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ECAS Annual Report 2011

Editor: Tony Venables

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Table of Contents

I. ECAS IN GENERAL The 20TH anniversary of ECAS . The Board of Directors and General Assembly . II. MAIN ACTIVITIES IN 2011 Creation of the European civil society house . C1 CIVIL SOCIETY C2 CITIZENS RIGHTS C3 CITIZENSHIP AND GOVERNANCE Annex 1 Organigram . Annex 2 - Financial results and report of the auditor Annex 3 - Meetings and events in 2011 .. Annex 4 - List of ECAS Members ..... 8 9 9 10 12 13 15 19 5 6

I. ECAS IN GENERAL
The 20TH anniversary of ECAS
In 2011 ECAS celebrated its 20th anniversary with a series of events from 31 August to 2 September bringing together 300 participants: EU policy-makers, members and guests. It was exactly 20 years on from the first European citizens week of conferences also hosted by the European economic and social committee. A special publication - 20 achievements in 20 years showed that ECAS has much to its credit. Firstly, from the citizens week and other events, several new European associations or networks sprang. At ECAS, we can take some of the credit for the strengthening of civil society round the EU, even though there is still an undemocratic imbalance between public interest and commercial lobbying. In the future, the creation of the European civil society house, ECAS flagship project, may make the difference. Secondly, with its hotlines and reaching out to citizens advice services, ECAS pioneered the idea of a European public sphere. In the early years, it was questionable that a European advice service could serve both associations and individuals. Now in the age of social media, the term civil society covers both, and this non-hierarchical openness is one of ECAS strengths. Thirdly, ECAS has advocated corresponding reforms in the EU Institutions to become more open to citizens concerns: creation of a general anti-discrimination clause in the EU Treaties, better access to information and consultation standards, better enforcement of European rights. In the future, what is needed is a more critical mass of citizens using complaints, access to documents rules, petitions, requests to the European ombudsman and citizens initiatives to drive forward the reform agenda. For that, ECAS should keep up the idea of a European citizenship more clearly defined based on a right to be informed. The 20th anniversary was also an opportunity to update descriptions of ECAS and its services and offer training on EU affairs to members. A range of updated or new publications was also produced: A new publication analysed the future of the EU budget on the basis of the Commissions financial perspectives 2014-2020 and contained tips for the would-be European fundraiser ECAS well-known 12 tips for the would-be European lobbyist were up-dated A training kit for would-be organisers of European citizens initiatives was produced

The full package of material and reports for the 20th anniversary are a useful toolkit for any association or citizens movement working out a European Strategy (http://www.ecascitizens.eu/content/view/400/1/).

The Board of Directors and General Assembly


The Board met on 15 March, 5 May, 31 August, and 9 November. There were two general Assemblies on 1 September and 7 December when the new statutes were finally approved for publication in the presence of a notary. The number of meetings of the statutory bodies reflected an increasing commitment to review and to an extent redefine ECAS for the next 20 years. In addition to the formal meetings, smaller groups of Board members are cooperating in 4 task groups: membership, projects, governance and business plan. In 2011, the composition of the Board of Directors was as follows: Last Name Name Organisation NtverketUngdom i Europa/ Network Youth In Europe European House- Hungary Nykterhetsrrelsens Bildningsverksamhet Journalist, J@YS Greens/ Efa Open Estonia Foundation Journalist, EU Consultant for NGOs and international PPPs Public Private Partnership Country

ANDREN BARABS CASTBERGER FRANCIOSI FRASSONI HELLAM

Thomas Miklos Anders Maria Laura Monica Mall

Sweden Hungary Sweden Belgium Belgium Estonia

HERMANNS

Angelina

Belgium United Kingdom Bulgaria Belgium Croatia Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium

MEADOWS KAVRAKOVA MUNOZ PLAVA-MATI VALLELY VENABLES VON BONIN WOBBEN

Graham Assya Rodolphe Cvjetana Malachy Tony Andreas Thomas

Former Director General for regional policy Open Society Institute - Sofia University of Liege National Foundation for Civil Society Development Leuven Institute for Ireland in Europe. ECAS Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer Delegation of Saxony-Anhalt to the EU

At the end of the year, Meglena Kuneva, former member of the European Commission accepted to become honorary President and play an active role. 6

In the annexes to this report, there are some useful data about ECAS: Organigram of the staff (Annex 1) Financial results and report of the auditor (Annex 2) List of the main meetings (Annex 3) List of the members (Annex 4)

2011 was a good year for ECAS and an exceptionally active one with a high level of output. This was however against the background of the economic and Euro crisis absorbing the full attention of EU Institutions little inclined to engage with citizens or citizenship until some resolution or economic recovery is in sight.

II. MAIN ACTIVITIES IN 2011


Creation of the European civil society house
At its first meeting of the year, the Board of Directors decided to single out this ambitious project as the first priority in the programme. In our last annual report, we reported that by the end of the year, the steering group for ECSH were fine-tuning the strategy with a view to starting with a virtual one-stop shop covering complaints to the European Commission, access to documents, petitions to the European Parliament, requests to the European ombudsman and citizens initiatives. Thanks to the support from the Rowntree Charitable Trust and the Europe for citizens programme, the project moved in 2011 beyond the conceptual stage to implement this first step and make a start with the virtual house. The input from the Europe for citizens, Carrousel project was invaluable to test specific ideas and the general approach. Carrousel refers to a technique of deliberation where citizens are moved from one table to the next, so that ideas are tested out and developed. The project innovated by putting in the same panel of 50-70 participants randomly selected citizens and a roughly representative group of civil society organisations. Each of the four panels in Budapest, Sofia, Paris and Warsaw looked at the plan for the one-stop shop as a whole taking into account information from the EU Institutions, and concentrating also on a particular aspect. The four reports and a synthesis report were presented by delegations from each panel at the 20th anniversary event on 1 September. The EU Institutions were represented by Nikiforos Diamandouros, the European ombudsman, Maro efovi and Andrew Duff MEP. In parallel to the panels, ECAS developed the contents of the one-stop shop to be launched in early 2012 with the assistance of Toute lEurope and Gov2U. The citizens panels insisted that the European civil society house should exist nearer home in their own country and in their own language. The panel from Sofia developed a detailed set of recommendations and a business plan, whilst the steering group agreed on 9 November that a start should be made with national correspondents examining the feasibility of setting up in 6-7 EU member states. The 3-year plan for the house sets out the strategy.

The ECAS programme of activities follows 3Cs: civil society, citizens rights, citizenship and governance The main activities in 2011 are described under these headings.

C1 CIVIL SOCIETY
In our last annual report, we considered that the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty would have a positive effect on relations between the EU Institutions and civil society in terms of article 11 on participatory democracy. In reality, apart from European citizens initiatives, there were no moves and no visible political will to implement other aspects of this article. ECAS continued to update the research on framework agreements between civil society and public authorities in cooperation with ENNA (European network of national associations) which carried out a survey of its members. In the crisis and with cuts back home, the main interest of the non-profit sector lay in fundraising and European projects, since the EU budget represents a relatively safe haven. In our last annual report, we reported on the ECAS event during the open days for cities and regions where we brought together evidence from a survey by IQnet and Jan Olssons report for the economic and social committee showing that partnership with civil society on cohesion policy was not working or at best working unevenly across member states and should be strengthened. The recommendations in the working paper prepared by ECAS for open days were followed up in the Commissions consultations on the fifth cohesion report. As a result of this preparatory work and evidence accumulated from different sources, the Commission did strengthen partnership including civil society as an obligation on member states and undertook to produce a code of conduct. The proposed article 5 is an improvement in the new draft regulations for cohesion policy 2014-2020. The Commission also recognises that better access to the structural funds requires not just stronger application of partnership but also simplified financial instruments of the type pioneered by the Europe for citizens programme. Following several meetings and briefings by the Commission, ECAS prepared a first draft report on ways and means of involving citizens and civil society in the EU future cohesion policy. In 2010 we also reported on the setting up of the IMPACT office with ECAS to help prepare civil society organisations for Croatian Accession. Several two week traineeships were organised for Croatian CSOs and a group visited Brussels in May to learn more about the social fund.

C2 CITIZENS RIGHTS
The beginning of the year was marked by the response to the Commissions call for tender for the running of Your Europe Advice. In the face of competition, ECAS won the bid to run the service for a further four years, which was a tribute to the quality standards of the team of 60 legal experts and the management. In 2011 Antoine Fobe for the management team produced a particularly useful and extensive FAQ on European citizens rights to free movement. The service has new features with 9

more emphasis on outreach requiring experts to speak at events on free movement of persons organised by Commission delegations in member states or other organisations and offer more faceto-face advice. The year saw a sharp increase in the volume of questions to reach an all-time high of 14,000. There is much to be celebrated in a service where the quality, as well as quantity of questions is improving as citizens become aware of their rights. The deterioration in the economic situation is also leading however to more widespread barriers to free movement of people and violation of European rights. The challenge therefore is to find ways of following up more serious complaints which cannot be solved only by advice and onward referral to mechanisms such as SOLVIT. One answer is the one-stop shop created to start the European civil society house. A visible sign of the deterioration in the European climate was the pressures exerted by the French and Italian governments and the June European Council to extend the safeguard clause in Schengen. This would allow member states to reintroduce internal border controls as a measure of last resort, when an external border was seriously threatened by migratory pressures. ECAS expressed strong reservations about the lack of consultation on the Commission proposals. Schengen in trouble could well be a signal that member states may create or tolerate less visible barriers to free movement and not be held to account. In 2011 ECAS worked with the coalition for a visa free Europe and continued to follow up the hotline on visas in Turkey. However, the internal disputes over Schengen helped slow down the process of visa liberalisation.

C3 CITIZENSHIP AND GOVERNANCE


The absence of activity on institutional reforms and different aspects of participatory democracy was evident in 2011. The main focus was on European citizens initiatives. ECAS was fortunate with its timing. The conference planned for 20 March 2011 happened to fall immediately after the adoption of the regulation by the European Parliament and Council. The event was opened by two of the European Parliaments rapporteurs, Gerald Hafner and Diana Wallis. This was a first opportunity to debate the compromise reached among the Institutions and to question the main protagonists. ECAS had prepared an analysis and briefing paper before the event. Examples were presented of successful experiments with collecting over 1 million signatures. Working groups at the conference examined the main challenges facing the citizens committee of an ECI: issues of legal competence; how to organise the campaign and collect over 1 million signatures from a minimum 7 countries in one year; questions of technical compliance with European and national rules. The event was attended by well over 100 activists, researchers and representatives of social media or public authorities. Throughout the year, as the list of meetings shows, ECAS explained ECIs at a number of events for example a major conference in Budapest organised by the Hungarian Presidency or at seminars organised by think tanks and other organisations. This added know how on ECIs, and showed the need for a much more widespread communication campaign about this new transnational and 10

collective European citizenship right to set the agenda. A publication was prepared Tips for the would-be organiser of an ECI on the basis of the lessons learned and as a start to a series of training sessions to be launched in 2012. ECAS even wrote a policy paper on social innovation as a basis for a possible future ECI demanding a framework law to clarify this concept.

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Annex 1 Organigram

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Annex 2 Financial results and report of the auditor

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Annex 3 Meetings and events in 2011


22 January 4 February 9 February 10-11 February 15 March 16 March

Talk to students at the college of Europe in Bruges

Meetings with the Polish ombudsman, Warsaw

Steering group, European civil society house

Annual training session for legal experts - Your Europe Advice

ECAS Board of Directors

Delegation with Barka foundation meets Jerzy Buzek, President of the European Parliament

16 March

Informal dialogue between CSOs and EU Institutions on European citizens initiatives (ECIs)

17 March

Conference at the Delegation of Saxony-Anhalt to the EU on European citizens initiatives

1 April 12 April 3-4 May

Meetings in Paris with Visiti and Toute lEurope

Euractiv meeting on ECIs

Study visit from National civil society development foundation (NCSDF) from Croatia on the social fund 15

5 May 7-8 May 10 May 19 May

ECAS Board of Directors

ECI Summit organised by the Austrian Institute for European law and policy, Vienna

Talk to group of students from Canada at CEPS

CEPS and other European think tanks meeting on the state of European democracy and preparation for ECIs, Rome

31 May 4 June 5-7 June 9 June 11 June

Meeting with general budget rapporteur in 2010

Citizens panel (Carrousel project) organised by NIOK, Budapest

Speech on ECIs and workshop at the European civil society meeting, Budapest

ECAS Board of Directors and ECSG steering group

Citizens panel on establishing the Bulgarian European civil society house, organised by OSI Sofia

18 June 18 June

Citizens panel on European citizens initiatives, Toute lEurope, Paris

Seminar on rights of Roma as European citizens organised by European alternatives, Douai

2 July

Citizens panel, focusing on the role of the European ombudsman, Robert Schuman Foundation, Warsaw

11 July 31 August

Training session organised by the European trade unions confederation ECAS Board of Directors meeting starts the review and reception for 20 th anniversary of ECAS

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1-2 September 20th anniversary events:


- Master classes on European funding and ECIs - General Assembly - Conference on European citizens rights and results of the Carrousel project

15 September 21 September

ECAS delegation visits CSDF and government office for civil society on Croatia accession and the social fund, Zagreb Presentation of a suggestion for a European citizens initiative at a conference on social innovation, Naples

3 October 5 October 10-13 October 14-15 October

YEA management team and legal experts attend single market forum, Krakow

Meeting with Gerald Hfner MEP on ECIs and European year of citizens in 2013

Open Days for regions and cities

Meetings with Rowntree Charitable Trust in York and City Council representative in Manchester

24-26 October

Regional Conference on Reflections and Elaborations of IPA CSF Future Perspectives and TACSO2 planning, Prishtina

4 November

Visit from Marie Spaak one of the founders of ECAS

7 November

Meeting with Gov2U for the design and launch of the one-stop shop virtual house on European citizens rights

9 November

Open brainstorming meeting of the Board of Directors for the review Steering group for ECSH 17

10 November

Meeting with Commission Secretariat General (Mario Tenreiro and colleagues) on monitoring applications of ECI regime by member states

16 November

Briefing organised by DG regional policy with other DGs on the proposals for EU Cohesion policy 2014-2020

29 November

Speaker at workshop dialogue with non-governmental and religious/philosophical organisations, Austrian Institute for European law and policy

30 November

- YEA training session - Speaker at European alternatives, Brussels days

5-6 December

P2P Seminar, Functional systems for involving civil society in policy development and decision-making process, Shopje

6 December 7 December 12 December 12-14 December 13 December

Europe for citizens programme, structured dialogue meeting

ECAS general Assembly and meetings of working groups for the review

Meeting with Meglena Kuneva in Sofia

TACSO Conference on Regional Networks in Sarajevo

Hearing at Romanian Senate to launch Romani Kriss-ECAS, publications on Roma and hate speech

19 December

Seminar organised with civil society organisations for the year of volunteering by Europe House, Budapest

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Annex 4 List of ECAS Members


ASSOCIATIONS NAME EUROPEAN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS PLATFORM NYKTERHETSRRELSENS BILDNINGSVERKSAMHET EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF SERVICE PROVIDERS FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES NONON JACQUELINE EUROPEAN YOUTH FORUM STATEWATCH CITIZENS INFORMATION CENTRE CITIZENS ADVICE WALES COUNCIL FOR VOLUNTARY ACTION ADICE-ASSOCIATION POUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT DES INITIATIVES CITOYENNES ET EUROPEENNES POLICY ASSOCIATION FOR AN OPEN SOCIETY FEDERATION OF THE NON-GOVERNAMENTAL ORGANISATIONS CENTRUM SZPITALNA JUNIOR ACHIEVEMENT YOUNG ENTERPRISE EUROPE ACHTERBERG HENDRIK ACCESS TO INFORMATION PROGRAMME FOUNDATION INTERNATIONAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES PRORURALINVEST AUTONOMOUS CENTRE - UDRUGA ACT FUNDACAO CALOUSTE GULBENKIAN - SERVICIO DE SAUDE E DESENVOLVIMENTO HUMANO ASSOCIAZIONE PER L'INCONTRO DELLE CULTURE IN EUROPA - TORINO FONDATION EURACTIV BORGHINI ANDREA UCEPE - ORGANIZZAZIONE ACCREDITATA UFFICIALMENTE PRESSO IL PARLAMENTO DI BRUXELLES FOUNDATION OF LOCAL DEMOCRACY SARAJEVO ASSOCIATION FOR PROMOTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND MEDIA FREEDOMS "CENZURA PLUS" ISTITUTO DI RICERCA DEI SISTEMI EVOLUTIVI DEI MANAGEMENT LA LIGUE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT PERMANENT FORUM OF EUROPEAN CIVIL SOCIETY CENTAR ZA PROMOCIJU CIVILNOG DRUS - CIVIL SOCIETY PROMOTION CENTRE EUCLID NETWORK THE PANTHEION INITIATIVE NTVERKET UNGDOM I EUROPA/ NETWORK YOUTH IN EUROPE LUPUS EUROPE OPEN ESTONIA FOUNDATION ALBANIAN SAVINGS & CREDIT UNION COUNTRY BELGIUM BELGIUM - SWEDEN BELGIUM FRANCE BELGIUM UNITED KINGDOM IRELAND UNITED KINGDOM UNITED KINGDOM FRANCE CZECH REPUBLIC POLAND BELGIUM SWEDEN BULGARIA NETHERLANDS MOLDOVA CROATIA PORTUGAL BELGIUM BELGIUM ITALY ITALY BOSNIA & HERZEGOVNIA CROATIA ITALY FRANCE BELGIUM BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNITED KINGDOM BELGIUM - SERBIA SWEDEN UNITED KINGDOM ESTONIA ALBANIA 19

COS GELDERLAND CITIZENS FOR EUROPE STICHTING SMARTROOTS EUROPEAN TRADE UNION INSTITUTE FORUM EUROPEN POUR LA SCURIT URBAINE RIGHT TO PLAY NETHERLANDS EUROPEAN INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEFENSE DES ENFANTS - INTERNATIONAL BELGIQUE HUMANISTISCH VERBOND THE WOMEN AT WORK INITIATIVE BELFAST UNEMPLOYED RESOURCE CENTRE FRIENDS INDEED STITCHING BREATH INDEPENDENT DIPLOMAT LONGFORD WOMEN'S LINK EUROPEAN NETWORK FOR VISION IMPAIRMENT TRAINING EDUCATION AND RESEARCH FRONTALIERS INQUIETES LOWER SILESIA REGIONAL OFFICE IN BRUSSELS IRISH ENVIRONMENTAL NETWORK KYRKORNAS EU-KONTOR - THE ECUMENICAL OFFICE FOR EU RELATIONS LOCAL COUNCILS' ASSOCIATION NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CITIZENS ADVICE BUREAUX ACTIVE - SOBRIETY,FRIENDSHIP AND PEACE GENERATIE TANARA (UNGA LIV) ASSOCIATION PRO DEMOCRATIA RIGA INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION OUTREACH MOLDOVA WSCF EUROPE NGO COUNCIL BIH STICHTING EVENS PETITION.NL FOUNDATION STICHTING CHILD HELPLINE INTERNATIONAL NGO INNOVA ESTONIA GRUPO DE ESTUDIOS AMBIENTALES Y SOCIALES A. C. CENTRE IKO INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION AND LEADERSHIP SCHOOL EUROPEAN MOVEMENT IRELAND ADVENTIST DEVELOPMENT AND RELIEF AGENCY EU LIASON OFFICE JUMP ASBL VASILICA VALI STAICU - LONDON ACADEMY OF DIPLOMACY CENTRE FOR CIVIC INITIATIVES LLANWRTYD COMMUNITY TRANSPORT AND EVENTS RECYCLING EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION FOR VIEWERS' INTERESTS FUTURE OF EUROPE ASSOCIATION

NETHERLANDS GERMANY NETHERLANDS BELGIUM FRANCE NETHERLANDS NETHERLAND BELGIUM NETHERLANDS ITALY UNITED KINGDOM NETHERLANDS NETHERLANDS UNITED KINGDOM IRELAND UNITED KINGDOM FRANCE BELGIUM IRELAND SWEDEN MALTA ROMANIA SWEDEN ROMANIA ROMANIA LATVIA IRELAND GERMANY BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BELGIUM NETHERLANDS NETHERLANDS ESTONIA MEXICO NETHERLANDS ITALY IRELAND BELGIUM BELGIUM UK BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA UNITED KINGDOM BELGIUM HUNGARY 20

HEALTH ACTION INTERNATIONAL (EUROPE) SALZBURG GLOBAL SEMINAR PROGETTO SVILUPPO LIGURIA AGENCE NOUVELLE DES SOLIDARITES ACTIVES LAND SALZBURG TROCAIRE WOMEN ISSUES INFORMATION CENTRE INTERNATIONAL RESOURCE CENTER FOR CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS PACIFIC DIALOGUE CENTRO DI SERVIZI PER IL VOLONTARIATO DI PALERMO PLATFORM LONDON CHANNEL 4 BRITDOC FOUNDATION INTERNATIONAL SPORT AND CULTURE ASSOCIATION EUROPEAN FEDERATION OF PUBLIC SERVICE UNIONS ACCESS INFO EUROPE SOS GLOBAL KYRKLUNDS CONSULTING INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONALE SCALABRINIENNE AU SERVICE DES MIGRANTS PARTNERAID INTERNATIONAL E.V. TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL LIAISON OFFICE TO THE EU THE GERMAN MARSHALL FUND MARRIAGE EQUALITY START STRONG NIOK FOUNDATION NATIONAL YOUTH COUNCIL OF SLOVENIA GENERAL RESEARCH SPAIN SL IOGT INTERNATIONAL U.E.M.S. EUROPEAN UNION OF MEDICAL SPECIALISTS THE JORDANIAN HASHEMITE FUND FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR CIVIL SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT LOCAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY - STRUGA EUROPEAN ORGANISATION OF MILITARY ASSOCIATIONS MDM CONSULTANCY DEUTSCHER JUGENDSCHUTZ-VERBAND (GERMAN ASSOCIATION FOR YOUTH PROTECTION) STICHTING NEDERLANDS EUROPEAN HOUSE MEDITERRANEAN INFORMATION OFFICE FOR ENVIRONMENT CULTURE AND SUSTENIBLE DEVELOPMENT COLE POLYTECHNIQUE FDRALE DE LAUSANNE MICHAL GRINBERG ENAME CENTER FOR PUBLIC ARCHAEOLOGY AND HERITAGE PRESENTATION BODOSSAKI FOUNDATION DUNDALK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY STINE BJORHOLM

NETHERLANDS AUSTRIA ITALY FRANCE BELGIUM IRELAND LITHUANIA MEXICO FIJI ISLAND ITALY UNITED KINGDOM UNITED KINGDOM DENMARK BELGIUM SPAIN UNITED KINGDOM SWEDEN BELGIUM GERMANY BELGIUM GERMANY IRELAND IRELAND HUNGARY SLOVENIA SPAIN SWEDEN BELGIUM JORDAN CROATIA REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA (FYROM) BELGIUM BELGIUM GERMANY BELGIUM HUNGARY GREECE SWITZERLAND BELGIUM BELGIUM GREECE IRELAND DENMARK 21

GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA - OFFICE FOR COOPERATION WITH CIVIL SOCIETY LEGER DES HEILS ASSOCIATION FOR WOMENS HEALTH INSTITUTE FOR COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIP - BETHLEHEM UNIVERSITY ALLIANCE ELIANT (EUROPEAN ALLIANCE OF INITIATIVES FOR APPLIED ANTHROPOSOPHY) LEPSTICHTING CIWI GMBH UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN

SERBIA NETHERLANDS CROATIA ISRAEL BELGIUM NETHERLANDS GERMANY REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA

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