal molecules are twisted 180 to 270 and arranged between upper and lower electrodes. By supplying voltage to this liquid crystal, the transparent ratio of light changes more steeply. Therefore, with the STN type as compared to the TN type, contrast and rise characteristic of the voltage (response of switch On and Off) are improved, and a clearer picture on larger screens becomes possible.

4-3 Triple STN (TSTN) Type / Film STN (FSTN) Type


A fault of the STN type is that the display colors during On and Off of the LCD shutter become yellowish green and navy blue. (In TN type, they are white and black.) This is because light of a specific wavelength is reflected and scattered by the thickness of the LCD panel. Therefore, even if a color filter of RGB is attached to an STN type liquid crystal, bluish green is mixed with the colors from black, gray to white, and a natural color picture cannot be displayed. The triple STN type (TSTN type) and the film STN type (FSTN type) have been developed as an advanced type of STN. In the TSTN type, optically compensated films (high polymer films) which sandwich the upper and lower LCD panels are used. They compensate for the twist of the light crystal cell, and the display colors of yellowish green and navy blue are changed to the correct white and black. The FSTN type uses a single optically compensated film

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Type of LCD Display Construction

Training Manual Principle of LCD

TN Type

Module

LCD Layer

Module
Twist of molecule (90)

STN Type
Module

LCD Layer

Module
Twist of molecule (180 - 270)

TSTN Type
Optically Compensated Film Module

LCD Layer

Module Optically Compensated Film Fig. 11 Type of LCD Display Construction


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I System of LCD Display 5 System of LCD Display


5-1 Dot-Matrix System

Training Manual Principle of LCD

LCD displays have two drive systems, Segment and Dot-Matrix. The Dot-Matrix system is used for LCD television displays. The picture elements (pixels) of the display unit are arranged horizontally (X line) and vertically (Y row) by this Dot-Matrix system, and various characteristics and figures can be displayed. Fig. 12 shows a matrix of X x Y = 10 (pixels) with the character Y displayed. In this Dot-Matrix system, by making the size of a pixel smaller and increasing the whole number of pixels, the big screen with fine character or picture becomes possible. With the present liquid crystal manufacture technology, the number of pixels per inch has reached 200ppi*, and very high definition screen display is possible. Moreover, the number of pixels of an LCD display panel corresponding to bigger screen sizes can be specified and manufactured. For example, the number of pixels of the SXGA* panel is about 1,300,000 (1,280 x 1,024 = 1,310,720 pixels).

ppi: pixel per inch SXGA: Super eXtended Graphics Array

R G B

In colorization of LCD panel, one pixel consists of 3 RGB dots (sub-pixels).

A character or a figure is displayed by making the pixel of each X and Y intersection turn on (or off).

Y
Fig. 12 Dot-Matrix System

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System of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

5-2 Colorization
Since an LCD shutter only passes or blocks light, in itself it cannot display a color picture. The color picture is made by mixing the three colors of RGB (three primary colors of light) respectively, like the CRT color television. The color LCD panel has a color filter of RGB attached to the monochrome panel. See Fig. 13. In this color LCD panel, by controlling the voltages and the waveforms that are supplied at each RGB pixel, the transparent ratio is controlled and hue and brightness are adjusted. Therefore, smaller pixels and more numbers of pixels are required for the color LCD Display. For example, although the SXGA panel described before has about 1,300,000 pixels, in colorization, there are about 4 million dots (sub-pixels).

Backlight

Backlight

Wh lo Co r

ite

Wh e

ite

R G B
Color Filter LCD Shutter
Color Panel

Mo

rom ch o

LCD Shutter
Monochrome Panel
Fig. 13 Colorization of LCD Display

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System of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

5-3 Drive System


The drive systems for LCD display are divided into the following classifications: The Static Drive System, which is seldom used; The Passive Matrix System, which is used for still pictures, such as calculators and notebook PCs; The Active Matrix System, which is suitable for high definition and the high-speed response needed for big screen LCD television.

Drive System

Static Drive System Dynamic Drive System Passive Matrix System Active Matrix System

Classification of LCD Drive System

5-4 Passive Matrix System


In the structure of a passive matrix system, Y electrodes of the vertical direction (Y-direction) are formed in upper glass plate, and X electrodes of the horizontal direction (X direction) are formed in lower glass plate as a matrix. The liquid crystal molecules are sandwiched between these electrodes. By supplying voltage between the Y electrode and the X electrode in sequence, at a certain time, an electric field is generated in the liquid crystal where the selected Y electrode and X electrode cross. Therefore, the liquid crystal molecules of this pixel address (X, Y electrode intersection) change arrangement and an LCD shutter is turned On or Off.

Y Electrode Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4

Glass Plate X0 X1 X2 Liquid Crystal Layer Glass Plate X3 X4 X Electrode

These electrodes are transparent electrodes.

Fig. 14 Passive Matrix System

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System of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

Y1 Y0
LCD shutter is turned on or turned off in this address (X2, Y1).

Y1

Y2 X0 X1

Liquid Crystal X2

X2 X3

Fig. 15 Passive Matrix System


In the dynamic drive system, since the electric signal (voltage) is supplied to the Y electrode and the X electrode in sequence, the number of pixels which makes all pixels (the total number of pixels are X x Y) turn on or off becomes X+Y. Therefore, compared with the static drive system that has an independent electrode for each pixel, the number of electrodes of the dynamic drive system is very few. However, with this dynamic drive system, since the electrode itself is the wiring, it has resistance that cannot be disregarded in the big screens. This resistance causes the speed of the shutter to become slower. Therefore, when displaying moving pictures etc., an afterimage is generated. This passive matrix system is not suitable for LCD televisions with big screens that require moving pictures and high resolution. The active matrix system was developed in order to overcome these faults.

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System of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

5-5 Active Matrix System


In the active matrix system, a switch element is attached for every pixel at the intersection of the X and Yelectrodes of a passive matrix system. Each pixel is now controlled by the switch element (active element). Since the switch for each pixel is turned On and Off independently, the response speed is increased. Thin Film Transistor (TFT) is used for the switch element and is attached on the glass board. The LCD display using this TFT is called TFT LCD display. The upper electrode for the whole pattern is formed on the upper glass plate and is called the Common Electrode. A pixel electrode (pixel pattern), TFT (switch element) which drives a pixel electrode, and X electrode for gate input and Y electrode for source input of TFT are formed on the lower glass plate. In this structure, the electric field is generated in the area between the pixel electrode and the common electrode, and the LCD shutter for 1 pixel is operated. When an electric signal (voltage) is supplied to the Y and X electrode of TFT, TFT is turned On, and the liquid crystal molecules are operated as a light switch. Refer to Fig. 17 (Address X1 and Y0).
Glass Plate (Upper)

COMMON Electrode

Liquid Crystal Layer

Pixel Electrode (Pixel Pattern) X Electrode Glass Plate (Lower) Y Electrode TFT (Switch Element)

Fig. 16 Structure of Active


Matrix System

Equivalent Circuit (TFT) COMMON COMMON Electrode Liquid Crystal Y0 Y Electrode Y1 X1 X Electrode X1 X2 TFT Pixel Electrode Gate Source Y0 TFT X1 Gate COMMON Electrode Pixel Electrode

Equivalent Circuit (Switch) COMMON

Liquid Crystal Drain Drain

Source Y0 Switch (On / Off)

By TFT, the shutter of a pixel at the address (X1, Y0) is turned On or Off.

Fig. 17 Equivalent Circuit of


Active Matrix System

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System of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

Y0

Y1

Y2

Y3 X0 X1 X2 X3
The LCD shutter is operated by TFT at the address (X1, Y0).

TFT (Switch) Liquid Crystal COMMON Electrode

Fig. 18 Structure of TFT Matrix


The amplification operation of a transistor is used for the TFT switch in the active matrix system. In this system, switching speed is unified over the whole display, increasing drive response speed as compared with the passive matrix system. Therefore, TFT LCD display (active matrix system) is adopted for the highly efficient display, which can provide the response speed required for big screens or quickly moving pictures. However, further response speed is needed for high definition LCD television. This will be described later.

5-6 Drive of Active Matrix System


The TFT LCD display consists of a matrix of n lines of X direction (X0 - Xn-1) and of n rows of Y direction (Y0 - Yn-1). The line of X direction is called the gate line and the line (row) of Y direction is called the data line. First, the scan is started from the pixel address Since the time for the drive voltage to reach its required value is shorter in the active matrix system, (X0, Y0), and when the address (X0, Yn-1) is the response time of the display becomes quicker. selected the scan of X0 line is completed. Next, all the pixels from X1 line to Xn-1 line are scanned in Active Matrix System sequence, and the final address is (Xn-1, Yn-1). The operation of selected pixel address (X1, Y2) is explained below. First, (signal) voltage is supplied to X1 line (gate of TFT), next voltage is supplied to Y2 row (source of TFT), and the address of the intersection of X1 Passive Matrix System line and Y2 row is selected and its TFT is turned On or Off. However, just switching the TFT on and off will not change the brightness of the screen. The brightness of a screen is changed by controlTime ling the voltage of a data line (Y row). Fig. 19 shows the voltage characteristic of the matrix sysFig. 19 Voltage Characteristic of Matrix System tem.
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Voltage to liquid crystal

System of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

In Fig. 20, the voltage of the data line (Y2) is supplied in the positive direction to a common electrode (DC drive). In practice a uniform AC voltage is supplied to the common electrode (AC drive) to prolong the life of the liquid crystal.

Data Line Drive Circuit (Y row)

Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Yn-1
TFT Pixel Electrode Glass Plate (Common) Liquid Crystal Glass Plate (TFT)

Xn-1

COMMON
Variable Voltage

Video Data Processor Y Direction

X Direction

Timming Controller (Scan Converter)

Power Circuit
COMMON

X1 Y2
TFT: On (X1, Y2)
Brightness of Screen

Y2 Y2
In practice, driven by AC signal to COMMON. (AC Drive)

COMMON

TFT: On

Y2 Y2
TFT: Off

Fig. 20 LCD Drive Circuit (Normally White Type)

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Gate Line Drive Circuit (X line)

X0 X1 X2 X3

I Improvement Technology of LCD Display 6 Improvement Technology of LCD Display


6-1 Subject of LCD Display
6-1-1 Angle of View

Training Manual Principle of LCD

Angle of view means the normal visible range (angle) of a screen. In an LCD display, the angle of view is narrow compared with a CRT or PDP (Plasma Display Panel). The viewing angle of the typical TN type LCD display is about 100. However with the new improved technology that has been developed the angle of view for LCD display has increased to 160 or 170. This improved system will be described later. (The angle of view for a CRT or PDP is 180.)

Vertical

Angle of View

Horizontal
Angle of View Fig. 21 Angle of View
6-1-2 Response Characteristic
The response characteristic of the LCD display is the speed at which the display is refreshed by the input signal (video data signal). If this response characteristic is slow, an afterimage will appear on the screen. Therefore, in large screen LCD television, improving this response characteristic becomes very important.

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Improvement Technology of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

6-2 Angle of View (TN Type)


The principle of optical penetration and the interception of the LCD shutter by the arranged direction of cylindrical liquid crystal molecules controls the direction of light. Therefore, brightness, hue, and contrast depend on the direction of view of the LCD display. The range (angle) where these look normal is called the angle of view. The fault of the TN LCD display is that this angle of view is narrow. Fig. 22 shows that brightness changes depending on the angle the screen with a gray picture is viewed. In this figure, the liquid crystal molecule leans diagonally. Therefore, the amount of optical penetration will change depending on the angle when watching the screen from the front or the side.

The brightness becomes different depending on the angle of view.

Glass Plate

Polarized Board Transparent Electrode (Common) Alignment Film

Liquid Crystal Molecule

Alignment Film Glass Plate Transparent Electrode (Pixel, TFT) Polarized Board Fig. 22 Angle of View (TN type)

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Improvement Technology of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

6-3 Multi-Domain System


The arrangement of the TN LCD display is one directional. In this Multi-Domain System, one pixel is divided into two or more different arranged domains. Fig. 23 shows the example of Multi-Domain System with two domains. The quantity of the light per pixel from various angles is equalized by this system. Moreover, the angle of view becomes even wider by increasing the number of divisions. However, manufacturing is difficult in the rubbing process*.

Refer to 2-2 Rubbing-process.

The brightness of a screen is equalized as macro view.

Glass Plate

Polarized Board Transparent Electrode (Common) Alignment Film

Liquid Crystal Molecule

Glass Plate Alignment Film Alignment Film (Left) (Right)

Transparent Electrode (Pixel, TFT) Polarized Board Fig. 23 Multi-Domain System

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Improvement Technology of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

6-4 MVA (Multi-domain Vertical Alignment) System


In the MVA system, the (alignment) film is arranged so that the liquid crystal molecules are stood vertically. The MVA system combines vertical alignment with the Multi-domain system. By vertically aligning the liquid crystal molecules, the influence of optical interception is lost, and the angle of view and contrast are improved. A type of material is used that causes the liquid crystal molecules to become vertical to the glass plate without supplying voltage. (Nega-Nematic liquid crystal*) In the MVA system, attaching the boss by resin and making the liquid crystal molecules stand diagonally on the transparent electrode make multiple alignment domains. Therefore, since the rubbing process can be skipped at the alignment film production, manufacturing becomes easier compared with the multidomain system.

Generally, a Posi-Nematic system is used that aligns the liquid crystal molecules by supplying voltage.

Glass Plate

Polarized Board Transparent Electrode (Common) Alignment Film

Liquid Crystal Molecule (Nega-Nematic) Alignment Film Boss (Left) Glass Plate (Right) Transparent Electrode (Pixel, TFT) Polarized Board Fig. 24 MVA (Multi-domain Vertical Alignment) System

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Improvement Technology of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

6-5 IPS (In-Plain Switching) System


The structure of an IPS system is shown in Fig. 25. The pixel and common electrodes are mounted to the transparent film (drive transistor) side and the electric field is generated horizontally to the glass plate. With this electric field, the alignment direction of liquid crystal molecules is rotated 90 in parallel to the glass plate. In the IPS system, liquid crystal molecules rotate all at once in the horizontal direction. Since these liquid crystal molecules do not lean like the TN type, there is little change in the picture characteristics (contrast, brightness, hue, etc.) and the angle of view becomes wider. However, there are a few problems. The quantity of transparent light is reduced, slower response speed, and a white picture becomes a little bluish or yellowish depending on the viewing direction. The S-IPS (Super-IPS) type was developed to improve upon these problems. In the S-IPS type, the structure of the electrode for driving the liquid crystal molecules becomes a zigzag form, which reduces the change of color, increases the viewing angle to about 160 and has high definition equivalent to a CRT.

Polarized Board

Basic Structure of IPS System

Glass Plate (Without Transparent Electrode) Alignment Film

Electric Field

Alignment Film Transparent Electrode (Common)

Transparent Electrode (Pixel)

Glass Plate Liquid Crystal Molecule (Vertical) Polarized Board


Normally Black Mode

Polarized Board Alignment Film Liquid Crystal Molecule (Vertical)

Dark (Switch Off)

Bright (Switch On)

Fig. 25 IPS (In-Plain Switching) System


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Improvement Technology of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

6-6 Optically Compensated Film


By using the optically compensated film, the phase shift of the STN type of LCD display is corrected, and the angle of view and contrast are improved. (Refer to 4-3 Triple STN Type.) Three methods for attaching the optically compensated film are shown in Fig. 26.
1 sheet / 1 side 2 sheets / 1 side 2 sheets / 2 sides

Polarized Board Compensated Film

Polarized Board Compensated Film 1 Compensated Film 2

Polarized Board Compensated Film 1

Liquid Crystal

Liquid Crystal

Liquid Crystal

Polarized Board

Polarized Board

Polarized Board

Compensated Film 2

Fig. 26 Optically Compensated Film

6-7 OCB (Optically Compensated Birefringence) System


The OCB system combines the bend-alignment system where the liquid crystal molecules are bent and aligned between the upper and lower boards and optically compensation film. This system has the features of increased angle of view and quicker response speeds. However, bend-alignment is difficult to make uniform and stable.

Glass Plate

Polarized Board Optically Compensated Film Transparent Electrode (Common) Alignment Film Liquid Crystal Molecule

Alignment Film Glass Plate Transparent Electrode (Pixel, TFT) Polarized Board Fig. 27 OCB System
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Improvement Technology of LCD Display

Training Manual Principle of LCD

6-8 Improvement of Response Speed


6-8-1 Inpulse System
In order to reduce afterimage and dim outline, there is the system that has the backlight blinked for every writing of one picture or an all black picture in inserted in the fixed cycle. It is called the Inpulse System. For example, with the system called Super Inpulse System, the black data is written in every 1/60 second, and the afterimage and the ghosts are reduced.
With the usual LCD panel, since the picture is displayed continuously, the front picture becomes dim as the afterimage. In the inpulse system, by inserting black data between the picture data, the afterimage is reduced and the high-speed response is improved.

Black Data Picture Data

Fig. 28 Inpulse System

6-8-2 FFD (Feed Forward Driving) System


The response speed of LCD brightness can be improved by adding over-shoot characteristic to the data line voltage. Fig. 29 shows the actual overdrive circuit used in a digital drive system.
Waveform (Normal)
Over-Shoot

Voltage

Voltage

Waveform with Over-Shoot

Time

Time

Brightness

Brightness

Response Time

Response Time
(By Overdrive Circuit)

Time Voltage Voltage

Time

Time

Time

Drive Circuit (Normal)

Overdrive Circuit

Fig. 29 Overdrive Circuit

-27-

I Appendix 7 Appendix
7-1 Backlight

Training Manual Principle of LCD

An LCD panel does not emit light itself. For the display, a light source is required, and normally fluorescent lights are used for the backlight of the LCD television. The backlight consists of fluorescent lights, a reflective plate, and a diffusion sheet (or board). Fig. 30 shows the structure and photograph of 30V and 15V LCD televisions backlights.

30V Type
LCD Panel

Diffusion Sheet (Board)

Fluorescent Lights (30V: 16pcs)

Reflective Plate

15V Type
LCD Panel

Diffusion Sheet

Fluorescent Lights (15V: 2pcs, 20V:3pcs)

Reflective Plate

Fig. 30 Backlight

-28-

Appendix

Training Manual Principle of LCD

7-2 LVDS Circuit


(1) LVDS Interface
For transmitting the video signal information, an interface circuit with an LVDS (Low Noise Differential Signaling) standard is used, which has the merit of low noise, high speed operation by a small amplitude, and low power consumption. The LVDS cable connects the transmitter in the driving circuit and the receiver in the module.

Fig. 31 LVDS Interface


100 Terminated

Transmitter (Driving Circuit)

3.5mA

Receiver (LCD Panel)

LVDS Cable

1.2V

345/200mV

(2) Driving Circuit


Fig. 32 shows the block diagrams of a panel driving circuit. The final video information (signal) from the video processor (for example pixelworks) is transmitted to the LCD panel module through an LVDS cable.

Fig. 32 Block Diagrams of Panel Driving Circuit


Part of (Panel) Driving Circuit
LVDS Transmitter TxOUT TxIN
R 8 8 8

Part of Panel Display (in the module)


DATA (LVDS)
LVDS Receiver RxIN RxOUT
R G B 8 8 8

Video Processor (pixelworks)

G B

Vsync Hsync BLANK PARITY PDWN DCLK

Vsync Hsync BLANK PARITY

DCLK

TxCLKIN

CLOCK (LVDS)

LVDS

RxCLKOUT

-29-

LCD Module

Appendix

Training Manual Principle of LCD

7-3 Block Diagram Example


(1) CLT-1583
R

U45
R +12V

Speaker (R)

Audio AMP
4

3 1

Headphone (J26)

LA4263
8 R 10 L

Tuner Board
+9V

8 23 16

U44

Speaker (L) LCD Panel


RX IN+/-[0-3] RX CLK+/-

Sub CPU M37272M6 U101 TU201


IIC +CONTROL

Audio Processor NJW1138M


1 30

Main Board
S_CLK / SIN_OUT/ ENABLE_IN / ENABLE_OUT V33D

Tuner / IF TMQJ8
17 7 6

V33

U19
VY [0-7] VUV [0-7]

VCPU 33/18

CC_R CC_G CC_B

U36 Main Scaler / (Main)CPU PW113-10Q PIXELWORKS


MENORY DATA

IC1
DRO [0-7] DGO [0-7] DBO [0-7]

3 2 1 72

Video Decoder VPC3230D


74 71 SELECTED_Y SELECTED_C 5 4 6 INPUT_Y INPUT_Cb/Pb INPUT_Cr/Pr

LVDS Interface THC63LVDM83A

AUDIO_R

AUDIO_L

GGE [0-7]

GRE [0-7]

GBE [0-7]

VCPU 33 37

R_TV

V_TV

L_TV

CVBS

Flash ROM
V33D

U30

47 48 46 41 39 +9V 34

8Mbits
AVDD PVDD

40 43 45 18

U6
16 R_PC L_PC

AV Switch U46 CXA2089Q


33 30 32 L_OUT R_OUT CVBS1 CVBS2 7 S1 3 SY1 5 SC1 1 L1 2 R1 4 8 L2 9 R2

Graphic A/D AD9883


54 30 48 31 43 Red_PC HS_PC G_PC VS_PC B_PC

CVBS_OUT

11

V L R
Monitor Output

V L R

V L R Y Cb Cr
Component
AV2 Input

R H

G V

B
D-SUB

Fig. 33 Block Diagram: CLT-1583

AV1 Input

PC Input

(2) CLT-2053
R

U45
R +14V

Speaker (R)

Audio AMP
4

3 1

Headphone (J26)

LA4263
8 R 10 L

Tuner Board
+9V

8 23 16

U44

Speaker (L)

Sub CPU M37272M6 U101 TU201


IIC +CONTROL

Audio Processor NJW1138M


1 30

Main Board
S_CLK / SIN_OUT/ ENABLE_IN / ENABLE_OUT

Tuner / IF TMQJ8
17 7 6

V33D CC_R CC_G CC_B 3 2 1 72

U19
VY [0-7] VUV [0-7] 4 6

VCPU 33/18 DRO [0-7]

Video Decoder VPC3230D


74 71 SELECTED_Y SELECTED_C 5

Main Scaler / (Main)CPU PW113-10Q PIXELWORKS U36


MENORY DATA

DGO [0-7] DBO [0-7]

LCD Panel

AUDIO_R

AUDIO_L

INPUT_Y INPUT_Cb/Pb INPUT_Cr/Pr

R_TV

V_TV

L_TV

VCPU 33 37

CVBS

U30

Flash ROM 8Mbits

47 48 46 41 39 +9V 34

40 43 45 18

AV Switch U46 CXA2089Q


33 30 32 L_OUT R_OUT CVBS1 CVBS2 7 S1 3 SY1 5 SC1 1 L1 2 R1 4 8 L2 9 R2

16

CVBS_OUT

11 R3 L3

V L R
Monitor Output

V L R

V L R
AV2 Input

L R
Audio Board

Y Cb Cr
Component

AV1 Input

Fig. 34 Block Diagram: CLT-2053


AV3 Input

-30-

Appendix

Training Manual Principle of LCD

(3) CLT1554 / CLT2054


AV1
S Video Composite Video Audio
AV1_Y 3 AV1_CV 1 TV_CV 5

IC1001
Video SW
7

IC801
CPU
36 37 22 23 OSD_HD VD (For Caption) 12 10 5V 7 SEL_Y/CV
3.3V

IIC Bus

AV1/TV_Y/CV 5

18 19 20 21 16 R G B Y I OSD_CC

AV2
Composite Video Audio

AV2_V 1 AV3_Y 3 AV1_C 90

IC1002
Video SW

IC871
DD Converter
13 11 OSD_HD VD 154 153

IC2001

85

152 151 150 148 149 R G B Y I

AV3_Cr 92 Digital Decoder

DEC_Y/C (0-7)

(For 20V)

AV3
Component Video Audio

with AV3_Cb 94 Y/C Separation (480i)


AD_Y 48 AD_Cr 54

IC301
IIC Bus AD_R/G (0-7) (Y/UV)

R/G/B (0-7)

LCD PANEL (20V)


(For 15V)

IC4101
38

IP Converter Screen Controller

R/G/B (0-7)

IC781
LVDS Transmitter

IIC Bus IIC Bus

AD_Cb 43 A/D Converter

LCD PANEL (15V)

(480p)
AD_HS

30 AD_VS 16

31 28 AD_CLAMP

IC1701
AD_Y 26
R: 1

IC361
SDRAM
16 R-OUT (+)

Sync Separation 15

AV1_L/R L: 30

TV (A201)
Tuner IF Sound Multiplex

R: 2 AV2_L/R L: 29

IC001

10 SEL_R

13

IC101
Audio AMP

15 R-OUT (-) 24 L-OUT (+) 25 L-OUT (-)

SPEAKER (Right) SPEAKER (Left)

AV3_L/R L: 28
R: 4 TV_L/R L: 27

R: 3

Audio SW Audio Control 21 SEL_L Surround


IIC Bus

IIC Bus

Fig. 35 Block Diagram: CLT1554 / CLT2054

-31-

SEP / 2004

Printed in Japan

SANYO Electric Co., Ltd.