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XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 1 JANUARY 2012

Dear Students,

The difference between success and failure is your attitude towards
success and the strategies that you employ to achieve it. The difference
between success and failure is only a few minutes or a few hours
everyday. You have to keep on striving for success at every conceivable
opportunity. Never postpone your happiness and zest for life and work.
You should make it a habit to enjoy your profession and your job all the
time. Never be a quitter because a quitter can never be a winner.
You should always remember that People live not by the reason of any
care they have for themselves but by the love for them that is in other
people. Have only those people for friends and companions who do
their best to bring out the best in you. They will be of unlimited worth
to you. Such persons understand what life means to you and your goal.
They feel for you as you feel for yourselves. They are the ones who are
bound to you in triumph and disaster. They provide a purpose to live
and break the spell of loneliness. A true friend is worth befriending as
he will always stand by you. But before you expect others to be the right
person to be your friend you must also become one.
Be always committed to your cause. Be so engrossed in your work that
you have hardly any time to think of anything else. The great secret of
success is to do whatever you are to do and do it wholeheartedly. Make
yourself the star of your workplace. For this you must have clear and
precise objectives to be achieved within a definite time-frame. Always
respect and value time. Be result-oriented and keep track of the hours.
Respect the time of others as well as your own. Be always organized
and write down everything you want to accomplish.
Always make an assessment of yesterday's "To Do" list to crosscheck
how realistic it has turned out to be today. This will help you to avoid or
rectify mistakes, if any, in your planning. Keep on visualizing your
goals and lists of the task to be done.
Forever presenting positive ideas to your success.

Yours truly



Pramod Maheshwari,
B.Tech., IIT Delhi


































































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Editor : Pramod Maheshwari

Do not allow the quest for perfection to ruin your
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that you could have done better
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January, 2012 (Monthly Magazine)
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XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 2 JANUARY 2012



Volume-7 Issue-7
January, 2012 (Monthly Magazine)



NEXT MONTHS ATTRACTIONS

Much more IIT-JEE News.
Know IIT-JEE With 15 Best Questions of IIT-JEE
Challenging Problems in Physics,, Chemistry & Maths
Key Concepts & Problem Solving strategy for IIT-JEE.
Xtra Edge Test Series for JEE- 2011 & 2012
CBSE Mock Test Paper





S

Success Tips for the Months

"True success is overcoming the fear of
being unsuccessful."
"Get up one time more than you're knocked
down."
"Most people who succeed in the face of
seemingly impossible conditions are people
who simply don't know how to quit."
"The truth is that all of us attain the
greatest success and happiness possible in
this life whenever we use our native
capacities to their greatest extent."
"When your physical environment is in
alignment with your aspiration, success
becomes the norm."
"The most important single ingredient in
the formula of success is knowing how to
get along with people."
"Dictionary is the only place that success
comes before work. Hard work is the price
we must pay for success. I think you can
accomplish anything if you're willing to
pay the price."

CONTENTS
INDEX PAGE




NEWS ARTICLE 3
IITs say no to common engineering entrance test
IIT placements : Companies Back on hiring track

IITian ON THE PATH OF SUCCESS 5
Dr. Ashok Jhunjhunwala & Mr. Abhay K. Bhushan

KNOW IIT-JEE 6
Previous IIT-JEE Question

























XTRAEDGE TEST SERIES 52
Class XII IIT-JEE 2012 Paper
Class XI IIT-JEE 2013 Paper
Mock Test CBSE Pattern Paper -2 [Class # XII]
Mock Test CBSE Pattern Paper-1 (Solutions)

Regulars ..........


DYNAMIC PHYSICS 12

8-Challenging Problems [Set # 9]
Students Forum
Physics Fundamentals
Prism & Wave Nature of Light
Waves & Doppler Effect

CATALYSE CHEMISTRY 28

Key Concept
Carbohydrates
Salt Analysis
Understanding : Organic Chemistry

DICEY MATHS 37
Mathematical Challenges
Students Forum
Key Concept
Differential Equations
Trigonometrical Rations
Study Time........
Test Time ..........
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 3 JANUARY 2012

IITs say no to common engineering
entrance test - Times of India
Times of India has recently reported
that the Indian Institutes of
Technology have trashed the idea of
selection through a single national
admission test for all engineering
colleges. Instead, in a throwback to
the earlier system of a two-stage test
(2000-2004) to enter an IIT, an HRD
ministry-appointed committee has
come up with a plan of holding an
"add-on" test to select candidates.
TOI has a copy of the interim report
of the committee, which is headed by
IIT-Kharagpur director Damodar
Acharya and comprising IIT-Madras
director M S Ananth, IIT-Bombay
director Devang Khakhar and IIT-
Roorkee head S C Saxena. They wrote
the report after extensive discussion
with state officials, university heads,
faculty and other stakeholders
nationwide.
Scores in a well-designed National
Aptitude Test should be used to
capture parameters of interest such as
raw intelligence, aptitude, general
awareness, comprehension and written
communication skills. NAT should
not require extensive preparation and
coaching. The questions should be so
designed that it would not require
inputs beyond plus-2 level," an HRD
ministry-appointed committee said in
its report. The NAT high-performers
will then have to clear another test to
get into IITs and other top institutes.
To soften stress, it has been proposed
to make NAT an online test conducted
throughout the year. Every students'
composite weighted performance
score will then be drawn up; it will be
based on marks in NAT and marks
each student tots up in science
subjects in Class XII boards.

IIT placements 2011: Companies
Back on hiring track
Now it's time for IITs to show their
worth in the corporate world. The B-
schoolsare not the only institutes that
are attracting companies to hire their
students. Even IITs are also on the
same track. The improved situations of
the global market have brought back
the companies on the campus of Indian
Institute of Technology (IITs), too.
In last two years the IITs were unable
to place all its students due to lack of
jobs in the market. But this year starts
on a bright note as IIT have already
managed to place almost 80% of
students from the current batch.
Students are also receiving record
salary offers.
SK Srivastave, professor-in-charge,
training and placement, IIT-Kharagpur
said, "Overall the sentiment has been
more positive. Companies have been
bullish both in terms of making offers
and presenting the salary packages. In
fact, it would not be incorrect to say
that offers are better than those made
pre-recession."
This year IIT-K started its placement
process in the last week of the
December 2010 and recorded highest
pay packages of about $1,35,000 by
Facebook.
Till the last week of the February, more
than 600 companies visited the campus
to recruit students and made almost
1700 offers. Srivastave said, "With 80
per cent of students currently placed,
things seem to be on the upswing. Even
students of those departments that did
not get placed last year, have already
seen 100 per cent placements." This
year the institute invited more
companies on campus for placements.
The placement season, which is still
going on, has witnessed active
participation from more than 200
companies across technology,
research and development, public
sector, financial services,
engineering and processing along
with education related sectors.
Ravi Sinha professor-in-charge,
placement, IIT-Bombay said, "In
general we have observed a 15 to 20
per cent increase in salary across all
sectors as compared to last year.
With the increase in salary packages
observed last year, the current
packages are generally better than
those offered during the pre-
recession period."
IIT-Madras has placed 80% students
till now, and the placement season is
still on and will last for a month. The
average salary for an IIT-Madras
graduate is Rs. 7.5 lakhs per annum.
N R Babu, advisor, training and
placement, IIT-Madras said, "The
highest salary this year stands at Rs
38 lakh so far, with the primary
recruiters coming from information
technology (IT) companies like
Google and Facebook, along with
consultancies like McKinsey," said N
R Babu, advisor, training and
placement, IIT-Madras.
This year almost all the departments
at IITs have witnessed a good
placement session till now. Salary
levels have gone up more than 25-
30%. This year IIT-Roorkee, has not
seen a big change in the salary
offered to students.
PK Jain, professor and coordinator,
training and placement cell, IIT-
Roorkee, said, "The highest salary of
about Rs 40 lakh is comparable to
last year's packages. While saying
that things are back to pre-recession
would be over-stepping the line, one
can hope that the increase in number
of visiting companies will translate
into better packages soon."
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 4 JANUARY 2012
IIT-Kanpur student received Rs.
70 lakh offer from Facebook
If you think that IIT students do not
receive hefty pay packages as B-
School pass outs, think again. Social
networking biggy Facebook has made
an offer of about Rs. 70 lakh per
annum to IIT student during the
campus placement.
IIT-K registrar Sanjeev Kashelkar
said, "M Tech (computer science and
engineering) student Siddharth
Agrawal has been offered the package
(near about Rs 70 lakh)."
He said Facebook has offered many
lucrative offers to other students as
well but the one which it offered to
Agarwal is highest so far. But the
registrar, however, did not disclose the
actual amount. Last week, Facebook
had offered a similar package to
an IIT-Kharagpur student.
The placement session in the IIT took
off on 2nd December, 2011 with more
than 950 graduates and post graduates
competing for jobs in high-profile
companies like Microsoft, GE, Infosys
and TCS.
On the first day of placement, more
than 100 students were placed with 15
students being selected by Microsoft.
More than 400 students have been
selected so far since the placement
process started, the registrar added.
Almost 200 companies are expected to
visit the institute to hire aspirants in
the remaining days. The placement
session would end on 22nd December
IIT JEE to go Online?
The Indian Institutes of Technology are
considering conducting an online joint
entrance examination (JEE), on the
lines of the Indian Institutes of
Management's Common Admission
Test. While the common admission test
(CAT) for entry into IIMs went online
three years ago and even AIEEE has
gone online in a few centres, the IITs
are yet to take the big step.
This step has been taken by IIT-Delhi-
the organisers of IIT-JEE 2012. The
institute has invited all IIT directors
for a workshop where an online model
will be demonstrated. The JEE office is
hosting the workshop. Sources
from IIT-Delhi have confirmed that
Education Testing Services (ETS),
which conducts the GREand several
other popular global online entrance
examinations, will make a presentation
at the workshop.
Though IIT officials are denying with
plans to go online, a senior official
from one of the IITs claimed that the
workshop was scheduled to discuss the
possibilities of an online examination
for JEE. "We might just discuss the
feasibility. No decision has been taken
yet," said the official.
There are many reasons why the idea of
online IIT JEE is not finding favours
among experts. Sharing his thought
with The Times of India, a senior IIT-B
professor said, "An online exam may or
may not work for JEE.
While CATfaced teething problems
initially, it is stabilized now. For an
exam, where you need to calculate a
lot, pen and paper seems to be a better
option. But students these days are well
versed with technology and in future,
everything might be computerized."
IIT Placements: No slowdown
blues for IIT students
The students of Indian Institute of
Technology have a good reason to
smile as the placement season for IITs
have started. The leading engineering
institutes are off to notice good final
placements with IIT Bombay student
bagged the highest job offer so far from
Microsoft for more than Rs. 52 Lakh
($ 100,000) for a position at the
company's head office in Washington.
IIT Bombay students are very much
aware of the offers, "The students are
gung-ho about the placements this year.
There is no sign of any slowdown. We
have received a good number of offers
from international companies including
some good startups. The IITs has begun
their final placements which will last
till month of June, 2012. IIT Bombay
placement chairperson, Ravi Sinha said,
"The interest among companies
for IIT students remains very strong.
We are very satisfied with the response
we have received from companies. We
see anywhere between a 10-20 per
cent increase in salary levels for
students."
At IIT Bombay, there are over 1,300
students will participate in the
placement where 200 companies will
participate in the placement session.
At IIT Roorkee, the highest offer so
far is Rs. 32 lakh from
Schlumberger, an international
supplier of technology, integrated
project management and information
solutions to energy companies. IIT-
Roorkee has received confirmation
from more than 140 companies
which will be on campus to recruit
more than 1,200 students.
IIT Roorkee placement chairperson
said, "Response from companies
have been very good. Though salary
levels more or less remain the same
as last year, more number of
companies are participating on
campus this year."
IIT Delhi has confirmed the
participation of 300 companies so
far. There are around 1,200 institutes
in IIT Delhi which will participate in
the placement process. Kushal Sen,
placement chairperson at IIT Delhi,
"Response from companies is very
good. But we do not see any drastic
change in the salary levels. While it
may not decrease, a slight increase
could be a possibility."
At IIT Madras, some foreign
companies from Korea and Japan
will also participate in final
placement session. There are almost
1,200 students who will participate in
the placement session. Placement
advisor said there are no sign of a
slowdown visible in the placement
session.






XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 5 JANUARY 2012
























Prof. Ashok Jhunjhunwala is Professor of the Department
of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,
Chennai, India and was department Chair till recently. He
received his B.Tech degree from IIT, Kanpur, in 1975, and
his MS and Ph.D degrees from the University of Maine,
USA in 1977 and 1979, respectively. From 1979 to 1981,
he was with Washington State University as Assistant
Professor. Since 1981, . He has been a member of the
faculty at IIT, Madras since 1981 and Department Chair
until recently.
Professor Jhunjhunwala has the unique distinction among
academics for combining innovations in technology and
business incubation with the social goal of sustainable
development in India
Dr.Jhunjhunwala leads the Telecommunications and
Computer Networks group (TeNeT) at IIT Madras. This
group is closely working with industry in the development
of number of Telecommunications and Computer Network
Systems. TeNeT group has incubated a number of R&D
companies which work in partnership with TeNeT group
to develop world class technologies. The products include
corDECT Wireless in Local Loop system, Fibre Access
Network, DSL Systems, Rural ATM [Approximately
costing around Rs 40,000)and remote medical diagnostic
Kit. The group has recently incubated a company, which
aims to install and operate telephone and Internet in every
village in India.
Dr. Jhunjhunwala is a Director in the Board of SBI. He is
also a board member of several Telecom and IT companies
in India, including Polaris, Sasken, Tejas Networks and
HTL, NRDC, and IDRBT. He is a former board member
of VSNL & BSNL.
Dr.Jhunjhunwala has been awarded Padma Shri in the year
2002. He has been awarded Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar
Award in 1998 and has received Dr.Vikram Sarabhai
Research Award for the year 1997. He has also received
Millennium Medal at Indian Science Congress in the year
2000 and Dr. P.Sheel Memorial Lecture Award of the
Academy for the year 2001 by National Academy of
Sciences, India. He is a Fellow of Indian National
Academy of Engineering, Indian National Science
Academy and National Academy of Science and a
Governor of International Council for Computer
Communications (ICCC).
Dr.jhunjhunwala is a Board member of several Telecom
and IT companies in India, including BSNL, VSNL,
Polaris, Sasken, Tejas and HTL. He is on the board of
several R&D and educational institutions. He is on several
government bodies formulating and driving policies in the
area of Telecom and Human Resource Development.






Abhay K. Bhushan (B.Tech. /Electrical Engg. / 1965)
Chairman
A Square and serves on the boards of Point Cross and
Mobile Web Surf
He obtained his B. Tech degree in Electrical Engineering
from the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, in 1965.
He obtained both his Masters in EE and Masters in
Management degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology. He has been the mentor of a host of start-up
ventures in USA. He was a major contributor to the
development of the Internet TCP/IP architecture, and was
the author of FTP and the early versions of email
protocols. He is co-holder of 12 US patents on
semiconductor drying and cleaning technologies.
Mr. Bhushan initiated and managed the Environmental
Leadership Program at Xerox and authored the widely
acclaimed Business Guide to Waste Reduction and
Recycling'.
He was co-founder of YieldUP International, which went
public on NASDAQ in 1995, and of Portola
Communications, which was acquired by Netscape in
1997. In 1978-79 he worked on Rural Development in
Allahabad, India, and was President of Indians for
Collective Action, supporting grassroots development
projects in India. He received the Community Service
Award from the Indo-American Chamber of Commerce.
He is presently the Chief Financial Officer of the IITK
Foundation, USA, founding past president of PanIIT USA,
and Coordinator for the PanIIT Global Committee.

Success Story
Success Story
This article contains stories/interviews of persons who succeed after graduation from different IITs
Dr. Ashok Jhunjhunwala
Designation : Professor
B.Tech, IIT, Kanpur
Mr. Abhay K. Bhushan
B.Tech. /Electrical Engg. / 1965
Chief Financial Officer of the
IITK Foundation, USA,
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 6 JANUARY 2012
















PHYSICS


1. Two satellites S
1
and S
2
revolve round a planet in
coplanar circular orbits in the same sense. Their
periods of revolution are 1 hour and 8 hours
respectively. The radius of the orbit of S
1
is 10
4
km.
When S
2
is closest to S
1
, find [IIT-1986]
(i) The speed of S
2
relative to S
1
,
(ii) The angular speed of S
2
as actually observed by
an astronaut in S
1
.
Sol. (i) According to keplar's third law

2
2
2
1
T
T
=
3
2
3
1
T
R

3
1
3
2 3
1
3
2
T
T
R R =

3
2
R = 10
12

2
2
1
8
= 64 10
12

R
2
= 4 10
4
km.
Linear speed of satellite 1
v
1
=
1
1
T
R 2
=
1
10 2
4

km/hr
Linear speed of satellite 2
v
2
=
1
2
T
R 2
=
8
10 4 2
4

= 10
4

The speed of satellite S
2
w.r.t.
S
1
= v
2
v
1
= 10
4
2 10
4
= 10
4
km/hr


S
2

S
1

v
1

v
2

R
1

R
2
P

(ii) angular speed of S
2
w.r.t.
S
1
=
r
r
R
v
=
1 2
1 2
R R
v v

=
3 4
4
10 10 3
18 / 5 10 14 . 3


= 3 10
4
rad/s

2. A rectangular loop PQRS made from a uniform wire
has length a, width b and mass m. It is free to rotate
about the arm PQ, which remains hinged along a
horizontal line taken as the y-axis (see figure). Take
the vertically upward direction as the z-axis. A
uniform magnetic field

B = (
^
i 3 +
^
k 4 ) B
0
exists in
the region. The loop is held in the x-y plane and a
current I is passed through it. The loop is now
released and is found to stay in the horizontal
position in equilibrium. [IIT-2002]

P
Q
y
z
x
S
R
a
b

(a) What is the direction of the current I in PQ?
(b) Find the magnetic force on the arm RS.
(c) Find the expression for I in terms of B
0
, a, b and m.
Sol. Let us consider the current in the clockwise
direction in loop RQRS Force on wire QR.
QR F

= ) B ( I

l
= I [(
^
i a ) (
^ ^
j 4 i 3 + ) B
0
]
= I B
0
[
^
i a 3
^
i +
^
i a 4
^
k ]
= I B
0
[0 + 4a (
^
j ) ]
= 4a B
0
I
^
j
P Q
y
z
x
S
R
^ ^
k 4 i 3 +
^
k 4
^
i 3

B

Force on wire PS
KNOW IIT-JEE
By Previous Exam Questions
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 7 JANUARY 2012
PS F

= I(

B l ) = I [a (
^
i ) (
^
i 3 +
^
k 4 ) B
0
]
= I B0 [
^
i a 3
^
i +
^
i a 4
^
k ]
= 4aB
0

^
j I
Thus we see that force on QR is equal and
opposite to that on PS and balance each other. The
force on RS is
RS F

= I (

B l ) = I [b (
^
j ) (
^
i 3 +
^
k 4 ) B
0
]
= IB
0
[ 3b
^
j
^
i
^
j b 4
^
k ]
= IbB
0
[
^
k 3
^
i 4 ] ...(i)
The torque about PQ by this force is

RS

F
= ) a i (
^
( ) i 4 k 3 (
^ ^
IbB
0

= I abB
0
(3
^
j ) ...(ii)
The torque about PQ due to weight of the wire
PQRS is
=
2
a
mg ...(iii)
For the loop to be horizontal, we have to equate
(ii) and (iii)
3IabB
0
=
2
a
mg
I =
0
bB 6
mg
...(iv)]
Therefore
(a) The direction of current assumed is right. This
is because torque due to mg and current are in
opposite directions. Therefore current is from P to Q
(b) From (i), RS F

= IbB
0
) i 4 k 3 (
^ ^

(c) From (iv) I =
0
aB 6
mg


3. In young's experiment, the source is red light of
wavelength 7 10
7
m. When a thin glass plate of
refractive index 1.5 at this wavelength is put in the
path of one of the interfering beams, the central
bright fringe shifts by 10
3
m to the position
previously occupied by the 5
th
bright fringe. Find
the thickness of the plate. When the source is now
changed to green light of wavelength 5 10
7
m,
the central fring shifts to a position initially
occupied by the 6
th
bright fringe due to red light.
Find the refractive index width due to the change
in wavelength. [IIT-1997]
Sol. For Red Light
The shifts of fringes due to glass plate =
d
) 1 ( Dt

where t is the thickness of the plate.
This shift is equal to 5 where is the fringe
width

d
) 1 ( Dt
= 5

d
) 1 ( Dt
=
d
D 5
R


t =
) 1 (
5


=
1 5 . 1
10 7 5
7

= 7 10
6
m
For Green Light : Let ' be the refractive index of
glass plate of thickness t for green light.

g
= 5 10
7
m

d
) 1 ' ( Dt
=
d
D 6
R


' =
t
6
R

+ 1 =
6
7
10 7
10 7 6


+ 1
' = 1.6
New Fringe Width with Green Light
' =
d
D
g


For red light =
d
D
R


Change in fringe width
( ') = ) (
d
D
g R
...(i)
It is given that the central bright fringe shifts by
10
3
to the position occupied by the 5
th
dark fringe
10
3
= 5 = 5
R
d
D

d
D
=
R
3
5
10


Substituting the above value in (i)
' =
|
|
.
|

\
|

R
g
3
1
5
10
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

7
7 3
10 7
10 5
1
5
10

=
5
10
3

7
2

= 0.057 10
3
= 5.7 10
5
m

4. A double-pane window used for insulating a room
thermally from outside consists of two glass sheets
each of area 1 m
2
and thickness 0.01 m separated by a
0.05 m thick stagnant air space. In the steady state,
the room glass inter-face and the glass-outdoor
interface are at constant temperatures of 27C and
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 8 JANUARY 2012
0C respectively. Calculate the rate of heat flow
through the window pane. Also find the temperatures
of other interfaces. Given thermal conductivities of
glass and air as 0.8 and 0.08 W m
1
K
1
respectively.
[IIT-1997]

Sol.

I
K1
II
K2
III
K3
H
H
1 2
d3
d2 d1
B
A
A > B

At steady state
First material : H =
1
1
d
K
A (
A

1
)
...(i)
Second material : H =
2
2
d
K
A (
1

2
)
...(ii)
Third material : H =
3
3
d
K
A (
2

B
)
...(iii)
From (i)
A

1
=
A
H
1
1
K
d

...(iv)
From (ii)
1

2
=
A
H
2
2
K
d

...(v)
From (iii)
2

B
=
A
H
3
3
K
d

...(vi)
Adding the above three equations we get

A

B
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
3
3
2
2
1
1
K
d
K
d
K
d
A
H

H =
3
3
2
2
1
1
) (
K
d
K
d
K
d
A
B A
+ +


Substituting the values
H =
8 . 0
01 . 0
08 . 0
05 . 0
8 . 0
01 . 0
1 ) 0 27 (
+ +
= 41.54 J/s
From (iv)
27
1
=
1
54 . 41

8 . 0
01 . 0

1
= 26.48
From (vi)
2
0 =
1
54 . 41

8 . 0
01 . 0

2
= 0.52C


5. A hydrogen-like atom of atomic number Z is in an
excited state of quantum number 2n. It can emit a
maximum energy photon of 204 eV. If it makes
transition of quantum state n, a photon of energy
40.8 eV is emitted. Find n, Z and the ground state
energy (in eV) for this atom. Also calculate the
minimum energy (in eV) that can be emitted by
this atom during de-excitation. Ground state
energy of hydrogen atom is 13.6 eV. [IIT-2000]
Sol. (a) Energy for a orbit of hydrogen like atom is
E
n
=
2
2
n
z 6 . 13

For transition from 2n to 1
Maximum energy = 13.6 z
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
) n 2 (
1

1
1

204 = 13.6 z
2
|
.
|

\
|
2
n 4
1

1
1
...(i)
Also for transition 2n n
40.8 = 13.6 z
2
|
.
|

\
|
2 2
n 4
1

n
1

40.8 = 13.6 z
2
|
.
|

\
|
2
n 4
3

40.8 = 40.8
2
2
n 4
z

4n
2
= z
2
or 2n = z ...(ii)
From (i) and (ii)
204 = 13.6z
2
|
.
|

\
|
2
z
1
1 = 13.6z
2
13.6
13.6z
2
= 204 + 13.6 = 217.6
z
2
=
6 . 13
6 . 217
= 16, z = 4, n =
2
z
=
2
4
= 2
orbit No. = 2n = 4
For minimum energy = Transition from 4 to 3.
E = 13.6 4
2
|
.
|

\
|
2 2
4
1

3
1
= 13.6 4
2
|
.
|

\
|
16 9
7

= 10.5 eV


CHEMISTRY


6. An organic compound A, C
8
H
4
O
3
, in dry benzene
in the presence of anhydrous AlCl
3
gives compound
B. The compound B on treatment with PCl
5

followed by reaction with H
2
/Pd(BaSO
4
) gives
compound C, which on reaction with hydrazine
gives a cyclised compound D(C
14
H
10
N
2
). Identify
A, B, C and D. Explain the formation of D from C.
[IIT-2000]

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 9 JANUARY 2012
Sol. The given reactions are as follows.


O
O +
O
AlCl3
O
O
OH
PCl5
H2/Pd (BaSO4)
C
6
H
5
H
C
C
O
O
H2NNH2
C
6
H
5
N

N

The formation of D from C may be explained as
follows.

C
6
H
5
C
6
H
5
O
O
NH
2

NH
2

O

NH
2

NH
2

O

+

+

C
6
H
5
O

N H
N H
OH
C
6
H
5
N
N

7. A graph is plotted between PV
m
along Y-axis and P
along X-axis, where V
m
is the molar volume of a
real gas. Find the intercept along Y-axis.[IIT-2004]
Sol. The van der Waal equation (for one mole) of a real
gas is

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
m
V
a
P (V
m
b) = RT
PV
m
Pb +
m
V
a

2
m
V
ab
= RT
PV
m
= RT + Pb
m
V
a
+
2
m
V
ab
....(i)
To calculate the intercept P 0, hence V
m

due to which the last two terms on the right side of
the equation (i) can be neglected.
PV
m
= RT + Pb
When P = 0, intercept = RT

8. Hydrogen peroxide acts both as an oxidising and as
a reducing agent in alkaline solution towards
certain first row transition metal ions. IIIustrate
both these properties of H
2
O
2
using chemical
equations. [IIT-1998]
Sol. When H
2
O
2
acts as oxidising agent, therefore,
following reaction takes place :
H
2
O
2
+ 2e 2OH


While regarding its action as reducing agent, the
following reaction takes place :
H
2
O
2
+ 2OH

O
2
+ 2H
2
O + 2e
Examples of oxidising Character of H
2
O
2
in
alkaline medium
2Cr(OH)
3
+ 4NaOH + 3H
2
O
2
2Na
2
CrO
4
+ 8H
2
O
Here Fe
3+
(Fe is a first row transition metal) is
reduced to Fe
2+
.
Example of reducing character of H
2
O
2
in alkaline
medium
2K
3
Fe(CN)
6
+ 2KOH + H
2
O
2
2K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
] +
2H
2
O + O
2

Here Cr
3+
(Cr is a first row transition metal) is
oxidised to Cr
6+

9. Compound 'X' (molecular formula C
5
H
8
O) does not
react appreciably with Lucas reagent at room
temperature but gives a precipitate with ammonical
silver nitrate. With excess of MeMgBr, 0.42 g of 'X'
gives 224 ml of CH
4
at STP. Treatment of 'X' with
H
2
in presence of Pt catalyst followed by boiling
with excess HI, gives n-pentane. Suggest structure
for 'X' and write the equation involved. [IIT-1992]
Sol. (i) Since the compound X (C
5
H
8
O) does not react
appreciably with Lucas reagent, it indicates that the
compound has a primary alcoholic group
(CH
2
OH).
(ii) Reaction of the compound X with ammonical
silver nitrate to give a precipitate indicates that it
has an acetylenic hydrogen atom, i.e., C H
grouping is present.
(iii) Treatment of X with H
2
/Pt followed by boiling
with excess of HI gives n-pentane. It indicates that
the compound does not have any branch.
On the basis of the above points, compound
X(C
5
H
8
O) may be assigned following structure.
HC C CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
OH
(X) 4-Pentyn-1-ol (Mol.wt 84, Eq. Wt. = 42)
The above structure for the compound X is in
accordance with its equivalent weight obtained
from the given data.
224 ml. of CH
4
at STP is obtained from 0.42 g
22400 ml of CH
4
at STP =
224
42 . 0
22400 = 42g
Eq. wt. of the compound X = 42
Reactions of the compound X :
(i) HC
) X (
2
CH . C CH
2
.CH
2
OH
OH NH
AgNO
4
3

AgC C.CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
OH
(ii) HC
) X (
2
CH . C CH
2
.CH
2
OH
MgBr CH 2
3

MgBrCC.CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
MgBr + 2CH
4

(iii) HC
) X (
2
CH . C CH
2
.CH
2
OH

Pt / H
2
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
OH

HI
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3

n-Pentane

10. Freshly precipitated Al and Mg hydroxides are
stirred vigorously in a buffer solution containing
0.25 M of NH
4
Cl and 0.05 M of NH
4
OH. Calculate
[Al
3+
] and [Mg
2+
] in solution. K
b
for NH
4
OH
= 1.8 10
5
.
K
SP
of Al(OH)
3
= 6 10
32
and K
SP
of
Mg(OH)
2
= 8.9 10
12
. [IIT-1989]
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 10 JANUARY 2012
Sol. According to Handerson's equation,
pOH = log K
b
+ log
] Base [
] Salt [
...(i)
Given that, K
b
= 1.8 10
5

[Salt] = 0.25 M
[Base] = 0.05 M
Putting these values in e.q. (i), we get
pOH = log (1.8 10
5
) + log
05 . 0
25 . 0

= log 1.8 + 5 log 10 + log 5
= 0.2553 + 5 + 0.6990 = 5.4437
But pOH = log[OH

]
log[OH

] = 5.4437 = 5563 . 6
or [OH

] = Antilog 5563 . 6 = 3.599 10


6

Mg(OH)
2
Mg
2+
+ 2OH


K
SP
of Mg(OH)
2
= 8.9 10
12

Now, K
SP
of Mg(OH)
2
= [Mg
2+
] [OH

]
2

or, 8.9 10
12
= [Mg
2+
][3.599 10
6
]
2

or [Mg
2+
] = 0.687 M
Al(OH)
3
Al
3+
+ 3OH


K
SP
of Al(OH)
3
= 6 10
32

Now K
SP
of Al(OH)
3
= [Al
3+
] [OH

]
3

6 10
32
= [Al
3+
] [3.599 10
6
]
3

or [Al
3+
] = 1.287 10
15
M


MATHEMATICS


11. A box contains 2 fifty paise coins, 5 twenty five paise
coins and a certain fixed number n ( 2) of ten and
five paise coins. Five coins are taken out of the box at
random. Find the probability that the total value of
these 5 coins is less than one rupee and fifty paise.
[IIT-1998]
Sol. There are (n + 7) coins in the box out of which five
coins can be taken out in
n + 7
C
5
ways.
The total value of 5 coins can be equal to or more
than one rupee and fifty paise in the following
ways.
(i) when one 50 paise coin and four 25 paise coins
are chosen.
(ii) when two 50 paise coins and three 25 paise
coins are chosen
(iii) when two 50 paise coins, 2 twenty five paise
coins and one from n coins of ten and five paise.
The total number of ways of selecting five
coins so that the total value of the coins is not less
than one rupee and fifty paise is,
(
2
C
1
.
5
C
5
.
n
C
0
) + (
2
C
2
.
5
C
3
.
n
C
0
)
+ (
2
C
2
.
5
C
2
.
n
C
1
) = 10 (n + 2)
So, the number of ways of selecting five coins, so
that the total value of the coins is less than one
rupee and fifty paise is
n + 7
C
5
10(n + 2)

Required probability =
5
7
5
7
) 2 ( 10
C
n C
n
n
+
+
+

= 1
5
7
) 2 ( 10
C
n
n+
+


12. Find the set of all solutions of the equation
2
| y |
|2
y 1
1| = 2
y 1
+ 1 [IIT-1997]
Sol. 2
| y |
|2
y 1
1| = 2
y 1
+ 1, arises three cases.
Case I : y ( , 0]
2
| y |
|2
y 1
1| = 2
y 1
+ 1
2
y
+ (2
y 1
1) = 2
y 1
+ 1
2
y
= 2 y = 1 ( 0, 1] ...(i)
Case II : y (0, 1]
2
|y|
|2
y1
1| = 2
y 1
2
y
+ (2
y1
1) = 2
y 1
+ 1
2
y
= 2 y = 1 (0,1] ...(ii)
Case III : y (1, )
2
|y|
|2
y 1
1| = 2
y 1
+ 1
2
y
2
y 1
+ 1 = 2
y 1
+ 1
2
y
2 . 2
y 1
= 0
2
y
2
y
= 0 true for all y > 1 ...(iii)
Thus, from (i), (ii) and (iii),
y { 1} [1, ).

13. For the circle x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
, find the value of r for
which the area enclosed by the tangents drawn from
the point P(6, 8) to the circle and the chord of contact
is maximum. [IIT-2003]
Sol. To maximise area of APB; we know, OP = 10
and sin =
10
r
, where (0, /2), ...(i)


O
r
Q
B
X
Y
P(6,8)

A

Area =
2
1
(2AQ) (PQ)
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 11 JANUARY 2012
= AQ. PQ = (r cos ) (10 OQ)
= (r cos ) (10 r sin )
= 10 sin cos (10 10 sin
2
) [Using (i)]
f () = 100 cos
3
sin
f ' () = 100 cos
4
300 cos
2
. sin
2

Put f ' () = 0 cos
2
= 3 sin
2

or tan =
3
1
=
6


at which f ' () < 0, thus when =
6

, area is
maximum and r = 10 sin from (i)
r = 10 sin
6

= 5 units
14. A and B are two separate reservoir of water,
capacity of reservoir A is double the capacity of
reservoir B. Both the reservoirs are filled
completely with water, their inlets are closed and
then the water is released simultaneously from
both the reservoirs. The rate of flow of water out
of each reservoir at any instant of time is
proportional to the quantity of water in the
reservoir at the time.
One hour after the water is released, the quantity
of water in reservoir A is
2
1
1 times the quantity of
water in reservoir B. After how may hours do both
the reservoirs have the same quantity of water?
[IIT 1997]
Sol.
dt
dv
v for each reservoir

dx
dv
v
A

dt
d
A
v
= K
1
v
A

(K
1
is the proportional constant).

A
A
v
v
A
A
v
d
'
v
=

t
dt K
0
1

log
A
A
v
' v
= K
1
t v'
A
= v
A
.
t K
e
1

...(i)
Similarly for B,
v'
B
= v
B
.
t K
e
2

...(ii)
Dividing (i) by (ii), we get

B
A
v'
' v
=
B
A
v
v
.
t K K
e
) (
2 1

It is given that at t = 0, v
A
= 2v
B
and at
t = 3/2, v'
A
=
2
3
v'
B
.
Thus,
2
3
= 2 .
t K K
e
) (
2 1


) (
2 1
K K
e = 3/4
Now, let at t = t
0
both the reservoirs have some
quantity of water. Then v'
A
= v'
B
.
Hence, from (iii), 2
) (
2 1
K K
e = 1
2.
0
4
3
t
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 t
0
= log
3/4
(1/2)

15. Find the smallest positive number p for which the
equation cos (p sin x ) = sin (p cos x) has a solution
x [0, 2] [IIT-1995]
Sol. cos (p sin x ) = sin (p cos x ) (given x [0, 2]
cos (p sin x ) = |
.
|

\
|
x pcos
2
cos
p sin x = 2 n |
.
|

\
|
x pcos
2
, n I.
[Q cos = cos = 2n , n I]
p sin x + p cos x = 2n + /2
or p sin x p cos x = 2n /2, n I
p (sin x + cos x) = 2n + /2
or p (sin x cos x) = 2n /2, n I
p .
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ x x cos
2
1
sin
2
1
2 = 2n + /2
or
|
|
.
|

\
|
x x p cos
2
1
sin
2
1
2 = 2n = /2, n I
2 p (cos
4

sin x + sin
4

cos x) = 2n +
2


or |
.
|

\
|
x x p cos
4
sin sin
4
cos 2 = 2n /2, nI
2 p [sin (x + /4)] =
2
) 1 4 ( + n

or 2 p [sin (x /4)] = (4n 1)
2

, n I
Now, 1 sin (x /4) 1
2 p 2 p sin (x /4) 2 p
2 p
2
). 1 4 ( + n
2 p , n I
or 2 p
2
). 1 4 ( n
2 p , n I
Second inequality is always a subset of first,
therefore, we have to consider only first.
It is sufficient to consider n 0, because for n > 0,
the solution will be same for n 0.
If n 0, p 2 (4n + 1) /2
(4n + 1) /2 p 2
For p to be least, n should be least
n = 0 p 2 /2
Therefore least value of p = /2 2
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 12 JANUARY 2012
























1. Figure show the variation of internal energy U with
the density of one mole of monoatomic gas for a
thermodynamic cycle ABCA. AB process is a
rectangular hyperbola. The amount of work done in
the process B A is

U
4U
2U
0

O
2
0


B
C
A

(A)
3
U 2
0
(B)
3
U 2
0

(C)
3
U 4
0
(D)
3
U 4
0


2. One mole of a gas expands obeying the relation as
shown in P-V diagram. The maximum temperature
in this process is equal to

P
P
0
P
0
/2
V
0

V
B
A
2V
0


(A)
R
V P
0 0
(B)
R
V P 3
0 0

(C)
R 8
V P 9
0 0
(D) None

3. n moles of an ideal monoatomic gas undergoes a
process given by T = KV
3
. If the temperature of the
gas changes from T
0
to 3T
0
then
(A) work done by the gas is
0
nRT
3
2

(B) work done by the gas is
0
nRT
3
1

(C) molar specific heat for this process is R
6
11

(D) Heat supplied is
0
nRT
6
11


4. A small boy is setting on a set of merry go round
moving with constant angular velocity. At t = 0 boy
is at position A as shown in figure
A
x
v at t = 0
y

Which of the following graphs shown in figure are
correct
(A)
t
Where, F
y
is the y-
component of force
keeping body moving
in a circle
F
y

(B)
t
x is the component of
boy's position.
x


This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety
of possible twists and turns of problems in physics, that would be very helpful in facing IIT
JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and we
hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and
enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.
By : Dev Sharma
Director Academics, Jodhpur Branch
Physics Challenging Problems
Sol ut i ons wi l l be publ i shed i n next i ssue
Set # 9
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 13 JANUARY 2012
(C)
t
is the angle that
boy's position vector
makes with positive x-
axis for one complete
circle.


(D)

t
V
x
is the x-component
of boy's velocity.
V
x


5. An ideal gas having molar specific heat at constant
volume C
V
. If is undergoing a process where
temperature is varying as
V
0
e T T

= where is
constant and V is the volume occupied by the gas.
The molar specific heat of the gas for the given
process as a function of volume is given by
(A)
V
R
C
v

+ (B)
V
R
C
v

+
(C)
V
R 2
C
v

+ (D)
V 2
R
C
v

+
Passage # (Q. No. 6 to Q. No. 8)
A situation is shown is which two objects B start
their motion from same point in same direction. The
graph of their velocities against times is drawn, u
A

and u
B
are the initial velocities of A and B
respectively. T is the times at which their velocities
become equal after start of motion. You cannot use
the data of one question while solving another
question of the same set. So all the questions are
independent of each other.

t
Velocity of A
Velocity of B
u
B

u
A

T

6. If the value of T is 4s, then the times after which A
will meet B is
(A) 12s (B) 6s (C) 8s (D)data insufficient
7. Let v
A
and v
B
be the velocities of the particles A and
B respectively at the moment A and B meet after
start of the motion. If u
A
= 5 ms
-1
and u
B
= 15 ms
-1
.
Then the magnitude of the difference of velocities
v
A
and v
B
is
(A) 5 ms
-1
(B) 10 ms
-1

(C) 15 ms
-1
(D) data insufficient
8. After 10s of the start of motion of both objects A
and B find the value of velocity of A if u
A
= 6 ms
-1
,
u
B
=12 ms
-1
and at T velocity of A is 8 ms
-1
and
T = 4s
(A) 12 ms
-1
(B) 10 ms
-1

(C) 15 ms
-1
(D) None of these











































Regents Physics
You Should Know
Modern Physics :
The particle behavior of light is proven by the
photoelectric effect.
A photon is a particle of light {wave packet}.
Large objects have very short wavelengths
when moving and thus can not be observed
behaving as a wave. (DeBroglie Waves)
All electromagnetic waves originate from
accelerating charged particles.
The frequency of a light wave determines its
energy (E = hf).
The lowest energy state of a atom is called the
ground state.
Increasing light frequency increases the kinetic
energy of the emitted photo-electrons.
As the threshold frequency increase for a
photo-cell (photo emissive material) the work
function also increases.
Increasing light intensity increases the number
of emitted photo-electrons but not their KE.
Mechanics :
Centripetal force and centripetal acceleration
vectors are toward the center of the circle-
while the velocity vector is tangent to the
circle.
An unbalanced force (object not in equilibrium)
must produce acceleration.
The slope of the distance-tine graph is velocity.
The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction to the resultant vector.
Momentum is conserved in all collision
systems.
Magnitude is a term use to state how large a
vector quantity is.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 14 JANUARY 2012







1. After S
1
is closed
C 20 6 q
1
=

Now S
1
is opened. On closing S
2


C 40
C C
q C
q
2 1
1 2
2
=
+
=

Option [C] is correct

2. Induced e.m.f.
) t cot( t 8
dt
Ldi
e
2
= =



= = =
t
0
2
dt ) t 2 sin( t 8 idt . e dq . e Q

Option [D] is correct

3.
r
2
R
sin =
and
qB
mv
r =

Option [B] is correct

4. w
hc
mv
2
1
2
max

= and
max
2
max
v Be
r
mv
=


2
r . Bev
mv
2
1
KE
max 2
max max
= =

Option [A,B,C,D] is correct















5.
r
mv
r
ke
dr
dU
| F |
2
4
2
= = =
also

=
2
nh
mVr

Total energy =
2
1
(potential energy)
Option [A,B] is correct

Passage Based Question:

6. W
AB
= area under AB in diagram

A B AB
U U U =


J 70 W U Q
AB AB AB
= + =

Option [B] is correct

7.
C C A CA
U U U U = =
also

J 140 U U U
B BC C
= + =


ACED area W
CA
=


J 180 W U Q
CA CA CA
= + =

Option [A] is correct

8.
J 180 W U Q
CA CA CA
= + =

Option [A] is correct






















Solution
Physics Challenging Problems
Set # 8
8
Quest i ons were Publ i shed i n December Issue
Physics Facts
Electricity
1. A coulomb is charge, an amp is current
[coulomb/sec] and a volt is potential difference
[joule/coulomb].
2. Short fat cold wires make the best conductors.
3. Electrons and protons have equal amounts of
charge (1.6 x 10
-19
coulombs each).
4. Adding a resistor in parallel decreases the total
resistance of a circuit.
5. Adding a resistor in series increases the total
resistance of a circuit.
6. All resistors in series have equal current (I).
7. All resistors in parallel have equal voltage (V).
8. If two charged spheres touch each other add
the charges and divide by two to find the final
charge on each sphere.
9. Insulators contain no free electrons.
10. Ionized gases conduct electric current using
positive ions, negative ions and electrons.
11. Electric fields all point in the direction of the
force on a positive test charge.
12. Electric fields between two parallel plates are
uniform in strength except at the edges.
13. Millikan determined the charge on a single
electron using his famous oil-drop experiment.
14. All charge changes result from the movement
of electrons not protons (an object becomes
positive by losing electrons)
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 15 JANUARY 2012













1. A uniform rope of mass m and length l is hanging from
an elevator ceiling, which is accelerating upwards with
a constant acceleration a. Calculate time taken by a
transverse pulse to travel the whole length.
Sol. Velocity of transverse pulse is v =

T
where T is
tension in the string and is mass per unit length.
Tension in the string is varying with height from
free and. Let tension at a section at height y from
lower end be T as shown in Fig. (a)
T
a
my
|
.
|

\
|
l
g y
m
|
.
|

\
|
l

a
y
Fig.(a)
Fig.(b)

Considering free body diagram of lower part shown
in Fig. (b)
T
l
myg
=
l
mya

Velocity of transverse pulse is
v =

T
=
m
). a g (
my l
l
+ = ) a g ( y +
But v =
dt
dy
,
) a g ( y
dy
+
= dt
Integrating above equation,

=
=
+
l y
0 y
y
dy
.
a g
1
=

t
0
dt
t =
a g
2
+
l
Ans.



2. A non-conducting cylindrical vessel of length 3l is is
placed horizontally and is divided into three parts by
two easily moving pistons having low thermal
conductivity as shown in figure.
l l l
H
2 He CO
2


These parts contain H
2
, He and CO
2
gas at initial
temperatures
1
= 372C,
2
= 15C and
3
= 157C
respectively. If initial length and pressure of each part
are l and P
0
respectively, calculate final pressure and
length of each part.
Sol. Since, the vessel is non-conducting, therefore, the
system of H
2
, He and CO
2
is isolated from
surroundings. But piston have low thermal
conductivity, therefore, heat gases in each chamber
becomes equal.
When pistons move, no net work is done by the
system of gases though work is done by gas in one
chamber on that in another chamber. Hence, internal
energy of the system remains constant.
Let cross-sectional area of the vessel be A.
Initial volume of each chamber is equal to V
0
= Al
Number of moles of H
2
in extreme left part,
n
1
=
1
0
RT
A P l

where T
1
= (273 +
1
)
n
1
=
R 645
A P
0
l

Similarly, number of moles of He,
n
2
=
R ) 273 (
A P
2
0
+
l
=
R 258
A P
0
l

and number of moles of CO
2
.
n
3
=
R ) 273 (
A P
3
0
+
l
=
R 430
A P
0
l

Since, H
2
is diatomic therefore fore it,
2
5
C
1
v
= R
Experts Solution for Question asked by IIT-JEE Aspirants
Students Forum
PHYSI CS
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 16 JANUARY 2012
For He (monatomic),
2
3
C
2
v
= R
and for CO
2
(triatomic),
2
6
C
3
v
= R = 3R
Since, total internal energy of the system remains
constant, therefore, final temperature T is given by

3 v 3 2 v 2 1 v 1
T C n T C n T . C n
3 2 1
+ +
= T C n T C n T C n
3 2 1
v 3 v 2 v 1
+ +
T = 420 K
Since, pistons are easily moving , therefore, at
equilibrium pressure in each part will be same. Let it
be P.
Let final length of H
2
, He and CO
2
chambers be l
1
,l
2

and l
3
, respectively.
Then l
1
+ l
2
+ l
3
= 3l ...(i)
For H
2

T
) A ( P
1
l
=
1
0 0
T
V P
or l
1
=
1
0
PT
T P
l =
258
420
P
P
0
l

...(ii)

Similarly, l
2
=
2
0
PT
T P l
=
P
P
258
420
0
l
...(iii)
and l
3
=
3
0
PT
T P l
=
P
P
430
420
0
l
...(iv)
Substituting these values of l
1
, l
2
, and l
3
in
equation (i),
P =
129
140
P
0
Ans.
Substituting value of P in equations (ii), (iii) and (iv)
l
1
= 0.6l, l
2
= 1.5l and l
3
= 0.9l And.

3. A sonic source of frequency n
0
= 272 Hz is moving
along a horizontal circle of radius R = 3 m with a speed
u = 10 ms
1
. A stationary receiver lies in the same plane
at a distance d = 5 m from centre of the circle. Speed of
sound in air is v = 330 ms
1
.
(i) Calculate minimum and maximum frequencies
received by the receiver
(ii) If at t = 0, receiver receives minimum frequency,
calculate minimum value of time t when it receives
maximum frequency.
Sol. When source moves along the circle, its direction of
motion varies, Therefore, component of velocity u
of source along direction of sound propagation also
varies with time. Minimum frequency is received
when velocity of source is opposite to the direction
of sound propagation which corresponds to the
waves emitted by the source at point A as shown in
figure.

A
u
C
R


d
O
Receiver
B

minimum frequency received is given by
n
min
= |
.
|

\
|
+ u v
v
n
0

or n
min
= 264 Hz Ans. (ii)
Maximum frequency is received when direction of
motion of source is same as that of wave
propagation which corresponds to waves emitted by
the source at point B as shown in figure.
Maximum frequency received is given by
n
max
= |
.
|

\
|
u v
v
n
0

or n
max
= 280.5 Hz Ans.(i)
Time interval between minimum to maximum
frequency received is equal to time taken by the
source to move from A to B.
That is equal to t =
u
R ) 2 (
...(i)
In AOC, A = 90
cos =
OC
AC
=
5
3
or = 53 or
180
53
radian
Substituting this value in equation (i),
t =
300
127
sec
Since minimum frequency is received at t = 0,
therefore, time when next maximum frequency is
received is t = 0 + t
or t =
300
127
sec Ans.(ii)

4. A screen is at a distance D = 80 cm from a diaphragm
having two narrow slits S
1
and S
2
which are d = 2 mm
apart. Slit S
1
is covered by a transparent sheet of
thickness t
1
= 2.5 m and S
2
by another sheet of
thickness t
2
=1.25 m as shown in figure. Both sheets
are made of same material having refractive index
= 1.40. Water is filled in space between diaphragm
and screen. A monodicromatic light beam of
wavelength = 5000 is incident normally on the
diaphragm. Assuming intensity of beam to be uniform
and slits of equal width, calculate ratio of intensity at C
to maximum intensity of interference pattern obtained
on the screen, where C is foot of perpendicular bisector
of S
1
S
2
. (Refractive index of water,

= 4/3).
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 17 JANUARY 2012

t
2

t
1

S
1

S
2


Sol. Incident rays are first refracted from air to
transparent sheets and then into water. Rays
refracted into water interfere with each other on the
screen and an interference pattern is formed on it.
Fringe width of that interference pattern is given by
=
d
D '
where ' is wavelength of rays in medium
between slits and screen which is water in this
particular problem.
If light rays having wavelength
1
in medium of
refractive index
1
are refracted into medium of
refractive index
2
, their wavelength
2
in second
medium is given by
1
2

=
2
1

.
Hence, wavelength of incident rays in water,
' =
w

= 3750
Fringe width, =
d
D '
= 150 m
Due to the sheet used to cover slit S
1
, fringe pattern
shifts upwards. Its upward shift, s
1
=
d
D t ) 1 ' (
1


where ' is refractive index of sheet material with
respect to water.
Hence, ' =

= 1.05
s
1
= 50 m
Similarly, due to sheet used to cover slit S
2
, fringe
pattern shifts downwards. Its downwards shift,
s
2
=
d
D t ) 1 ' (
2

= 25 m.
Hence, resultant shift of the fringe pattern,
s = s
1
s
2
= 25 m (upwards)
Phase difference between rays reaching C,
= 2

s
= /3
Since, slits are of equal width and intensity of light
beam used is uniform, therefore, intensity at C due
to rays through each slit is same or l
1
= l
2
. Let it be
equal to I
0
.
Maximum intensity in interference pattern,
I
max
= (
1
I +
2
I )
2
= 4l
0
.
Intensity at C, I = I
1
+ I
2
+
2 1
I I 2 cos = 3I
0

Required ratio =
max
I
I
=
4
3
Ans.

5. Atoms of a hydrogen like gas are in a particular excited
energy level. When these atoms de-excite, they emit
photons of different energies. Maximum and minimum
energies of emitted photons are E
max
= 52.224 eV and
E
min
= 1.224 eV respectively. Identify the gas and
calculate principal quantum number of initially excited
energy level. (Ionisation energy of hydrogen atom
= 13.6 eV)
Sol. Let principal quantum number of initially excited
energy level be n. Photon of maximum energy is
emitted during transition n 1.
Hence, E
max.
= (E
n
E
1
) ...(i)
Since, difference between energy of two consecutive
levels decreases when n increases, therefore, photon
of minimum energy is emitted during transition
n (n 1).
Hence, E
min.
= (E
n
E
(n 1)
...(ii)
But energy of n
th
level is given by, E
n
=
2
1
n
E
.
From equation (i),
2
1
n
E
E
1
= 52.224 eV
...(iii)
and from equation (iii),
2
1
n
E

2
1
) 1 n (
E
= 1.224 eV
...(iv)
Solving equation (iii) and (iv), E
1
= 54.4 eV
and n = 5 Ans.
Let atomic number of the gas be Z
E
1
= 13.6 Z
2

Z = 2
Hence, the gas is singly ionised Helium. Ans.











Behavior

Behavior is a mirror in which everyone displays
his image.
Behavior is what a man does, not what he thinks,
feels, or believes.
Behave the way you'd like to be and soon you'll
be the way you behave.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 18 JANUARY 2012














Prism :
(i) Deviation '' produced by the prism,


B C
A
Normal
Normal
i i'
Q P
r
r'


= i + i' A
and A = r + r'
(ii) For minimum deviation '
m
'
i = i' and r = r' and also PQ||BC and the refractive
index for the material of prism is given by
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| +
2
sin
2
sin
A
A
m

(iii) i graph for prism

m
i


(iv) For not transmitting the ray from prism,
> cosec |
.
|

\
|
2
A

(v) For grazing incidence i = 90 and for grazing
emergence i' = 90. For maximum deviation i = 90 or
i' = 90
(vi) The limiting angle of prism = 2C
when i = i' = 90
If the angle of prism A > 2C, then the rays are totally
reflected.



(vii) Right-angled prism : These prisms are used to turn a
light beam to 90 or 180. These are usually made of
crown glass for which
g
= 1.5 and C =tan
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
g

1
= 42.
Such prisms are used in binoculars and submarine
periscopes.
(viii) Deviation produced by a thin prism = ( 1)A
(ix) Angular dispersion D =
v

R
= (
V

R
)A
Where V and R stand for violet and red colours
respectively.
Mean deviation
Y
= (
Y
1)A
where
Y
is the refractive index of mean yellow
colour.
(x) Dispersive Power, =
deviation Mean
dispersion Angular

=
Y
R V



=
1

Y
R V
where
Y
=
2
R V
+

(xi) Pair of prisms (or crossed prism) : Two thin prisms
of different material when placed crossed, i.e., with
their refracting edges parallel and pointing in
opposite directions as shown in figure, produce a
total deviation given by
=
1
~
2

where
1
and
2
are the mean deviations produced by
the first and second prism respectively.
Total angular dispersion
D = D
1
~ D
2

where D
1
and D
2
are the angular dispersions
produced by respective prisms.
(xii) Dispersion without deviation : If the angle of two
prisms A and A' are so adjusted that the deviation
produced by the mean ray by the first prism is equal
and opposite to that produced by the second prism,
then the total final beam will be parallel to the
incident beam and there will be dispersion without
deviation.
Prism & Wave Nature of Light
PHYSICS FUNDAMENTAL FOR IIT-JEE
KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 19 JANUARY 2012

A
Crown
glass
Flint
glass
A'

Here,
=
1

2
= 0 or
1
=
2

i.e., (
1
1)A = (
2
1)A'
This combination produces total angular dispersion.
D = D
1
D
2
= (
1V

1R
) A (
2V

2R
)A'
(xiii) Deviation without dispersion :
If the combination is such that D = D
1
~ D
2
= 0
or D
1
= D
2

or (
1V

1R
) A = (
2V

2R
)A'
The combination is said to be achromatic and the
total mean deviation will be
=
1
~
2
= (
1
1)A ~ (
2
1)A'
Wave Nature of light
Wave front :
A point source produces a spherical wave front
|
.
|

\
|

r
1
A or
(


2
r
1
1
Where A = Amplitude, I = intensity and
r = distance of point of observation from source.
A line source produces a cylindrical form
(

r
A
1
or
(


r
I
1
.
Wave front is locus of points in the same phase.
A distance source produce a plane wave front.
Wave front for a parallel beam of light is plane.
The angle between ray and wave front is 90
Huygen's principle:
Huygen's principle is a geometrical method to find
secondary wave front produced by a primary wave
front.







Thin lines shows the rays of light.
Dotted line shows the wavefronts.
Interference of light :
(a) Redistribution of light energy i.e. alternate
maximum and minima).
Conditions for two light waves producing
interference is that
(i) Wave should be of same wavelength/frequency.
(ii) Waves should be travelling in the same direction.
(iii)Wave should have a constant phase difference
For the above conditions the two source must be
coherent and that is possible when we make two
sources out of a single source of light.
For monochromatic light we get alternate maxima
and minima of same colour. For white light we
get white central fringe flanked by coloured
fringes because fringe width of different colour is
different due to different wavelengths.
(b) Resultant intensity at a point is
I = I
1
+ I
2
+ 2
2 1
I I cos
When I
1
= I
2
= I
0
then I = 4I
0
cos
2
/2
For constructive interference
= 2n and x = n
I
max
= (
1
I +
2
I )
2
(A
1
+ A
2
)
2
[Q I A
2
]
For destructive interference
= (2n + 1) and x = |
.
|

\
|

2
1
n
I
min
= (
1
I
2
I )
2
(A
1
A
2
)
2


min
max
I
I
=
) (
) (
2 1
2 1
I I
I I

+
=
2
2 1
2
2 1
) (
) (
A A
A A

+

The energy remains conserved during the process
of interference.
P

S
1
S
2

Intensity of light at any point P as shown the
figure I = I
0
cos
2
|
.
|

\
|

tan d

(c) The fringe width =
d
D

Angular width =
D

=
d


does not depend on D
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 20 JANUARY 2012
(d) When the source of light is placed asymmetrical
with respect to the slits then the central maxima
also shifts.


S
2
x

y
D
x
D
y


S
1
S



y
D
y
=
x
D
x
and =
(e) If young's double slit experiment is done in a
liquid of refractive index medium then the
fringe width = /
(f)

P
S
1
S
2
t
O
O

If a transparent sheet of thickness t is placed in
front of upper slit then the central maxima shift
upside. The new optical path becomes t instead
of t and the increase in optical path is ( 1)t.
The shift =
d
D
( 1) t =

( 1)t
(g) Interference in thin films :


r
r
r r
2
1
i
t
Transmitted rays

For reflected rays interference
Maxima 2 t cos r = (2n 1)
2


Minima 2 t cos r = n

Diffraction :
Bending of light through an aperture / corner when
the dimension of aperture is comparable to the
wavelength of light is called diffraction.
Fraunhoffer diffraction at a single slit
Condition for minima :
a sin
n
= n
Condition of secondary maxima :
a sin
n
=
2 2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ n Where n = n = 1, 2 ...
Width of central maxima = 2D/a

P
O

a

Angular width of central maxima = 2/a
Angular width of secondary maxima = /a
Intensity at any point P = I
0
2
sin
(


where =

(a sin )
The ratio of intensities of secondary maxima are
22
1
,
61
1
,
121
1
, ...
For a path difference of , the phase difference is
2 radian.
Polarisation :

I
0
Unpolarised
light
Polarised
light

I cos
2
I = I
0
/2



r
i
p
Medium 1
Medium 2



i
p
= Angle of polarization, i
p + r
= 90, = tan i
p


XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 21 JANUARY 2012



1. (i) A ray of light incident normally on one of the
faces of a right-angled isosceles prism is found to be
totally reflected. What is the minimum value of the
refractive index of the material of prism ?
(ii) When the prism is immersed in water, trace the
path of the emergent ray for the same incident ray
indicating the values of all the angles (

= 4/3)
Sol. (i) According to the problem, A = 90, B = C = 45.
At face BC, incident ray PQ is totally reflected
therefore i C fig.

P
B A
R
r=i
N
i
45
Q
N
C

Here i = 45, C
max
= 45; = 1/sin C
or
min
= (1/sin C
max
) = (1/sin 45) = 2 = 1.414
(ii) When the prism is immersed in water, then for
normal incident ray, the ray passes undeviated up to
PQ and becomes incident at face BC at angle of
incidence 45(fig.) The ray travels from glass to
water, therefore from Snell's law,

r sin
i sin
=
1
2

, we have
r sin
45 sin
=
g
w

=
g

w

sin r =
w g

45 sin
=
w

45 sin

g

=
2
1

3 / 4
414 . 1
=
4
3
= 0.75
r = sin
1
(0.75) = 4836

P
B A
R
90
45
45
Q
r
C
45
R

The path of light ray is shown in fig.

2. The cross-section of a glass prism has the form of an
isosceles triangle. One of the equal faces is coated
with silver. A ray is normally incident on another
unsilvered face and being reflected twice emerges
through the base of the prism perpendicular to it.
Find the angles of the prism.
Sol. Suppose refracting angle of prism be and other two
base angles of the isosceles prism be . The light ray
PQ, incident normally on the face AB, is refracted
undeviated along QR. The refracted ray QR strikes
the silvered face AC and gets reflected from it. The
reflected ray RS now strikes the face AB from where
it is again reflected along ST and emerges
perpendicular to base BC.
A
B
C
P
R
S
Q
90
N
2
N
2
N
1 i =


=
N
1
T
i


It follows from fig. that angle of incidence on face
AC = i = and also angle of incidence of face
AB = = As N
2
N
2
is parallel to PR, hence = 2i
i.e., = 2
Also + 2 = 180 or + 2(2) = 180
or = 36 so = 2 = 72

3. Two coherent light sources A and B with separation
2 are placed on the x-axis symmetrically about the
origin. They emit light of wavelength . Obtain the
positions of maximum on a circle of large radius,
lying in the xy-plane and with centre at the origin.
Sol. Distance between two coherent light sources = 2.
Consider the interference of waves at some point C of
the circumference of circle.
BC = ) cos r 2 r (
2 2
+
AC = ) cos r 2 r (
2 2
+ +
Path difference = AC BC = (For Maxima)
It is clear from figure, that
Path difference = AC BC = AP + OM = 2 cos
Y
X
C
M
r
P

O A
B


2 cos = or cos = 1/2
Possible values of angle = 60, 120, 180, 240,
300, 360.
Solved Examples
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 22 JANUARY 2012
4. Two point coherent sources are on a straight line
d = n apart. The distance of a screen perpendicular
to the line of the sources is D >> d from the nearest
source. Calculate the distance of the point on the
screen where the first bright fringe is formed.
Sol. Consider any point P on the screen at a distance x
from O. Then
d
O
D
S
2
S
1


2
1
D = D
2
+ x
2
or D
1
= D
2 / 1
2
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
D
x
= D
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
2
2
1
D
x
;
D
1
= D +
D
x
2
2

Similarly, D
2
= (D + d) +
) ( 2
2
d D
x
+

D
2
D
1
(D + d) +
) ( 2
2
d D
x
+
D
D
x
2
2

= d +
2
2
x
|
.
|

\
|

+ D d D
1 1
= d d
) ( 2
2
d D D
x
+


O
D
D
2
S
1
S
2
D
1
x
P
d


For the point O, D
2
D
1
= d = n (given).
Thus there is brightness at O of nth order. Since the
path difference decreases, the other fringes will be of
lower order. The next bright fringe will be of
(n 1)th order. Hence for the next bright fringe
D
2
D
2
= (n 1)
d d
) ( 2
2
d D D
x
+
= (n 1)
n n
) ( 2
2
+ n D D
x
= (n 1)
x =
n
n D D ) ( 2 +



5. One slit of a Young's experiment is covered by a
glass plate (n = 1.4) and the other by another glass
plate (n' = 1.7) of the same thickness t. The point of
central maximum on the screen, before the plates
were introduced, is now occupied by the previous
fifth bright fringe. Find the thickness of the plates
( = 4800 )
Sol. Path of the wave from slit S
1
= D
1
+ n't t
Path of the wave from slit S
2
= D
2
+ nt t
Path difference = D
2
+ nt t D
1
n't + t
= (D
2
D
1
) + (n n')t

O
D
D
2
S
1
S
2
D
1
O
d
x

But D
2
D
1
=
D
xd

Path difference =
D
xd
+ (n n')t
Let O' be the point where paths difference is zero.

D
xd
= (n' n)t
or, x =
d
D
(n' n) t =

t n n ) ' (
(


=
d
D
Q
Given that x = 5 5 =

t n n ) ' (

or, t =
n ' n
5

or, t =
4 . 1 7 . 1
10 4800 5
10



= 8 m.



























CHEMISTRY JOKES
If you didn't get the joke, you probably didn't
understand the science behind it. If this is the case, it's
a chance for you to learn a little chemistry.
Chemistry Joke 1:
Q: What do chemists call a benzene ring with iron
atoms replacing the carbon atoms?
A: A ferrous wheel:
Fe - Fe
/ \
Fe Fe
\ /
Fe - Fe

Chemistry Joke 2:
Q: What is the chemical name of the following
benzene-like molecule?
PhD PhD
\ /
C - C
/ \
C C
\ /
C - C
A: Orthodox
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 23 JANUARY 2012











Key Concepts :
1. Equation of a harmonic wave is y = a sin(kx t ).
Here y is measure of disturbance from zero level.
y may represent as electric field, magnetic field,
pressure etc. Also K = 2/ = wave number.
Note : The positive sign between kx and t shows
that the wave propagates is the + x direction. If the
wave travels in the X direction then negative sign is
used between kx and t.
2. Particle Velocity :
v =
dt
dy
= a cos (kx t )
Maximum particle velocity = a = velocity amplitude
Particle velocity is different from wave velocity.
The wave velocity v = v.
3. Particle acceleration :
A =
dt
dv
=
2
2
dt
y d
= a
2
cos(kx + t ) =
2
y
Max acceleration = acceleration amplitude =
2
a
4. Velocity of transverse wave on a string =
m
T

Where m = mass per unit length =
4
2
D

Where = density of the wire material and
D = diameter of wire
More the tension, more is the velocity
5. A wave, after reflection from a free end, suffers no
change of .
A wave, after reflection from a free end, suffers no
change in the phase.
6. Velocity of sound in a fluid =

B

For air B = P v =

P
=
M
RT

Velocity of sound in general follows the order
V
solid
> V
liquid
> V
gas

Velocity of sound T
Also velocity of sound M /
and velocity of sound / 1 .
But velocity of sound does not depend on pressure
because P/ becomes constant.
Velocity of sound depend on the frame of reference.
7. (a) According to principle of superposition

y =

1
y +

2
y + .
(b) Interference of waves y
1
= A
1
sin(kx t)
y
2
= A
2
sin(kx t + )
For constructive interference = 2n
n = 0, 1, 2,
(i) I
max
= (
1
I +
2
I )
2

(waves should be in same phase)
(ii) A
max
= A
1
+ A
2

For destructive interference = (2n + 1)
n = 0, 1, 2,
(i) I
min
= (
1
I
2
I )
2

(waves should be in opposite phase)
(ii) A
min
= A
1
A
2

(c) I = I
1
+ I
2
+ 2
2 1
I I cos
Where is the phase difference between the two
waves.
8. Beats : When two waves of same amplitude with
slight difference in frequency (<10), traveling in the
same direction superpose, beats are produced.
The equation for beats is
y =
(


2
) cos(
2
2 1
t
A sin |
.
|

\
|
2
2 1
t
Where amplitude at a given location
= 2Acos |
.
|

\
|
2
2 1
t
The above expression shows that amplitude change
with time.
Beat frequency = no of maxima / minima per second
= v
1
v
2

Waves & Doppler Effect

PHYSICS FUNDAMENTAL FOR IIT-JEE
KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 24 JANUARY 2012
9. Standing waves (stationary)
When two waves of same amplitude and frequency
moving in opposite direction superimpose, standing
waves are produced.
Nodes are the point where the displacement is
always zero.
The amplitudes of different particles different and
is maximum at antinodes.
The equation of standing waves is
The above expression shows that the amplitude is
different for different values of x and varies
sinusoidally.
For a node to occur at position x, y = 0 kx = 0
For an antinode two occur at position x, y should
be max kx = /2 , .
In terms of pressure P = P
0
cos kx cos t.
10. For standing waves on strings (and both end open
organ pipe)
Fundamental frequency v
0
=
0
v

=
l 2
v

First mode of vibration v
1
=
1
v

= 2 |
.
|

\
|
l 2
v

= 2v
0
= 2
nd
harmonic
nth mode of vibration v
n
= n |
.
|

\
|
l 2
v
= nv
0

= nth harmonic where v =
m
T
for string.
Also more the tension in the same string, higher is
the value of v
0

11. For closed organ pipe :
Fundamental frequency v
0
=
0
v

=
l 4
v

First mode of vibration v
1
=
1
v

= 3 |
.
|

\
|
l 4
v
= 3v
0

= Third harmonic
n
th
mode of vibration v
n
= (2n + 1)
l 4
v

where n = 1, 2, ..
In case where end correction is taken replace l by
(l + e)
12. (a) Intensity of sound at a distance r from a point
source is I =
2
4 r
P

where P = power of source.


(b) For a line source I =
l r
P


where l is the length of source
(c) I =
2
1
v(4
2
v
2
)A
2
=
v 2
) amplitude essure (Pr
2


13. Doppler's effect :
v = v
0 (

s
L
v v
v v
v
L
= velocity of listener
The above formula is valid when v
s
< v
Replace v by (v v
m
) if it is given that the
medium also moving.
When listener and source are not moving along
the line joining the two, then the component of
velocity along the line joining the two are taken
as velocity of listener or source.
14. If the source and listener are on the same vehicle and
the sound is reflected from a stationary object
towards which the vehicle is approaching then the
frequency of sound as heard by the observer is
v = v
0 (

+
+
s
L
v v
v v

15. For a path difference of , the phase difference is 2
for harmonic waves.
16. For a transverse wave the energy per unit length
possessed by a string is given as

l d
dE
= m(4
2
f
2
)A
2
cos
2
(kx t)
17. Equation for a wave pulse is y = f(x + vt)
18. When a wave on reaching on interface is partly
reflected and partly transmitted then for no power
loss.
P
i
= P
t
+ P
r
where P
i
= Power of incident wave
P
t
= Power of transmitted wave
P
r
= Power of reflected wave.
Also in this case A
r
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

1 2
1 2
v v
v v
A
i
; A
t
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2 1
2
v v
v 2
A
i

Where A
i
, A
r
and A
t
are amplitudes of incident
reflected and transmitted waves v
1
is the velocity in
the medium of incidence and v
2
is the velocity in the
medium where transmitted wave is present.
Problem Solving Strategy : Mechanical Waves
Identify the relevant concepts : Wave problems fall
into two broad categories. Kinematics problems are
concerned with describing wave motion; they involve
wave speed v, wave length (or wave number k),
frequency f (or angular frequency ), and amplitude
A. They may also involve the position, velocity, and
acceleration of individual particles in the medium.
Dynamics problems also use concepts from Newton's
laws such as force and mass. In this chapter we'll
encounter problems that involve the relation of wave
speed to the mechanical properties of the wave
medium. We'll get into these relations.
As always, make sure that you identify the target
variable(s) for the problem. In some cases it will be
the wavelength, frequency, or wave speed; in other
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 25 JANUARY 2012
cases you'll be asked to find an expression for the
wave function.
Set up the problem using the following steps :
Make a list of the quantities whose value are
given. To help you visualize the situation, you'll
find it useful to sketch graphs of y versus x (fig.
a) and of y versus (fig. b). Label your graphs with
the values of the known quantities.

y
Wave displacement
versus coordinate x
at time t = 0
Wavelength
A
A
(a)
y
Wave displacement
versus time t at
coordinate x = 0
Period T
A
A
(b)
t t

Decide which equations you'll need to use. If any
two of v, f, and are given, you'll need to use eq.
v = f (periodic wave) to find the third quantity. If
the problem involves the angular frequency and
/ or the wave number k, you'll need to use the
definitions of those quantities and eq. ( = vk).
You may also need the various forms of the wave
function given in Eqs.
y(x, t) = A cos
(

|
.
|

\
|
t
v
x
= A cos 2f |
.
|

\
|
t
v
x
,
y(x, t) = A cos 2 |
.
|

\
|

T
t x

and y(x, t) = A cos (kx t).
If the wave speed is not given, and you don't have
enough information to determine it using v = f,
you may be able to find v using the relationship
between v and the mechanical properties of the
system.
Execute the solution as follows : Solve for the
unknown quantities using the equations you've
selected. In some problems all you need to do is find
the value of one of the wave variables.
If you're asked to determine the wave function, you
need to know A and any two of v, and f(or v, k and
). Once you have this information, you can use it in
eq. ( = vk). You may also need the various forms of
the wave function given in Eqs.
y(x, t) = A cos
(

|
.
|

\
|
t
v
x
= A cos 2f |
.
|

\
|
t
v
x
,
y(x, t) = A cos 2 |
.
|

\
|

T
t x
and y(x, t) = A cos (kx t)
to get the specific wave function for the problem at
hand. Once you have that, you can find the value of y
at any point (value of x) and at any time by
substituting into the wave function.
Evaluate your answer : Look at your results with a
critical eye. Check to see whether the values of v, f,
and (or v, , and k) agree with the relationships
given in eq. . v = f or w = vk. If you've calculated the
wave function, check one or more special cases for
which you can guess what the results ought to be.
Problem Solving Strategy : Standing waves
Identify the relevant concepts : As with traveling
waves, it's useful to distinguish between the purely
kinematic quantities, such as wave speed v,
wavelength , and frequency f, and the dynamic
quantities involving the properties of the medium,
such as F and for transverse waves on a string.
Once you decide what the target variable is, try to
determine whether the problem is only kinematic in
nature or whether the properties of the medium are
also involved.
Set up the problem using the following steps :
In visualizing nodes and antinodes in standing
waves, it is always helpful to draw diagrams. For
a string you can draw the shape at one instant and
label the nodes N and antinodes A. The distance
between two adjacent nodes or two adjacent
antinodes is always /2, and the distance between
a node and the adjacent antinode is always /4.
Decide which equation you'll need to use. The
wave function for the standing wave is almost
always useful ex. y(x, t) = (A
SW
sin kx) sin t.
You can compute the wave speed if you know
either and f (or, equivalently, k = 2/ and
= 2f) or the properties of the medium (for a
string. F and .)
Execute the solution as follows: Solve for the
unknown quantities using the equations you've
selected. Once you have the wave function, you can
find the value of the displacement y at any point in
the wave medium (value of x) and at any time. You
can find the velocity of a particle in the wave
medium by taking the partial derivative of y with
respect to time. To find the acceleration of such a
particle, take the second partial derivative of y with
respect to time.
Evaluate your answer : Compare your numerical
answers with your diagram. Check that the wave
function is compatible with the boundary conditions
(for example, the displacement should be zero at a
fixed end).
Problem Solving Strategy : Sound Intensity
Identify the relevant concepts : The relationships
between intensity and amplitude of a sound wave are
rather straightforward. Quite a few other quantities
are involved in these relationships, however, so it's
particularly important to deciede which is your target
variable.
Set up the problem using the following steps :
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 26 JANUARY 2012
Sort the various physical quantities into
categories. The amplitude is described by A or
p
max
, and the frequency f can be determined from
, k, or . These quantites are related through the
wave speed v, which in turn is determined by the
properties of the medium: B and for a liquid; ,
T, and M for a gas.
Determine which quantities are given and which
are the unknown target variables. Then start
looking for relationships that take you where you
want to go.
Execute the solution as follows: Use the equations
you've selected to solve for the target variables. Be
certain that all of the quantities are expressed in the
correct units. In particular, if temperature is used to
calculate the speed of sound in a gas, make sure that
it is expressed in Kelvins (Celsius temperature plus
273.15).
Evaluate your answer: There are multiple
relationships among the quantities that describe a
wave. Try using an alternative one to check your
results.
Problem Solving Strategy : Doppler Effect
Identify the relevant concepts : The Doppler effect is
relevant whenever the source of waves, the wave
detector (listener), or both are in motion.
Set up the problem using the following steps :
Establish a coordinate system. Define the positive
direction to be the direction from the listener to
the source, and make sure you know the signs of
all relevant velocities. A velocity in the direction
from the listener toward the source is positive; a
velocity in the opposite direction is negative.
Also, the velocities must all be measured relative
to the air in which the sound is traveling.
Use consistent notation to identify the various
quantities: subscript S for source, L for listener.
Determine which unknown quantities are your
target variables.
Execute the solutions :
Use eq. f
L
=
S
L
v v
v v
+
+
f
S
to relate the frequencies at
the source and the listener, the sound speed, and
the velocities of the source and the listener. If the
source is moving, you can find the wavelength
measured by the listener using Eq.
=
S
f
v

S
S
f
v
=
S
S
f
v v
or =
S
S
f
v v +
.
When a wave is reflected from a surface, either
stationary or moving, the analysis can be carried
out in two steps. In the first, the surface plays the
role of listener; the frequency with which the
wave crests arrive at the surface is f
L
. Then think
of the surface as a new source, emitting waves
with this same frequency f
L
. Finally, determine
what frequency is heard by a listener detecting
this new wave.
Evaluate your answer: Ask whether your final result
makes sense. If the source and the listener are
moving towards each other, f
L
> F
S
; if they are
moving apart, f
L
< f
S
. If the source and the listener
have no relative motion, f
L
= f
S
.




1. A stationary wave is given by
y = 5 sin
3
x
cos 40 t
where x and y are in cm and t is in seconds.
(a) What are the amplitude and velocity of the
component waves whose superposition can give rise
to this vibration ?
(b) What is the distance between the nodes ?
(c) What is the velocity of a particle of the string at
the position x = 1.5 cm when t = 9/8 s ?
Sol. Using the relation 2 sin C cos D = sin (C + D) +
sin(C D)
y = 5 sin
3
x
cos 40 t =
2
5
2 sin
3
x
cos 40t
y =
(

|
.
|

\
|

+ |
.
|

\
|
+

t
x
t
x
40
3
sin 40
3
sin
2
5

=
2
5
.sin |
.
|

\
|
+
3
40
x
t
2
5
sin |
.
|

\
|

3
40
x
t
=
2
5
.sin |
.
|

\
|
+
3
40
x
t +
2
5
sin |
.
|

\
|
+


3
40
x
t
Thus, the given stationary wave is formed by the
superposition of the progressive waves
y
1
=
2
5
sin |
.
|

\
|
+
3
40
x
t and y
2
=
2
5
sin |
.
|

\
|
+


3
x
t 40
Comparing each wave with the standard form of the
progressive wave
y = a sin |
.
|

\
|
+


2
t ; a =
2
5
= 2.5 cm
= 40 or n = 20
and

2
=
3
2
or = 6 cm = 0.06 m
c = n = 20 0.06 = 1.2 ms
1

Distance between the nodes =
2

=
2
06 . 0
= 0.03 m
Q y = 5 sin
3
x
cos 40 t
v =
dt
dy
= 5 40 sin
3
x
sin 40 t
v = 200 sin
3
x
sin 40t
Solved Examples
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 27 JANUARY 2012
At x = 1.5 cm and t =
8
9
s
v = 200 sin 45 = 0

2. An engine blowing a whistle of frequency 133 Hz
moves with a velocity of 60 m s
1
towards a hill from
which an echo is heard. Calculate the frequency of
the echo heard by the driver. (Velocity of sound in air
= 340 ms
1
.)
Sol. The 'image' of the source approaches the driver at the
same speed. Here, the image or echo is the source.
v
s
= + 60 ms
1
, v
0
= 60 ms
1

n =
s
0
v c
v c

n
n =
60 340
) 60 ( 340


133 = 190 Hz

3. A source of sound of frequency 1000 Hz moves to
the right with a speed of 32 ms
1
relative to the
ground. To its right is reflecting surface moving to
the left with a speed of 64 ms
1
relative to the ground.
Take the speed of sound in air to be 332 m s
1
and
find
(a) the wavelength of the sound emitted in air by the
source
(b) the number of waves per second arriving at the
reflecting surface
(c) the speed of the reflected waves, and
(d) the wavelength of the reflected waves
Sol. (a) Due to the motion of the source, the wavelength
(and hence, the frequency) is actually changed
from to such that if n = actual frequency
=
n
v c
S

=
1000
32 332
= 0.3 m
(b) The number of waves arriving at the reflecting
surface is the same as the number of waves
received by an observer moving towards the
source. This is given by the apparent frequency.
n =
S
0
v c
v c

n =
32 332
) 64 ( 332


1000 = 1320 Hz
(c) Same as that of the incident wave because the
speed of a wave depends only on the
characteristics of the medium.
speed of the reflected wave = 332 ms
1

(d) To calculate the wavelength of the reflected wave,
we may consider the source to be stationary and
emitting waves of wavelength 0.3 m. If the
reflector were stationary, waves in a tube of
length c would reach the reflector and the same
number of reflected waves would be contained in
a tube of the same length, so the wavelength of
the reflected wave would also be the same as that
of the incident wave. But when the reflector
moves towards the source with speed v
ref
it would
reflect additional waves contained in v
ref
and the
total number of waves reflected would be
contained in a tube of length
c v
ref
. If is the changed wavelength of the
wave due to the motion of the source
= |
.
|

\
|

c
) v c (
ref
ref

or =
ref
ref
v c
v c
+

=
64 332
64 332
+

0.3 = 0.2 m

4. Find the ratio of the fundamental frequencies of two
identical strings after one of them is stretched by 2%
and the other by 4%.
Sol. n =
m
T
l 2
1
. If l
0
be the initial length and f be
fractional increase in length, l = l
0
+ fl
0
. Since
tension is proportional to the increase in length,
T = k fl
0
where k is a constant.
m =
0 0
l l f
M
+
where M is the mass of the string
n =
) 1 ( 2
1
0
f + l ) 1 (
/
0
0
f
M kf
+ l
l
=
) 1 ( 2
1
0
0
f M
f k
+
l
l

Since l
0
, k and M are constants n
f 1
f
+


2
1
n
n
=
) 1 (
) 1 (
1 2
2 1
f f
f f
+
+
=
) 02 . 0 1 ( 04 . 0
) 04 . 0 1 ( 02 . 0
+
+
= 0.71

5. An open organ pipe has a fundamental frequency of
300 Hz. The first overtone of a closed organ pipe has
the same frequency as the first overtone of the open
pipe. How long is each pipe ? The velocity of sound
in air = 350 ms
1
.
Sol. For a closed pipe n =
l 4
c
and 3n, 5n, 7n, ... are the
overtones. For an open pipe n =
l 2
c
and 2n, 3n, 4n,
... are the overtones.
l =
n
c
2
=
300 2
350

= 0.58 m
The frequency of the first overtone
= 2n = 2 300 = 600 Hz
the frequency of the first overtone of the closed
pipe = 600 = 3n
n = 200 Hz
200 =
l 4
350
or l =
200 4
350

= 0.44 m





XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 28 JANUARY 2012

















Definition and Classification :
Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes,
polyhydroxy ketones, or compounds that can be
hydrolyzed to them. A carbohydrate that cannot be
hydrolyzed to simpler compounds is called a
monosaccharide. A carbohydrate that can be
hydrolyzed to two monosaccharide molecules is
called a disaccharide. A carbohydrate that can be
hydrolyzed to many monosaccharide molecules is
called a polysaccharide.
A monosaccharide may be further classified. If it
contains an aldehyde group, it is known as an aldose;
if it contains a keto group, it is known as a ketose.
Depending upon the number of carbon atoms. It
contains, a monosaccharide is known as a triose,
tetrose, pentose, hexose, and so on. An aldohexose,
for example, is a six-carbon monosaccharide
containing an aldehyde group; a ketopentose is a
five-carbon monosaccharide containing a keto group.
Most naturally occurring monosaccharides are
pentoses or hexoses.
Carbohydrates that reduce Fehlings (or Benedicts)
or Tollens reagent are known as reducing sugars.
All monosaccharides, whether aldose or ketose, are
known as reducing sugars. Most disaccharides are
reducing sugars; sucrose (common table sugar) is a
notable exception, for it is a non-reducing sugar.
(+)-Glucose : an aldohexose :
Because it is the unit of which starch, cellulose, and
glycogen are made up, and because of its special role
in biological processes, (+)-glucose is by far the most
abundant monosaccharide- there are probably more
(+)-glucose units in nature than any other organic
groupand by far the most important
monosaccharide.
Cyclic structure of D-(+)-glucose. Formation of
glucosides :
D-(+)-glucose is a pentahydroxy aldehyde. D-(+)-
glucose had been definitely proved to have structure.
CHO
OH
H
OH
OH
H
HO
H
H
CH
2
OH
D-(+)-Glucose

By 1895 it had become clear that the picture of D-
(+)-glucose as a pentahydroxy aldehyde had to be
modified.
Among the facts that had still to be accounted for
were the following:
(a) D-(+)-Glucose fails to undergo certain
reactions typical of aldehydes. Although it is
readily oxidized, it gives a negative Schiff test and
does not form a bisulfite addition product.
(b) D-(+)-Glucose exists in two isomeric forms
which undergo mutarotation. When crystals of
ordinary D-(+)-glucose of m.p. 146C are dissolved
in water, the specific rotation gradually drops from an
initial + 112 to + 52.7. On the other hand, when
crystals of D-(+)-glucose of m.p. 150C (obtained by
crystallization at temperatures above 98C) are
dissolved in water, the specific rotation gradually
rises from an initial + 19 to + 52.7. The form with
the higher positive rotation is called -D-(+)-glucose
and that with lower rotation -D-(+)-glucose. The
change in rotation of each of these to the equilibrium
value is called mutarotation.
(c) D-(+)-Glucose forms two isomeric methyl D-
glucosides. Aldehydes react with alcohols in the
presence of anhydrous HCl to form acetals. If the
alcohol is, say methanol, the acetal contains two
methyl groups :

C=O
H
COCH
3
H
OH
COCH
3
H
OCH
3
CH3OH,H
+
CH3OH,H
+
Aldehyde Hemiacetal Acetal

When D-(+)-glucose is treated with methanol and
HCl, the product, methyl D-glucoside, contains only
one CH
3
group; yet it has properties resembling
those of a full acetal. It does not spontaneously revert
to aldehyde and alcohol on contact with water, but
requires hydrolysis by aqueous acids.
Furthermore, not just one but two of these
monomethyl derivatives of D-(+)-glucose are known,
one with m.p. 165C and specific rotation + 158, and
the other with m.p. 107 C and specific rotation 33.
The isomer of higher positive rotation is called
methyl -D-glucoside, and the other is called methyl
-D-glucoside. These glucosides do not undergo
mutarotation, and do not reduce Tollens or Fehlings
reagent.
Organic
Chemistry
Fundamentals

CARBOHYDRATES
KEY CONCEPT
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 29 JANUARY 2012
D-(+)-Glucose has the cyclic structure represented
crudely by IIa and IIIa, more accurately by IIb and
IIIb.

H
H
HO
H
H
OH
OH
H
OH
1
2
3
4
5
6 CH
2
OH
H OH
OH
OH
H
H
H H
HO
CH
2
OH
O
1
2 3
4
5
6
IIa
IIb
-D-(+)-Glucose (m.p. 146 C, [] = +112)
O


HO
H
HO
H
H
H
OH
H
OH
1
2
3
4
5
6 CH
2
OH
H OH
H
OH
H
H
OH H
HO
CH
2
OH
O
1
2 3
4
5
6
IIIa
IIIb
-D-(+)-Glucose (m.p. 150 C, [] = +19)
O

D-(+)-Glucose is the hemiacetal corresponding to
reaction between the aldehyde group and the C-5
hydroxyl group of the open-chain structure. It has a
cyclic structure simply because aldehyde and alcohol
are part of the same molecule.
There are two isomeric forms of D-(+)-glucose
because this cyclic structure has one more chiral
centre than Fishers original open-chain structure. -
D-(+)-Glucose and -D-(+)-glucose are
diastereomers, differing in configuration about C-1.
Such a pair of distereomers are called anomers.
As hemiacetals, -and -D-(+)- glucose are readily
hydrolyzed by water. In aqueous solution either
anomer is converted via the open-chain forminto
an equilibrium mixture containing both cyclic
isomers. This mutarotation results from the ready
opening and closing of the hemiacetal ring.
The typical aldehyde reactions of D-(+)-glucose
osazone formation, and perhaps reduction of Tollens
and Fehlings reagents are presumably due to a
small amount of open-chain compound, which is
replenished as fast as it is consumed. The
concentration of this open-chain structure, however,
is too low (less than 0.5%) for certain easily
reversible aldehyde reactions like bisulfite addition
and the Schiff test.
Disaccharides :
Disaccharides are carbohydrates that are made up of
two monosaccharide units. On hydrolysis a molecule
of disaccharide yields two molecules of
monosaccharide.
We shall study four disaccharides : (+)-maltose (malt
sugar), (+)-cellobiose, (+)-lactose (milk sugar), and
(+)-sucrose (cane or beet sugar).
(+)-Maltose :
(+)-Maltose can be obtained, among other products,
by partial hydrolysis of starch in aqueous acid. (+)-
Maltose is also formed in one stage of the
fermentation of starch to ethyl alcohol; here
hydrolysis is catalyzed by the enzyme diastase, which
is present in malt (sprouted barley).
Let us look at some of the facts from which the
structure of (+)-maltose has been deduced.
(+)-Maltose has the molecular formula C
12
H
22
O
11
. It
reduces Tollens and Fehlings reagents and hence is
a reducing sugar. It reacts with phenylhydrazine to
yield an osazone, C
12
H
20
O
9
(=NNHC
6
H
5
)
2
. It is
oxidized by bromide water to a monocarboxylic acid,
(C
11
H
21
O
10
)COOH, maltobionic acid. (+)-Maltose
exists in alpha ([] = + 168) and beta ([] = + 112)
forms which undergo mutarotation in solution
(equilibrium [] = + 136).
(+)-Cellobiose :
When cellulose (cotton fibers) is treated for several
days with sulfuric acid and acetic anhydride, a
combination of acetylation and hydrolysis takes
place; there is obtained the octaacetate of (+)-
cellobiose. Alkaline hydrolysis of the octaacetate
yields (+)-cellobiose itself.
Like (+)-maltose, (+)-cellobiose has the molecular
formula C
12
H
22
O
11
, is a reducing sugar, forms an
osazone, exists in alpha and beta forms that undergo
mutarotation, and can be hydrolyzed to two
molecules of D-(+)-glucose. The sequence of
oxidation, methylation, and hydrolysis (as described
for (+)-maltose) shows that (+)-cellobiose contains
two pyranose rings and glucoside linkage to an OH
group on C4.
(+)-Cellobiose differs from (+)-maltose in one
respect : it is hydrolyzed by the enzyme emulsin
(from bitter almonds), not by maltase. Since emulsin
is known to hydrolyze only -glucoside linkages.
(+)-Lactose :
(+)-Lactose makes up about 5% of human milk and
of cows milk. It is obtained commercially as a by-
product of cheese manufacture, being found in the
whey, the aqueous solution that remains after the
milk proteins have been coagulated. Milk sours when
lactose is converted into lactic acid (sour, like all
acids) by bacterial action (e.g., by Lactobacillus
bulgaricus).
(+)-Lactose has the molecular formula C
12
H
22
O
11
, is a
reducing sugar, forms an osazone, and exists in alpha
and beta forms which undergo mutarotation. Acidic
hydrolysis or treatment with emulsin (which splits
linkages only) converts (+)-lactose into equal
amounts of D-(+)-glucose and D-(+)-galactose. (+)-
Lactose is evidently a -glycoside formed by the
union of a molecule of D-(+)glucose and a molecule
of D-(+)-galactose.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 30 JANUARY 2012
(+)-Sucrose :
(+)-Sucrose is our common table sugar, obtained
from sugar cane and sugar beets. Of organic
chemicals, it is the one produced in the largest
amount in pure form.
(+)-Sucrose has the molecular formula C
12
H
22
O
11
. It
does not reduce Tollens or Fehlings reagent. It is a
non-reducing sugar, and in this respect it differs from
the other disaccharides we have studied. Moreover,
(+)-sucrose does not form an osazone, does not exist
in anomeric forms, and does not show mutarotation
in solution. All these facts indicate that (+)-sucrose
does not contain a freealdehyde or ketone group.
(+)-Sucrose is made up of a D-glucose unit and a D-
fructose unit; since there is no free carbonyl group,
if must be both a D-glucoside and a D-fructoside.
Polysaccharides :
Polysaccharides are compounds made up of many-
hundreds or even thousands-monosaccharide units
per molecule.
Polysaccharides are naturally occurring polymers,
which can be considered as derived from aldoses or
ketoses by polymerization with loss of water. A
polysaccharide derived from hexoses, for example,
has the general formula (C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n
.
The most important polysaccharides are cellulose and
starch. Both are produced in plants from carbon
dioxide and water by the process of photosynthesis.
Starch :
Starch occurs as granules whose size and shape are
characteristic of the plant from which the starch is
obtained. When intact, starch granules are insoluble
in cold water; if the outer membrane has been broken
by grinding, the granules swell in cold water and
form a gel.
In general, starch contains about 20% of a water-
soluble fraction called amylose, and 80% of a water-
insoluble fraction called amylopectin. These two
fractions appear to correspond to different
carbohydrates of high molecular weight and formula
(C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n
. Upon treatment with acid or under the
influence of enzymes, the components of starch are
hydrolyzed progressively to dextrin (a mixture of
low-molecular-weight polysaccharides), (+)-maltose,
and finally D-(+)-glucose. (A mixture of all these is
found in corn sirup, for example.) Both amylose and
amylopectin are made up of D-(+)-glucose units, but
differ in molecular size and shape.
Cellulose :
Cellulose is the chief component of wood and plant
fibers; cotton, for instance, is nearly pure cellulose. It
is insoluble in water and tasteless; it is a non-
reducing carbohydrate. These properties, in part at
least, are due to its extremely high molecular weight.
Cellulose has the formula (C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n
. Complete
hydrolysis by acid yields D-(+)-glucose as the only
monosaccharide. Hydrolysis of completely
methylated cellulose gives a high yield of 2, 3, 6-tri-
O-methyl-D-glucose. Like starch, therefore, cellulose
is made up of chains of D-glucose units, each unit
joined by a glycoside linkage to C4 of the next.
Cellulose differs from starch, however, in the
configuration of the glycoside linkage. Upon
treatment with acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid,
cellulose yields octa-O-acetylcellobiose.
Reactions of cellulose :
Like any alcohol, cellulose form esters. Treatment
with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acid converts
cellulose into cellulose nitrate. The properties and
uses of the product depend upon the extent of
nitration.
In the presence of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and a
little sulfuric acid, cellulose is converted into the
triacetate. Partial hydrolysis removes some of the
acetate groups, degrades the chains to smaller
fragments (of 200300 units each), and yields the
vastly important commercial cellulose acetate
(roughly a diacetate). Cellulose acetate is less
flammable than cellulose nitrate and has replaced the
nitrate in many of its applications, in safety-type
photographic film, for example. When a solution of
cellulose acetate in acetone is forced through the fine
holes of a spinnerette, the solvent evaporates and
leaves solid filaments. Threads from these filaments
make up the material known as acetate rayon.
Industrially, cellulose is alkylated to ethers by action of
alkyl chlorides (cheaper than sulfates) in the presence of
alkali. Considerable degradation of the long chains is
unavoidable in these reactions. Methyl, ethyl, and
benzyl ethers of cellulose are important in the
production of textiles, films, and various plastic objects.




















MEMORABLE POINTS

Parsec is the unit of Distance
Estimated radius of universe is 10
25
m
Estimated age of Sun is 10
18
s
18/5 km h
1
equal to 1 ms
1

1 femtometre (1 fm) is equal to 10
15
m
Dot product of force and velocity is Power
Moment of momentum is equal to
Angular momentum
Rocket propulision is based on the principle of
Conservation of linear momentum
The largest of astronomical unit, light year and
parsec is Parsec
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 31 JANUARY 2012
Inorganic
Chemistry
Fundamentals
















Identification of acidic radicals
For the identification of the acidic radicals, the
following scheme is followed.
Group I : The radicals which are analysed by dilute
H
2
SO
4
or dilute HCl. These are (i) carbonate (ii)
sulphite, (iii) sulphide, (iv) nitrite, and (v) acetate
Group II : The radicals which are analysed by
concentrated H
2
SO
4
. These are (i) chloride, (ii)
bromide, (iii) iodide (iv) nitrate, and (v) oxalate
Group III : The radicals which are not analysed by
dilute and concentrated H
2
SO
4
. These are (i)
sulphate, (ii) Phosphate, (iii) borate, and (iv) fluoride.
Group I :
Add dilute HCl or H
2
SO
4
to a small amount of
substance and warm gently, observe.
1. Carbonate or CO
3
2
:
The carbonates are decomposed with the
effervescence of carbon dioxide gas.
Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ H
2
O + CO
2

When this gas is passed through lime water, it
turns milky with the formation of calcium
carbonate.
Ca(OH)
2
+ CO
2
CaCO
3
+ H
2
O
Lime water White ppt.
If the CO
2
, gas is passed in excess, the milky
solution becomes colourless due to the formation
of soluble calcium bicarbonate.
CaCO
3
+ H
2
O + CO
2
Ca(HCO
3
)
2

White ppt. Soluble
Note :
Carbonates of bismuth and barium are not easily
decomposed by dilute H
2
SO
4
. Dilute HCl should
be used.
Sulphur dioxide evolved from sulphites also turns
lime water milky.
Ca(OH)
2
+ SO
2
CaSO
3
+ H
2
O
White ppt.
However SO
2
can be identified by its pungent
odour of burning sulphur.
PbCO
3
reacts with HCl or H
2
SO
4
to give in the
initial stage some effervescence but the reaction
slows down due to formation of a protective
insoluble layer of PbCl
2
or PbSO
4
on the surface
of remaining salt or mixture.
2. Sulphite :
The sulphites give out sulphur dioxide gas having
suffocating smell of burning sulphur.
CaSO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
CaSO
4
+ H
2
O + SO
2

When acidified potassium dichromate paper is
exposed to the gas, it attains green colour due to
the formation of chromic sulphate.
K
2
Cr
2
O
7
+ H
2
SO
4
+ 3SO
2

K
2
SO
4
+ Cr
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ H
2
O
The sulphite also gives white precipitate with
BaCl
2
, Soluble in dil. HCl
Na
2
SO
3
+ BaCl
2
2 NaCl + BaSO
3

3. Sulphide, S
2
:
The sulphide salts form H
2
S which smells like
rotten eggs.
Na
2
S + H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ H
2
S
On exposure to this gas, the lead acetate paper
turns black due to the formation of lead sulphide.
Pb(CH
3
COO)
2
+ H
2
S PbS + 2CH
3
COOH
black ppt.
The sulphides also turn sodium nitroprusside
solution violet (use sodium carbonate extract for
this test).
Na
2
S + Na
2
[FeNO(CN)
5
]
Na
4
[Fe(NOS) (CN)
5
]
Sulphides of lead, calcium, nickel, cobalt,
antimony and stannic are not decomposed with
dilute H
2
SO
4
. Conc. HCl should be used for their
test.However brisk evolution of H
2
S takes place
even by use of dilute H
2
SO
4
if a pinch of zinc
dust is added.
Zn + H
2
SO
4
ZnSO
4
+ 2H
HgS + 2H Hg + H
2
S
4. Nitrite, NO
2


:
The nitrites yield a colourless nitric oxide gas
which in contact with oxygen of the air becomes
brown due to the formation of nitrogen dioxide.
2KNO
2
+ H
2
SO
4
`K
2
SO
4
+ 2HNO
2

Nitrous acid
3HNO
2
H
2
O + 2NO + HNO
3

2 NO + O
2
2NO
2

brown coloured gas

SALT ANALYSIS
KEY CONCEPT
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 32 JANUARY 2012
On passing the gas through dilute FeSO
4
solution,
brown coloured complex salt is formed.
FeSO
4
.7H
2
O + NO
[Fe(H
2
O)
5
NO].SO
4
+ 2H
2
O
Brown coloured
(panta aquo nitroso ferrous sulphate)
When a mixture of iodide and nitrite is treated
with dilute H
2
SO
4
, the iodides are decomposed
giving violet vapours of iodine, which turns
starch iodide paper blue.
2NaNO
2
+ H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ 2HNO
2

2KI + H
2
SO
4
K
2
SO
4
+ 2HI
2HNO
2
+ 2HI 2H
2
O + I
2
+ 2NO
Violet vapours
I
2
+ Starch Blue colour
5. Acetate :
Acetates decompose to give acetic acid vapours
having characteristic smell of vinegar.
2CH
3
COONa + H
2
SO
4

2CH
3
COOH + Na
2
SO
4

All acetates are soluble in water and their aqueous
solution on addition to neutral FeCl
3
solution
develops a blood red colour due to the formation
of ferric acetate.
FeCl
3
+ 3CH
3
COONa
(CH
3
COO)
3
Fe + 3NaCl
Blood Red colour
Acetates are also decomposed with oxalic acid
and give off acetic acid.
2CH
3
COONa + H
2
C
2
O
4

Na
2
C
2
O
4
+ 2CH
3
COOH
Note :
The ferric chloride solution supplied in the
laboratory is always acidic due to hydrolysis. It is
made neutral by the addition of dilute solution
of NH
4
OH drop by drop with constant stirring till
the precipitate formed does not dissolve. The
filtrate is called neutral ferric chloride solution.
Before testing acetate in the aqueous solution by
FeCl
3
, it must be made sure that the solution does
not contain
(i) CO
3
2
, (ii) SO
3
2

(iii) PO
4
3
, (iv) I



Since these also combine with Fe
+3
. Therefore ,
the test of acetate should be performed by neutral
ferric chloride solution only after the removal of
these ions by AgNO
3
solution.
Group II:
Add concentrated H
2
SO
4
to a small amount of the salt
or mixture and warm gently, observe.
1. Chloride Cl

:
Colourless pungent fumes of hydrogen chloride are
evolved.
NaCl + H
2
SO
4
NaHSO
4
+ HCl
The gas evolved forms white fumes of ammonium
chloride with NH
4
OH.
NH
4
OH + HCl NH
4
Cl + H
2
O
White fumes
The gas evolved or solution of chloride salt forms
a curdy precipitate of silver chloride with silver
nitrate solution.
AgNO
3
+ HCl AgCl + HNO
3

Yellowish : green chlorine gas with suffocating
odour is evolved on addition of MnO
2
to the
above reaction mixture.
NaCl + H
2
SO
4
NaHSO
4
+ HCl
MnO
2
+ 4HCl MnCl
2
+ 2H
2
O + Cl
2

Note :
The curdy precipitate of AgCl dissolves in
ammonium hydroxide forming a complex salt.
AgCl + 2NH
4
OH Ag(NH
3
)
2
Cl + 2H
2
O
The solution having the silver complex on
acidifying with dilute nitric acid gives again a
white precipitate of silver chloride.
Ag(NH
3
)
2
Cl + 2HNO
3
AgCl + 2NH
4
NO
3

Chromyl chloride Test : When solid chloride is
heated with conc. H
2
SO
4
in presence of K
2
Cr
2
O
7
,

deep red vapours of chromyl chloride are
evolved.
NaCl + H
2
SO
4
NaHSO
4
+ HCl
K
2
Cr
2
O
7
+ 2H
2
SO
4
2KHSO
4
+ 2CrO
3
+ H
2
O
CrO
3
+ 2HCl CrO
2
Cl
2
+ H
2
O
Chromyl chloride
These vapours on passing through NaOH
solution, form the yellow solution due to the
formation of sodium chromate.
CrO
2
Cl
2
+ 4NaOH Na
2
CrO
4
+2NaCl+ 2H
2
O
Yellow colour
The yellow solution neutralised with acetic acid
gives a yellow precipitate of lead chromate with
lead acetate.
Na
2
CrO
4
+ Pb(CH
3
COO)
2

PbCrO
4
+ 2CH
3
COONa
Yellow ppt.
Note :
This test is not given by the chloride of mercuric,
tin, silver, lead and antimony.
The chromyl chloride test is always to be
performed in a dry test tube otherwise the
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 33 JANUARY 2012
chromyl chloride vapours will be hydrolysed in
the test tube.
CrO
2
Cl
2
+ 2H
2
O H
2
CrO
4
+ 2HCl
Bromides and iodides do not give this test.
2. Bromide, Br

:
Reddish- brown fumes of bromine are formed.
NaBr + H
2
SO
4
NaHSO
4
+ HBr
2HBr + H
2
SO
4
Br
2
+ 2H
2
O + SO
2

More reddish brown fumes of bromine are
evolved when MnO
2
is added.
2NaBr + MnO
2
+ 3H
2
SO
4

2NaHSO
4
+ MnSO
4
+ 2H
2
O + Br
2

The aqueous solution of bromide or sodium
carbonate extract gives pale yellow precipitate of
silver bromide which partly dissolves in excess of
NH
4
OH forming a soluble complex.
NaBr + AgNO
3
AgBr + NaNO
3

Pale yellow ppt.
AgBr +2NH
4
OH Ag(NH
3
)
2
Br + 2H
2
O
3. Iodide, I

:
Violet vapours of iodine are evolved.
2KI + H
2
SO
4
2KHSO
4
+ 2HI
2 HI + H
2
SO
4
I
2
+ SO
2
+ 2H
2
O
Violet vapours with starch produce blue colour.
I
2
+ Starch Blue colour
More violet vapours are evolved when MnO
2
is
added.
2KI + MnO
2
+ 3H
2
SO
4

2KHSO
4
+ MnSO
4
+ 2H
2
O + I
2

Aqueous solution of the iodide or sodium
carbonate extract gives yellow precipitate of AgI
with silver nitrate solution which does not
dissolve in NH
4
OH.
NaI + AgNO
3
AgI + NaNO
3

Yellow ppt.
Note :
Sodium carbonate extract of bromide and iodide
on addition of CHCl
3
and chlorine water gives
brown or violet layer to CHCl
3
respectively.
2NaBr + Cl
2
2NaCl + Br
2

;
Br
2
+ CHCl
3
Brown
2NaI + Cl
2
2NaCl + I
2
;
I
2
+ CHCl
3
Violet
Excess of chlorine water should be avoided as the
layer may become colour less due to conversion
of Br
2
into HBrO and I
2
into HIO
3
.
Br
2
+ 2H
2
O + Cl
2
2HBrO + 2HCl
I
2
+ 5Cl
2
+ 6H
2
O 2HIO
3
+ 10 HCl
4. Nitrate, NO
3

:
Light brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide are
evolved.
NaNO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
NaHSO
4
+ HNO
3

4 HNO
3
2H
2
O + 4 NO
2
+ O
2

These fumes intensify when copper turnings are
added.
Cu + 4HNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NO
2
+ 2H
2
O
Ring Test : An aqueous solution of salt is mixed
with freshly prepared FeSO
4
solution and conc.
H
2
SO
4
is poured in test tube from sides, a brown
ring is formed on account of the formation of a
complex at the junction of two liquids.
NaNO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
NaHSO
4
+ HNO
3

6 FeSO
4
+ 2HNO
3
+ 3H
2
SO
4

3Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 4H
2
O + 2NO
[Fe(H
2
O)
6
]SO
4
. H
2
O + NO
Ferrous sulphate
[Fe(H
2
O)
5
NO]SO
4
+ 2H
2
O
Brown ring
The nitrates can also be tested by boiling nitrate
with Zn or Al in presence of concentrated NaOH
solution when ammonia is evolved which can be
detected by the characteristics odour.
Zn + 2NaOH Na
2
ZnO
2
+ 2H
Al + NaOH + H
2
O NaAlO
2
+ 3H
NaNO
3
+ 8H NaOH + 2H
2
O + NH
3

Note : Ring test is not reliable in presence of
nitrite, bromide and iodide.
5. Oxalate, C
2
O
4
2
:
A mixture of CO and CO
2
is given off. The CO
burns with blue flame.
Na
2
C
2
O
4
+ H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ H
2
C
2
O
4

H
2
C
2
O
4
+ [H
2
SO
4
]

CO + CO
2
+ H
2
O + [H
2
SO
4
]
2CO + O
2
2CO
2
A solution of oxalates give the white precipitate
with CaCl
2
solution. This precipitate get dissolved
in dil. H
2
SO
4
and decolourises KMnO
4
(acidified)
solution.
Na
2
C
2
O
4
+ CaCl
2
CaC
2
O
4
+ 2NaCl
CaC
2
O
4
+ H
2
SO
4
CaSO
4
+ H
2
C
2
O
4

5H
2
C
2
O
4
+ 2KMnO
4
+ 3H
2
SO
4

2 MnSO
4
+ K
2
SO
4
+ 8 H
2
O + 10CO
2

Group III :
1. Sulphate ,SO
4
2
:
Add conc. HNO
3
to a small amount of substance or
take sodium carbonate extract and then add BaCl
2

solution. A white precipitate of BaSO
4
insoluble in
conc. acid is obtained.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 34 JANUARY 2012
Na
2
SO
4
+ BaCl
2
2NaCl + BaSO
4

White ppt.
Note : Silver and lead if present, may be precipitated
as silver chloride and lead chloride by the addition of
barium chloride. To avoid it, barium nitrate may be
used in place of barium chloride.
2. Borate :
To a small quantity of the substance (salt or mixture),
add few ml. of ethyl alcohol and conc. H
2
SO
4
. Stir
the contents with a glass rod. Heat the test tube and
bring the mouth of the test tube near the flame. The
formation of green edged flame indicates the
presence of borate.
2Na
3
BO
3
+ 3H
2
SO
4
3Na
2
SO
4
+ 2H
3
BO
3

H
3
BO
3
+ 3C
2
H
5
OH (C
2
H
5
)
3
BO
3
+ 3H
2
O
Ethyl borate
3. Phosphate :
Add conc. HNO
3
to a small amount of substance or
take sodium carbonate extract, heat and then add
ammonium molybdate. A canary yellow precipitate
of ammonium phospho molybdate is formed.
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 6HNO
3
3Ca (NO
3
)
2
+ 2H
3
PO
4

H
3
PO
4
+ 12 (NH
4
)
2
MoO
4
+ 21 HNO
3

(NH
4
)
3
PO
4
. 12 MoO
3
+ 21 NH
4
NO
3
+ 12 H
2
O
Canary yellow ppt.
Note :
Arsenic also yields a yellow precipitate of
(NH
4
)
3
. AsO
4
.12 MoO
3
(Ammonium arseno
molybdate).Thus in presence of As, phosphate is
tested in the filtrate of second group.
The precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate
dissolves in excess of phosphate. Thus, the
reagent (ammonium molybdate) should always be
added in excess.
HCl interferes in this test. Hence, before the test
of phosphate is to be performed, the solution
should be boiled to remove HCl.
Reducing agents such as sulphites, sulphides, etc.,
interfere as they reduce Mo
+6

to molybdenum
blue (Mo
3
O
8
.
xH
2
O). The solution, therefore, turns
blue. In such cases, the solutions should be boiled
with HNO
3
so as to oxidise them before the
addition of ammonium molybdate.
4. Fluoride :
Take small amount of the substance in dry test tube
and add an equal amount of sand and conc.
H
2
SO
4
.Heat the contents and place a glass rod
moistened with water over the mouth of the test tube.
A gelatinous waxy white deposit on the rod is
formed.
2NaF + H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ H
2
F
2

SiO
2
+ 2H
2
F
2
SiF
4
+ 2H
2
O
3SiF
4
+ 4H
2
O H
4
SiO
4
+ 2H
2
SiF
6

Silicic acid (white)
Note :
The test should be performed in perfectly dry test
tube otherwise waxy white deposit will not be
formed on the rod.
HgCl
2
and NH
4
Cl also give white deposits under
these conditions, but these are crystalline in
nature.
Sodium carbonate extract :
One part of the given substance is mixed with
about 3 parts of sodium carbonate and nearly 10
to 15 ml. of distilled water. The contents are then
heated for 10-15 minutes and filtered. The filtrate
is known as sodium carbonate extract or soda
extract and this contains soluble sodium salts due
to exchange of partners in between sodium
carbonate and salts.
CaCl
2
+ Na
2
CO
3
CaCO
3
+ 2NaCl
Insoluble Sodium chloride
(soluble)
PbSO
4
+ Na
2
CO
3
PbCO
3
+ Na
2
SO
4

Insoluble Sodium sulphate
(Soluble)
BaCl
2
+ Na
2
CO
3
BaCO
3
+ 2 NaCl
Insoluble Sodium chloride
(Soluble)
The carbonates of the cations of the mixtures are
mostly insoluble in water and are obtained in the
residue. On the other hand, sodium salts of the
anions (acidic radicals) of the mixture being
soluble in water are obtained in the filtrate.
The sodium carbonate extract is basic in nature
and before it is used for the analysis of a
particular acidic radical, it is first neutralised by
the addition of small quantity of an appropriate
acid. The acid is added to the extract till the
effervescence cease to evolve.
Advantages of preparing sodium carbonate
extract-
The preparation of sodium carbonate extract
affords a convenient method for bringing the
anions of the mixture into solution which were
otherwise insoluble with cation of salt.
It removes the basic radicals (usually coloured)
which interferes in the usual tests of some of the
acidic radicals.
The residue can be used for the tests of basic
radicals of I to VI groups. Such a solution does
not involve the problem of removing interfering
radicals like oxalate, fluoride, borate and
phosphate.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 35 JANUARY 2012








1. (a) The haloform test depends upon the fact three
hydrogens on the same carbon atom are successively
replaced by halogen. Using acetone as an example,
show why the carbon that suffers the initial
substitution should be the preferred site of further
substitution.
(b) The haloform test also depends upon the ease
with which the trihalomethyl ketone produced in (a)
is cleaved by base. What is the most likely
mechanism for this cleavage ? What factor makes
such a reaction possible in this particular case ?
Sol. (a)

HCCCH
H
H X
O H
OH

HCC CH
H
H X
O

More stable anion
HC CCH
H
H X
O

Not formed

Electron withdrawl by halogen makes hydrogens on
the carbon to which halogen has already become
attached more acidic and hence more readily
removed by base to give further substitution.
(b)
RCCX
3

O
OH

RCCX
3

O

OH
RC
O
OH

+ CX
3

RCOO

+ HCX
3

Electron withdrawal by three halogens makes CX
3


comparatively weakly basic (for a carbanion) and
hence a good leaving group.
Thus both essential aspects of the haloform reaction
regiospecificity of halogenation, and cleavageare
controlled by the same factor : stabilization of a
carbanion through electron withdrawal by halogen.

2. Treatment of ethyl chlorohydrin with concentrated
aqueous sodium hydroxide gives ethylene oxide. (a)
Show all steps in a likely mechanism or mechanisms
for this conversion. This is an adaptation of what
synthesis ? (b) Using this approach, show all steps in
the synthesis of propylene oxide from isopropyl
alcohol.
Sol. (a) The conversion of halohydrins into epoxides by
the action of base is simply an adaptation of the
Williamson synthesis; a cyclic compound is obtained
because both alcohol and halide happen to be part of
the same molecule. In the presence of hydroxide ion
a small proportion of the alcohol exists as alkoxide;
this alkoxide displaces halide ion from another
portion of the same molecule to yield the cyclic ether.
(1)
CH
2
CH
2
+OH

H
2
O + CH
2
CH
2
Br
O OH

Br

(2)

CH
2
CH
2
:O
Br

HCCH

O
Br

H
H
CH
2
CH
2
+ Br

O

Since halohydrins are nearly always prepared from
alkenes by addition of halogen and water to the
carbon-carbon double bond, this method amounts to
the conversion of an alkene into an epoxide.
(Alternatively, the carbon-carbon double bond may
be oxidized directly to the epoxide group by peroxy
compounds, such as peroxy benzoic acid.)
(b)

CH
3
CHCH
2
OH Cl
Propylene
chlorohydrin
CH
3
CH=CH
2
Cl
2
,H
2
O



CH
3
CHCH
2
O
Propylene oxide
conc.aq.OH


3. The compound pentaerythritol, C(CH
2
OH)
4
, used in
making explosives, is obtained from the reaction of
acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in the presence of
calcium hydroxide. Outline the probable steps in this
synthesis.
Sol. A crossed aldol converts HCHO into a methylol
group, CH
2
OH

O=CCH
3
+ O=CH O=CCH
2
CH
2
OH
H H H
OH


Two more of these conversions (there are two more
-hydrogens) gives a tri-methylol compound.
UNDERSTANDING
Organic Chemistry
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 36 JANUARY 2012

O=CCH
2
CH
2
OH
H
HCHO

OH

O=CCHCH
2
OH
H
CH
2
OH


HCHO

OH

O=CCCH
2
OH
H
CH
2
OH
CH
2
OH

At this point, we have run out of -hydrogens, but
now the Cannizaro reaction can take over.

HCHO + O=CCH
2
OH
H CH
2
OH
CH
2
OH
base
No -hydrogens



HCOO

+ HOCH
2
CCH
2
OH
CH
2
OH
CH
2
OH
Pentaerythritol

4. An organic compound (A), C
7
H
6
O, gives positive test
with Tollen's reagent, on treatment with alcoholic
potassium cyanide, (A) yields the compound (B),
C
14
H
12
O
2
. Compound (B) on reduction with Zn Hg
and conc. HCl and dehydration gives an unsaturated
compound (C), which adds one mol of bromine. The
compound (B) can be oxidised with HNO
3
to a
compound (D), having molecular formula C
14
H
10
O
2
.
Compound (D) on heating with KOH undergoes
rearrangement and subsequent acidification of
rearranged products yields an acidic compound (E),
C
14
H
12
O
3
. Identify compounds (A) to (E) giving the
reactions involved.
Sol.

CHO
(A)
2
KCN
CH C
OH
O
(B)
Benzoin
(i) Zn/Hg
Conc. HCl
(ii) H2O
CH = CH
(C)



HNO3
CH C
OH O
(I) KOH
(E)
Benzilic acid
C
(D)
Benzil
O O
(II) HCl
C C
HO COOH
(B)

5. Compound (A), C
3
H
6
Cl
2
, on reduction with LiAlH
4

gives propane. Treatment of (A) with aqueous alkali
followed by oxidation gives (B) C
3
H
4
O
4
which gives
effervescence with NaHCO
3
. Esterification of (B)
with ethanol gives (C), C
7
H
12
O
4
, which is well
known synthetic reagent. When (B) is heated alone,
the product is ethanoic acid, but while heating with
soda-lime it gives methane. Compound (B) on
reduction with LiAlH
4
gives a diol which on reaction
with SOCl
2
gives back compound (A). Identify all the
compounds and give balanced equation of the
reactions.
Sol. Compound (B) gives effervescence with NaHCO
3

solution. Hence it is a dicarboxylic acid, since it on
heating alone gives acetic acid and with soda-lime
CH
4
, it means two COOH in it are at different
carbon atoms.


CH
2
COOH
COOH
2NaHCO3
CH
2
COONa

COONa

+ 2CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
CH
3
COOH + CO
2
CH
4
+ 2CO
2


Soda-lime

Acid (B) can be prepared from (A), C
3
H
6
Cl
2
, which
should be 1, 3-dichloro propane.


CH
2
CH
2
Cl
CH
2
Cl
2NaOH(aq.)
CH
2
CH
2
OH
CH
2
OH
(2NaCl)
Propane 1,3-diol
3[O]
CH
2
COOH
COOH
(B)
+ H
2
O
(A)

Esterification of (B) with ethanol gives malonic ester
which is a synthetic reagent of high importance.


CH
2
COOH
COOH

CH
2
COOC
2
H
5
COOC
2
H
5
2H2O
Malonic ester
(B)
+ C
2
H
5
OH



CH
2
COOH
COOH
CH
2
CH
2
OH
CH
2
OH
(B)
LiAlH4
2H2O
CH
2
CH
2
Cl
CH
2
Cl
2SOCl2
2SO2; 2HCl
(A)

Hence,
(A)

CH
2
CH
2
Cl
CH
2
Cl
(B)

CH
2
COOH
COOH






XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 37 JANUARY 2012























1. Given that (x) =
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
c a b x
c x b x


f(a) +

) ( ) (
) ( ) (
a b c b
a x c x


f (b)+
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
b c a c
b x a x


f (c) f (x)
where a < c < b and f '' (x) exists at all points in
(a, b). Prove that there exists a number ,
a < < b , such that

) ( ) (
) (
c a b a
a f

+
) ( ) (
) (
a b c b
b f

+
) ( ) (
) (
b c a c
c f


=
2
1
f '' ().

2. An unbiased die is tossed until it lands the same way
up twice running. Find the probability that it requires
r tosses.

3. Given the base of a triangle and the sum of its sides
prove that the locus of the centre of its incircle is an
ellipse.

4. Let f (x) = ax
2
+ bx + c & g (x) = cx
2
+ bx + a, such
that | f (0) | 1, | f (1) | 1 and |f (1) | 1 , prove that
| f (x) | 5/4 and | g (x) | 2.

5. In order to find the dip of an oil bed below the
surface of the ground, vertical borings are made from
the angular points, A, B, C of a triangle ABC which is
in horizontal plane. The depth of the bed at these
points are found to be x, x + y and x + z respectively.
Show that the dip (angle with horizontal) of the oil
bed which is assumed to be a plane is given by tan .
sin A = A
bc
yz
b
z
c
y
cos
2
2
2
2
2
+ where b and c are the
lengths of the sides CA and AB respectively and A is
the angle between CA and AB.

6. Evaluate :

+

x
x x
5 cos 2 1
7 cos 8 cos


7. Let f (x) be an even function such that f (x) is
continuous, find y for which
2
2
dx
y d
=

x
x
dt t f ) (

8. Prove the inequality (a

+ b

)
1/
< (a

+ b

)
1/
,
for a > 0, b > 0 & > > 0.

9. A circle of radius 1 rolls (without sliding) along
the x-axis so that its centre is of the form (t, 1)
with t increasing. A certain point P touches the
x-axis at the origin as the circle rolls. As the circle
rolls further, the point P passes through the point
(x, 1/2). Find x, when it passes through (x, 1/2)
first time.

10. Find all positive integers n for which
1 n + 1 + n is rational.

















`t{xt|vt V{txzx
This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety
of possible twists and turns of problems in mathematics that would be very helpful in facing
IIT JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and
we hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and
enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.
By : Shailendra Maheshwari
Joint Director Academics, Career Point, Kota Sol ut i ons wi l l be publ i shed i n next i ssue
9
Set
Pi Day
On Pi Day (March 14 or 3-14) in 1879, a baby was
born in Ulm, Germany to a German couple whose
name meant "one stone". That baby was Albert
Einstein!
occurs naturally in tables of death, in what is
known as a Gaussian distribution of deaths in a
population; that is, when a person dies, the event
'feels' Pi.
The symbol for Pi was introduced by the English
mathematician William Jones in 1706.
Mathematician John Conway pointed out that if you
break down the digits of Pi into blocks of ten, the
probability that one of those blocks will contain ten
distinct digits is about one in 40,000. Curiously, this
first happens in the 7th block of ten digits.
There is the little rhyme to help the memorisation of
twenty-one digits of :
Now, I wish I could recollect pi. "Eureka," cried the
great inventor. Christmas Pudding; Christmas Pie
Is the problem's very center.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 38 JANUARY 2012












1.

A
B
C
d
a
d
b
c

Plane through mid pt of AB, to CD is
( r
r
1/2 ( a
r
+ b
r
)).( c
r
d
r
) = 0; Let centroid

4
d c b a
r
r
r
r
+ + +
= 0 at origin
( r
r
+ 1/2 ( c
r
+ d
r
)). ( c
r
d
r
) = 0
| r
r
+ c
r
|
2
= | r
r
+ d
r
|
2

it is the locus of pt. equidistance from c
r
& d
r

similarly.
| r
r
+ c
r
|
2
= | r
r
+ d
r
|
2
= | r
r
+ a
r
|
2
= | r
r
+ b
r
|
2

so the pt. is equidistant from a
r
, b
r
, c
r
, d
r

(i.e. circumcentre of tetrahedron a
r
, b
r
, c
r
, d
r
)

2. As the function is symmetrical about x = a & x = b
lines
so f (a + x) = f (a x) ................(1) &
f (b + x ) = f (b x) ................(2)
As it is defined for x R.
Let x = b a t in (1)
f (b t) = f (2a b + t)
use (2) in it
f (b + t) = f (2a 2b + b + t)
so the function is periodic & its possible period
may be |2a 2b| = 2b 2a (as b > a).

3. If A is the area of the triangle with sides a, b and c,
then A
2
= s (s a) (s b) (s c) ;
where 2s = a + b + c.
using AM - GM inequality for s a, s b, s c, we
have
A
2

s
3
3
) ( ) ( ) (
)
`

+ + c s b s a s

A
2
s
3
3
2 3
|
.
|

\
| s s
=
3
4
3
s
A
3 3
2
s

Let 2s = p , then A
3 12
2
p

A
max
=
3 12
2
p
, As condition of equality holds iff
s a = s b = s c which happen if a = b = c.
so A
max
=
3 12
2
p
; for a = b = c
Now again p A 3 12
p
min
= A 3 12 , and
again equality holds if a = b = c.

4. ac b 4
2
| b |
2
4
1
b
ac
| b |
2
4
1
b
ac
+
| b |
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
2
1
b
ac

so ac b 4
2
| b | +
b
ac 2

so that
a
ac b
a
b
2
4
2
2


a
b
2
+
a
b
2
+
b
c

=
a
b
+
b
c

MATHEMATICAL CHALLENGES

SOLUTION FOR DECEMBER ISSUE (SET # 8)
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 39 JANUARY 2012
Hence the solutions of az
2
+ bz + c = 0 satisfy
condition | z | +
a
b
+
b
c
.

5. P (a cos , b sin )
Equation of AC
a
x
cos +
b
y
sin = 1
A
B
C
D
P()

Point A : (0 , b cosec )
Equation of BC y = b
Point C =
a
x
cos sin = 1
x =

+
cos
) sin 1 ( a

Point C |
.
|

\
|

+
b
a
,
cos
) sin 1 (

Area A =
2
1
AD . BC = AD . DC
= |
.
|

\
|

+
sin
b
b .

+
cos
) sin 1 ( a

=

+
cos sin
) sin 1 (
2
ab

A = ab

+
cos sin
) sin 1 (
2


d
dA
=
ab .

+ +
2 2
2 2 2 2
cos sin
) sin (cos ) sin 1 ( sin cos ) sin 1 ( 2

=

+
2 2
cos sin
) sin 1 ( ab
[2cos
2
sin (1 + sin) cos
2

+ (1 + sin) sin
3
)]
=

+
2 2
cos sin
) sin 1 ( ab

[ cos
2
+ sin
2
+ sin
3
+ cos
2
sin]
for max./min .
d
dA
= 0
sin (cos
2
+ sin
2
) + sin
2
cos
2
= 0
sin + sin
2
(1 sin
2
) = 0
2sin
2
+ sin 1 = 0
(2 sin 1) (sin + 1) = 0
as sin 1
sin = 1/2 ; = /6
when > /6 ;
d
dA
> 0
when < /6 ;
d
dA
< 0
so =
6

; is the pt of min.
min. area.
A
min
=

+
cos sin
) sin 1 (
2
ab

=
2 / 3 . 2 / 1
) 2 / 1 1 ( .
2
+ ab
=
2
3
.
2
1
. 4
9 ab

= 3 3 ab sq. units.

6. ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
= 0; (y M
1
x) (y M
2
x) = 0
where M
1
+ M
2
=
b
h 2
& M
1
M
2
=
b
a

Now as given the second pair must be given by
(y M
1
x)(M
2
y + x) = 0
M
2
y
2
+ (1 M
1
M
2
)xy M
1
x
2
= 0
Compare it with ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
= 0

2
b
M
=
2
1
2 1
h
M M
=

1
a
M

so

2
b
M
=

1
a
M
=

2 1
a b
M M

+
=
) (
2
a b b
h


=
2
1
2 1
h
M M
=
2
/ 1
h
b a

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 40 JANUARY 2012
M
2
=
) (
2
a b b
hb

& M
1
=
b h
a a b
2
) (

Since M
1
M
2
=
b
a
so
) (
2
a b b
hb

.
b h
a a b
2
) (
=
b
a

Thus


a b
b ha

=
a b
ab h



7. LHS = coeff. of x
n
in [
n
C
0
(1 + x)
m
+
n
C
1
(1 + x)
m+1
+
.... +
n
C
n
(1 + x)
m + n
]
= coeff. of x
n
in (1 + x)
m
[
n
C
0
+
n
C
1
(1 + x) + ........
..... +
n
C
0
(1 + x)
n
]
= coeff. of x
n
in (1 + x)
m
(2 + x)
n

= coeff of x
n
in (1 + x)
m

n
r
r r n
r
n
x C
0
2 .
=
n
C
0
.
m
C
0
+
n
C
1
.
m
C
1
. 2 +
n
C
2
.
m
C
2
. 2
2
+ .... +
n
C
n
m
C
n
. 2
n


8. I
n
=


1
1
2
) 1 (
n
x cos mx dx
=
1
1
2
sin
) 1 (


m
mx
x
n
+

1
1
1 2
) 1 (
2
n
x x
m
n
sin mx dx
= 0 +
m
n 2

( )
(
(

+ + |
.
|

\
|

1
1
1 2 2 2 2
1
1
1
2
cos ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 2 (
1 cos
1 ( dx mx x x x n
m n
mx
x x
n n
n

=
2
2
m
n

1
1
2 2
) 1 (
n
x | |
2 2
1 ) 2 2 ( x x n + + cosmx dx
=
2
2
m
n

1
1
2 2
) 1 (
n
x | | 1 ) 1 2 (
2
+ + x n cos mx dx
=
2
2
m
n

(
(

1
1
2 2
1
1
1 2
cos ) 1 ( ) 2 2 ( cos ) 1 ( ) 1 2 ( dx mx x n dx mx x n
n n
m
2
I
n
= (2n (2n 1) I
n1
4n (n 1) I
n2
.
Hence proved.

9. t
n
=
2
+
+
) 1 ( .
1 2
2
n n
n

=
2
1
n

2
) 1 (
1
+ n

S
n
= 1
2
2
1
+
2
2
1

2
3
1
+
2
3
1

2
4
1
.................
S
n
= 1
2
) 1 (
1
+ n

Required sum =
n
Lim S
n
= 1.

10. Let the given circle be x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
& parametric
angles of A, B, C are respectively
1
,
2
&
3
. Let the
slopes of the given two lines are m
1
& m
2
. Sides AB
& BC are parallel to these lines.
A(
1
)
C(
3
) B(
2
)

Equation of AB;
x cos
2
2 1
+
+ y sin
2
2 1
+
= r cos
2
2 1


so m
1
= cot
2
2 1
+
=
1
+
2
=
similarly : m
2
= cot
2
3 2
+
=
2
+
3
=
Here , are constants as m
1
& m
2
are constants.
Now equation of AC ;
x cos |
.
|

\
| +
2
3 1
+ y sin
2
3 1
+
= r cos
2
3 1


x cos |
.
|

\
| +
2
3 1
+ y sin
2
3 1
+
= rk
where k = cos
2

(i . e. constant)
so foot of the perpendicular from centre of given
circle on AC |
.
|

\
| + +
2
,
2
cos
3 1 3 1
k r k r is
which lies on x
2
+ y
2
= (rk)
2
.


XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 41 JANUARY 2012











1. Let g : R R be given by g(x) = 4x + 3.
If g
n
(x) = gogog.....og (x), show that

n-times
g
n
(x) = 4
n
x + (4
n
1).
If g
n
(x) denotes the inverse of g
n
(x), prove that
g
n
(x) = 4
n
x + (4
n
1) for all x R.
Sol. We shall prove the result by mathematical induction
on n.
We have,
g(x) = 4x + 3
gog (x) = g (g (x))
= g (4x + 3)
= 4 (4x + 3) + 3 = 4
2
x + 15
= 4
2
x + (4
2
1)
So the result is true for n = 2.
Let the result be true for n = m. Then,
g
m
(x) = 4
m
x + (4
m
1) for all x R
Now,
g
m+1
(x) = g
m
o g(x)
= g
m
(g(x))
= g
m
(4x + 3)
= 4
m
(4x + 3) + 4
m
1
= 4
m+1
x + 4
m
3 + 4
m
1
= 4
m + 1
x + 4
m
3 + 4
m
1
= 4
m + 1
x + 4
m+1
1
So, the result is true for n = m + 1
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction on
n, we have
g
n
(x) = 4
n
x + (4
n
1) for all n N.
In order to find the inverse of g
n
(x), we proceed as
follows :
Let g
n
(x) = y. Then,
g
n
(x) = y
4
n
x + (4
n
1) = y
4
n
x = y 4
n
+ 1
x = 4
n
y 1 + 4
n

g
n
(y) = 4
n
y + 4
n
1
Hence, g
n
(x) = 4
n
x + 4
n
1

2. If f (x) = {|x| |x 1|}
2
, draw the graph of f (x) and
discuss its continuity and differentiability. Also, find
f ' (x).
Sol. We have,
|x| |x 1| =

=
< = +
< = +
1 for , 1 ) 1 (
1 0 for , 1 2 1
0 for , 1 1
x x x
x x x x
x x x

f (x) = {|x| |x 1|}
2

=

<
<
1 for , 1
1 0 for , ) 1 2 (
0 for , 1
2
x
x x
x

Clearly, f (x) is a constant function for all x < 0 and
all x 1. Between 0 and 1 the function represents a
parabola having its vertex at (1/2, 0). Thus the graph
of f (x) is as shown in figure.
y
x x`'
y'
O
(0,1)
(1,1)
(1/2,0) (1,0)

From the graph of y = f (x), we observe that it is
everywhere continuous but not differentiable at
x = 0, 1.
f '(x) =

>
< <
<
1 for , 0
1 0 for , ) 1 2 ( 4
0 for , 0
x
x x
x

Clearly, f ' (x) does not exist at x = 0, 1.

3. If I
n
=

2 / 1
) ( x a x
n
dx, prove that
(2n + 3) I
n
= 2an I
n 1
2x
n
(a x )
3/2

Sol. We have,
I
n
= dx x a x
II I
n

2 / 1
) (
I
n
=
3
2
x
n
(a x)
3/2
+

dx x a x
n
n 2 / 3 1
) (
3
2

I
n
=
3
2
x
n
(a x)
3/2
+

dx x a x a x
n
n 2 / 1 1
) )( (
3
2

Experts Solution for Question asked by IIT-JEE Aspirants
Students' Forum
MATHS
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 42 JANUARY 2012
I
n
=
3
2
x
n
(a x)
3/2
+

dx x a x
an
n 2 / 1 1
) (
3
2

dx x a x
n
n 2 / 1
) (
3
2

I
n
=
3
2
x
n
(a x)
3/2
+
3
2an
I
n1

3
2n
I
n


n
I
n
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
2
1 =
3
2
x
n
(a x)
3/2
+
3
2an
I
n1

(2n + 3) I
n
= 2x
n
(a x)
3/2
+ 2an I
n1
.

4. If z
1
, z
2
, z
3
are complex numbers such that at least one
of them is not real and
1
2
z
=
2
1
z
+
3
1
z
, show that the
points represented by z
1
, z
2
, z
3
lie on a circle passing
through the origin.
Sol. We have,


A(z
1
)
B(z
2
)
C(z
3
)
O
2



1
2
z
=
2
1
z
+
3
1
z


1
1
z

2
1
z
=
3
1
z

1
1
z


2 1
1 2

z z
z z
=
3 1
3 1

z z
z z


1 3
1 2

z z
z z
=
3
2

z
z


|
|
.
|

\
|
1 3
1 2

arg
z z
z z
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
2

arg
z
z


|
|
.
|

\
|
1 3
1 2

arg
z z
z z
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
3
2
arg
z
z

[Q arg ( z) = + arg (z)]
= +
Now,
BOC + BAC = + 2
= + 2 ( + )
= [Using (i)]
Thus, the sum of a pair of opposite angles of a
quadrilateral is 180. Hence, the points 0, z
1
,z
2
and z
3

are the vertices of a cyclic quadrilateral i.e. they lie
on a circle.

5. Let

a ,

b ,

c be the position vectors of the points


A, B, C respectively. Let , , be the inclination
between

b ,

c ,

a ,

b and

a ,

c . Then, prove that


the volume V of the tetrahedron OABC is given by
V
2
=
36
2 2
c b a
2

1 cos cos
cos 1 cos
cos cos 1




Sol. Let OABC be the tetrahedron. Taking O as the
origin, let the position vectors of the vertices A, B, C
be

a ,

b ,

c respectively. It is given that , , are


the inclinations between

b ,

c ;

a ,

b and

a ,

c .
Therefore,

a .

b = ab cos ,

b .

c = bc cos &

a .

c = ac cos .
The volume V of the tetrahedron OABC is given by
V =
6
1
] OC OB OA [


=
6
1
[

a

b

c ]

V
2
=
36
1
[

a

b

c ]
2

V
2
=



c c b c a c
c b b b a b
c a b a a a
. . .
. . .
. . .
36
1

V
2
=
2
2
2
cos cos
cos cos
cos cos
36
1
c bc ca
bc b ba
ac ab a




V
2
=
c b a
c b a
c b a
abc



cos cos
cos cos
cos cos
36

V
2
=
1 cos cos
cos 1 cos
cos cos 1
36
2 2 2



c b a


6. What can be the maximum population of a country in
which no two persons have an identical set of teeth?
(Disregard the shape and size of the teeth. Take only
the positioning of the teeth in consideration. Also
assume that there is no persons without teeth and no
person has more than 32 teeth)
Sol. There are 32 places for the teeth in the mouth. For
each places, we have two choices, either there is a
tooth or there is no tooth at the place. Therefore, the
number of ways to fill up 32 places is 2
32
. It is given
that there is not person without a tooth. Therefore,
the maximum population of the country in which no
two persons have identical set of teeth is 2
32
1.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 43 JANUARY 2012
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 44 JANUARY 2012
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XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 45 JANUARY 2012

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 46 JANUARY 2012

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 47 JANUARY 2012















Differential Equation :
An equation involving independent variable x,
dependent variable y and the differential coefficients
dx
dy
,
2
2
dx
y d
, .... is called differential equation.
Examples :
(1)
dx
dy
= 1 + x + y
(2)
dx
dy
+ xy = cot x
(3)
3
4
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
dx
y d
4
dx
dy
+ 4y = 5 cos 3x
(4) x
2
2
2
dx
y d
+
2
1 |
.
|

\
|
+
dx
dy
= 0
Order of a Differential Equation :
The order of a differential equation is the order of the
highest derivative occurring in the differential
equation. For example, the order of above differential
equations are 1, 1, 4 and 2 respectively.
Degree of a Differential Equation :
The degree of the differential equation is the degree
of the highest derivative when differential
coefficients are free from radical and fraction. For
example, the degree of above differential equations
are 1, 1, 3 and 2 respectively.
Linear and Non-linear Differential Equation :
A differential equation in which the dependent
variable and its differential coefficients occurs only
in the first degree and are not multiplied together is
called a linear differential equation. The general and
n
th
order differential equation is given below :
a
0
(x)
n
n
dx
y d
+ a
1
(x)
1
1

n
n
dx
y d
+ .... + a
n 1
dx
dy

+ a
n
(x)y + (x) = 0
Those equations which are not linear are called non-
linear differential equations.
Formation of Differential Equation :
(1) Write down the given equation.
(2) Differentiate it successively with respect to x that
number of times equal to the arbitrary constants.
(3) And hence on eliminating arbitrary constants
results a differential equation which involves x, y,
dx
dy
,
2
2
dx
y d
.....
Solution of Differential Equation :
A solution of a differential equation is any function
which when put into the equation changes it into an
identity.
General and particular solution :
The solution which contains a number of arbitrary
constant equal to the order of the equation is called
general solution by giving particular values to the
constants are called particular solutions.
Several Types of Differential Equations and their
Solution :
(1) Solution of differential equation

dx
dy
= f(x) is y =

+ c dx x f ) (
(2) Solution of differential equation

dx
dy
= f(x) g(y) is

) ( y g
dy
=

+ c dx x f ) (
(3) Solution of diff. equation
dx
dy
= f(ax + by + c) by
putting ax + by + c = v and
dx
dy
= |
.
|

\
|
a
dx
dv
b
1


) (v bf a
dv
+
= dx
Thus solution is by integrating

+ ) (v bf a
dv
=

dx
DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
Mathematics Fundamentals
M
A
T
H
S
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 48 JANUARY 2012
(4) To solve the homogeneous differential equation
dx
dy
=
) , (
) , (
y x g
y x f
, substitute y = vx and so

dx
dy
= v + x
dx
dv
.
Thus v + x
dx
dv
= f(v)

x
dx
=
v v f
dv
) (

Therefore solution is

x
dx
=

v v f
dv
) (
+ c
Equation reducible to homogeneous form :
A differential equation of the form

dx
dy
=
2 2 2
1 1 1
c y b x a
c y b x a
+ +
+ +
,
where
2
1
a
a

2
1
b
b
, can be reduced to homogeneous
form by adopting the following procedure :
Put x = X + h, y = Y + k,
so that
dX
dY
=
dx
dy

The equation then transformed to

dX
dY
=
) (
) (
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
c k b h a Y b X a
c k b h a Y b X a
+ + + +
+ + + +

Now choose h and k such that a
1
h + b
1
k + c
1
= 0 and
a
2
h + b
2
k + c
2
= 0. Then for these values of h and k,
the equation becomes

dX
dY
=
Y b X a
Y b X a
2 2
1 1
+
+

This is a homogeneous equation which can be solved
by putting Y = vX and then Y and X should be
replaced by y k and x h.
Special case :
If
dx
dy
=
c y b x a
c by ax
+ +
+ +
and
a
a
=
b
b
= m (say), i.e.
when coefficient of x and y in numerator and
denominator are proportional, then the above
equation cannot be solved by the discussed before
because the values of h and k given by the equations
will be indeterminate.
In order to solve such equations, we proceed as
explained in the following example.
Solve
dx
dy
=
4 3
7 6 2
+
+
y x
y x
=
4 3
7 ) 3 ( 2
+
+
y x
y x


)
`

= = 2
b
b
a
a
obviously
Put x 3y = v
1 3
dx
dy
=
dx
dv
(Now proceed yourself)

Solution of the linear differential equation :

dx
dy
+ Py = Q, where P and Q are either constants or
functions of x, is

dx P
ye =

|
|
.
|

\
|

dx P
Qe dx + c
Where

dx P
e is called the integrating factor.
Equations reducible to linear form :
Bernoulli's equation : A differential equation of
the form
dx
dy
+ Py = Qy
n
, where P and Q are
functions of x alone is called Bernoulli's equation.
Dividing by y
n
, we get y
n
dx
dy
+ y
(n 1)
. P = Q
Putting y
(n 1)
= Y, so that
n
y
n) 1 (
dx
dy
=
dx
dY
,
we get
dx
dY
+ (1 n)P. Y = (1 n)Q
which is a linear differential equation.
If the given equations is of the form

dx
dy
+ P. f(y) = Q . g(y), where P and Q are
functions of x alone, we divide the equation by
g(y) and get

dx
dy
y g ) (
1
+ P.
) (
) (
y g
y f
= Q
Now substitute
) (
) (
y g
y f
= v and solve.
Solution of the differential equation :

2
2
dx
y d
= f(x) is obtained by integrating it with respect
to x twice.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 49 JANUARY 2012











Some Important Definitions and Formulae :
Measurement of angles : The angles are measured
in degrees, grades or in radius which are defined as
follows:
Degree : A right angle is divided into 90 equal parts
and each part is called a degree. Thus a right angle is
equal to 90 degrees. One degree is denoted by 1.
A degree is divided into sixty equal parts is called a
minute. One minute is denoted by 1.
A minute is divided into sixty equal parts and each
parts is called a second. One second is denoted by 1.
Thus,
1 right angle = 90 (Read as 90 degrees)
1 = 60 (Read as 60 minutes)
1 = 60 (Read as 60 seconds).
Grades : A right angle is divided into 100 equal parts
and each part is called a grade. Thus a right angle is
equal to 100 grades. One grade is denoted by 1
g
.
A grade is divided into 100 equal parts and each part
is called a minute and is denoted by 1.
A minute is divided into 100 equal parts and each
part is called a second and is denoted by 1"
Thus,
1 right angled = 100
g
(Read as 100 grades)
1
g
= 100 (Read as 100 minutes)
1 = 100 (Read as 100 seconds)
Radians : A radian is the angle subtended at the
centre of a circle by an arc equal in length to the
radius of the circle.
Domain and Range of a Trigono. Function :
If f : X Y is a function, defined on the set X, then
the domain of the function f, written as Domf is the
set of all independent variables x, for which the
image f(x) is well defined element of Y, called the co-
domain of f.
Range of f : X Y is the set of all images f(x) which
belongs to Y, i.e.,
Range f = {f(x) Y : x X} Y
The domain and range of trigonmetrical functions are
tabulated as follows :
Trigo.
Function
Domain Range
sin x R, the set of all the real
number
1 sin x 1
cos x R 1 cos x 1
tan x R
)
`

+ I n n ,
2
) 1 2 ( R
cosec x R {n , n I} R {x : 1 < x < 1}
sec x R
)
`

+ I n n ,
2
) 1 2 ( R {x : 1 < x < 1}
cot x R {n , n I} R

Relation between Trigonometrically Ratios and
identities:
tan =

cos
sin
; cot =

sin
cos

sin A cosec A = tan A cot A = cos A sec A = 1
sin
2
+ cos
2
= 1
or sin
2
= 1 cos
2
or cos
2
= 1 sin
2

1 + tan
2
= sec
2

or sec
2
tan
2
= 1 or sec
2
1 = tan
2

1 + cot
2
= cosec
2

or cosec
2
cot
2
= 1 or cosec
2
1 = cot
2

Since sin
2
A + cos
2
A = 1, hence each of sin A and
cos A is numerically less than or equal to unity.
i.e.
| sin A| 1 and | cos A | 1
or 1 sin A 1 and 1 cos A 1
Note : The modulus of real number x is defined as
|x| = x if x 0 and |x| = x if x < 0.
Since sec A and cosec A are respectively
reciprocals of cos A and sin A, therefore the
values of sec A and cosec A are always
numerically greater than or equal to unity i.e.
sec A 1 or sec A 1
and cosec A 1 or cosec A 1
In other words, we never have
1 < cosec A < 1 and 1 < sec A < 1.
TRIGONOMETRICAL
RATIOS
Mathematics Fundamentals
M
A
T
H
S
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 50 JANUARY 2012
Trigonometrical Ratios for Various Angles :

0
6


2
3
2
sin 0
2
1

2
1

2
3

1 0 1 0
cos 1
2
3

2
1

2
1
0 1 0 1
tan 0
3
1

1
3 0 0

Trigonometrical Ratios for Related Angles :


2



2
3

2
sin sin cos m sin cos sin
cos cos m sin cos sin cos
tan tan m cot tan m cot tan
cot cot m tan cot m tan cot

Addition and Subtraction Formulae :
sin (A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos (A B) = cos A cos B m sin A sin B
tan (A B) =
B A
B A
tan tan 1
tan tan
m


cot (A B) =
A B
B A
cot cot
1 cot cot

m

sin (A + B) sin (A B) = sin
2
A sin
2
B
= cos
2
B cos
2
A
cos (A + B) cos (A B) = cos
2
A sin
2
B
= cos
2
B sin
2
A
Formulae for Changing the Sum or Difference into
Product :
sin C + sin D = 2 sin
2
D C +
cos
2
D C

sin C sin D = 2 cos
2
D C +
sin
2
D C

cos C + cos D = 2 cos
2
D C +
cos
2
D C

cos C cos D = 2 sin
2
D C +
sin
2
C D

Formulae for Changing the Product into Sum or
Difference :
2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A B)
2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) sin (A B)
2 cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A B)
2 sin A sin B = cos (A B) cos(A + B)
Formulae Involving Double, Triple and Half Angles :
sin 2 = 2 sin cos =
+

2
tan 1
tan 2

cos 2 = cos
2
sin
2
= 2 cos
2
1
= 1 2 sin
2
=
+

2
2
tan 1
tan 1

sin
2

=
2
cos 1
; cos
2

=
2
cos 1 +

tan
2

=
+

cos 1
cos 1

tan 2 =


2
tan 1
tan 2

sin 3 = 3 sin 4 sin
3

or sin
3
=
4
1
(3 sin sin 3)
cos 3 = 4 cos
3
3 cos
or cos
3
=
4
1
(3 cos + cos 3)
tan 3 =


2
3
tan 3 1
tan tan 3
(


+
6
n
Trigonometrical Ratios for Some Special Angles :


2
1
7 15 22
2
1

sin
2 2
6 2 4

2 2
1 3

2
2 2
cos
2 2
6 2 4 + +

2 2
1 3 +

2
2 2 +
tan
( 3 2 )
( 2 1)
2 3 2 1

18 36
sin
4
1 5

4
5 2 10
cos
4
5 2 10 +

4
1 5 +

tan
5
5 10 25
5 2 5
Important Points to Remember :
Maximum and minimum values of
a sin x + b cos x are +
2 2
b a + ,
2 2
b a +
respectively.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 51 JANUARY 2012
sin
2
x + cosec
2
x 2 for every real x.
cos
2
x + sec
2
x 2 for every real x.
tan
2
x + cot
2
x 2 for every real x
If x = sec + tan , then
x
1
= sec tan
If x = cosec + cot , then
x
1
= cosec cot
cos . cos 2 . cos 4 . cos 8
.... cos 2
n1
=

sin 2
2 sin
n
n

sin sin (60 ) sin (60 + ) =
4
1
sin 3
cos cos (60 ) cos (60 + ) =
4
1
cos 3
tan tan (60 ) tan (60 + ) = tan 3
Conditional Identities :
1. If A + B + C = 180, then
sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C = 4 sin A sin B sin C
sin 2A + sin 2B sin 2C = 4 cos A cos B sin C
sin (B + C A) + sin (C + A B) + sin (A + B C)
= 4 sin A sin B sin C
cos 2A + cos 2B + cos 2C
= 1 4 cos A cos B cos C
cos 2A + cos 2B cos 2C = 1 4 sin A sin B cos C
2. If A + B + C = 180, then
sin A + sin B + sin C = 4 cos
2
A
cos
2
B
cos
2
C

sin A + sin B sin C = 4 sin
2
A
sin
2
B
sin
2
C

cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + 4 sin
2
A
sin
2
B
sin
2
C

cos A + cos B cos C = 1 + 4cos
2
A
cos
2
B
sin
2
C


C B
A
sin sin
cos
+
A C
B
sin sin
cos
+
B A
C
sin sin
cos
= 2
3. If A + B + C = , then
sin
2
A + sin
2
B sin
2
C = 2 sin A sin B cos C
cos
2
A + cos
2
B

+ cos
2
C = 1 2 cos A cos B cos C
sin
2
A + sin
2
B + sin
2
C = 2 + 2 cos A cos B cos C
cos
2
A + cos
2
B cos
2
C = 1 2 sin A sin B cos C
4. If A + B + C = , then


sin
2
2
A
+ sin
2
2
B
+ sin
2
2
C
= 1 2 sin
2
A
sin
2
B
sin
2
C

cos
2
2
A
+cos
2
2
B
+ cos
2
2
C
= 2 + 2 sin
2
A
sin
2
B
sin
2
C

sin
2
2
A
+ sin
2
2
B
sin
2
2
C
= 1 2cos
2
A
cos
2
B
cos
2
C

cos
2
2
A
+ cos
2
2
B
cos
2
2
C
= 2cos
2
A
cos
2
B
sin
2
C

5. If x + y + z = /2, then
sin
2
x + sin
2
y + sin
2
z

= 1 2 sin x sin y sin z
cos
2
x

+ cos
2
y

+ cos
2
z = 2 + 2 sin x sin y sin z
sin 2x + sin 2y + sin 2z = 4 cos x cos y cos z
6. If A + B + C = , then
tan A + tan B + tan C = tan A tan B tan C
cot B cot C + cot C cot A + cot A cot B = 1
tan
2
B
tan
2
C
+ tan
2
C
tan
2
A
+ tan
2
A
tan
2
B
= 1
cot
2
A
+ cot
2
B
+ cot
2
C
= cot
2
A
cot
2
B
cot
2
C

7. (a) For any angles A, B, C we have
sin (A + B + C)
= sin A cos B cos C + cos A sin B cos C
+ cos A cos B sin C sin A sin B sin C
cos (A + B + C)
= cos A cos B cos C cos A sin B sin C
sin A cos B sin C sin A sin B cos C
tan(A + B + C)
=
A C C B B A
C B A C B A
tan tan tan tan tan tan 1
tan tan tan tan tan tan

+ +

(b) If A,B, C are the angles of a triangle, then
sin(A + B + C) = sin = 0 and
cos (A + B + C) = cos = 1
then (a) gives
sin A sin B sin C
= sin A cos B cos C + cos A sin B cos C
+ cos A cos B sin C
and (a) gives
1 + cos A cos B cos C
= cos A sin B sin C + sin A cos B sin C
+ sin A sin B cos C
Method of Componendo and Dividendo :
If
q
p
=
b
a
, then by componendo and dividendo we
can write

q p
q p
+

=
b a
b a
+

or
p q
p q
+

=
a b
a b
+


or
q p
q p

+
=
b a
b a

+
or
p q
p q

+
=
a b
a b

+



XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 52 JANUARY 2012
a














PHYSICS


Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
1. A body is displaced from (0, 0) to (1m, 1m) along the
path x = y by a force F
r
= ) i y j x (
^ ^
2
+ N. The work
done by this force will be
(A)
3
4
J (B)
6
5
J
(C)
2
3
(D)
5
7
J

2. A particle is given an initial speed u inside a smooth
spherical shell of radius R = 1 m that it is just able to
complete the circle. Acceleration of the particle when
its velocity is vertical is

u
R

(A) 10 g (B) g
(C) 2 g (D) 3g

3. Two blocks A and B of mass m and 2m are
connected by a massless spring of force constant k.
They are placed on a smooth horizontal plane. Spring
is stretched by an amount x and then released. The
relative velocity of the blocks when the spring comes
to its natural length is
A
B

(A) x
m 2
k 3
|
|
.
|

\
|
(B) x
m 3
k 2
|
|
.
|

\
|

(C)
m
kx 2
(D)
x 2
kx 3


4.
Water

The volume of brick is 2.197 litres. The submerged brick
is balanced by a 2.54 kg mass on the beam scale. The
weight of the brick approximately is (arm length are
equal, g = 10ms
2
,
w
=10
3
kg/m
3
)
(A) 46 N (B) 50 N (C) 56 N (D) 72 N

5. Two organ pipes,each closed at one end, gives 5
beats per sec, when emitting their fundamental notes.
If their lengths are in the ratio of 50 : 51, their
fundamental frequencies (in Hz) are -
(A) 255, 250 (B) 255, 260
(C) 260, 265 (D) 265, 270
IIT-JEE 2012
XtraEdge Test Series # 9
Based on New Pattern
Time : 3 Hours
Syllabus :
Physics : Full Syllabus, Chemistry : Full Syllabus, Mathematics : Full syllabus
Instructions :
Section - I
Question 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions with only one correct answer. +3 marks will be awarded for
correct answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 7 to 10 are multiple choice question with multiple correct answer. +4 marks will be awarded for
correct answer and No Negative mark for wrong answer.
Question 11 to 14 are Reason and Assertion type question with one is correct answer. +3 marks and 1 mark for
wrong answer.
Question 15 to 23 are passage based questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and 1 mark for wrong
answer.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 53 JANUARY 2012
6. If the balance length corresponding to points B and C
is 40 cm on the potentiometer wire. The balance
length corresponding to points C and D is
J
B
D
( )
6V
G
10
10
4
1
x y
C
k

(A) 25 cm (B) 32 cm
(C) 40 cm (D) 64 cm

Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct. Mark
your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question. + 4 marks will be given for
each correct answer and NO NEGATIVE marks for
wrong answer.

7. Two particles of same mass and charge are thrown
simultaneously in the same direction along the
horizontal with same velocity v from two different
heights h
1
and h
2
(h
1
< h
2
). Initially they were
located on the same vertical line above ground. Now
Choose the wrong statement (s)
(A) Both the particle will always lie on a vertical line
before hitting the ground.
(B) Both will take same time to reach ground
(C) Horizontal displacement of the particle lying at
h
1
is less than that of the particle at h
2
.
(D) At any moment acceleration of the centre of mass
will be g downwards

8. In the circuit shown in figure C
1
= C
2
= 2F. Then
charge stored in (steady state)
3 2 1
2 1
3
C
1
C
2
120V

(A) capacitor C
1
is zero
(B) capacitor C
2
is zero
C) both capacitors is zero
(D) capacitor C
1
is 40 C

9. A rectangular wire frame rotates with a constant
velocity around one of its sides parallel to a current
carrying & rectilinear conductor nearly as shown in
diagram
O
O
i


(A) When rectangular wire frame is in the plane
passing through rectilinear conductor flux linked
through rectangular wire frame is minimum
(B) When rectangular wire frame is in the plane
passing through rectilinear conductor emf
induced in rectangular wire frame is minimum
(C) When rectangular wire frame is in plane
perpendicular to the plane passing through
conductor then, emf is maximum
(D) When rectangular wire frame is in plane
perpendicular to the plane passing through
conductor then, flux is minimum

10. In radioactivity decay according to law N = N
0
e
t
which of the following is/are true ?
(A) Probability that a nucleus will decay is 1 e
t
(B) Probability that a nucleus will decay four half
lives is 15/16
(C) Fraction nuclei that will remain after two half
lives is zero
(D) Fraction of nuclei that will remain after two half-
lives is 1/4

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,
(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against
the question number of that question. + 3 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 54 JANUARY 2012
11. A homogeneous cylinder is floating in liquid as
shown.
Assertion (A) : The cylinder can perform both
translational and rotational simple harmonic
oscillations, for small displacement.

Reason (R) : Translatory equilibrium of cylinder in
stable and rotational equilibrium is unstable.

12. Assertion (A) : At height h from ground and at depth h
below ground, where h is approximately equal to 0.62
R, the value of g acceleration due to gravity is same.
Reason (R) : Value of g decreases both sides, in
going up and down.

13. Assertion (A) : Light from an object falls on a
concave mirror forming a real image of the object. If
both the object and mirror are immersed in water,
there is no change in position of the image.
Reason (R) : The formation of image by reflection
does not depend on surrounding medium, so there is
no change in position of image.

14. Assertion (A) : In Young's double slit experiment, we
observe an interference pattern on the screen if both
the slits are illuminated by two bulbs of same power.
Reason (R) : The interference pattern is observed
when source is monochromatic and coherent.

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 15 to 23) Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet
against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.

Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
A stationary truck has its rear door wide open as
shown. At t = 0 the truck starts to accelerate with
constant acceleration a then the door will begin to
close and at any time 't' the door makes angle with
its original orientation. Assume that the door has
mass m uniformly distributed along its length L.

a
L
Hinge
Door
a

t-axis

F
t

n-axis
F
n


15. The tangential force F
t
on door is equal to
(A)
4
1
ma cos (B)
4
1
ma sin
(C)
8
1
ma cos (D) none of these

16. The angular speed is equal to
(A)
L
sin a 3
(B)
L
cos a 3

(C)
L
sin a 6
(D) none of these

17. If t is total time elapsed from t = 0 to the closing of
door then
(A) t =
a 3
L


2 /
0
d ec cos
(B) t =
a 3
L


0
d ec cos
(C) t =
a 3
L


0
d sec
(D) none of these

Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
A charged metal sheet is placed into uniform electric
field E, perpendicularly to the electric field lines.
After placing the sheet into the field, the electric field
on the left side of the sheet will be E
1
= 5.6 10
5

V/m and on the right it will be E
2
= 3.1 10
5
V/m.

E
1
E
2


18. Find the total charge of the sheet if a electric force of
0.08N is exerted on it -
(A) 0.28 C (B) 0.32 C
(C) 0.24 C (D) 0.38 C

19. Find the area of sheet of one side -
(A) 0.02m
2
(B) 0.03 m
2

(C) 0.04 m
2
(D) 0.05 m
2


20. Find the value of E -
(A) 2.5 10
4
V/m (B) 12.5 10
4
V/m
(C) 3.5 10
4
V/m (D) 8.7 10
4
V/m

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 55 JANUARY 2012
Passage # 3 (Ques. 21 to 23)
The rectangular box shown is the place of a lens. If
y = 10 cm, x = 5 cm and OA = 1 cm are given.

y
A B
O
I
x

21. The focal length of the lens is -
(A)
3
10
cm, Converging (B)
3
10
cm, diverging
(C) 10 cm, diverging (D) 10 cm , converging

22. The co-ordinate of image (I) are.... (if optical centre
is taken as origin) -
(A) |
.
|

\
|
3
10
,
3
2
(B) |
.
|

\
|
+ +
3
10
,
3
21

(C) (2, + 10) (D) (10, 2)

23. The object and image pair is respectively -
(A) Real and real (B) Virtual and real
(C) Virtual and virtual (D) Real and virtual

CHEMISTRY

Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
1. 1 mole mixture of CH
4
& air (containing 80% N
2
,
20% O
2
by volume) of a composition such that when
underwent combustion gave maximum heat (assume
combustion of only CH
4
). Then which of the
statements are correct, regarding composition of
initial mixture:
(A)
11
8
X ,
11
2
X ,
11
1
X
2 2 4
N O CH
= = =
(B)
2
1
X ,
8
1
X ,
8
3
X
2 2 4
N O CH
= = =
(C)
3
2
X ,
6
1
X ,
6
1
X
2 2 4
N O CH
= = =
(D) Data insufficient

2. 2 moles of an ideal gas (Cv = 5/2 R) was compressed
adiabatically against constant pressure of 2 atm.
Which was initially at 350 K & 1 atm pressure. The
work involve in the process is equal to
(A) 250 R (B) 300 R (C) 400 R (D) 500 R
3. The reactions of higher order are rare because:
(A) many body collisions involve very high
activation energy
(B) many body collisions have a very low probability
(C) many body collisions are not energetically
favoured
(D) many body collisions can take place only in
gaseous state

4. In the reaction sequence

PhCHCl
2
t-BuOK
P
PhC
Q
CPh
t-BuOK
R
HBr
S
[ S ] is -

(A) PhCH = CHPh
(B)
Ph
Ph
Ph Br

(C)
Ph Ph
Ph Br

(D) PhCH = CH C C Ph

5. CH
3
CCH
3
||
O

OH
P (conjugated system)
P + CH
2
(COOC
2
H
5
)
2

ONa H C
5 2
Q
Q
ONa H C
5 2
R
R
+
Heat . II O H . I
3
S
The final product S is -
(A)
O
(B)
O

(C)
O
O
(D)
O
O


6. In the reaction sequence :
A CH CH C CH
4
MgBr CH
3
3
+ B
H / O H ) ii (
CO ) i (
2
2
+

B will be :
(A) CH
3
C C MgBr
(B) CH
3
C C CH
3

(C) CH
3
C C COOH
(D) CH
3
CH = CH COOH
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 56 JANUARY 2012
Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct. Mark
your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question. + 4 marks will be given for
each correct answer and NO NEGATIVE marks for
wrong answer.
7. CO
2
is isostructural with:
(A) HgCl
2
(B) SnCl
2
(C) C
2
H
2
(D) NO
2


8. Which of the following have planar structure?
(A) I
3

(B) [Co(DMG)
2
]
(C) Ni(CO)
4
(D) [Ni (CN)
4
]
2


9. Select the reactions in which correct products have
been mentioned -
(A)

O

d P /
2
H 2
solvent
acetate ethyl


O

(B)

CH
3

CH
3


t P /
2
H


H
3
C

CH
3
H

H


(C)

O
CH
3


ether / PhMgBr ) i (
O
3
H ) ii (



CH
3
H
OH
Ph


(D)

Cl
Cl
ether / Mg





10. Choose the correct statement (s) -
(A) The formation of -hydroxynitrile from aldehyde
and ketone is usually a reversible process.
(B) The formation of -hydroxynitrile is catalysed by
OH

. The use of H
+
decreases the nucleophilicity
(HCN H
+
+ CN

)
(C) Acrolein (CH
2
=CHCH=O) on treatment with
HCN/OH

do not give -hydroxy nitrile


(cyanohydrin)
(D) Benzaldehyde on treatment with HCN/OH

give
optically active cyanohydrin molecule.

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,
(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against
the question number of that question. + 3 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.

11. Assertion (A) : | |
3 3 3
Cl ) NH ( Co does not give a
white ppt with AgNO
3

Reason (R) : Chlorine is not present in the ionization
sphere of | |
3 3 3
Cl ) NH ( Co

12. Assertion (A) : BeCl
2
fumes in moist air.
Reason (R) : BeCl
2
reacts with moisture to form HCl gas

13. Assertion (A) : Changing solvent from CH
3
OH to
CH
3
CN the rate of reaction of azide ion with
1-bromobutane decreases many fold.
Reason (R) : CH
3
OH is a polar protic solvent while
CH
3
CN is polar aprotic
14. Observe the following reaction


O
KMnO
4
/H
2
SO
4
P
NaOH/CaO/
Q + CaCO
3

Assertion (A) : Molecular mass of Q is 58 g/mol.
Reason (R) : Boiling point of P is greater than Q.

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 15 to 23) Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet
against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
A white solid A reacts with dilute H
2
SO
4
to produce a
colourless gas B and a colourless solution C. The
reaction between B and acidified dichromate yields a
green solution and a slightly coloured precipitate D.
The substance D, when burnt in air, gives a gas E
which reacts with B to yield D and a colourless
liquid. Anhydrous copper sulphate turns blue with
this colourless liquid. The addition of aqueous NH
3

or NaOH to C produces a precipitate that dissolves in
an excess of the reagent to form a clear solution
15. Which of the following gases are B and E
respectively?
(A) CO
2
and SO
2
(B) SO
2
and H
2
S
(C) H
2
S and SO
2
(D) CO
2
and H
2
S
16. What would appear if the gas B is passed through an
aqueous solution of Pb(NO
3
)
2
?
(A) White precipitate soluble in hot dilute HNO
3

(B) A black precipitate soluble in hot dilute HNO
3

(C) A black precipitate insoluble in hot dilute HNO
3
(D) A yellow precipitate soluble in hot concentrated
HNO
3

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 57 JANUARY 2012
17. Suppose the solution obtained by the treatement of
the solution C with an excess of NaOH is acidified
with acetic acid and the gas B is passed through it.
Which of the following will be obtained?
(A) Colourless solution (B) Yellow precipitate
(C) Black precipitate (D) White precipitate

Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
Equilibrium constants are given (in atm) for the
following reactions at 0C


SrCl
2
6H
2
O(s) SrCl
2
2H
2
O(s) + 4H
2
O(g)
K
p
= 5 10
12

Na
2
HPO
4
12H
2
O(s) Na
2
HPO
4
7H
2
O(s) + 5H
2
O(g)
K
p
= 2.43 10
13

Na
2
SO
4
10H
2
O(s) Na
2
SO
4
(s) + 10H
2
O(g)

K
p
= 1.024 10
27


The vapor pressure of water at 0C is 4.56 torr.
18. Which is the most effective drying agent at 0C?
(A) SrCl
2
2H
2
O (B) Na
2
HPO
4
7H
2
O
(C) Na
2
SO
4
(D) all equally

19. At what relative humidities will Na
2
SO
4
. 10H
2
O be
efflorescent (release moisture) when exposed to air at
0C?
(A) above 33.33% (B) below 33.33 %
(C) above 66.66 % (D) below 66.66 %

20. At what relative humidities will Na
2
SO
4
be
deliquescent (i.e. absorb moisture) when exposed to
the air at 0C ?
(A) above 33.33 % (B) below 33.33 %
(C) above 66.66 % (D) below 66.66 %

Passage # 3 (Ques. 21 to 23)
It occasionaly happens that a reaction proceeds much
faster or much slower than expected on basis of
electrical effects alone. It can be shown that steric
effects are influencing the rate also. An example of
such an effect coming into play is hydrolysis of alkyl
halide by S
N
l mechanism. The first step (RDS)
involves ionization of alkyl halide to carbo-cation,
thus relieving strain due to change in hybridisation
from sp
3
to sp
2

21. Relative reaction rates of solvolysis of halides (RBr)
with ethanol,
R = Me > Et > n-propyl > iso-Butyl
can be explained on basis of -
(A) Carbocation stability
(B) Hyperconjugation
(C) Stability of S
N
2 transition state
(D) None of these

22. Reative rates of hydrolysis of alkyl chlorides (RCl) in
80% aqueous ethanol follows, the order
Et
3
C Cl > MeEt
2
CCl > Me
2
EtCCl > Me
3
CCl,
can be explained by -
(A) Carbocation stability (B) Hyperconjugation
(C) Greater the strain in reactant due to bulky groups
faster is ionization of alkyl halide
(D) In S
N
l mechanism greater the bulkiness of groups
more is carbo-cation stability

23. The rate of hydrolysis of following in 80% aqueous
ethanol follows the order

(I)

Me
Cl

(II) t-BuCl (III)

Cl
Me


(A) I > III > II (B) II > I > III
(C) I > II > III (D) III > II > I

MATHEMATICS

Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
1. If f
r
() = |
.
|

\
|
+

2 2
sin cos
r
i
r
|
.
|

\
|
+

2 2
2
sin
2
cos
r
i
r

|
.
|

\
|
+

r
i
r
sin cos then
n
lim f
n
() equals-
(A) 1 (B) 1
(C) i (D) i

2. Sum of the non-real roots of
(x
2
+ x 2) (x
2
+ x 3) = 12 is
(A) 1 (B) 1
(C) 6 (D) 6

3. If l, m, n are real, l + m 0, then the roots of the
equation (l + m)x
2
3(l m)x 2(l + m) = 0 are
(A) real and equal (B) complex
(C) real and unequal (D) None of these

4. The set of all solutions of the equation
log
3
x log
4
x log
5
x = log
3
x log
4
x + log
4
x log
5
x
+ log
5
x log
3
x is-
(A) {1} (B) {1, 60}
(C) {1, 5, 10, 60} (D) None of these

5. Locus of the mid-points of the chords of the circle
x
2
+ y
2
= 4 which subtend a right angle at the centre
is
(A) x + y = 2 (B) x
2
+ y
2
= 1
(C) x
2
+ y
2
= 2 (D) x y = 0

6.
0
lim
x x x x
x
cos sin
cos 1
3

is equal to
(A) 2/5 (B) 3/5
(C) 3/2 (D) 3/4
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 58 JANUARY 2012
Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct. Mark
your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question. + 4 marks will be given for
each correct answer and NO NEGATIVE marks for
wrong answer.
7. If I = dx x ec x
4 2
cos sec


= K cot
3
x + L tan x + M cot x + C then
(A) K = 1/3 (B) L = 2
(C) M = 2 (D) None of these

8. The value of

+
2 /
0
4 4
cos sin
cos sin
x x
x x x
dx is
(A)
2
4 / 5
4 4
sin cos
2 sin
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

dx
x x
x

(B)
2
/16
(C) 3
2
/4
(D)
2
/2

9. The solution of
dx
dy
=
xy
y x
2
1
2 2
+ +
satisfying y (1) = 1
is given by-
(A) a hyperbola (B) a system of circles
(C) y
2
= x(1 + x) 1 (D) (x 2)
2
+ (y 3)
2
= 5

10. A random variable X follows binomial distribution
with mean a and variance b. Then-
(A) a > b > 0 (B)
b
a
> 1
(C)
b a
a

2
is an integer (D)
b a
a
+
2
is an integer

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,
(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against
the question number of that question. + 3 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.
11. Assertion (A) : In any triangle ABC,
a cos A + b cos B + c cos C s
Reason (R) : In any triangle ABC,
sin (A/2) sin (B/2) sin (C/2) 1/8

12. Assertion (A) : In any triangle ABC,
if a : b : c = 4 : 5 : 6 then R : r = 16 : 7
Reason (R) : In any triangle ABC,
r
R
=
s
abc
4


13. Assertion (A) : cosec
1
(3/2) + cos
1
(2/3) 2 cot
1
(1/7)
cot
1
7 is equal to cot
1
7.
Reason (R) : sin
1
x + cos
1
x = /2, tan
1
x + cot
1
x
= /2 , cosec
1
x = sin
1
(1/x), cot
1
(x) = tan
1
(1/x)

14. Assertion (A) : Slope of the line,
(cos + sin ) x + sin 2y = 1 is
3
1 3
if = /6
Reason (R) : 3 x + y = 30 represents the line
making an angle /6 with the +ve direction of
x-axis at a distance 15 units from the origin.

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 15 to 23) Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet
against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
ABC is a triangle, the incircle touches the sides BC,
CA and AB at D, E, F respectively. BD, CE and AF
are consecutive natural numbers. I is the incentre of
the triangles. The radius of the incircle is 4 units.
15. Sides of the triangle ABC are
(A) 11, 12, 13 (B) 12, 13, 14
(C) 13, 14, 15 (D) 14, 15, 16

16. Angles of the triangle DEF are
(A) 2A, 2B, 2C
(B) A, B, C
(C) A/2, B/2, C/2
(D)
2
A
,
2
B
,
2
C


17. Sides of the triangle DEF are
(A) 4 cos (A/2), 4 cos (B/2), 4 cos (C/2)
(B) 8 sin (A/2), 8 sin (B/2), 8 sin (C/2)
(C) 8 cos (A/2), 8 cos (B/2), 8 cos (C/2)
(D) 4 sin A, 4 sin B, 4 sin C


XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 59 JANUARY 2012
Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
P is a point on the circle C
1
: q
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)

= a
2
p
2

Q is a point on the circle C
2
: x
2
+ y
2
= a
2


18. If the coordinates of P are (h, k) then the locus of the
point which divides the join of PQ in the ratio p : q is
a circle C
3
, whose centre is at the point
(A)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + q p
kq
q p
hp
, (B)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + q p
k
q p
h
,
(C)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + q p
kq
q p
hq
, (D)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + q p
kp
q p
hp
,

19. Locus of the centre of C
3
as P moves on the circle C
1

is a circle C
4
.
(A) concentric with C
1

(B) having radius equal to the radius of C
3

(C) having area equal to the area of C
1

(D) None of these

20. If the point (p, q) lies on the line y = 2x, then the
4
1
C of radius
C of radius
is equal to
(A) 2/3 (B) 3/2
(C) 3 (D) 1/3

Passage # 3 (Ques. 21 to 23)
An equation of the form
2n log
a
f (x) = log
a
g(x), a > 0, a 1, n N is
equivalent to the system f (x) > 0 & f (x)
2n
= g(x)
21. The number of solutions of
log (2x) = 2 log (4x 15) is
(A) 1 (B) 2
(C) 3 (D) Infinity

22. Solution set of the equation
log (8 10x 12x
2
) = 3 log (2x 1) is
(A) {1} (B) {3, 2}
(C) {5} (D)

23. Solution set of the equation
log x =
2
1
log (x + 1) is
(A)
)
`

) 1 5 (
2
1
(B)
)
`

+ ) 1 5 (
2
1

(C)
)
`

3
1
,
2
1
(D)
)
`

+ ) 7 5 (
2
1





















































Know about "Root two"

1.41
is also called Pythagoras' constant.
is the ratio of diagonal to side length in a square.
1.4142135623 7309504880 1688724209
6980785696 7187537694 8073176679 7379907324
7846210703 8850387534 3276415727 3501384623
0912297024 9248360558 5073721264 4121497099...

One of the earliest numerical approximation of 2
was found on a Babylonian clay tablet (from the Yale
Babylonian Collection), dated approximately to
between 1800 B.C. and 1600 B.C. The annotations on
this tablet give an impressive numerical
approximation in four sexagesimal figures:
1 + 24/60 + 51/60
2
+ 10/60
3
= 1.41421296...
(P
n+1
- P
n
)/P
n
(P = Pell numbers)
17/12
99/70
1.0110101000001001111...
2

= 2sinus(45) = 2cosinus(45)
= 1 + (1 / (2 + (1 / (2 + (1 / (2 + ... ))))))
= ( i + i i) / i
If you want to have some fun with 2:
start with the very rough approximation 7/5. Then
(7+5+5)/(7+5) = 17/12
(17+12+12)/(17+12) = 41/29
(41+29+29)/(41+29) = 99/70
(99+70+70)/(99+70) = 239/169
...
continuing closer approximations of 2
- posted by Larry Bickford -
Writing numbers using only square roots of 2:
3 = -log
2
log
2
( ( 2))
4 = -log
2
log
2
( ( ( 2)))
5 = -log
2
log
2
( ( ( ( 2))))
6 = -log
2
log
2
( ( ( ( ( 2))))) ... etc.
ISO paper sizes are all based on a single aspect ratio
of the square root of two, or approximately 1:1.4142.
Basing paper upon this ratio was conceived by Georg
Lichtenberg in 1786, and at the beginning of the 20th
century, Dr Walter Porstmann turned Lichtenberg's
idea into a proper system of different paper sizes.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 60 JANUARY 2012







































PHYSICS

Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
1. A particle is moving along x-axis and graph between
speed and position is shown in the figure. Select the
correct statement
v
0
v
x
0

x

(A) Magnitude of acceleration is constant
(B) Magnitude of acceleration decrease to zero
(C) Magnitude of acceleration increase
(D) Data is insufficient

2. Two satellites are in orbit around mars with the same
orbital radius satellite 2 has twice the mass of
satellite 1. Both have same speed. The radial
acceleration of satellite 2 has
(A) twice the magnitude of the radial acceleration of
satellite 1
(B) the same magnitude as the radial acceleration of
satellite 1
(C) half the magnitude of the radial acceleration of
satellite 1
(D) four times the magnitude of the radial
acceleration of satellite 1

3. A vibrating string fixed at both ends has consecutive
harmonics at wavelengths of 4.0 m and 2.0 m. Then
length of the string is -
(A) 1 m (B) 2 m
(C) 4 m (D) 8 m
4. A block on a stationary horizontal table with
increasing speed in a circle as seen from an inertial
frame. The angle between net force between block
and velocity vector is -
(A) greater than 90 (B) less than 90
(C) equal to 90 (D) data is insufficient

5. An ideal gas is taken along the reversible processes
as represented by the adjoining diagram.
P(N/m
2
)
V(m
3
)
15
5
2 6
C
A
B

Select the incorrect statement
(A) For process B C, U > 0
(B) For process C A, work done by gas is negative
(C) For isochoric process change in internal energy is zero
(D) For Isochoric process work done by gas is zero
IIT-JEE 2013
XtraEdge Test Series # 9
Based on New Pattern
Time : 3 Hours
Syllabus :
Physics : Full Syllabus, Chemistry : Full Syllabus, Mathematics : Full syllabus
Instructions :
Section - I
Question 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions with only one correct answer. +3 marks will be awarded for
correct answer and -1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 7 to 10 are multiple choice question with multiple correct answer. +4 marks will be awarded for
correct answer and No Negative mark for wrong answer.
Question 11 to 14 are Reason and Assertion type question with one is correct answer. +3 marks and 1 mark for
wrong answer.
Question 15 to 23 are passage based questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and 1 mark for wrong
answer.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 61 JANUARY 2012
6. The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire is f.
The frequency becomes f/2 when the mass producing
the tension is completely immersed in water and an
immersing the mass in a certain liquid frequency
becomes f/3. The ratio of density of water to density
of liquid is -
(A) 1 (B)
41 . 1
1

(C)
32
27
(D) None of these

Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct. Mark
your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question. + 4 marks will be given for
each correct answer and NO NEGATIVE marks for
wrong answer.
7. A radius vector of a point A relative to the origin
varies with time t as

r = at i

bt
2
j

, where a and b
are positive constants and i

and j

are the unit vectors


of the x and y axes. Select the correct statements
(A) At t = 0, angle between velocity vector and
acceleration vector is 90
(B) Rate of change of speed at t = 0 is zero
(C) Rate of change of speed at t = 0 is 2b
(D) At t = 0, angle between velocity vector and
acceleration vector is zero

8. A uniform disc of mass M and radius R is attached to
a horizontal massless spring so that it can roll
without slipping along a horizontal surface. The
spring constant is k. If the system is released from
rest at a point in which is spring is stretched by x
(very small)



Select the correct statement -
(A) Maximum translational kinetic energy of disc is
3
kx
2

(B) Centre of mass of disc execute simple harmonic
motion and its time period is
k 2
m 3
2
(C) Kinetic energy of disc when disc is at its extreme
position of oscillation is zero
(D) Disc does not execute and simple harmonic
motion

9. The length of a pipe closed at one end is L. In the
standing wave whose frequency is 7 times the
fundamental frequency, then select the correct
statements -
(A) The closest distance between two nodes is 2/7L
(B) The speed of sound is 7 times more than previous
(C) Third overtone will be heard
(D) Fourth harmonic will be heard

10. The diagram below shows a cross sectional view of a
cylindrical pipe of varying diameter.

B
A
If an ideal fluid is flowing through the pipe, select the
correct statements -
(A) The pressure is lower at point B than at point A
(B) The volume flow rate is greater at point A than at
point B
(C) The flow speed is greater at point B than at point A
(D) The pressure at A and B is equal

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,
(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against
the question number of that question. + 3 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.

11. Assertion (A) : In mean position of a particle
executing simple harmonic motion velocity is not
zero and acceleration is zero.
Reason (R) : Simple harmonic motion is an example
of uniform motion.

12. Assertion (A) : As temperature rises, coefficient of
viscosity of liquids falls.
Reason (R) : As temperature rises, atoms of the
liquid become more mobile.

13. Assertion (A) : When a body has uniform acceleration
it may move in curvilinear path.
Reason (R) : Path of body depends on initial
condition between velocity and acceleration.

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 62 JANUARY 2012
14. Assertion (A) : On a banked curved track, horizontal
components of normal reaction may provides the
necessary centripetal force.
Reason (R) : When a car take turn centripetal force
is necessary.

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 15 to 23) Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet
against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.

Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)

An open cart of mass 50.0 kg is rolling to the left at a
speed of 5.00 m/s towards a chute as shown in figure.
A 15 kg package slides down the chute that is
inclined at 37.0 from the horizontal and leaves the
end of the chute with a speed of 3.00 m/s. The
package lands in the cart and they roll off together. If
the lower end of the chute is a vertical distance of
4.00 m above the bottom of the cart. Friction
between cart and floor is neglected.
37
4m


15. The speed of the package just before it lands in the
cart
(A) 5 m/s (B) 9.35 m/s
(C) 11.25 m/s (D) 8.15 m/s

16. Final speed of cart is -
(A) 3.3 m/s (B) 2.0 m/s
(C) 2.5 m/s (D) none of these

17. Loss in kinetic energy in collision -
(A) 655.7 J (B) 625 J
(C) 926.8 J (D) 353.9 J

Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
An athlete whirls a 4.00 kg hammer six or seven
times around and then releases it. Although the
purpose of whirling it around several times is to
increases the hammer's speed, assume that just before
the hammer is released, it moves at constant speed
along a circular arc of radius 2 m. At the instant he
releases the hammer, it is 1 m above the ground and
its velocity is 45 above the horizontal. The hammer
lands a horizontal distance of 80 m away. Neglect air
resistance.
18. Time taken by the hammer to reach ground is
(A) 2.9 s (B) 3.5 s
(C) 2 s (D) 1.5 s

19. The speed of hammer at instant of release is
(A) 25 m/s (B) 27.8 m/s
(C) 29.7 m/s (D) 26.1 m/s

20. The force apply by the athlete to grip just before he
release it is : (weight of hammer is neglected)
(A) 1000 N (B) 854 N
(C) 774 N (D) 950 N

Passage # 3 (Ques. 21 to 23)
A cylinder of negligible mass, length L and cross
sectional area A is held down by strings under water
as shown in the figure. The top of the cylinder is
sealed. The bottom is open. A column of air
(height h) is trapped in the cylinder (see figure)


h
area A
L
Strings
air
The bottom of the
cylinder is open
the top is closed
d
Water level

The top of the cylinder is a distance d below the
water surface. The external pressure at the surface of
the water is P
0
. Assume that the temperature in the
air and the water is the same and remains constant.
21. Pressure of the air trapped in the cylinder -
(A) hg + P
0
(B) (h + d)g + P
0

(C) Lg + P
0
(D) None of these

22. Buoyant force on the cylinder is -
(A) (h + d)Ag (B) hAg
(C) dAg (D) None of these

23. The external pressure is increased from P
0
to P
1
. The
position of the cylinder is kept fixed. For what
external pressure P
1
will the length of the air column
in the cylinder be h/2 -
(A) P
0
+ g (d + h/2) (B) 2P
0
+ g (d + h)
(C) 2P
0
+ g (d + 1.5 h) (D) None of these






XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 63 JANUARY 2012
CHEMISTRY

Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.

1. For an orbital radial probability distribution function is
plotted with r (distance from nucleus) as


r
4r
2
R
2


If angular nodes for this orbital are 2, then identity
the orbital : -
(A) 4P (B) 5d
(C) 5P (D) 6d

2. Express the kinetic energy per mole of a monoatomic gas
of molar mass M, at temperature T kelvin in terms of
mean speed of the molecule ( C ) : -
(A)
2
) (
3
8
C
M

(B)
2
) (
16
3
C
M

(C)
2
) (
2
C
M
|
.
|

\
|

(D)
2
) (
16
3
C
M
|
.
|

\
|


3. In the mysterious deserts of Egypts, large deposition
of Trona (Na
2
CO
3
.NaHCO
3
) are found. If a sample
of Trona (Containing some inert impurities) is
dissolved in water and titrated against 0.1 M HCl,
which of the following readings are possible when x
and y ml of HCl are required for titration against
equal volumes of this solution, one using
phenolphthalein and the other using methyl orange
respectively as indicators ?
(A) x = 20, y = 20 (B) x = 20, y = 30
(C) x = 20, y = 40 (D) x = 20, y = 10

4. Solubility of AgI in 1 M CN

solution (Ksp of AgI is


10
17
M
2
and K
f
for [Ag(CN)
2
]

is 10
19
M
2
) is : -
(A) 0.48 M (B) 0.24 M
(C) 0.12 M (D) 0.36 M

5. An ideal gas is initially at temperature T and volume
V. It's volume increases by V due to an increase in
temperature of T, pressure remaining constant. The
quantity =
T V
V

varies with temperature as -


(A)

Temperature (K)

(B)

Temperature (K)


(C)

Temperature (K)

(D)

Temperature (K)



6. Ag
+
forms many complexes, some of these are
[Ag(NH
3
)
2
]
+
, [Ag(CN)
2
]

and [Ag(S
2
O
3
)
2
]
3
which of
the following statement is true -
(A) In these complexes, Ag
+
is a lewis base
(B) The hybridisation of Ag
+
is sp
2

(C) The Ag
+
complexes are good reducing agents
(D) These complexes are all linear.

Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct. Mark
your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question. + 4 marks will be given for
each correct answer and NO NEGATIVE marks for
wrong answer.
7. A chemist synthesizes a new acidic compound. He
dissolves a sample of 1.26 gram of the pure
compound in water and titrates with 0.100 mol/L
NaOH. If 75 ml of NaOH are required to reach the
end point corresponding to removal of all replaceable
hydrogen atoms, what could be the molar mass of the
new acid ?
(A) 336 gram/mol (B) 168 gram/mol
(C) 80 gram/mol (D) 504 gram/mol

8. For an ideal gas : -
(A)
P
T
E
|
.
|

\
|

= 0 (B)
V
T
E
|
.
|

\
|

= 0
(C)
T
P
E
|
.
|

\
|

= 0 (D)
T
V
E
|
.
|

\
|

= 0

9. Ground state configuration of phosphorous can be
given as : -
(A) [Ne]
s 3

p 3

(B) [Ne]
s 3

p 3

(C) [Ne]
s 3

p 3

(D) [Ne]
s 3

p 3

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 64 JANUARY 2012
10. Which is/are correct statement ?
(A) molar enthalpy is an intensive property
(B)
r
H is + ve for the decomposition of CaCO
3
(s)
(C) W
adiabatic
< W
isothermal
in an ideal gas expansion
from same initial state to same final volume
(D) The value of ( = C
p
/C
v
) remains constant for
triatomic gas at all temperatures

This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,
(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against
the question number of that question. + 3 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.

11. Assertion (A) : Carbenes act as free radiacals.
Reason (R) : Only triplet carbenes act as biradical
(divalent free radical).

12. Assertion (A) : In balanced redox reaction.
xAs
2
S
3
+ yNO
3

+ 4H
2
O
a AsO
4
3
+ bNO +
2
4
cSO + 8H
+

the n-factor of As
2
S
3
and NO
3

is 28 and 3
respectively.
Reason (R) : Molar ratio is reciprocal of
n-factor's ratio so x : y is 3 : 28.

13. Assertion (A) : % strength of oleum can not greater
than 122.5.
Reason (R) : % strength of oleum depends on
amount of water consumed by 100 gram sample.

14. Assertion (A) : A reaction which is spontaneous and
accompanied by decrease of randomness, must be
exothermic.
Reason (R) : All exothermic reactions are
accompanied by decrease of randomness.

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 15 to 23) Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet
against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
Virial co-efficients for methane for pressure up to
about 400 bar
for
RT
PV
=
V
B
V
+ 1 +
2
V
C
V
+
3
V
D
V

tC B
V
(L/mol) C
V
(L
2
/mol
2
) D
V
(L
3
/mol
3
)
0 5.335 10
2
2.39210
3
2.6 10
4

25 4.281 2.102 1.5
50 3.423 2.150 0.13
100 2.100 1.834 0.27
150 1.140 1.640 0.35
200 0.417 1.514 0.43
250 +1.50 1.420 0.52
300 0.598 1.360 0.57
350 0.964 1.330 0.59

15. Which virial co-efficient contributes to a maximum
extent to non-ideality at 0C ?
(A) B
V
(B) C
V

(C) D
V
(D) all of them make nearly equal contribution

16. As the temperature is increased from 0C to 350,
which of the following parameters first decreases
then increases ?
(A) B
V
(B) C
v

(C) D
V
(D) None

17. Between which temperature range deviation from
ideality is maximum ?
(A) 300-350 (B) 200-250C
(C) 25 50C (D) 025C

Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
Entropy is measure of degree of randomness.. Every
system tries to acquire state of maximum randomness
or disorder. Whenever a solid melts or liquid
vaporises entropy increases generally. The ratio of
entropy of vaporisation and boiling point of
substance remains constant.
18. Which of the following has S = +ve ?
(A) H
2
(g) + Cl
2
(g) 2HCl(g)
(B) Boiling of egg
(C) Crystallization of sugar
(D) Formation of complex compound

19. Which of the following process have S = ve : -
(A) Adsorption
(B) dissolution of NH
4
Cl in H
2
O(l)
(C) H
2
2H
(D) NaHCO
3
(s) Na
2
CO
3
(s) + CO
2
(g) + H
2
O(g)
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 65 JANUARY 2012
20. Liquid Bromine is known to boil at 59.2C. What is
the approximate enthalpy of vaporisation of
bromine?
(A) 88 kJ/mol (B) 5.16 kJ/mol
(C) 29 kJ/mol (D) can not be calculated

Passage # 3 (Ques. 21 to 23)
Dissolved oxygen in water is determined by using a
redox reaction. Following equations describe the
procedure : -
(I) 2Mn
2+
(aq.) + 4OH

(aq.) + O
2
(g)
2MnO
2
(s) + 2H
2
O(l)
(II) MnO
2
(s) + 2I

(aq.) + 4 OH

(aq.)
Mn
2+
(aq.) + I
2
(aq.) + 2H
2
O(l)
(III) 2S
2
O
3
2
(aq.) + I
2
(aq.) S
4
O
6
2
(aq.) + 2I

(aq.)

21. How many moles of S
2
O
3
2
are equivalent of each
mole of O
2
?
(A) 0.5 (B) 1
(C) 2 (D) 4

22. If 3 10
3
mole O
2
is dissolved per litre of water then
what will be the molarity of I

produced in the given


reaction ?
(A) 3 10
3
M (B) 4 3 10
3
M
(C) 2 3 10
3
M (D)
2
1
3 10
3
M

23. x-factor (or valency factor) for the equivalent weight
of MnO
2
and I
2
in 2
nd
and 3
rd
reactions are
respectively : -
(A) 2, 1 (B) 2, 2
(C) 1, 2 (D) None

MATHEMATICS

Questions 1 to 6 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.

1. Value of x satisfying the equation
|sin x cos x| + x x
2 2
cot tan 2 + + = 3 lies in
interval -
(A) |
.
|

\
|

,
4
3
(B) |
.
|

\
|
4
3
,
2

(C) |
.
|

\
|
2
,
3
(D) None of these

2. For any x, y R, x y > 0, minimum value of

3
2
y
x
+
3
3
y x
+
4
2
9
4
x
y
equals -
(A) 2
1/3
(B) 2 (C) 3
1/3
(D) 3

3. The feet of perpendicular from origin on a variable
chord of circle x
2
+ y
2
2x 2y = 0 is M. If variable
chord subtends an angle of 90 at origin. Then locus
of M will be -
(A) x
2
+ y
2
+ x + y = 0 (B) x
2
+ y
2
x y = 0
(C) x
2
+ y
2
2x 2y = 0 (D) none

4. No. of solution of equation

2010
) 2009 ( x
=
2010 log
) 2009 (
x
is -
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) None

5. In ABC, a cos (B C) + b cos (C A) + c cos (A B)
(where a, b, c are sides of ) equals
(A)
2
R
abc
(B)
2
4R
abc
(C)
2
4
R
abc
(D) None

6. The ordinate of a point P on line 6x + y = 9, which is
closet to the point (3, 1) can be expressed in form
a/b, where a, b N & are in lowest form, then value
of a + b is
(A) 50 (B) 75 (C) 100 (D) 110

Questions 7 to 10 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE) is correct. Mark
your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question. + 4 marks will be given for
each correct answer and NO NEGATIVE marks for
wrong answer.

7. The equation x
3

4
3
x =
8
3
is satisfied by -
(A) x = cos
18
5
(B) x = cos
18
7

(C) x = cos
18
23
(D) x = cos |
.
|

\
|
18
17


8. 1 + log
5
(x
2
+ 1) log
5
(ax
2
+ 4x + a), x R, then
'a' can be equal to -
(A) 3 (B) 2 (C) 5/2 (D) 4

9. If pair of straight lines ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
= 0 is rotated
by an angle of 90 about origin, then their equation in
new position are given by
(A) ax
2
2hxy + by
2
= 0 (B) bx
2
2hxy + ay
2
= 0
(C) ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
= 0 (D) bx
2
+ 2hxy + ay
2
= 0

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 66 JANUARY 2012
10. Value of x satisfying the equation cos(ln x) = 0 is
(A) e
/2
(B) e
/2
(C) e
/4
(D) e
3/2


This section contains 4 questions numbered 11 to 14,
(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against
the question number of that question. + 3 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.

11. Assertion (A) : No. of ways of writing 1400 as a
product of two positive integers is 12.
Reason (R) : 1400 is divisible by exactly three prime
factors.

12. Assertion (A) : There exists no value of for which
sin (cos) > cos (sin ).
Reason (R) : sin + cos [ 2 , 2 ].

13. Let 0 < , , <
2

.
Assertion (A) : If tan
3
, tan
3
, tan
3
are roots of
cubic equation x
3
6x
2
+ kx 8 = 0 then
tan = tan = tan .
Reason (R) : If a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
= 3abc and a, b, c are
positive no. then a = b = c.

14. Assertion (A) : The perpendicular bisector of line
segment joining the points (a, 2at) & (a, 0) is
tangent to y
2
= 4ax where t R
Reason (R) : No. of parabolas with a given point as
vertex & length of latus rectum equals to 4 is 2.

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 15 to 23) Each question
has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet
against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
In fig. ABC is right angled at C. such that AB = 20,
AC = 12, AD = BD & ED is perpendicular to AB.
Now answer the following
C
E
D B A




15. Area of AEC is
(A) 21 (B) 24 (C) 42 (D) None

16. Value of cos ( + ) is
(A) 4/5 (B) 3/5 (C) 44/125 (D) None

17. Value of sin
( )
2
+ + +
sin
( )
2
+
is
(A) 3/5 (B) 4/5 (C)117/125 (D) 44/125

Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
Least positive integral solution () of inequality
4
8 5

+
x
x
> 2 is a root of equation f (x) = 0
where f (x) =
5
) 1 (
5
2
2

x
x
a
x1, a [0, 1], then
18. Possible values of is -
(A) 0 (B) 5 (C) 4 (D) None

19. Possible values of a is-
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 1/2 (D) 0, 5

20. The inverse of f (x) is-
(A)
5
x
1 (B) 5x + 1 (C) 5x + 5 (D) 5x 1

Passage # 3 (Ques. 21 to 23)
In a ABC as shown in fig. xx
1
= d
1
, xx
2
= d
2
&
xx
3
= d
3
where x is circumcentre a, b, c are sides of
ABC as usual in a triangle then answer the
following
B C x
d
d d
x x
2
A
x


21. If
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
3 2 1
d
c
d
b
d
a
=
3 2 1
d d d
abc
then equals -
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
22. If R is circumradius of ABC and
a(d
2
+ d
3
) + b(d
1
+ d
3
) + c (d
1
+ d
2
) = k R (a + b + c)
then k equals -
(A) 1 (B) 1/2 (C) 1/3 (D) 2

23. Let h
a
, h
b
, h
c
are the altitudes of ABC from angular
points A, B, C respectively. If
(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
) = t (h
a
d
1
+ h
b
d
2
+ h
c
d
3
) then t equals -
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 67 JANUARY 2012
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 68 JANUARY 2012











































PHYSICS

1. Refractive index of glass is maximum for which
colour and for which colour it is minimum


2. State the condition for distructive interference.


3. Calculate momentum of photon of wavelength
5000

4. If radius of a nucleus with mass number 8 is R
then calculate radius of nucleus of mass number
27.

5. What should be the frequency of a carrier wave ?


6. Speed of light in air is v
1
, in glass is v
2
and in water is
v
3
. write v
1
, v
2
, v
3
in increasing order.
(
g
= 1.5,
w
= 1.33)

7. Define electrical resistivity of a material.

8. Work done to bring a charge 3.2 10
7
coulomb
from infinity to a point is 1.6 10
5
Joule. Find
potential at that point.

9. Out of objective and eye piece lens in astronomical
telescope which lens have greater focal length and
why ?

10. Write conditions of interference ?
11. Define ionization energy, excitation energy ? How
kinetic energy and potential energy of an electron
revolving in a orbit of an atom are related ?


12. If the maximum amplitude of AM wave is 12V and
the minimum amplitude of this wave is 4V, find the
modulation index is percentage ?

13. What is the purpose of modulating a signal in
transmission and why is frequency modulation
preferred over amplitude modulation for
transmission of music ?


14. Donor atom has a large ionisation energy but while
in the semiconductor lattice it readily gives an
electron to form an n-semiconductor. Explain why ?


15. Zener diodes have higher dopant densities as
compared to ordinary diodes. How does it affect the
(i) Width of the depletion layer ?
(ii) The electric field in depletion layer


General Instructions : Physics & Chemistry
Time given for each subject paper is 3 hrs and Max. marks 70 for each.
All questions are compulsory.
Marks for each question are indicated against it.
Question numbers 1 to 8 are very short-answer questions and carrying 1 mark each.
Question numbers 9 to 18 are short-answer questions, and carry 2 marks each.
Question numbers 19 to 27 are also short-answer questions, and carry 3 marks each.
Question numbers 28 to 30 are long-answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
Use of calculators is not permitted.

General Instructions : Mathematics
Time given to solve this subject paper is 3 hrs and Max. marks 100.
All questions are compulsory.
The question paper consists of 29 questions divided into three sections A, B and C.
Section A comprises of 10 questions of one mark each.
Section B comprises of 12 questions of four marks each.
Section C comprises of 7 questions of six marks each.
All question in Section A are to be answered in one word, one sentence or as per the exact requirement of the question.
There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided in 4 questions of four marks each and
2 question of six marks each. You have to attempt only one of the alternatives in all such questions.
Use of calculators is not permitted.
MOCK TEST PAPER-2
CBSE BOARD PATTERN

CLASS # XII
SUBJECT : PHYSICS , CHEMISTRY & MATHEMATICS
Sol ut i ons wi l l be publ i shed i n next i ssue
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 69 JANUARY 2012
16. Derive an expression for the energy stored in a
charged parallel plate capacitor with air as the
medium between its plates.
17. How can galvanometer be converted to
(i) an ammeter
(ii) voltmeter ?

18. Write four properties of electromagnetic waves.

19. If angle subtended by an object over telescope is 2
then calculate angle subtended by image if focal
lengths of objective and eye-piece lenses are 20cm
and 4cm respectively

20. A proton when accelerated through a potential
difference of V volt has a wavelength associated
with it. An -particle, in order to have the same ,
must be accelerated through a potential difference V'.
Calculate V'.


21. Draw curve between Binding energy per Neucleon
and mass number.

22. Identify the logic gates 1 and 2. Write output when
A = 0 and B = 1.

A
B
1
Y'
B'
2 Y


23. Find resistance in ohm.


Brown
Yellow Violet Gold

24. Write down two important uses of superconductors.

25. If the horizontal component of earth's magnetic field
at a place where the angle of dip is 60 is 0.4 10

4
T, calculate the vertical component and the resultant
magnetic field of earth at that point.

26. Write Biot-Savart law. Explain the symbols used.

27. How is the mutual inductance of a pair of coaxial
solenoid affected when.
(i) separation between the coils is increased
(ii) the number of turns of each coil is increased
(iii) a thin iron sheet is placed between the two coils,
other factors remaining the same.
Explain your answer in each case.

28. Define principal focus of a lens ? How does focal
length of lens change when lens is dipped in a liquid
of refractive index more than refractive index of lens
itself ? for which colour focal length of a lens is
maximum ? Calculate focal length of a planoconvex
lens with lens material refractive index 2 and outside
medium, air and curved surface radius 20cm.
OR
Derive the relation between object distance, image
distance from pole of curved surface of radius R in
case of refraction at curved surface

29. Give the principle and explain the working of a
van de Graaff generator with help of labelled diagram
. Mention its use.
OR
Show mathematically that electric field intensity
due to a short dipole at a distance d along its axis is
twice the intensity at the same distance along the
equatorial axis.
(i) An electric dipole is held in a uniform electric
field. What happens to dipole, when released in
uniform electric field ?
(ii) The dipole is aligned parallel to the field.
Calculate the work done in rotating it through
180.

30. A uniform magnetic field exists normal to the plane of
the paper over a small region of space. A rectangular
loop of wire is slowly moved with a uniform velocity
across the field as shown. Draw the graph showing the
variation of :
(i) magnetic flux linked with the loop and
(ii) the induced e.m.f. n the loop with time.







OR
An a.c. voltage E = E
0
sint is applied across an
indcutor L. Obtain an expression for current I.

CHEMISTRY

1. Write the chemical reaction to transform butanal to
butanoic acid.


2. Write the IUPAC name for :

NH
2
CH
3
CH CH CONH
2
Cl

3. What are semi essential amino acids. name them.

4. If a magnet is lowered in liquid oxygen, will it stick
to magnet ?

5. How many atoms can be assigned to its unit cell if an
element forms (i) a body centred cubic cell, and (ii) a
face centred cubic cell ?


6. Lyophilic colloid is more stable than lyophobic
colloid. Why ?

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 70 JANUARY 2012
7. Nitric oxide reacts with hydrogen to give nitrogen and
water
2NO + 2H
2
N
2
+ 2H
2
O
If the reaction proceeds through following steps:
(i) 2NO + H
2

slow
N
2
+ H
2
O
2
:
(ii) H
2
O
2
+ H
2

fast
2H
2
O.
Predict the rate law expression.

8. Write the IUPAC name of the following :

CH
2
CH
2
CH CH CH
2
CO
|
NH
2

|
OH
|
Cl
|
NH
2

9. Write one chemical reaction each to illustrate the
following :
(i) Aldol condensation
(ii) Gabriel phthalimide synthesis

10. Write reactions starting conditions for the following
conversions :
(i) Benzene to Acetophenone
(ii) Ethanal to Propanone

11. A compound having the molecular formula C
3
H
6
O
forms a crystalline white ppt. with sodium bisulphite
and reduces Fehling solutions. Suggest the structural
formula and IUPAC name of this compound. Name an
isomer for it from a group other than its own


12. Write one distinction test each for :
(i) Ethyl alchol and 2-propanol
(ii) Acetaldehyde and acetone

13. (a) Define velocity Constant.
(b) Define pseudo unimolecular Reaction with the
help of example.


14. Explain the following observations :
(a) Coagulation takes place when sodium chloride
solution is added to a colloidal solution of ferric
hydroxide.
(b) Sky appears blue in colour.



15. How much electricity is required in coulomb for the
oxidation of
(i) 1 mol of H
2
O to O
2

(ii) 1 mol of FeO to Fe
2
O
3
.


16. Among fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine,
which :
(i) Provides the weakest acid on combination with
hydrogen ?
(ii) Has the smallest ionization energy ?

17. Explain why :
(i) The transition metals generally form coloured
compounds
(ii) Transition metals and many of their compounds
show paramagnetic behaviour

18. Write the reactions with conditions for the following
conversions.
(i) Methanal to Propan-1-ol
(ii) Benzyl alcohol to Benzoic acid

19. Complete the following reactions :

CH
3
CHI

(i)
|
CH
3
Na
Dry ether

20. Give the structure of following polymer
(a) Buna S (b) styron (c) PAN
21. What are antibiotic. Explain with example.

22. Name any three water soluble vitamin are one of the
deficiency disease.

23. Differentiate between :
(i) Rate of reaction and rate constant of a reaction.
(ii) Order of reaction and its molecularity.

24. (a) Define the terms specific conductance and molar
conductivity for solutions of electrolytes.
(b) In the button cell widely used in watches and other
devices, the following reaction takes place :
Zn (s) + Ag
2
O(s) + H
2
O (I)
Zn
2+
(aq) + 2Ag (s) + OH

(aq)
Determine E and
r
G for the reaction.
Given : Zn Zn
2+
+ 2e

, E = 0.76 V ;
Ag
2
O + H
2
O + 2e

2Ag + 2OH

, E = 0.344 V.

25. A. Determine the type of cubic lattices to which the
iron crystal belongs if its cell has an edge length
of 268 pm and the density of iron crystal is 7.86
g cm
3
.
[At. Wt. of Fe = 56 g mol
1
, N
A
= 6.0210
23
mol
1
]
B. (a) What is meant by the term 'Coordination
number' ?
(b) What is the coordination number of atoms ?
(i) in a cubic close packed structure
(ii) in a body centred cubic structure
26. Draw the structures of [Co(NH
3
)
6
]
+3
, [Ni(CN)
4
]
2
and
[Ni(CO)
4
]. Write the hybridization of atomic orbitals also
find the magnetic moment in each case.
27. (a) Give balanced chemical equations :
(i) K
2
Cr
2
O
7
reacts with acidified solution of KI
(ii) KI solution is treated with alkaline solution of
KMnO
4

(b) Why is the separation of lanthanoid elements
difficult ?
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 71 JANUARY 2012
28. (a) State Henry's law for solubility of a gas in a
liquid. Explain the significance of Henry's law
constant (K
H
). At the same temperature,
hydrogen is more soluble in water than helium.
Which of them will have a higher value of K
H

and why ?
(b) Calculate the osmotic pressure at 25C
and f.p. of 1.8 % aqueous solution of glucose
(C
6
H
12
O
6
). Assume ideal beha viour of the
solution. Take density to be 1 g ml
1
and K
f
for
water to be 1.86 K kg mol
1
.
(R = 0.082 L atm mol
1
K
1
)

29. (a) Describe the preparation of acetic acid from
acetylene.
(b) How can the following be obtained from acetic
acid.
(i) Acetone
(ii) Acetaldehyde
(c) In what way can acetic acid be distinguished
from acetone ?
(d) Why do carboxylic acids not give the
characteristic reactions of a carbonyl group ?
OR
(a) How would you account for the following :
(i) Aldehydes are more reactive than
ketones towards nucleophiles.
(ii) The boiling points of aldehydes and ketones
are lower than of the corresponding acids.
(iii) The aldehydes and ketones undergo a number
of addition reactions.
(b) Give chemical tests to distinguish between :
(i) Acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde
(ii) Propanone and propanol

30. (a) Draw shapes and mention the hybrid of central
atom of following molecules :
(1) SF
4
(2) XeF
6
(3) ClF
3
(4) IF
5

(b) Arrange the following :
(i) BF
3
, BCl
3
, BBr
3
, BI
3
(Order of lewis acidic
strength)
(ii) H
2
O, H
2
S, H
2
Se, H
2
Te (Order of boiling point)
(iii) F
2
, Cl
2
, Br
2
, I
2
(Order of bond energy)
(iv) NH
3
, PH
3
, AsH
3
, SbH
3
(Order of basic strength)

MATHEMATICS

Section A

1. Find the equation of a line, which passes through the
point (1, 2, 3) and is parallel to the line
1
2 x
=
7
3 + y
=
3
6 2 z
.

2. Find the projection of

b +

c on

a where

a =i

+ 2 j

+ k

b =i

+ 3 j

+ k

and

c =i

+ k

.


3. Find the value of which makes the vectors

a ,

b ,

c coplanar where

a = 4i

6 j

2 k

b = i

+ 4 j

+ 3 k

and

c = 8i

+ k

.

4. Find order and degree of diff. Equation
0 sin
2
2
2
= |
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
dx
dy
dx
y d


5. Evaluate dx
x x
x x



2 2
8 8
cos sin 2 1
cos sin


6. If A =
(

5 4
3 2
, proof that A A is skew symmetric
matrix, where A = transpose of matrix A.

7. If A =
(

2 1
1 3
. Find f(A),
where f (x) = x
2
5x + 7.

8. Using determinants, find value of k so that points
(k, 2 2k), ( k + 1, 2k), ( 4 k, 6 2k) may be
collinear.

9. Let f (x) be a polynomial, then second order
derivative of f (e
x
) is.

10. If f (x) = x , g(x) = x
2
1, then find fog, gof

Section B

11. Three cards are drawn at a time, at random from a well
shuffled pack of 52 cards. Find the probability that all
the three cards have the same number.
OR


A candidate has to reach the examination centre in
time. Probability of him going by bus or scooter or
by other means of transport are
10
3
,
10
1
,
5
3

respectively. The probability that he will be late is
4
1
and
3
1
respectively, if he travels by bus or
scooter. But he reaches in time if the uses any mode
of transport. He reached late at the centre. Find the
probability that he travelled by bus.


XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 72 JANUARY 2012
12. If

a = 3i

+ 2 j

+ 9 k

and

b =i

+ j

+ 3 k

, find the
value of so that

a +

b is per-perpendicular to

b .

13. Find the equation of the plane which is perpendicular
to the plane 5x + 3y + 6z + 8 = 0 and which contains
the line of intersection of the planes x + 2y + 3z 4 = 0
and 2x + y z + 5 = 0.
OR
Find the equation of the plane passing through the
intersection of the planes 4x y + z = 10 and
x + y z = 4 and parallel to the line with direction
ratios proportional to 2, 1, 1. Find also the
perpendicular distance of (1, 1, 1) from this plane.


14. Evaluate dx
a x
x

) sin(
sin

15. Evaluate dx
x x
x

3 sin 2 sin
cos
2


16. If x
m
y
n
= (x + y)
m + n
, then prove that
x
y
dx
dy
=
17. Show that
c b c a c
c b b a b
c a b a a
3
3
3
+ +
+ +
+ +
= 3 (a +b + c) (ab + bc + ca).

18. Show that the line 1 = +
b
y
a
x
touches the curve
y = be
x/a
at the pt. where it crosses y-axis

19. Find the diff. equation of all circles touching the
y-axis at origin
OR
The normal lines to a given curve at each point pass
through (2, 0). The curve passes through (2, 3).
Formulate the differential equation and hence find
out the equation of the curve.
20. f (x) =

<
1 ,
| |
1
1 | | ,
2
x
x
x b ax
is diff. at x = 1 then find a,b

21. If f : R (1, 1) define by f (x) =
x x
x x

10 10
10 10
is
invertible find f
1

OR
Show that f : N N defined by
f(n) =

+
even n
n
odd n
n
,
2
,
2
1
is many-one onto function.
22. Differentiable sin
1
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
1
2
x
x
w.r.to tan
1
x, 1 < x < 1

Section C

23. Three cards are drawn successively with replacement
from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards. Find the
probability distributions of the number of spades in
the three cards.`

24. Find the vector equation of a line passing through the point
with position vector (2i

3 j

5k

) and perpendicular to
the plane

r .(6i

3 j

+5k

) + 2 = 0.
Also, find the point of intersection of this line and the
plane.

25. If a young man rides his motorcycle at 25 km/hour,
he had to speed Rs. 2 per Km on petrol. If he rides at
a faster speed of 40 Km/hour, the petrol cost increase
at Rs. 5 per Km. He has Rs. 100 to spend on petrol
and wishes to find what is the maximum distance he
can travel within one hour. Express this as an LPP
and solve it graphically.

26. Find the area bounded by the curve y = 2x x
2
and
y = x
OR
Find the area common to circle x
2

+ y
2

= 16 and
x
2
= 6y

27. Prove that
=

2 /
0
sin log xdx =

2 /
0
cos log xdx 2 log
2


28. Using matrix method, solve the following system
equations.
x + y + z = 5
2x + y z = 2
2x y + z = 2
OR
Using matrix method, solve following system of
equations,
2x + y + 2z = 3
x + y + 2z = 2
2x + 3y z = 2

29. An open tank with a square base and vertical
sides is to be constructed from a metal sheet so as to
hold a given quantity of water. Show that the cost of
material will be least when depth of tank is half of the
width.




XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 73 JANUARY 2012








PHYSICS

1. Zero


2. Light rays coming from distant stars fluctuates as
incidents over our eyes because rays fluctuates in
their path continuously as refractive index of earth's
atmosphere changes continuously


3. (i) Frequency increases

(ii) wave speed in free space remains constant

4. E = 13.6 eV


5. Analog signal:- An electrical signal which varies
continuously over time
Digital signal:- An electric signal which represents a
limited number of definite values usually 0 (low) and
1 (high) of a quantity


6. (i) The electric charge is quantized. (ii) The electric
charge of a system is conserved.

7. 25 W bulb has more resistance.
P
R
1
or R
P
1
.

8. displacement current is the current due to changing
electric field between the plate of the capacitor and
denoted as I
d


dt
d
I
E
0 d

=

9.
m
= ( 1)A. When prism is immersed in a liquid
then its refractive index with respect to that liquid
decreases so
m
also decreases as
m



10. =
d
D

(i) when d is decreased then increases.
(ii) when increases then increases also.
11. v = |
.
|

\
|
137
c
n
z

v
n
1
(i)
r =
2
n
2
(0.529) r n
2

n r (ii)
By (i) & (ii)
v
r
1


1
2
R
R 4
v
v
2
1
= =


12. n-type semi-conductors are better than p-type because
free electrons have better mobility than holes.

13. Input and output frequencies of half wave rectifier is
same while out put frequency of full wave rectifier is
double of the input frequency.


14. Modulation index is the ratio of amplitude E
m
of
carrier wave to E
c
of original carrier wave
i.e. ma =
c
m
E
E

a = E
c
+ E
m
and b = E
c
E
m

E
c
=
2
b a +
and E
m
=
2
b a

m
a
=
b a
b a
+




15. Communication in which transmitting signal is
meant for particular receiver or receivers is called
point to point communication e.g. VHF wireless sets,
telephone etc. communication in which signal is
spread in various directions by the transmitting
antenna to be caught by many receivers is called
broadcast e.g. Radio Broadcast


16. When a semi conductor is heated more & more
electrons get enough energy to jump across the
forbidden energy gap from valence band to the
conduction band, where they are free to conduct
electricity. There by increasing the conductivity a
semi conductor.

17. Let a dipole AB be placed in a uniform electric field E.
(i) + q charge will experience of force qE parallel to E
r

whereas q charge experience a force qE antiparallel
to E
r
. Since these forces are equal and opposite so no
net force is experienced.
MOCK TEST-1 (SOLUTION)

MOCK TEST 1 PUBLISHED IN DECEMBER ISSUE
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 74 JANUARY 2012
P
B
2a
+q

C q A
E

r


(ii) Forces on A and B constitute couple.
Torque is given by
= (qE) BC = q E 2A sin
= q 2a E sin = pE sin , where p is the dipole
moment
E P =
r
r

Direction of torque is to the plane of the paper
directed inward.
Direction of torque is given by Right handed screw
rule.

18. It is 0.

19.

A = 238
O
v = 0

A=234 A = 4
u
v=?
-particle
+

By conservation of linear momentum
final momentum = initial momentum
4u 234v = 0
234
u 4
v =

20. Final image is formed by eye piece lens so its object
must beat its focus and image of objective lens will
act as object for eye-piece lens so

15cm
12cm
3
u
0

0 0 0
f
1
u
1
v
1
=

2
1
u
1
12
1
0
+
=

+
cm
5
12
u
0
=

21. =
mE 2
h
mv
h
p
h
= = (i)
as E =
2
1
mv
2
=
m 2
p
m 2
v m
2 2 2
=
p = mE 2
and energy of gas molecule at temp T:
E = kT
2
3

By equation (i)
=
kT
2
3
m 2
h

mkT 3
h
=


22. = 72; i
E
= 8.9 mA
=
B
C
I
I
I
C
= I
B
= 72I
B

Q i
E
= i
C
+ i
B

8.9 = 72I
B
+ I
B
mA 12 . 0 I
B
=

23. (i) They are used in Radars/telecommunications. (ii)
They are used to see objects in haze or fog. (iii) They
are used for the study of molecular structures (iv) They
can be used to produce nuclear reactions.

24. Principle of potentiometer The working of a
potentiometer is based on the fact that the fall of
potential across any portion of the wire is directly
proportional to the length of that portion provided the
wire is of uniform area of crosssection and a constant
current is flowing through it.
Circuit diagram :

R
h

B
K 400
A
1
+

+
E
200
1
0
A
V
+

J
Scale

To find the internal resistance of a cell E using
potentiometer, set up the act as shown

A
1

+

K
A
E
K
1
R
J', J

(G)

B
100
R
h
0

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 75 JANUARY 2012
Close key K and maintain suitable constant current in
the potentiometer wire with the help of rheostat R
h
.
Adjust the position of jockey at different points of
wire and find a point where galvanometer gives zero
reading.
E = Kl
1
..(1)
Close key K
1
so that the resistance R is introduced in
the cell ckt. again repeat the process,
E = Kl
2
..(2)
2
1
V
E
l
l
=
r
1
= R
V
V E

= |
.
|

\
|
1
V
E
R .(3)
from equation (2) and (3)
r
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
2 1
l
l l
. R =
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
2 1
l
l l
R

25. j

8 . 0 B =
r
, ) j

10 3 i

10 2 ( v
6 6
+ =
r
m/s
r =
qB
mv
qB
mv
x
=


B
y
v
y
v
x
x


v
x
= 2 10
6
m/s
v
y
= 3 10
6
m/s
p = v
||
T = v
y

qB
m 2


26. Consider a rectangular coil PQRS suspended in a
uniform magnetic field of induction B . The direction
of force is given by Fleming's left hand rule.
So, torque experienced.
= either force arm of the couple.
t = nIBA cos

P

S
R

Q
2 F
3
F
4
F
B
1
F
B
B
B



27. In loop ABEFA
2(I
1
+ I
2
) + 5I
1
= 12
7I
1
+ 2I
2
= 12 (i)
In loop BCDEB
2(I
1
+ I
2
) + 3I
2
= 6
2I
1
+ 5I
2
= 6 (ii)
Using equation (i) and (ii)
I
1
= A
31
48
and I
2
=
31
18
A
Which gives, I
3
= I
1
+ I
2
=
3
66
A.
28.

i
Denser
Rarer
i > i
c
(A)


i
Denser
(
d
)
Rarer
(
r
)
i = i
c

(B)

If light ray moving in denser medium incidents over
medium at an angle of incidence greater than a
particular value (critical angle) then ray get reflected
back into the original medium. This phenomenon is
called total internal reflection.
by shell's law in figure (B)

d
sini
c
=
r
sin90 sini
c
=
d
r


If rarer medium is air (
r
= 1) and if refractive index
of denser need is (
d
= )
Then

=
1
i sin
c

OR
Objective lens of an astronomical telescope is of
large size so that it may collect large amount of light
to form intese and sharp image. By using reflecting
telescope chromatic and spherical aberration can be
removed.
L = f
o
+ f
e
= 100 cm (i)
and M
P
=
e
o
f
f
= 19 (ii)
By solving (i) & (ii) f
O
= 95 cm & f
e
= 5 cm

29. A transformer is based upon the principle of mutual
inductance i.e. whenever flux linking with secondary
coil changes because of changing current in the
primary winding, an e.m.f. is induced in the secondary
winding.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 76 JANUARY 2012
Flux, = BA cos = (B
0
sin t) A cos 0
= A B
0
sin t
Induced e.m.f., e =
dt
d
= AB
0

dt
d
sin t
= AB
0
cos t
Induced current I =
Z
AB
Z
e
0

= cos t
When alternating supply is given to the primary of a
transformer, alternating current in the winding
produces changing flux. This changing magnetic field
travels through the core of the transformer and links
up with the secondary winding. An e.m.f. is induced
in the secondary of the windings. This induced e.m.f.
is directly proportional to number of turns of the
secondary. A transformer handles almost same power
in the secondary because of minimum loss of input
power given to the primary.
Or
(i) Maximum current from generator
I
0
=
R
E
0
=
R
NAB

I
0
=
500
30 . 0 60 5 . 2 50
=
5
30 . 0 5 . 2 30

= 4.5 Amp.
(ii) (a) = NAB cos .
For
max.
= 0

,

cos 0 = 1, So
max
= NAB
(b) For = 0, = 90

,

cos 90 = 0, = 0

30. Electric field due to uniformly charged non
conducting sphere :
A charge given to a solid insulating sphere is
distributed equally throughout its volume

p
Q
O
r
R

Case: 1 r > R (point is outside the sphere)

E = r
r
Q
4
1
2
0


Case: 2 r = R (point is at the surface)

E = r
R
Q
4
1
2
0

= E
max
= E
surface

Case: 3 r < R (point is inside the sphere)

E = r r
R
Q
4
1
3
0


=
0
3
r


E
in
r
at r = 0 , E = 0
(i) Graphically
r < R
E
r

r = R r > R r
E r
2
r
1
E


OR
A capacitor is an arrangement which can store
sufficient quantity of charge
(i) Concept of capacitor :

A
+
+
+
+ +


A
V
Q
C =
Now , a second conductor is brought near A ,

A
+
+
+
+

B
+
+
+
+

+


V '
A
= V
A
+ V
B
+ V
B+

V
B
is negative
V
B+
is positive and |V
B
| > |V
B+
| , because of
lesser distance of negative charge
V'
A
< V
A

Capacitance increases
If B is earthed V
B+
= 0 hence

A
+
+
+
+

B





V '
A
= V
A
+ V
B
and capacitance of A increases.
(ii) Conductors in a condenser are arranged in such
a way that capacity of conductors is increased
without bringing any change in their size.
Series combination :

C
1
C
2
C
3

V
1
V
2
V
3

V


3 2 1
C
1
C
1
C
1
C
1
+ + = +...............
Parallel combination :
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 77 JANUARY 2012

C
2

V
Q
2

C
1
Q
1

C
3
Q
3


C = C
1
+ C
2
+ C
3
+.............

CHEMISTRY

1. Ethyl 3-bromo, 2-Hydroxy cyclopentane carboxylate
2.
e min Methyla
2 3
NH CH
O H , N
HONO
2 2


hol Methylalco
3
OH CH

+
2
I P

de Methyliodi
3
I CH
KI
KCN


le Acetonitri
3
CN CH

duction Re
OH H C / Na
5 2

e min Ethyla
2 2 3
NH CH CH
3. Essential amino acids are not produced in body
Ex.-lysine and levcine

4. Peptization is a process in which by addition of a
substance (peptizer), a precipitate is converted into
colloidal particle and a colloidal solution is prepare.
Peptizer : FeCl
3
in Fe(OH)
3
, Hot water in starch.

5. If is Ist order reaction

6.

Au
Cd

Au =
8
1
8 = 1
Cd =
4
1
12 = 3
AuCd
3

7. N
2
O
5


8. Froth floatation is the process in which sulphide ore
is agitated with pine oil & water lighter ore moves to
surface which can be removed by schiming off. It is
used for sulphide ore.

9. Haloarenes are much less reactive than haloalkanes
towards nucleophilic substitution reactions due to the
following reasons :
(i) Resonance effect
(ii) Difference in hybridization of carbon atom in CX
bond
(iii) Instability of phenyl cation.

(i) Resonance effect : In haloarenes, the electron pairs
on halogen atom are in conjugation with -electrons
of the ring and the following resonating structure are
possible.

:Cl:
..
Cl


Cl


Cl



CCl bond requires a partial double bond character
due to resonance. As a result the bond cleavage in
haloarene is difficult than haloalkane and therefore,
are less reactive towards nucleophilic substitution
reaction.
10. (i) In an arylamine, owing to resonance, the lone pair
of electrons on the nitrogen atom is less available for
protonation. Moreover, the small positive charge on
the nitrogen atom tends
to repel a proton.

:NH
2 NH
2

NH
2



NH
2

:
..

:

NH
2



(ii) Acetonitrile is preferred as a solvent for
performing organic reactions due to the following
reasons :

1. It is not reactive in mild acidic and basic
conditions.
2. It has a high polarity, so can dissolve a variety of
reactants.
3. It is miscible with water and large number of
organic solvents.
4. It can be easily removed because of its moderate
boiling point.

11. (i) Carbylamine reaction :
+ + KOH 3 CH Cl NH H C
Chloroform
3
e min Ethyla
2 5 2

O H 3 KCl 3 NC H C
2
isocyanide Ethyl
5 2
+ +
(ii) Hofmann bromamide reaction :

Acetamide
2 3
CONH CH + Br
2
+ 4KOH
CH
3
NH
2
+ K
2
CO
3
+ 2KBr + 2H
2
O

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 78 JANUARY 2012
12.

CN

CH
2
Br

(i)
A

CH
2
CN

LiAlH
4
B

CH
2
CH
2
NH
2



NH3
(ii)

A

B
R
2
CO

H2O
RC=NH

R

Ni/H2
RCHNH
2
R


13.
Physisorption Chemisorption
(i) This adsorption
takes place due to
vander waal's
force of attraction
This adsorption
takes place due to
chemical bonds
between dsorbate
and adsorbent.
(ii) This is not
specific in nature
Highly specific in
nature

14. K =
15
303 . 2
log
80
100
= 0.0148 min
1

0.0148 =
t
303 . 2
log
10
100

t =
0148 . 0
303 . 2
= 154.7 min.

15. t
3/4
=
k
303 . 2
log
25
100
=
k
2 log 2 303 . 2

t
1/2
=
k
2 log 303 . 2
=
2 / 1
4 / 3
t
t
= 2

16. Resistance of KCl = 85,
K
KCl
= 129 10
2

1
cm
1

K = |
.
|

\
|
A
L
R
1

; 129 10
2
= |
.
|

\
|
A
L
85
1
|
.
|

\
|
A
L

= 109.65
Specific conductivity of unknown electrolyte is
K = |
.
|

\
|
A
L
R
1
=
96
1
109.65 = 1.142
1
cm
1

m = K
M
1000
=
052 . 0
1000
142 . 1
= 2.196 10
4

1
cm
2
mol
1

17. XeF
6
+ 3H
2
O XeO
3
+ 6HF
XeF
6
+ H
2
O XeOF
4
+ HF
Partial


18. (i) Copper (I) has no unpaired e

whereas copper (II)


has one unpaired e


(ii) +4 oxidation state is known for pt but not for Ni

19. (i) Pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) a complex of
chromium trioxide with pyridine and HCl
CH
3
CH=CHCH
2
OH
PCC
CH
3
CH=CHCHO
(ii) Aqueous bromine or bromine water


+ 3Br
2
Phenol
H2O
Br Br

Br
OH

2,4,6-Tribromophenol
OH

(iii) Ni/H
2
or LiAlH
4
or NaBH
4


20. (A)

N(CH
2
)
5
C
H
O
H


(B)

CH
2
C
H
H
CN


(C)


CH
2
C = CH CH
2

Cl
H

21. Tranquilizers : These are substances which are used
for the treatment of stress and mental disease, These
are also called "psycho-therapeutic drugs"
Types
(A) Hypnotic : These are mixed with sedaties Ex-
Barlituric acid, veronal etc.
(B) non-hypnotic : These do not induce sleep
Ex- chlordiazepoxide, Neprobcimate etc

22. vitamins are organic compounds required in minute
quantities for normal functioning of the body.
vitamin (A) is Retinol Deficiency-Night blinding
vitamin (D) is calciferol deficiency-rickets
vitamin (K) is phylloquinone deficiency haemorrhage

23. (a)
(i) H
2
SO
4
upon electrolysis gives H
2
and O
2
at
cathode and anode respectively.

H
2
SO
4
contain H
+
,
2
4
SO

and OH

ions in its solution


when we pass current following reactions takes place
at cathode and anode.
At cathode
2H
+
+ 2e

H
2
or 2H
2
O + 2e

H
2
+ 2OH


At anode following two reaction are possible
2
2
4
SO


2
8 2
O S

+ 2e


o
ox
E = 2.1 V
or 2 H
2
O O
2
+ 4H
+
+ 4e


o
ox
E = 1.23 V
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 79 JANUARY 2012
As oxidation potential of H
2
O is more therefore H
2
O
will get oxidized. Therefore O
2
gas is liberated.
(ii) When electrolyte and anode is of same material it
is a case of destruction of anode get dissolved and
metal get deposited at cathode.
At anode Ag Ag
+
+ e


At cathode Ag
+
+ e

Ag
(b) Anode is of Fe
+3
/Fe
+2
; Cathode is Ag
+
/Ag
Cell is Fe
+2
/ Fe
+3
| | Ag
+
/ Ag
We know,
o
anode
o
cathode
o
cell
E E E =
= 0.80 0.77 = 0.03

o
G =
o
cell
E F n = 1 96500 0.03 = 2895 J
24. (a) (i) When unpaired e

are present in the substance


it shows magnetic character when placed in
external magnetic field it is called paramagnetic
character. Such materials are weakly attracted by
external magnetic field CuO, TiO etc.

(ii) It is a stoichiometric defect in which an ion
(cation) get displaced from its position and get
arranged as an interstitial particle it is called
Frenkel defect in this defect a vacancy or
interstitial defect are formed simultaneously. Due
to Frenkel defect.
(i) Density remains same
(ii) Electrical conductivity improved

(b) d =
A
N
M
V
Z

5.2 =
23 3 8
10 02 . 6
M
) 10 3 (
2


M = 42.2
No. of moles of atoms in 200g =
mass . At
Mass

=
2 . 42
200
= 4.73
No. of atoms = 28.5 10
23

25. (a) 2MnO
2
+ 4 KOH + O
2
2K
2
MnO
4
+ 2H
2
O
2K
2
MnO
4
+ Cl
2
2KMnO
4
+ 2KCl
(b) Ce
+4
is good oxidising agent because for Ce, + 3
Oxidation state is more stable

Ce
+4

reduction
Ce
+3

26. (a) (i) Steric repulsion in trimethyl amine
(ii) Cross conjugation in benzamide
(b)


NH
2

on Diazoteati
N=NCl
CH
2
CN
2
CN

27. (a) when a chelating ligand attaches to the central
metal atom the process is accompanied by the
increase in entropy resulting in the formation of a
stable complex.
(b) (i) Potassium trioxalatoaluminate (III)
(ii) Hexaaqua manganese (II) sulphate
28. (a) (i) Schiff's Reagent.
(ii) I
2
/NaOH, Schiff's Reagent
(iii) I
2
/NaOH and NaHSO
4
.
(b) (i) Reaction of hydrohalogen acids with other
takes place via protonation. Out of the given
acids HI is strongest. So, it easily liberates
proton.

R O R + H
+
I

[R OR]
+
I

..
..
..

..

H


(ii) Chloroacetic acid is stronger than acetic acid.
"Cl" gp. of the former causes the liberation of H
+

ion from chloroacetic acid.

Cl C C OH

H
H
O
I effect
H C C OH
H
H
O
+ I effect

We know that stronger the acid lesser the pK
a

value. Hence pK
a
value of chloroacetic acid is
lesser than that of acetic acid.
Or
(a) Calculation for molecular formula
C = 69.77%. H = 11.63%
O = 100 (69.77 + 11.63) = 18.6%

Element

Perce-ntage

Molar
Mass
Percentage
/ Molar
Mass
Simplest
Ratio
C
H
O
69.77
11.63
18.6
12
1
16
5.88
11.63
1.16
5
10
1
Emperical formula of given compound = C
6
H
10
O
Emperical formula mass
= 512+101+116 = 86
Given molar mass = 86 N =
86
86
= 1
Molecular formula of the given compound
= 1 (C
5
H
10
O) = (C
5
H
10
O)
Determination of structure : Since the compound
does not reduce Tollen's reagent and gives a positive
iodoform test. So the given compound is ketone and
not aldehyde.
Since the given compound on vigorous oxidation
gives a mixture of ethanoic acid and propanoic acid.
Therefore, given Organic compound is methyl ketone
and its structure would be
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 80 JANUARY 2012
CH
3
COCH
2
CH
2
CH
3


) Ketone Methyl (
one 2 tan Pen
3 2 2 3
CH CH COCH CH
4 2
7 2 2
SO H
O Cr K

acid Ethanoic
3
COOH CH +
acid opanoic Pr
2 3
COOH CH CH
(b) (i) The strength of an acid is indicated by pK
a

value rather than its dissociation constant K
a
.
pK
a
= log K
a

Since monochloro ethanoic acid is weaker than
dichlorethanoic acid, so it has lower value of
dissociation constant K
a
, therefore, it has higher
value of pK
a
.
pK
a
= log K
a

(ii) The COOH group in benzoic acid is
attached to sp
2
carbon of the phenyl ring is more
acidic than acid acetic acid is which COOH
group is attached to sp
3
carbon atom of CH
3

group. So benzoic acid is stronger than acetic
acid.

29. (a) Mass of 1 L solution = d vol
= 1.06 1000 = 1060 g
Mass of H
2
SO
4
= 0.8 98 = 78.4g
Mass of H
2
O = 1060 78.4 = 981.6 g
moles of H
2
O =
18
6 . 981
= 54.5

4 2
SO H
x =
5 . 54 8 . 0
8 . 0
+
= 0.014
& molality =
1000
6 . 981
8 . 0
= 0.815m
(b) moles of heptane n
H
=
100
25
= 0.25
moles of octane n
0
=
114
35
= 0.307
x
H
=
307 . 0 25 . 0
25 . 0
+
=
557 . 0
25 . 0
= 0.449
x
0
= 1 0.449 = 0.501
vapour pressure of mixture P = p
H
x
H
+ p
0
x
0

= 105.2 0.449 + 46.8 + 0.551
= 73.022 kPa
vapour in bar =
5
3
10
10 022 . 73
= 0.732 bar

30. (a) (i) Only 2 hydrogen atoms are attached with
oxygen.
O
P
OH
OH
H

(ii) N does not have vacant d-orbitals
(iii) d-orbitals involve in bonding only when
surrounding atoms attached with central
atom are highly electronegative.
(b) (i) XeF
6
+ PF
5
XeF
5
+
[PF
6
]

(ii) AlN + 3H
2
O Al(OH)
3
+ NH
3

MATHEMATICS

Section A

1.
3
|
.
|

\
|
dx
dy
+ 1 = 2
dx
dy

order = 1, degree = 3

2.


II I
dx x 1 . tan
1

Apply By parts method
[x tan
1
x]

+
2
1 x
x
dx
1 + x
2
= t
xdx =
2
1
dt
x tan
1
x
2
1
ln (1 + x
2
) + c

3. |

a | =
2 2 2
1 3 2 + + = 1 9 4 + + = 14
The unit vector in the direction of the vector

a is
given by

a =
| |

a
a
=
14

3

2 k j i + +
=
14
2
i

+
14
3
j

+
14
1
k

.

4.

a =i

+ j

3 k

and

b = j

+2 k

,
2

b = 2 j

+ 4 k

a =
3 1 1
4 2 0

k j i
= 10i

+ 4 j

2 k


|2

a | = | 2(5i

+ 2 j

)|
=
2 2 2
) 1 ( 2 ) 5 ( 2 + + = 30 2 .

5. On comparing by
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
Here A
1
= 3, B
1
= 6, C
1
= 2
A
2
= 2, B
2
= 2, C
2
= 2
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 81 JANUARY 2012
Angle between two planes.
cos =
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
C B A C B A
C C B B A A
+ + + +
+ +

=
2 2 2 2 2 2
) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 6 ( ) 3 (
) 2 )( 2 ( ) 2 )( 6 ( ) 2 )( 3 (
+ + + +
+ +

=
4 4 4 4 36 9
4 12 6
+ + + +

=
3 7
10

cos = = cos
1
(
(

21
3 5


6. A =
3 3
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11

(
(
(

a a a
a a a
a a a

=
(
(
(

+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
) 3 3 ( ) 2 3 ( ) 1 3 (
) 3 2 ( ) 2 2 ( ) 1 2 (
) 3 1 ( ) 2 1 ( ) 1 1 (

=
(
(
(

36 25 16
25 16 9
16 9 4


7. A + 2B + X = 0

(


5 3
1 2
+ 2 .
(

2 0
1 1
+ X =
(

0 0
0 0

X = 1 .
(

+ +
+
4 5 0 3
2 1 2 2

X =
(



9 3
1 0


8. sin10 . cos80 (cos 10 . sin80)
sin10 cos80 + cos10 sin 80 = sin (10 + 80)
= sin 90 = 1

9. gof (1) = g [f(1)]
= g (3)
= 1

10. y = sin
1
(2x
2
1 x )
y = 2tan
1
x

dx
dy
=
2
1
2
x +


Section B

11. If P(A) = 1 P( A )
= 1 0.65
= 0.35
and P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B)
0.65 = 0.35 + p 0
(Q A & B are mutually exclusive events)
p = 0.65 0.35 = 0.30

12. =

+ dx x x e
x
] tan [sec
2


|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
x x f
x x f
2
sec ) (
tan ) ( Q

= e
x
tanx + c

13. Let sin = t
cos d = dt
=

+ + ) 3 )( 2 ( t t
dt

=

+ t t 3
1
2
1
dt (By positive fraction)
= ln |2 + t | ln | 3 + t | + c
= ln
+
+
sin 3
sin 2
+ C
OR
Let I =

+
+
dx
3 x 2 x 2
1 x 3
2

Here : 3x + 1 =
4
3
.
dx
d
(2x
2
2x + 3) +
2
5

I =

+
+
dx
3 x 2 x 2
2
5
) 2 x 4 (
4
3
2

=

+
+
+

3 x 2 x 2
dx
2
5
dx
3 x 2 x 2
2 x 4
4
3
2 2

= c I
2
5
I
4
3
2 1
+ + (1)
where

= dx
3 x 2 x 2
2 x 4
I
2
1

Put : 2x
2
2x + 3 = t (4x 2)dx = dt

= = | t | log
t
dt
I
2

= log | 2x
2
2x + 3 | ....(3)
and

+
=
2
3
x x 2
dx
I
2
2
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|

2
2
2
5
2
1
x
dx
2
1

XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 82 JANUARY 2012
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|


2 / 5
2
1
x
tan
) 2 / 5 (
1
2
1
1


(

|
.
|

\
|
=
+


a
x
tan
a
1
a x
dx
, formula the By
1
2 2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

5
1 x 2
tan
5
1
1
(3)
From (1), (2) and (3), we get
c
5
1 x 2
tan
2
5
| 3 x 2 x 2 | log
4
3
I
1 2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =



14. y = a cos (bx + c) b
y = ab
2
sin (bx + c)
y = b
2
y
2
2
dx
y d
+ b
2
y = 0
OR
The given diff. eq. is
x . 0 x 2 y
dx
dy
3
=

2
x 2 y
x
1
dx
dy
= ...(1)
This is a linear diff. eq.
On comparing by, Q Py
dx
dy
= +
Here, P =
x
1
, Q = 2x
2

I.F. =
x log
dx
x
1
Pdx
e e e

= =


=
1
x log
e

=
1
x



The reqd. sol. of eq. (1) is
y . x
1
=

c dx x . x 2
1 2

=

+ c dx x 2 = x
2
+ c
y = x
3
+ cx.

15.

a = i

+ 2 k

b = 2i

+ j

3 k


and

c = i

+ 2 j


Now

c =
1 2 1
3 1 2

k j i
= 5i

+ 3 k


L.H.S. =

a (

c )
=
3 1 5
2 1 1

k j i
= i

+ 7 j

+ 4 k


Again

a .

c = ( i

+ 2 k

).( i

+ 2 j

)
= 1 2 2 = 3
and

a .

b = ( i

+ 2 k

).(2i

+ j

3 k

)
= 2 1 6 = 5
R.H.S. = (

a .

c )

b (

a .

b )

c
= 3(2i

+ j

3 k

) (5) 3( i

+ 2 j

)
= 6i

+ 3 j

+ 9 k

+ 5i

+ 10 j

5 k


= i

+ 7 j

+ 4 k

= L.H.S.

16. The vector eq. of the plane passing through the
intersection of the planes.

r .(2i

7 j

+ 4 k

) 3 = 0
and

r .(3i

5 j

+ 4 k

) + 11 = 0
is [

r .(2i

7 j

+ 4 k

) 3]
+ [

r .(3 i

5 j

+ 4 k

) + 11 = 0 ..... (i)
It passes through the point
(2, 1, 3) = 2i

+ j

+ 3 k

.
[(2 i

+ j

+ 3 k

) . (2i

7 j

+ 4 k

) 3]
+ [(2i

+ j

+ 3 k

) . (3i

5 j

+ 4 k

) + 11] = 0
[( 4 7 + 12) 3] + [( 6 5 + 12) + 11] = 0
2 + (12) = 0 =
6
1
substitute this value of
in (i) to get the reqd. eq. of the plane.
OR
The given plane is
3x + 2y + 2z + 5 = 0 ...(i)
line through P (2, 3, 4) and parallel to the line :

2
z
6
2 y
3
3 x
=

=
+
is
k
2
4 z
6
3 y
3
2 x
=

(say) .(ii)
Any point on it is Q (3k +2, 6k + 3, 2k + 4)
Let it lie on (i)
3(3k + 2) +2 (6k +3) +2 (2k + 4) +5 = 0
25 k + 25 = 0
k = 1
Q (1, 3, 2)
The required distance = PQ
= 7 49 ) 2 4 ( ) 3 3 ( ) 1 2 (
2 2 2
= = + + + +
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 83 JANUARY 2012
17. Take common a, b, c from R
1
, R
2
and R
3

abc
1
1 1 1
1
1
1 1
1 1
1
1
+
+
+
c c c
b b b
a a a

R
1
R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3

(abc) |
.
|

\
|
+ + +
c b a
1 1 1
1
1
1 1 1
1
1
1 1
1 1 1
+
+
c c c
b b b
2 3 3
1 2 2
C C C
C C C



= (abc) |
.
|

\
|
+ + +
c b a
1 1 1
1
1 0
/ 1
1 1
/ 1
0 0 1
c
b


= abc |
.
|

\
|
+ + +
c b a
1 1 1
1 . 1 Hence proved.
OR
A =
(
(
(


7 3 2
1 3 1
11 5 4

| A | = 4 (21 3) + 5 (7 2) 11 ( 3 + 6)
= 72 45 99 = 72
Adj. A =
T
7 15 38
22 6 68
9 9 18
(
(
(



adj A =
(
(
(




7 22 9
15 6 9
38 68 18

A
1
=
(
(
(

=
7 22 9
15 6 9
38 68 19
72
1
A
adjA


18. f (g(x)) = cos g (x) = cos x
2

g(f (x)) = f (x)
2
= (cosx)
2
= cos
2
(x)
f (g(x)) g(f (x))
19.
y
x
dx
dy
x
y
dx
dy
dx
dy
y x y
dx
dy
x
= =
= + = + 0 2 2 0

Now pt.
x
2
+ y
2
= 2xy (Q a
2
= xy)
(x y)
2
= 0
x = y

1
C
dx
dy
|
.
|

\
|
=
x
y
=
x
x
= 1,
2
C
dx
dy
|
.
|

\
|
=
x
x
= 1
Q
1
C
dx
dy
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
C
dx
dy
|
.
|

\
|
curve touches each other

20. Q
dx
dy
=
0
lim
h

h
xe e h x
x h x
+
+
) (

=
0
lim
h

h
x e h x e
h x
] ) [( +

=
0
lim
h
e
x

(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

h
h
e
h
e
x
1

= e
x
[x + 1] Q
0
lim
h

h
e
h
1
= 1

21. Q x =
) cos(
cos
y a
y
+


dy
dx
=
) ( cos
)) sin( ( cos ) sin )( cos(
2
y a
y a y y y a
+
+ +


dy
dx
=
) ( cos
) sin(
2
y a
y y a
+
+


dx
dy
=
a
y a
sin
) ( cos
2
+


22. f (0) = f (0 +) =
0
lim
h

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

3
1 cos .
4
sin
) 1 4 (
2
3
h h
h

=
0
lim
h

3
.
3
3
1 log
4
4
4
sin
.
1 4
2
2
2
3
3
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
0
lim
h

3
1
. ) 1 ( .
4
1
). 1 (
) 4 (
3
n l

f (0) = 12 (ln 4)
3

Section C

23. A Getting 1 red ball from bag A
B Getting 1 green ball from bag A
C Getting 2 red ball from bag B
D Getting 1 red ball and 1 green ball from bag B
P(A) =
8
5
, P(B) =
8
3
, P(C) =
) 2 , 8 ( C
) 2 , 3 ( C
=
7 8
2 3

=
28
3

P(D) =
) 2 , 8 ( C
) 1 , 5 ( C . ) 1 , 3 ( C
=
8
15

7
2
=
28
15

Req. probability = P(A) . P(D) + P(B) . P(C)
=
8
5

28
15
+
8
3

28
3
=
8
3


XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 84 JANUARY 2012
24. 1
st
Part
Area =

3
0
3 / dx x +


2
3
2
4 dx x
=
2
3
1 2
3
0
2
2
sin 4
2
1
4
2
1
2

3
1
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|

x
x x
x

= /3
2
nd
Part

(0, 0)
|
.
|

\
|
0 ,
2
3

|
.
|

\
|
2 ,
2
1

|
.
|

\
|
2 ,
2
1


A = 2
(
(
(
(

+

2
3
2
1
2
2
1
0
4
9
2 dx x dx x
= 2
(
(
(

(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ +

2
3
2
1
1 2
2
1
0
2 / 3
3
2
sin
4
9
.
2
1
4
9
2
1
) (
3
2
. 2
x
x x x
=
6
2
+
8
9

4
9
sin
1
|
.
|

\
|
3
1


25. l :
1
x
=
2
1 y
=
3
2 z
..... (i)
For image of P (1, 6, 3) in l draw a line PR l.
Then R is its image if Q is mid point of PR and
PR l.
Let , , be the d.r.s. of PR
PR l 1 + 2 + 3 = 0
+ 2 + 3 = 0 ..... (ii)
and eq. of PR is

1 x
=

y 6
=

3 z
= k (say)

Q
R(x, y, z)
P
(1,6,3)
l

Any point on it is ( k + 1, k + 6, k + 3)
Let it be Q.
As Q lies on l, so

1
1 + k
=
2
1 6 + k
=
3
2 3 + k


1
1 + k
=
2
5 + k
=
3
1 + k


3 3 2 2 1 1
) 1 ( 3 ) 5 ( 2 ) 1 ( 1
+ +
+ + + + + k k k


14
) 3 2 ( 14 k + + +
= 1 [using (ii)]
k = 0, k = 3, k = 2
Q (0 + 1, 3 + 6, 2 + 3) = (1, 3, 5)
As Q is the mid point of PR, so

2
' 1 x +
= 1,
2
' 6 y +
= 3,
2
' 3 z +
= 5
x = 1, y = 0, z = 7
R (1, 0, 7) which is the image of P in l.

26. Let number of fans = x
And number of radios = y
Maximum profit z = 22x + 18y
Subject to constraints
x + y 20
360x + 240 y 5, 760
x, y 0
Table for x + y = 20
0 20
20 0
y
x

Table for 360x + 240y = 5, 760
0 24
16 0
y
x

Now plot the straight line on the graph and find the
corner points of feasible region.

4
x
D
8
12
16
20
(0,20)
4 8 12 16
20
(20, 0)
P(8, 12)
D (0, 24)
C
1
A
(16,0)
y

Corner points of feasible region are
A (16, 0), P(8, 12) and C(0, 20)
Corner points z = 22x + 18y
A (16, 0) z = 352 + 0 = 352
P (8, 12) z = 176 + 216 = 392
C (0, 20) z = 0 + 360 = 360
Max. profit z = Rs. 392 at x = 8, y = 12.
XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 85 JANUARY 2012

27. a = 0, b = 2, f (x) = x
2
+ 3, nh = 2 0 = 2

+
2
0
2
) 3 ( dx x =
0
lim
h
h [3 + (h
2
+ 3)
+ ((2h)
2
+ 3) + .... + ((n 1) h
2
+ 3)]
=
0
lim
h
h [3n + h
2
(1
2
+ 2
2
+ .... + (n 1)
2
)]
=
0
lim
h
3nh + h
3

6
) 1 2 )( )( 1 ( n n n

=
0
lim
h
6 +
6
) 4 )( 2 )( 2 ( h h

= 6 +
6
4 ) 2 )( 2 (
Q nh = 2
= 6 +
3
8
=
3
26

28. A.B =
(
(
(


2 1 0
4 3 2
0 1 1

(
(
(



5 1 2
4 2 4
4 2 2

=
(
(
(

6 0 0
0 6 0
0 0 6
= 6
(
(
(

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

A . B = 6I A
1
=
6
1
. B
Given 3 equations can be written in the form.

(
(
(


2 1 0
4 3 2
0 1 1
.
(
(
(

z
y
x
=
(
(
(

7
13
3

A . X = C
X = A
1
. C
X = |
.
|

\
|
B .
6
1
. C
=
6
1
.
(
(
(



5 1 2
4 2 4
4 2 2
.
(
(
(

7
17
3

X =
(
(
(

z
y
x
=
6
1

(
(
(

24
6
12


(
(
(

z
y
x
=
(
(
(

4
1
2
x = 2, y = 1, z = 4
OR
Given 3 equations can be written is form

(
(
(

2 1 1
4 2 3
5 3 2

(
(
(

z
y
x
=
(
(
(

3
5
11

A . X = B
X = A
1
. B
X =
(
(
(

z
y
x
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
| A |
) A ( adj
. B
X = 1
(
(
(

13 5 1
23 9 2
2 1 0
.
(
(
(

3
5
11

X =
(
(
(




13 5 1
23 9 5
2 1 0

(
(
(

3
5
11

X =
(
(
(

3
2
1
x = 1, y = 2, z = 3
29.
y
B x C
A
2 2
x y


Given x + y = k (constant) ....(i)
(area) A =
2
1
(BC) (AC)
=
2
1
(x) ) (
2 2
x y
=
2
1
(x)
2 2
) ( x x k [From (i)]
A =
2
1
x kx k 2
2

Let z = A
2
=
4
) 2 (
2 2
kx k x


dx
dz
=
4
2 ) 2 ( ) 2 (
2 2
x kx k k x +
= 0
x =
3
k


3 /
2
2
k x at
dx
z d
=
is ve Area is maximum at x =
3
k

Now cos =
y
x
=
3 / 2
3 /
k
k
=
2
1

= /3



XtraEdge for IIT-JEE 86 JANUARY 2012
XtraEdge Test Series
ANSWER KEY


PHYSICS
Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans
B A A A A B B.D B,D B,C,D A,B,D
Ques
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans
D B A D A A B B C B
Ques
21 22 23
Ans
C B B



CHEMISTRY
Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans
A D B B C C A,C A,B,D A,C,D A,B,C,D
Ques
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans
A A A B C B D A B A
Ques
21 22 23
Ans
C C C



MATHEMATICS
Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans
D B C B C C A,C A,B A,C A,B,C
Ques
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans
A C D D C D C D A C
Ques
21 22 23
Ans
A D B



PHYSICS

Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans
B B B B C C A,B A,B,C A,C A,B,C
Ques
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans
C A A B B A C A D C
Ques
21 22 23
Ans
B B C



CHEMISTRY

Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans
B D C A D D A,B,D C,D A,C A,B,C
Ques
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans
D B A C A A D B A C
Ques
21 22 23
Ans
D B B



MATHEMATICS
Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans
D B B C A C A,B,D A,C B A,B,D
Ques
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans
B A A C A C D B A C
Ques
21 22 23
Ans
D A D


IIT- JEE 2012 (January issue)
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