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Solar Energy Kit

L ab 1 Resistor measurement: Resistor in series and parallel


Background:
Resistors imped current flow through the circuit. When resistors imped current flow, we refer it as resistance with the units of ohms (). Example of describing a circuit in a non-technical english writing: From the voltage source Vcc, the 220 ohm () resistor is in series with the 1 kilo-ohm () resistor which is in series with the 10 kilo-ohm () resistor. The 10 kilo-ohm resistor is also connected to ground. Ground is the symbol that looks like an arrow pointing down.

(figure 1-1) The resistor above is read from left to right because it the habit of reading left to right, but there is no require path to read the circuit, only that it is appropriately describe the connections.

How to measure a resistor Either clip or connect to the two terminals of the resistor. General resistors are non-polar, which mean when they are connected to a circuit they have no preference to polarity reference. Other device do require polarity to be considered when measuring and applying by itself or in a circuit; that would be shown the lab further in the lab manual, i.e. diodes. 2012 StandardFlux.com www.standardflux.com Page 1

(figure 1-2)

Pre-Lab:
Calculate the following circuits total resistance value

(figure 1- 3)

(figure 1- 4)

Richard Lavis

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Solar Energy Kit

Lab
Material required: Qty 1 1 1 Part 220 1k 10k

Measure circuits for the following: i) Resistance for each resistor. ii) Total resistance of the entire circuit. Extra Questions iii) What is the percentage of error for each resistor value with its theoretical value? Calculate percentage error with the following equation:

iv) Measure the resistance for the fan. v) If attach a small fan to the circuits in series with the other resistor in series, how much does it affect it the total resistance. The same question if the fan was in parallel with the resistors in parallel. vi) Attach the fan in parallel to the entire resistor in series (see figure c), and calculate the total resistance of the circuit. How has the resistance change, and does it make sense. vii) Attach the fan in series from the positive (red) terminal into the resistor in parallel (see figure d), and calculate the total resistance. How has the resistance change, and does this make sense.

2012 StandardFlux.com

www.standardflux.com

Page 3

(figure 1- 5) Circuit with resistor in series only

(Figure 1-6) Circuit with resistor in parallel only

Richard Lavis

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Solar Energy Kit

L ab 2 Voltage and Current measurements


Background:
Caution: We do not recommend connecting this solar energy kit to line voltage or line current, i.e. wall socket. This kit is not design for the high current or voltage that comes from any other voltage source or current source. Use the solar cell(s) and/or 9 volt battery provided with this kit to help prevent personal harm or death when using this kit. When building a new circuit, it is important to practice safe lab behaviors. First, always have all power source disconnected before wiring the circuit. This prevents shocks or burning out sensitivity device on the board. Once connected, make sure everyone around you understand the circuit with exposed wires is powered. Do so can prevent unintentional shocks and prevent poor measurement readings. While this kit does not exhibit large current or voltage, these are still good behaviors to practice when dealing with higher current and voltage ratings. If you are using high current circuit with a larger solar installation, a co-worker that is testing the circuit measurements and not aware of the solar panels being connected to the circuit can be severely harm or fatally injured from the electricity flowing through the system.

2012 StandardFlux.com

www.standardflux.com

Page 5

Pre-Lab:
Calculate the voltage drop across the voltmeter for figure 2-1 and figure 2-2.

(figure 2-1)

(figure 2-2)

Calculate the current in figure 2-3 and figure 2-4 going through the ammeter.

(figure 2-3)

Richard Lavis

Page 6

Solar Energy Kit

(figure 2- 4)

Lab
Material required: Qty Material 1 1 1 1 1 9 volt battery or 12 volt solar cell 220 1k 10k Multi-meter

Measure the circuit in figure 2-5 and figure 2-6 for the following: i) Use the voltmeter setting to measure the voltage drop across the entire circuit. ii) Use the voltmeter setting to measure the voltage drop across each resistor. iii) Since the resistors are the same, explain what cause difference between the voltage across the resistors in series and parallel.

2012 StandardFlux.com

www.standardflux.com

Page 7

(figure 2-5)

(figure 2-6) Measure the circuit in figure 2-7 and figure 2-8 for the following: i) Use the ammeter setting to measure the current through the entire circuit. ii) Use the ammeter setting to measure the current through each resistor. iii) Since the resistors are the same, explain what cause difference between the current through the resistors in series and parallel.

Richard Lavis

Page 8

Solar Energy Kit

(figure 2-7)

(figure 2-8)

2012 StandardFlux.com

www.standardflux.com

Page 9