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Lecture No.

Introduction

Course Offering
ME 553 - Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery Fall, 2008 Call Number:14915 E-Mail: kinzel.1@osu.edu Phone: 292-6884 (O), 459-5125 (H) Class times: Prerequisites: Web Page: Instructor: G.L. Kinzel Office: E345 Scott Laboratory Office Hours: Monday 1:30-2:30 TR 10:00-11:00

Tue and Thurs 12:00 - 1:48 Location: E001 Scott Lab ME 430, 250, 561 & Eng Major or Permission of Instructor www.carmen.osu.edu

Required Text: Kinematics, Dynamics, and Design of Machinery, 2ed. by K Waldron and G. Kinzel, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2004. Required Equipment: drafting triangles, compass, protractor, scale Prerequisite for: ME 563 Design of Selected Machine Elements II ME 751 Application of Computer Graphics to Kinematic Synthesis and Analysis (offered Winter Quarter) h i d l i ( ff d i )
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Mechanism Overview

OVERVIEW: OVERVIEW ME 553 deals with: d l ith a) The kinematics and rigid-body dynamics of machine components. p b) The motion and force analysis in mechanisms (Cams and linkages) c) Design of planar linkages and simple cam systems BACKGROUND: a) Statics and d ) St ti d dynamics (410 & 430) are real prerequisites i l i it b) Need to know solid modeling from somewhere (ME 561) ) p c) Review topics if not comfortable with them.
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Important Dates
Tuesday Friday Thursday Thursday Th d Friday Thursday Tuesday January 5 January 22 February 11 February 18 F b February 19 March 11 March 16 First Class Meeting Last Day to Drop Without a W or Add Without Petitioning Midterm Exam Will try to have midterms graded t t h idt d d Last Day to Drop Without Petitioning (contact me first though) Project Presentations 5:30 9:00 p.m. Presentations, pm Final Exam, 1:30-3:18 p.m.

Grading
GRADING: The course grade will be based on the following: Midterm 30% 94-100 A 73-75.9 C Final Fi l 25% 90 93 9 90-93.9 AA 70-72.9 C70 72 9 C Homework 15% 86-89.9 B+ 65-69.9 D+ Attendance 10% 83-85.9 B 60-64.9 D Project 20% 80 82 9 80-82.9 BB 0-59.9 0 59 9 E 100% 76-79.9 C+ In addition, I reserve the right to add up to 5 points to a students final average if I do not believe that the average reflects accurately the students overall performance in the class. However, I will never add points if the students performance st dents pe fo mance on the home o k and/o p oject is poo o if the homework and/or project poor or students attendance record is poor. Also, I will not add points to the final average if it raises the final score above the homework average. The class average is typically around 2.8.
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Exams
EXAMS: If you do not appear for a scheduled exam, you will be given a zero grade f th t exam. F an absence t b excused, you i d for that For b to be d will need a written explanation signed by a physician specifying that you were medically unable to attend. Standardized forms (such as issued by the health center) will not be accepted accepted. All exams will be closed book book. However, an 8.5 x 11 inch sheet of equations (no worked problems) may be brought to each exam. These equation sheets will be handed in with the exams. exams The midterm will be given on Thursday, February 22 from

2:30 to 4:18, and the final exam will be given on Tuesday March 16 from 1:30 - 3:18 pm.

Attendance

Attendance will be taken at random times during the quarter. I have found that on average, students who attend class perform significantly better on the exams than those who do not. In general, I will present the theory in g p y the class using slides and work examples on the chalkboard. It will benefit all of the students to see the examples. I expect to take attendance approximately 10 times during the quarter so each class missed will mean a deduction of one point from your f l average f the class. d d f f final for h l

Homework
a) Homework problems will be assigned during almost every class meeting. b) U l Unless otherwise stated, homework is due in class one week from the th i t t d h ki d i l kf th day it was assigned. c) All assigned homework problems will be collected, but only one problem in each set will be graded by my grader. grader d) An effort will be made to post solutions to the problems that are not graded. e) Late homework will not be accepted. f) Students are encouraged to work together on the homework assignments; however, every student must individually submit a homework assignment that consists of his/her own work. g / g) Submitting homework that is copied in any portion from another source, including another students work, constitutes academic misconduct and will be reported as such. h) The homework must be written according to the homework format. One point will be subtracted for each major step omitted. You can receive a 8 zero even though your method and answer are nominally correct.

Extra Accommodations
Any student who feels that he/she may need an accommodation b d on th i d ti based the impact of a di bilit should t f disability h ld contact the instructor privately to discuss his/her specific needs. The instructor will work with the student and the Office of Disability Services at (614) 292-3307 in 150 Pomerene Hall to coordinate reasonable accommodations for students with documented disabilities disabilities.

Course Objectives
Each student will learn to: 1. To model real mechanisms for mobility, position, velocity, and acceleration. 2. To design linkages for rigid-body guidance, rocker amplitude, rigid body path generation, and function generation. 3. To analyze and design cam/follower mechanisms. 4. 4 To use both graphical and analytical approaches to mechanism analysis. 5. To perform force analysis of mechanisms using energy-based methods. 6. To work as a team employing computer-based productivity tools in a project setting.
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Tentative Schedule
DATE TOPIC TEXT

Tuesday, January 5 Thursday, January 7 Tuesday, Tuesday January 12 Thursday, January 14 Tuesday, January 19 Tuesday, October 21 Tuesday, January 26 Thursday, January 28 Tuesday, February 2 Thursday, Thursday February 4 Tuesday, February 9

Introduction, joints, planar linkages Mobility, idle degrees-of-freedom Inversion, G h f criterion, motion li i i I i Grashof i i i limits, interference f Design for motion generation Design for motion generation, continued Design for function generation Design for rocker amplitude, cognate linkages Cam design, motion programs Graphical and analytical methods in cam profile layout Analytical four-bar analysis Analytical slider-crank analysis

1.1 1.6 1.7 1.9 1.10 1.19 1 10 1 19 6.1 - 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 8.1 8.9 8.10 5.1 5.4 5.5 5.6

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Tentative Schedule (Contd)


Thursday, February 11 Tuesday, Tuesday February 16 Thursday, February 18 Tuesday, February 23 Thursday, February 25 Tuesday, March 2 Thursday, March 4 Tuesday, March 9 Thursday, March 11

Midterm Examination
Vector loop method of analysis p y Velocity & acceleration polygons Polygon examples, image theorems, inversion General velocity/acceleration equations Special applications of velocity and acceleration equations Instant centers Instant centers, energy methods in force analysis Static force analysis of mechanisms Project Presentations 5:30 9:00 p.m. 5.7 5.13 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.5 3.8 4.1 4.14 13.9 13.10 13.1 13.8

Tuesday, March 16

Final Examination, 11:30 a.m.

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Homework Format
GENERAL 1. All homework must be written neatly on straight lines. If necessary, use lined y g y, paper. 2. Use only one side of the paper. 3. The first page should be left blank except for the following information: student's name, name class section, date due, and the homework number section due number. 4. Start each long problem on a new page (it is not necessary to do this for each part of a question, however) unless the problem is very brief. If more than one problem is included on a given page, separate the problems with a horizontal dividing line. 5. Number the pages consecutively 6. Staple all pages together in the proper order. 7. 7 Ample margins (about 1 inch) should be provided at all four edges of the sheets. sheets

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Homework Format (Contd)


NUMERICAL PROBLEMS 1. Write down the problem statement complete with sketches. 2. Explain 2 E l i your solution sequence in words l ti i d 3. Show details of your calculations and identify the answer(s) with a surrounding box. 4. 4 Never show a calculation without the algebraic form of the equation given first. 5. Actual calculated results should be shown to only sufficient decimals to indicate the expected accuracy of the computations computations. DRAWINGS 1. Use a sharpened pencil and make accurate sketches/drawings. p p / g 2. Use a ruler or straight edge to draw straight lines and a compass or template for circles. ************************************************************* Note: 10% will be deducted for each applicable step which is neglected 14

MATLAB Programs Available (1st Edition)


Location Footpump Analysis Four Bar Analysis Rigid Body Analysis Slider Crank Analysis Six Bar Mechanism Inverted Slider Crank RPRP Analysis RRPP Analysis Elliptic Trammel Oldham Analysis Rectangle & Frameline Rigid Body Guidance Function Generation Crank Rocker Design Cam Design Inflection Circle Prog. Centrode Plot SC Shaking Force Coupler Curve Gen. Cognate Drawing Description Files for analyzing a footpump mechanism Four-bar Four bar linkage analysis routines Analysis of rigid body is two points are known Slider-crank linkage analysis MATLAB program for analyzing a six bar linkage Inverted slider-crank analysis slider crank RPRP mechanism analysis with either slider or crank as driver RRPP mechanism analysis with either slider or crank as driver Elliptic trammel mechanism analysis Oldham mechanism analysis with either slider or crank as driver Programs for coordinates of rectangle and frameline Program for design of linkage for 3 positions for rigid body guidance MATLAB program for function generation MATLAB program for crank rocker design MATLAB program for cam design MATLAB program computing the inflection circle for four bar linkage MATLAB program computing centrode for four-bar linkage program Program for computing the shaking force for slider crank mechani Coupler curves for a four-bar linkage and slider crank program Computes the cognates linkages for a four-bar linkage 15

MATLAB Programs Available (2nd Edition)


-See web on how to run programsPrograms Under LinkageDesign 1) Crank Rocker Design (CRDesign) 2) Cognate determinations of a four bar linkage (CognateAnalysis) 3) Design of double rocker linkage (DoubleRockerDesign) 4) Simple four bar linkage analysis (FourbarAnalysis) 5) Simple slider crank linkage analysis (SliderCrankAnalysis) 6) Six bar analysis program (SixbarAnalysis) 7) Simulation of Hrones & Nelson coupler curve atlas for four-bar linkages (HR CrankRockerAnalysis) 8) Simulation of Hrones & Nelson coupler curve atlas for slider-crank linkages (HRSliderCrankAnalysis) 9) Display of four-bar linkage centrode curves (CentrodeDesign) 10) Display of four-bar linkage inflection circle and calculation of center of curvature (Inflection4barAnalysis) 11) Analysis of shaking forces in slider-crank mechanism (ShakeAnalysis). Programs Under Cam Design 1) One program, Cam2. Programs Under Rigid Body Guidance Design 1) Rigid body Rigid-body guidance or motion generation using 2) Rigid-body guidance or motion generation using 3) Rigid-body guidance or motion generation using 4) Rigid-body guidance or motion generation using a a a a four bar linkage (RBG4barDesign) four-bar crank-slider mechanism (RBGCrankSliderDesign) slider-crank mechanism (RBGSliderCrankDesign) double slider or elliptic trammel mechanism (RBGElTrammelDesign)

Programs Under Gear Design 1) Arb2ThDesign) will compute and draw the tooth profile conjugate to an arbitrarily specified tooth form 2) GeardrDesign) will draw an involute profile given the parameters of the hob used to generate the gear form

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Student Grievances
Process: 1) The student should first talk to faculty member or instructor involved 2) If the difficulty is not resolved, the student may make an appointment with the departments Coordinator of Undergraduate Academic Advising. g g 3) If satisfactory resolution does not occur, the student may take the grievance to the departments Associate Chair. 4) If satisfactory resolution does not occur, the student should notify the departments Chair. Information can be obtained from the Office of Undergraduate Academic Advising (Faculty Rule 3335-7-23). Grievances concerning graduate teaching and research associates should be submitted first to the supervising instructor, then to the Coordinator of Undergraduate Academic Advising, and if necessary, to the departments Associate Chair Chair. Coordinator of Undergraduate Academic Advising: Associate Chair Chair Rosie Quinzone-Bonello (N250D Scott Laboratory) Quinzon-bonello.1@osu.edu 614-292-0515 Gary Kinzel (E345 Scott Laboratory) kinzel.1@osu.edu 614-292-6884 Krishnaswamy Srinivasan (N350C Scott Laboratory) srinivasan.3@osu.edu 614-292-0503

This information is given on the web site: http://www.mecheng.ohiostate.edu/docs/undrgrad/Procedure_ 17 Grievance%20and%20Solving%20Problems.pdf

Academic Misconduct
1) The use of University Computing Resources for expressly committing or facilitating the commission of Academic Misconduct is prohibited by the Policy of the Office of Information Technology: http://cio.ohio-state.edu/policies/use_policy.html 2) Academic Misconduct is described as "any activity that tends to compromise the academic integrity any of the university, or subvert the educational process." Pertinent examples include, but are not limited to: Knowingly providing or using assistance in the laboratory, on field work, or on a course assignment unless such assistance has specifically been authorized; Submitting plagiarized work for an academic requirement. Plagiarism is the representation of another's work or ideas as one's own; it includes the unacknowledged word-for-word use and/or paraphrasing of another person's work, and/or the inappropriate unacknowledged use of another person's ideas; Submitting substantially the same work to satisfy requirements for one course that has been submitted in satisfaction of requirements for another course, without permission of the instructor of the course for which the work is being submitted; Engaging in activities that unfairly place other students at a disadvantage, such as taking, hiding or altering resource material, or manipulating a grading system. In particular, website posting, using University Computing Resources, solution manuals, worked problems (whatever the source), laboratory reports, or any material which may be turned in as an assignment for an offered course is expressly prohibited. Any violations of the above policy will be reported to the University Committee on Academic Misconduct. Students who violate the policy may also be denied access to University Computing Resources. 18 This information is given on the web site: http://www.mecheng.ohio-state.edu/students/comppolicy.html

Project Description
Project Description The project will be completed by a team of 4-6 students. The objective is to design p j p y j g and build a linkage that will solve one of the problems detailed below. The linkage must be a one-degree-of-freedom device and consist of all rigid members (unless explicitly stated otherwise). Also, the linkage must incorporate at least one 4-bar linkage, slider crank linkage slider-crank, or slider-crank inversion. You must build a physical model of the slider crank inversion linkage that can fit on a 2-ft x 2-ft board. Deliverables: 1) A functioning prototype 2) A written report describing the design and fabrication of the linkage 3) A Powerpoint presentation giving an overview of the design 4) An animation of the linkage using a solid modeling program 5) A CD with all written material and supporting documentation

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Project Dates
Proposal Date: On February 16, submit a 3-page proposal identifying the problem on which your team will be working. In the proposal, give dimensions for the frame mounted joints and any other parameters that are relevant to the problem. The first page of the proposal must be blank except for the project name, date, and the names and pictures of the team members. On the second and third pages, describe at least one design concept and give details about the design constraints and how you plan to solve the problem. Completion Date: You will demonstrate your design on Thursday, March 11, between 5:30 and 9 p.m. in E100. If you have a conflict during part or all of this time, include an explanation of the conflict as an extra page in your proposal proposal. Task Details: On March 11, you will have 10 minutes to explain your design and to demonstrate that it solves the problem identified. At the beginning of your team s demonstration one person from the identified team's demonstration, group will give a brief presentation using PowerPoint on the design while the rest of the team sets up the mechanism. I will select the person who will give the presentation immediately before it is your team's turn. Therefore, each person in the team must be prepared to give the presentation.

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Report, Animation, and CD


Written Report
The final report for the project must be in both hard copy and electronic form (.doc or .pdf format), and all text and equations must be typed. All drawings, photographs, and text must be contained in the report. Do the solid models and animation with SolidEdge. For the animation, show the motion of the linkage in general. Draw additional figures using a program like AutoCAD or the draft feature in SolidEdge.

For the animation, show the motion of the linkage in general using a solid modeling program. Change the color of the individual links so that they stand out. Use the motion feature under the environment tab and create an AVI movie of the animation. If you do not know how to do this, animation this see the tutorials provided with the solid modeling programs. The procedure is simple, and the tutorials are informative.

Animation

1) Report in MS Word or pdf format. . 2) Solid-modeling files for, parts, drafts, assembly, and movie. Provide an IGES file for the assembly. 3) R d " file explaining how to assemble the mechanism in the solid modeling program and Readme" fil l i i h t bl th h i i th lid d li d how to conduct the animation.
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CD C t t Contents

Design Procedure and Extra Credit

Design Procedure You are expected to use one of the formal design procedures covered in class. Significantly reduced credit will be given for designs based on trial and error. Bonus Points 5 bonus points will be awarded for the best linkage as determined by a majority of the class.

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Project Options
1) Walking machine: Design a mechanism to serve as the leg of a walking machine such that it drives the foot through a typical walking stride. See www.strandbeest.com for inspiration. 2) Vehicle roof rack assist: Design a mechanism to assist an individual in loading objects such as luggage, canoes, skis, etc., onto the roof of a vehicle. 3) Design of Trenching Attachment for a Farm Tractor: Design a trenching device that will attach to the three point hitch on a tractor and can be powered using the power takeoff. three-point takeoff 4) Rocking-Chair Simulator: Design a rocking chair simulator that takes up the same floor space as a normal Boston Rocker and moves with the same motion. 5) Efficient Windshield Wiper: Design a new wiper system that can be retrofit on existing cars and will clean at least 95 percent of the windshield. d ill l l f h i d hi ld 6) Shoe Tester: Design a machine that will wear test shoe soles for a typical walking cycle. 7) Spring-Linkage Counterbalance: Design a mechanism to counterbalance a tool that weights 50 p g pounds over a length of 2 feet in the vertical direction so that an assembly line g y worker does not have to strain him/herself to use the tool. 8) Solar Panel Tracking Mechanism: Design a linkage with a constant velocity input that will track the north-south movement of the sun at noon from winter to summer. 9) Team Defined Mechanism: Your team may also come up with a project of your own choosing as long as it is at least as involved as the ones above, and it requires one of the 23 design procedures covered in class

Project Final Report


1) The final report will be approximately 15 pages long. The reports should contain the following: 2) The front page of the report should contain the project title, date, picture of device, and pictures and names of the team members. 3) The main report follows the title page. The report must contain the following sections that will be separated ) p p g p g p by headings. a) Introduction - This should explain the purpose of the device and should detail the constraints. Note that these constraints will include the ones given on the problem sheet along with others that the team identifies. Include a problem statement with a good photograph of the linkage environment, a scale drawing or photograph of your linkage model, and a description of the linkage. model linkage b) Description of design process and design. Tell how you arrived at the design and describe in detail your design. Identify the subsystems in the device and explain what each subsystem does. Note that you are expected to use one of the formal design procedures covered in class. Reduced credit will be given for trial and error designs. c) Show the design process using either graphical or analytical procedures. Show design details on how you determined the link lengths and pivot locations. Be specific and not descriptive. d) Write a conclusions section telling the good and bad aspects of the design. 4) When writing the report, include a figure caption below each figure. Also, refer to every figure in the text In general, use figures when describing physical aspects of the design. general design 5) Include a caption above any tables. Refer to the tables in the text. 6 )The report must be produced using MS Word (or .pdf format) and delivered in both written and electronic form. 7 )Type any equations used in the report, and assign equation numbers to any equations that you refer to in the text. h 8) On the final page of the report, indicate the contributions of each team member to the project. Write 2-3 lines for each team member. 24 9) Be sure to use page numbers.

Project Grading

Grading: Design proposal: Report R Design quality Presentation Animation Peer review

5% 20% 35% 15% 5% 20% (You will provide this information on the final exam)

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Project Web Page

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Project Web Page (contd)

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