Você está na página 1de 13

PHYTO-ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BRAZILIAN SAVANNA (CERRADO) AND BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST, WITH THE RESEARCH OF STONE LINES AND

PALEOSOLS

Available online at:


http://pt.scribd.com/doc/104063737/Phyto-environmental-characterization-of-Brazilian-Savanna-Cerrado-and-Brazilian-Atlantic-Forest-with-the-research-of-stone-lines-and-paleosols

Vasconcelos, Vitor Vieira1 Vasconcelos, Caio Vieira2 Vasconcelos, Davi Mouro3


1 Legislative Consultant of Environment and Sustainable Management at the Legislative Power of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. PhD. student in Geology. Master of Arts in Geography. Specialist in Soil and Environment. Bachelor in Philosophy. Environmental Technician. Computer Science Technician. 2 Agronomist at the Executive Power of Esprito Santo State, Brazil. 3 Lawyer at the Justice Power of Brazil. Farmer. President of the Farmers Union of Rancho Fundo.

Paper originally published in Portuguese, at:

VASCONCELOS, Vitor Vieira; VASCONCELOS, Caio Vieira; VASCONCELOS, Davi Mouro. Caracterizao de Fito-Ambientes de Cerrado e de Mata Atlntica por meio de estudo de Linhas de Pedra e Paleossolos. Geografia. Ensino & Pesquisa (UFSM), v. 14, p. 3, 2010. Available at: http://cascavel.ufsm.br/revistageografia/index.php/revistageografia/article/viewFile/150/135

Proofread by Carolina Dias, in September, 2011

PHYTO-ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BRAZILIAN SAVANNA (CERRADO) AND BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST, WITH THE RESEARCH OF STONE LINES AND PALEOSOLS
Vitor Vieira Vasconcelos* Caio Vieira Vasconcelos Davi Mouro Vasconcelos
1

Abstract:
The main theories on the genesis distinction of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and the Brazilian Savanna biomes are due to the characterization of Savannas soils, particularly the aluminum excess and/or the thin soils of rocky fields. These two hypotheses have been questioned due to soil analysis, drill surveys, soil profiles and remote sensing in a research in Brumadinho MG, Brazil. The study of stone lines and paleosols is presented as an alternative for genesis condition distinction of both biomes. Keywords: Brazilian Savanna, Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Stone Lines, Paleosols

CARACTERIZAO DE FITO-AMBIENTES DE CERRADO E DE MATA ATLNTICA POR MEIO DO ESTUDO DE LINHAS DE PEDRA E PALEOSSOLOS
Resumo:
Teorias tradicionais para a distino de gnese dos biomas de Mata Atlntica e Cerrado referemse s limitaes pedolgicas deste ltimo, quanto ao excesso de alumnio e/ou a solos rasos dos campos rupestres. Por meio de uma pesquisa local no Municpio de Brumadinho-MG, essas duas hipteses so questionadas por dados primrios de anlise de solo, sondagem, perfis de solos e sensoriamento remoto. Apresenta-se, como alternativa para a distino entre os fatores condicionantes aos dois biomas, o estudo das linhas de pedras sub-superficiais e dos paleossolos. Palavras-chave: Cerrado, Mata Atlntica, Linhas de Pedra, Paleossolos.

INTRODUCTION
The Brazilian Atlantic Forest has a complex phytophysiognomy which is spread over mountain ranges, plateaus, valleys and plains from the Brazilian eastern range (INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA E ESTATSTICA, 2004). It consists of the following types of vegetation (INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA E Forest, (Araucaria Mixed Forest), Ombrophilous Open Forest

Ombrophilous

Forest, Semi Deciduous Seasonal Forest, Deciduous Seasonal Forest as well as mangroves and vegetations from salt

marshes, altitude fields, inland swamps and Forest enclaves in the Northeastern Brazil. In this paper, Semi-deciduous Seasonal Forest, which covers inland geographical situations,

ESTATSTICA, 2008): Dense Ombrophilous


1

PhD Student in Geology. Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. Legislative Consultant of Environment and Sustainable Development at Assembleia Legislativa de Minas Gerais. Master in Geography, Specialist in Soils and Environment, Bachelor in Philosophy, Undergraduate Student in Geography, Environmental Technician, Industrial Computer Science Technician.

Vasconcelos, V. V Vasconcelos, C. V. Vasconcelos, D. M.

far from the maritime establishing influence, will be focused (INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA E ESTATSTICA, 2004), in its limits with the Savanna Biome. The savanna biome, in its turn, consists of savannas related to plateaus in the Center of Brazil (ABSBER, 2003, p. 3943). Its main physiognomies are: Forest savanna, wooded savanna, park savanna and gramineous-woody savanna (VELOSO, RANGEL FILHO; LIMA; 1991, p. 85-89). Veredas (Brazilian savanna wetlands) gallery forests and disjunctions with other biomes are also included in this biome (INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA E

general belief in the validity of these theories has led farmers in the last few decades to prioritize the use of Atlantic Forest land, in areas of transition between savanna and Atlantic Forest, leaving areas of savanna, if anything, as native pastures. These choices are partly due to an intuitive assumption that the exuberance of Atlantic Forest would be associated to better soil fertility conditions (RIZZINI, 1979, p. 155, vpl. 2). However, we suggest showing that, in certain local-scale studies, other factors may be responsible for characterizing the

distinction between both biomes. Therefore, a research was conducted at the district of Casa Branca, in the county of Brumadinho, MG, about 10 kilometers from Belo

ESTATSTICA, 2004). In this article, the phytophysiognomy of gramineous-woody

savanna and its ranges in contact with Atlantic forest biome will be focused. Traditionally, conditioning factors have usually been distinguished for the separation between Atlantic Forest and Savanna

Horizonte, the state capital (Figures 1a and 1b). This is a region of transition between Atlantic Forest and Savanna biomes, which are relatively well preserved. As it is easily observed in the field and in satellite images (Figure 2), the transition between Atlantic Forest and Savanna is abrupt in this region, suggesting the existence of a factor (or a combination of factors) which accounts for marking the limits of both biomes. The process of establishing ecological condominiums and rural subdivisions in the region, in the last decade, provided the investigation of data referring to soil profiles in planting holes and in road cuts, soil analyses for orchards, as well as drill surveys to build houses.

Biomes such as certain features regarding soils from the latter. Among the most accepted theories are those that soils beneath savannas have high toxicity levels regarding aluminum (GOODLAND, 1969; FELLIPE & SOUZA, 2006), thus, only pants adapted to living with this macro element would be able to persevere. Furthermore, the presence cambisols particularly of litholic neosols (lithosols), soils, are

and in

other areas

shallow which

topographically higher, also creates unique environments (rocky fields), uninhabitable for most species of the Atlantic Forest

EMMERICH, 1990; WALTER, 2006). The

___________________________________________________________________________________ 7
Geografia Ensino & Pesquisa, Santa Maria, v. 14, n. 3, p. 06-17,jul./dez. 2010
ISSN 01031538

Phyto-environmental characterization of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) and Brazilian Atlantic forest, with the research of stone lines and paleosols

Figures 1a and 1b Location of the research area

The region of Casa Branca is in the southeast of Serra da Moeda (which

METHODOLOGY
The suggested methodology

comprises Serra do Rola Moa and Serra da Calada). The research area is part of the Complexo Arqueano Bonfim (Archean

comprises the following: 1. Delimitation and characterization of areas of investigation by means of field evaluation and remote sensing. 2. Analyses of soil attributes. 3. Analysis of soil profiles by

Bonfim Complex), which is characterized by being in a foundation involving gneiss associated to a gray granitic rock, from laminated to banded, equigranular to slightly porphyritic; amphibolitic (BALTAZAR as well as migmatite with

characterizing stone lines. 4. Comparative discussion between the data presented and the theories referring to the distribution of phytophysiognomies of Atlantic Forest and Savanna. The image of QuickBird satellite of May 12th, 2007, was geographically referred by GPS points and by image registration based on Nasa GeoCover Zulu (Landsat 5,

and et

epidositic al.,

paleosome The

2005).

geomorphological aspect of the area is typical landscape of semispheroidal hills, which corresponds to the condition of gneissic-granite foundation associated to the quaternary history of humid tropical climate and average tectonism. The geomorphological investigation theories about uses the

from 1990). Histogram of three visual bands (1, 2 and 3) was adjusted by the standard deviation method. relating types of Field visits enabled soil cover and

association of stone-lines and paleosols. Braucher et al. (1998a, 1998b e 2004), by means of studies concerning dating by cosmogenic isotopes Berylium-10, suggests that almost all stone-lines present in Brazil and Africa result from (A) in-situ weathering of quartz veins and (B) erosion and colluvial transport of near uphill allochthonous

characteristics such as color, texture and form of satellite image. Thus, it was possible to delimitate study areas 1, 2 and 3, establishing its relations of adjacency

(distance) and area. Activities of remote sensing were developed using Envi 4.5

material in paleosols.

Vasconcelos, V. V Vasconcelos, C. V. Vasconcelos, D. M.

program and the geoprocessing activities were developed using ArcGis 9.2 program. Two main areas of investigation were chosen, 1.3 kilometers away from each other, represented by areas 1 and 2 in Figure 2. Area 1, with 106,500 m2, is in a typical savanna phytophysiognomy, with its

cerrado (forest savanna), intersected by corridors of riparian forests. Area 2, with 49,650 m2, is in a region with a typical Atlantic Forest phytophysiognomy. Area 3, adjacent to area 1 represents a souari nut (Pequi Caryocar brasiliense) densification with single pedological characteristics, which are addressed in Results and Discussion of this article.

gradations of field-savanna (gramineouswoody), savanna strictu sensu and

Figure 2 Location of research areas. Satellite Image.

First, 70 soil profiles were analyzed, in addition to a linear analysis of roads cuts, shown due to the recent construction of roads, buildings and orchards in the region. The profiles analyzed in their pedological and geomorphological context, included the

following

key

characteristics:

petrology,

mineralogy,

homogeneity/heterogeneity,

depth, width, level of fracturing/weathering, dip (inclination/horizontality regarding the topographic profile).

___________________________________________________________________________________ 9
Geografia Ensino & Pesquisa, Santa Maria, v. 14, n. 3, p. 06-17,jul./dez. 2010
ISSN 01031538

Phyto-environmental characterization of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) and Brazilian Atlantic forest, with the research of stone lines and paleosols

Then, soil texture (sand, clay and silt), pH and macro-elements (Iron and Al ) were analyzed on horizons A (0-20cm) and B (2040cm), where they were available. The average of attributes on horizons A for both sampled areas was calculated, in order to compare possible differences among
3+

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The study evaluated the following hypotheses: A) Spatial delimitations of Atlantic

Forest and Savanna would be based in differences in soil characteristics. B) Characteristics of constitution,

pedological characteristics. The focus on horizon A is important, both for being the substratum to implement new native seeds, as for the fact that it can be commonly separated on horizon B by stone lines in the areas analyzed. Analyses were carried out by Laboratrio of de Soil Cincias do Solo from

width and depth of stone lines would be related to phytophysiognomy. C) Such as hypotheses A and B

would be related to history of climate changes and of anthropic changes of soil use.

(Laboratory

Sciences)

Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras Federal University). The following laboratory methods were used: pH in water, KCl and CaCl2 - ratio 1:2,5 Iron - Melich 1 extractor AL3+ - KCl extractor 1 mol/L Information on pedological data was obtained from soil analyzes carried out by Associao Crrego dos Sitiantes do (Deep Vale do Fundo

PEDOLOGICAL ANALYSES

Soil analyses (Table 1) have shown that toxicity of exchangeable aluminum (Al3+) for areas 1 and 2 is low/average

(COMISSO DE FERTILIDADE DO SOLO DE MINAS GERAIS, 1999), with an

insignificant difference between both soils. Regarding the high inverse correlation

Creek

Valley

Subdivision Association). They consisted of 4 sample points in area 1 and 8 points in Area 2.It was not possible to verify any point of soil sampling in area 3, as this one still has not been occupied. Data were also obtained from two drill surveys carried out in area 1, on halfway hillsides, 11.7 meters deep, also carried out by Associao de Sitiantes do Vale do Crrego Fundo. During all of these activities, rock samples were collected in studied areas. Ultimately, interrelations between the formation of stone lines and climatic-

between exchangeable aluminum and pH (NETO et al., 2002, p. 60-75), with an even higher coefficient between pHs 5 and 6 (MALAVOLTA, VITTI & OLIVEIRA, 1997; TYLER & OLSSON, 2001), the difference between soils from areas 1 and 2 is hypothesized to be even less significant. That similarity is expected from the pedogenetic point of view, since areas with the same original mineralogy (granite-

gneiss), very close to one another, thus, consequently submitted to the same weather conditions formation. during The the iron process content, of soil

although

geomorphological phenomena have been developed based on theoretical studies of AbSber (1992;2003), Parizzi (1993), Melo et al. (2005) and Silva (2009).

sampled in a few points, also helped to interpret the level of weathering of soil in areas 1 and 2. The high content of metallic sesquioxides (Iron and exchangeable

aluminum) indicates advanced laterization, according to Rizzini (1979, p. 68, vol. 1).

Vasconcelos, V. V Vasconcelos, C. V. Vasconcelos, D. M.

Therefore, the initial supposition that the aluminum content would be the key factor to distinguish savanna and Atlantic Forest biomes in this region is seriously questioned. This corroborates with the hypothesis of Rizzini (1979, p. 61-61, vol.1) that the soil

chemical composition is not a distinguishing factor between savanna and Atlantic Forest. Still, Rizzini (1979, p. 155-167, vol. 2) mentions several studies showing that

nutritional needs of savanna plants are similar as those of Atlantic Forests.

Table 1 Textural Analysis and of Macro-Elements of the sampled soils Place Sample/ Horizon
1-A (0-20 cm) 1-B (20-40cm) 2-A 3-A

Iron
mg/dm
3

pH
5.5 5.5 5.5 5.3

AL3+
cmolc/ 3 dm 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.3

Sand Silt
dag/Kg 65 56 53 19 21 24 23 66

Clay Textural Class


14 20 24 15 Sandy-loam Sandy-Clay-Loam Sandy-Clay-Loam Silt-Loam

Area 1

221.2 130.8 211.3 not sampled

Mean of Horizons A
1-A (0-20 cm) 1-B (20-40cm) 2-A 3-A

216.3
252.5 196.8 139.1 not sampled not sampled not sampled not sampled not sampled

5.4

0.5

45.7
50 48 39 55 49 51 46 34

36.7
24 24 24 23 19 23 24 29

17.7
26 28 37 22 32 26 30 37

Loam
Sandy-Clay-Loam Sandy-Clay-Loam Clay-Loam Sandy-Clay-Loam Sandy-Clay-Loam Sandy-Clay-Loam Clay-Loam Clay-Loam Clay-Loam

no sampled 5.4 0.3 not sampled not sampled 5.2 6.1 6.0 5.6 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4

Area 2

4-A 5-A 6-A 7-A

Mean of Horizons A

195.8

5.7

0.3

46.3

23.7

30.0

As

for

the

textural

analysis,

mantle (SALGADO, 2008; MELO et al. 2005). Drill surveys carried out in area 1 perforated 11.7 meters deep, in a halfway hillside, without reaching the layer of parent rock. Drill survey data have shown that horizons A and B are both 6.4 meters deep. Therefore, saprolite reaches at least 5.3 meters deep. Thus, associating textural analysis with depth, as well as making use of profiles of the studied soils, enables

significant difference is inferred between the soil from area 1, which is predominantly siltier than that of area 2, which is

characterized by a typically average texture. However, it is not so evident in order to hypothesize about how much this difference of texture may contribute to distinguish the flora establishment on the surface. It

probably makes more sense to suppose that the forests vegetation cover has provided a larger chemical weathering in soils of area 2 for a long time. Thus, the forest cover provides both a larger infiltration of

suggesting that they are actually latosols (oxysols). These data are enough to refute the complementary theory, for this place, that soil depth would account for limiting Area 1 as for the Atlantic Forest growth. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the profiles analyzed (planting holes, perforations for foundations and road cuts)

precipitated water (ROCHA & DALTROZO, 2008) and a significant biological weathering due to reactions from organic matter with water and solid material from the weathering

___________________________________________________________________________________ 11
Geografia Ensino & Pesquisa, Santa Maria, v. 14, n. 3, p. 06-17,jul./dez. 2010
ISSN 01031538

Phyto-environmental characterization of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) and Brazilian Atlantic forest, with the research of stone lines and paleosols

from halfway and uphill slopes show that horizons A and B, with no significant textural variation between each other, grow at least 3 meters deep, with no evidence of reaching saprolite therefore, they may be

The analysis of soil profiles also delivers relevant information on the soils investigated. The first evident difference among soils characterized by areas 1 and 2 is that, beneath regions of Atlantic Forest, the soils is reddish just below the horizon O, whereas on savanna regions the soil color is gray, from the surface to the bottom of horizon A. However, profiles dug in area 1 have shown that the soil acquires a reddish color when it is about 1.5 meter deep (Figure 7). Associating these pieces of information to the similarity at the concentration of Iron and Aluminum between soils of areas 1 and 2 (Table 1), it is suggested as the first hypothesis for the gray color of the soils in area 1, that fact that it takes place due to high rate of accumulated organic matter, due to roots beneath the savanna grass carpet, with a slow mineralization process, as it was corroborated by studies of Resende et al. (2002, p. 87-93).

preliminarily classified as latosols. Even around places where there are rocky outcrops, where it is probably more likely to have litholic neosols (lithosols), profiles of sampled soils made another interpretation evident. Soil profiles (Figure 3), as well as the past experience of several small stone-quarry enterprises, have shown that just beneath the soil line, outcrops tend to have boulders reduced, and give rise to a clear soil with no regolith in deeper soils. Thus, the absence of significant underground veins defeats the feasibility of these

extractive enterprises. However, on the other hand, the initial cleaning of superficial rock blocks allowed to establish pastures of medium productivity over areas where there was previously no productive feasibility.
Figure 3 Profile of soil beneath rocky outcrop. Reference tool: 1.5 meter.

Figures 4a and 4b Stone lines from family B. Featuring the approximation (Reference tool 10 cm).

Vasconcelos, V. V Vasconcelos, C. V. Vasconcelos, D. M. Figures 5a and 5b Stone line Meta-Gabbros (reference tool: 1.5m). Detail: rock fragment, making evident of amygdaloidal xenoliths (scaler in cm) Figure 6 Stone line from family A (sub-superficial weathered Quartz vein), right below stone lines from family B (Fragments of a heterogeneous mineralogy, from paleo-outcrop colluvium)

Figure 7 Change of soil color in a savanna environment , from gray to red after the stone line from family B.

Figure 8 Savanna area with a outcropping stone line. Metal part of reference tool: 30 cm.

MINERALOGY, PALEOSOLS

STONE

LINES

AND

several stone lines were found cutting the weathering mantle, in virtually all profiles analyzed. Based on theoretical hypotheses

Rocks sampled from areas 1 and 2 match the predicted from expected granite-gneiss

from Braucher et al. (1998a, 1998b and 2004) and Salgado (2008), stone lines were grouped in three large families:

lithostratigraphy

foundation. Quartz and granite sample were found in both areas, with few samples of phyllites. Throughout the region surveyed, A) Stone lines formed by a subsuperficial weathering of quartz crystals veins, measuring 3 to 25 cm wide, with an average of about 6 cm (Figure 6). These

comprising areas 1, 2, 3 and adjacencies,

___________________________________________________________________________________ 13
Geografia Ensino & Pesquisa, Santa Maria, v. 14, n. 3, p. 06-17,jul./dez. 2010
ISSN 01031538

Phyto-environmental characterization of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) and Brazilian Atlantic forest, with the research of stone lines and paleosols

stone lines have diverse dips, from horizontal (0o) to vertical (90). Weathering is in several degrees of activity, being observed from virtually unscathed veins to well-fitted angular rocks (Figure 4),reaching even more widely spaced stone lines. B) Stone lines, probably formed by the

105,700m2. The evident conformity between phytophysiognomy of the souari nut

densification with the occurrence of a line of gabbros suggests the hypothesis that

weathering of these rocks brought single characteristics to this soil, to which this species of souari nut (Cariocar brasiliensis) adapted successfully. Over the canopy of souari nut densification, there are emerging gomeiras (Vochysia thyrsoidea) with more than 10 meters of height noting that this species does not exist in areas 1 and 2.

erosion of exposed veins and outcrops of high slopes with deposition on paleosols (Figures 4a, 4b, 6, 7 and 8). These stone lines observed measure from 7.5 cm to 1.5 m of thickness, with an average of 30 cm therefore, much thicker than those of family A. They are arranged according to about the same line as the superficial relief, varying from 0 to 3 meters deep. The similar coincidence with the relief surface was verified from soil profiles arranged on the same slope, in subdivisions where they were implementing orchards holes and land

CONCLUSIONS

With the considerations taken into account in this article, we do not intend to question the validity of of the regional savannas

application of classical theories on the characterization

leveling for constructions. In general, these stone lines have a predominance of quartz crystals, however, and they with are a more lower

phytophysiognomy coverage in its core areas (according to ABSBER, 2003, p. 27-33) based on characteristics of aluminum content and soil depth. However, it is known that these general theories may not be valid on local contexts of transition between Atlantic Forest and Savanna. With the purpose of providing

heterogeneous

granulometry than those from family A. With laboratory (Table 1) and touch (local)

analyses, a small textural difference was found among soils above and below stone lines, with soils below it being a little more clayey another evidence for the hypothesis of a differentiated genesis of paleosols (since the silt/clay relation may be suggested as the index of soil weathering degree RESENDE et al., 2002, p. 51-52) C) Stone lines formed by mafic

alternative explanations to delimitate these two Forest domains in the studied region, we suggest two theoretical hypotheses: 1) Stone lines control forest growth. This hypothesis is supported by the

observation that in several savanna points, stone lines virtually outcropped up to the surface (Figure 8). It is not the case of litholic neosols (lithosols), as Just below the stone line there is a very deep soil. Area 3, with its souari nut densification, is also a typical example of savanna controlled by

intrusions. Throughout area 3, a 1 meter layer of metamorphosed gabbros was found with abundant traces of amygdaloidal xenoliths, right below the lands surface (Figures 5a and 5b). At the mesas sharper edge, quartz veins act as a geomorphic threshold. Beneath this entire surface, with a mesa (tableland) morphology, there was a large pequi (souari nut) plantation with

emergence of stone lines (Figures 5a and 5b). In areas 1 and 3, of savanna biome, stone lines from family A (from quartz veins) were more frequently observed as a matter

Vasconcelos, V. V Vasconcelos, C. V. Vasconcelos, D. M.

of fact, this higher mineralogical percentage of quartz may also have contributed to a higher granulometry of the soil in these areas (Table 1). According to this theoretical proposition, it would be difficult for pioneer species of Atlantic Forest to develop their young roots over thick layers of stone lines or over a sandier soil due to weathering, particularly from families B and C. 2) The advance or regression of Atlantic Forest over savanna is mainly controlled by climatic factors. Thus,

changes (or even anthropic deforestations and fires) may lead to the advance or regression of the Atlantic Forest in the region, whereas stone lines work as local physiographic barriers and selectors for this dynamic process. In many cases, stone lines will not evidently be a permanent barrier, however, they will make the advance of Atlantic Forest take place in certain areas slower than in others. Furthermore, the study of stone lines and paleosols may also give news clues on previous morphogenetic, climatic and

according to the increase or decrease of rainfall in the region it would lead, in the long term, to an advance or regression of the forest, respectively. This hypothesis was suggested by Teoria (Theory dos of Refgios Vegetation Vegetacionais

pedogenetic processes, which resulted in a certain environment and its respective flora. AbSber (2003, p. 16 and 51) highlights the presence of stone lines in domains of landscape of semispheroidal hills, and their relationship with processes of relief

Refugee) (ABSBER, 1992), which was then detailed by Silva (2009). The border between savanna and Atlantic Forest next to Belo Horizonte has already been investigated by the studies of paleopalinology of Parizzi (1993), for the region of Lagoa Santa, indicating several periods of advance and regression of this border during a recent quaternary period. The hypothesis is also consistent with the observation of traditional dwellers from the region, that the savanna has become more dense over the years, even having lost space for the forest. However, this theory may be relatively questioned because of textural differences among samples of soils from areas 1 and 2, which seem to show areas with more or less chemical associated and with biological distinguished weathering vegetation

formation. Melo et al. (2005) have also shown the important role played by climatic changes and the subsequent vegetation alterations on the process of relief formation, as well as the possibility of leading to the formation of paleosols and stone lines such as those found in the studied region (for family B). Those transformations would take place mainly in the climatic transition for periods of resistasy, according to the theory of Millot (1977, 1980 and 1983), starting cycles of more denudation and colluvial movements. The characterization of relatively homogeneous regions as for the

characteristics of stone line, such as the focus of this article, helps to carefully distinguish different factors and processes which led to the formation of a natural landscape. Based on the fact that most transition between Atlantic Forest and Savanna takes place in regions of landscape of

coverage. In addition, observation from local dwellers may also reflect only a decrease in the process of biomes degradation in the region, either by reducing deforestation or also by reducing fires. Both hypotheses mentioned above do not exclude one another. Somehow, climatic

semispheroidal hills

with granite gneiss

basement, it is possible to suppose that the hypotheses proposed are also effective for

___________________________________________________________________________________ 15
Geografia Ensino & Pesquisa, Santa Maria, v. 14, n. 3, p. 06-17,jul./dez. 2010
ISSN 01031538

Phyto-environmental characterization of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) and Brazilian Atlantic forest, with the research of stone lines and paleosols

other places. However, the small number of samples from the analyzed soil and the small territorial area of sampled regions do not allow that the hypotheses shown in this article have sufficient scientific certainty. On the contrary, this article only proposes raises conjectures on factors still little studied by Botanics, Phyto-geography and Agronomy, regarding soils of transition between both biomes. The possibility factors of acting other on

REFERENCES
ABSBER ,A.N. Os Domnios de Natureza no Brasil: potencialidades paisagsticas.. So Paulo: Ateli editorial, 2003. ABSBER, A.N. A Teoria dos Refgios: Origem e significado. Revista do Instituto Florestal, Edio especial, So Paulo, maro de 1992. BALTAZAR, O.F.; BAARS F.J.; LOBATO, L.M.; REIS, L.B.; ACHTSCHIN, A.B.; BERNI, G.V.; SILVEIRA, V.D.. Mapa Geolgico de Brumadinho na Escala 1:50.000 com Nota Explicativa. In: Projeto Geologia do Quadriltero Ferrfero - Integrao e Correo Cartogrfica em SIG com nota explicativa. (2005) Belo Horizonte: Codemig, 2005. BRAUCHER, R., BOURLS, D.L., COLIN, F., BROWN, E.T., BOULANG B. Brazilian laterite dynamics using in situ-produced 10 Be. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Volume 163, Issues 1-4, p. 197-205, November 1998a. BRAUCHER, R., COLIN, F., BROWN, E. T., BOURLS, D. L., BAMBA, O., RAISBECK, G., YIOU, M., F., KOUD, J. M. African laterite dynamics using in situ-produced 10 Be. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. Volume 62, Issue 9, p. 1501-1507, May 1998b. BRAUCHER, R., LIMA, C.V., BOURLS, D.L., GASPAR, J.C., ASSAD, M.L.L. Stoneline formation processes documented by in situ-produced 10Be distribution, Jardim River basin, DF, Brazil. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Volume 222, Issue 2, 30, p. 645-651, May 2004. COMISSO DE FERTILIDADE DO SOLO DO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS (CFSEMG). Recomendaes para o uso de corretivos e fertilizantes em Minas Gerais. 5 aproximao. 1999. 359p. EMMERICH, K. H. Influence of landform, landscape development and soil moisture balance on forest and savanna ecosystem patterns in Brazil. Pedologie, v. 11, n. 1, p. 5-17, 1990. FELIPPE, Miguel F.; SOUZA, Tatiana Ap. R.. A biogeografia do cerrado em concomitncia com sua histria econmica e suas perspectivas para o futuro. Enciclopdia Biosfera, N.01, maro, 2006, ISSN 1809-0583. INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA E ESTATSTICA IBGE. Nota Tcnica do Mapa de Biomas do Brasil: primeira aproximao. Rio de Janeiro, 2004. INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA E ESTATSTICA IBGE. Nota Explicativa

environmental

phytogeographical differentiation of these landscapes is not excluded. For a more detailed research, stone lines should be dated according to the cosmogenic isotope method of Berylium 10 (BRAUCHER et al., 1998a; 1998b; 2004), soil should be

analyzed above and beneath stone lines, and the research area should be extended for other regions of transition between savanna and Atlantic Forest in similar contexts. As a final reflection, the

considerations taken into account in this article converge to recommend that we should be careful about the general trend to consider that savanna soils have a worse capability than those of the Atlantic Forest. Both soils, from areas 1 and 2 (savanna and Atlantic Forest),have a similar agricultural capability, and local farmers experience shows that a corrective fertilization with limestone and micro-nutrients is required to start producing in both soils. For the cultivation of fruits, digging holes which go beyond the stone lines (particularly for families A, B and C) is enough to eliminate any possible limiting factor to the root growth of plants. For plants with a short life cycle, it is worth prospect the depth of stone lines to plan the best location and extension for the plantations. Additionally, deep plowing and subsoiling techniques are good management alternatives, in order to disrupt layers of stones.

Vasconcelos, V. V Vasconcelos, C. V. Vasconcelos, D. M.

do Mapa da rea de Aplicao da Lei N 11.428 ,de 2006: Lei da Mata Atlntica. Rio de Janeiro: 2008. NETO, Antnio Eduardo Furtini; VALE, Fabiano Ribeiro do; RESENDE, lvaro Vilela de; GUILHERME, Luiz Roberto Guimares; GUEDES, Geraldo Aparecido de Aquino. Fertilidade do Solo. LAVRAS: UFLA/FAEPE. Minas Gerais. 2001. 261p. GOODLAND, R. An Ecological Study Of Cerrado Vegetation Of South-Central Brasil. Tese mimeogr. Montreal, Canad: McGill University,1969. MALAVOLTA, E.; VITTI, G.C. & OLIVEIRA, S.A. Avaliao do estado nutricional das plantas: princpios e aplicaes. 2.ed. Piracicaba: Potafos, 1997. 319p. MELO, M. S.; Claudino-Sales, V.; PEULVAST, J. P.; SAADI. A.; MELLO, C. L. Processos e Produtos Morfogenticos Continentais. Em: Souza C.R.G., Suguio K., Oliveira A.M.S. Oliveira P. E. Quaternrio do Brasil. Ribeiro Preto: Abequa, Ed. Holos. 382pp. 2005. MILLOT G. Gochemie de la surface et formes du relief. Sci. Gol. Bull. 30d (4): 229-233. 1977. MILLOT G. Les grands aplainissements des soeles continentaux dans les pays tropicaux et desertiques. Mm . H. Ser. Soc. Gol. De France 10: 295-305. 1980 MILLOT G. Planation of continents by intertropical weathering and pedogenetic processes. In: Int. Symp. Laterization Processes, II. So Paulo. 1983 PARIZZI, M.G. A gnese e a dinmica da Lagoa Santa, com base em estudos palinolgicos, geomorfolgicos e geolgicos de sua bacia. Belo Horizonte. Departamento de Geologia, IGC-UFMG. 60p. 1993. RESENDE, Mauro; CURI, Nilton; REZENDE, Srvulo Batista de; CORRA, Gilberto Fernandes. Pedologia: Base para Distino de Ambientes. 4 ed. Viosa, NEPUT, 2002. 338 p. RIZZINI, C. T. Tratado de Fitogeografia do Brasil, HUCITEC. So Paulo: Ed. da Universidade de So Paulo, 1979. Volumes 1 e 2.ROCHA, Jos Sales Mariano da; DALTROZO, Cleonir Carpes. Florestamentos Compensatrios para Reteno de gua em Micro Bacias. Revista Educao Agrcola Superior. Associao Brasileira de Educao Agrcola Superior- ABEAS - v.23, n.1,p.71-75, 2008. SALGADO, A. A. R. Geomorfologia Geral: Parte 1 - Intemperismo, Eroso e Processos em Vertentes. Minas Gerais: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,

Instituto de Geocincias. Departamento de Geografia, 2008. SILVA, P.A.H.Cerrados, campos e araucrias: a teoria dos refgios florestais e o significado paleogeogrfico da paisagem do Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa Paran. Dissertao de Mestrado. Curitiba: UFPR, 2009. 146p. TYLER, G; OLSSON, T. Concentrations of 60 elements in the soil solution as related to the soil acidity. European Journal of Soil Science, 52, 151-165, March 2001. VELOSO, H.P.;RANGEL FILHO, A.L.R.;LIMA, J.C.A. Classificao da vegetao brasileira adaptada a um sistema universal. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE. Departamento de Recursos Naturais e Estudos Ambientais, 1991. WALTER, Bruno Machado Teles. Fitofisionomia do Bioma Cerrado: sntese terminolgica e relaes florsticas. 2006. Tese (Doutorado). Universidade de Braslia, Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas. Braslia DF. 389p.

___________________________________________________________________________________ 17
Geografia Ensino & Pesquisa, Santa Maria, v. 14, n. 3, p. 06-17,jul./dez. 2010
ISSN 01031538