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ST
INTERNATIONALMEETING
FORCHAMBERMUSIC

1.EncontroInternacional
paraMsicadeCmara

1618January2012
MusicDepartment
Universityofvora,Portugal

UnidadedeInvestigaoem
MsicaeMusicologia(UnIMeM)

Conferenceaffiliatedtothe
RoyalMusicAssociation

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
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ST
INTERNATIONALMEETING
FORCHAMBERMUSIC

1618January2012
UnidadedeInvestigaoemMsicaeMusicologia-UnIMeM
Universityofvora,Portugal

ZoltanPaulinyi(organizer)

Title:1
st
InternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
3
rd
Edition,June1,2012.
EditedbyZoltanPaulinyi(organizer).
ISBN:978-989-97780-0-9

EXPEDIENT
DirectoroftheMusicDepartmentoftheUniversityofvora
DrChristopherBochmann

DirectorofUnIMeMoftheUniversityofvora
DrBenotGibson
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
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TableofContents
ABOUTTHEMEETINGFORCHAMBERMUSIC
ZOLTANPAULINYI(UNIMEM,PORTUGAL;OSTNCS,BRASIL).............................................................................................7
SOBREOENCONTRODEMSICADECMARA
ZOLTANPAULINYI(UNIMEM,PORTUGAL;OSTNCS,BRASIL).............................................................................................8
TIMETABLE.................................................................................................................................................................7
ABOUTTHECOMPOSERS/SOBREOSCOMPOSITORES..............................................................................12
COLLECTIVEDOCUMENT:FURTHERACTIONSAFTERTHEMEETING..................................................17
SOBREOSINTRPRETES/ABOUTTHEPERFORMERS...............................................................................19
ESTUDO,PARAQUARTETODECLARINETES:MANIPULAODEIMAGENSACSTICASPORMEIO
DEIMAGENSVISUAIS
ALEXANDREFICAGNA(UEL/UNICAMP,BRASIL)..................................................................................................................28
ASPECTOSANALTICOSTEXTURAISDAPEAINTERDEPENDNCIASPARAQUARTETODE
CLARINETAS
J.ORLANDOALVES(UNIVERSIDADEFEDERALDAPARABAUFPB,BRASIL)...............................................................44
OUSODEMETFORASEELEMENTOSPOLI-ESTILSTICOSEMVEMDOSQUATROVENTOS-EZ.
37:9,PARAQUARTETODECLARINETAS.
DR.MARCOSVIEIRALUCAS(UNIVERSIDADEFEDERALDOESTADODORIODEJANEIRO-UNIRIO,BRASIL).........48
MENSAGENSPARAOPASSADO:VMHLCH...1912
SRGIOAZEVEDO(ESMLPORTUGAL).................................................................................................................................56
COMPOSITION-AS-RESEARCH:CONNECTINGFLIGHTSIIFORCLARINETQUARTETARESEARCH
DISSEMINATIONMETHODOLOGYFORCOMPOSERS
DRMARTINBLAIN(MANCHESTERMETROPOLITANUNIVERSITY,ENGLAND)...............................................................68
WAYANGKULITEMPAT(SHADOWPUPPETNO.4)
AINOLNAIM(MALAYSIA/UK)...................................................................................................................................................89

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
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Delegatesfromlefttoright:ZoltanPaulinyi,MarcosLucas,AlexandreFicagna,[],AinolNaim,
Pedro Francisco, Martin Blain, Sandra Ochoa, Daniel Monteiro, Ana Margarida, Ana Botelho,
HliaVaranda,DianaSousa.

VolumeeditedbyZoltanPaulinyiforUnIMeM,2012.
Scoreatcoverpage:ChristopherBochmann'sDialogueIIIforviolinandbassoondedicatedto
DuoSPES.
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Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
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Usefulcontactsinvora

Internationaltelephonecode:+351forPortugal.

HospitaldoEspritoSanto.Address:LargoSenhordaPobreza
Phone:266740100
http://www.hevora.min-saude.pt/
sec.ca@hevora.min-saude.pt

PoliceatRuaFranciscoS.LusitanoTelefone:266702022

Universityofvora:MusicDepartment.Phone+351.266760260
http://www.uevora.pt/conhecer/unidades_organicas/escolas/escola_de_artes/departa
mento_de_musica
Unimem:http://www.unimem.uevora.pt/

Taxi:266734734

TourismOfficeatPraadoGiraldo,73.Phone:266777071
http://www2.cm-evora.pt/guiaturistico/results_utilidades.asp

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Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
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Howtoarriveinvora
From the Lisbon Airport, take a taxi to the bus station "Estao 7 Rios" (about 8 on
weekdays,thedoubleonweekends).Thebusesgohourlytovorauntil10pm.Thejourneyis
less than 2 hours long. Even a direct bus may collect passengers in a city before vora. One
canbuybusticketsinadvanceathttp://www.rede-expressos.pt/default.aspx.InPortugal,be
preparedtopaymostofthebillsincash.
There is a train service to vora four times a day also from "7 Rios" station in Lisbon.
Thetrainstationentranceisoppositetothebusstation.Thejourney,bytrain,takesaboutone
hour and half. Please, check the timetable and pricing at http://www.cp.pt . Document
directlyavailableat:
<http://www.cp.pt/StaticFiles/CP/Imagens/PDF/Passageiros/horarios/regional/lisboa
_evora_beja_funcheira.pdf>
In case one rents a car, please take A2 and A6 from Lisbon do vora (route with tolls,
about130Km).AvoidtheslowandunsecuretollfreeNationalroads,especiallyonrainydays.
Free parking is outside the city walls. During the day, it is difficult to find parking near the
University. vora has a small city centre inside the walls, which contains most of the
UniversityDepartments:onecancrossthecitywithin20minuteswalking.

TheMusicDepartmentofUniversityofvoraislocatedatRuadoRaimundo:
http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?msid=211156329066085900876.0004b26aa0c8b1f
1f4a58&msa=0&ll=38.568066,-7.911766&spn=0.008003,0.016501
Therearemanyhotelsinvora.TheIBISvora,forexample,isastandardtouristicone,
quitenearbothtothebusstationandtotheMusicDepartment.http://www.ibishotel.com/
TheIBISiswithinawalkingdistancefromtheBusStation.Taxicostsabout5invora,
fromeachstation.TherearemanyotherhotelsnearbytheMusicDepartment,forallbudgets.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
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AbouttheMeetingforChamberMusic

ZoltanPaulinyi(UnIMeM,Portugal;OSTNCS,Brasil)
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Paulinyi@yahoo.com, http://English.Paulinyi.com

The "International Meeting for Chamber Music" has two main objectives: to encourage
theMusicDepartmentofUniversityofvoraalumniintoscientificinitiationandtheirartistic
expansiontowardcontemporarymusic;topromotetheinternationaldialogueamongcurrent
composersandtheirperformers.Forthismeeting,theacademicshortseminarsarefollowed
by the concerts presenting the musical pieces selected by teachers and students. Because of
the prodigal amount of international submissions, feasible works were selected among the
composerswhoacceptedtocometotheevent.
This meeting inherits the tenacious efforts of the seven "Violin and Chamber Music
Meetings" started in Braslia, Brazil, since December 2007. The institutional embrace by the
Research Centre in Music and Musicology ("Unidade de Investigao em Msica e
Musicologia", UnIMeM) of the University of vora enlarges this Meeting by joining
internationalcomposersandmorevarietyofensembles.Indirectly,thiseventisinsertedinto
theUniversitywinnerprojectunder"BentodeJesusCaraaProgram"2011/2012,afactthat
immediately team up eager undergraduate students and ensembles. At the final stage, the
Royal Music Association (RMA) also joined this event by promoting it among its members.
ThissignalizesanincreasingsupporttoabiggerMeetinginthelastweekofJune2012.
Anadmiredhumanfactofthismeetingistheopenhandedendeavourofallparticipants.
Each one acts in the other's benefits: composers, for the performers' success; performers,
teachersandstaff,forthecomposersandparticipants'sake.Ithankthevoluntaryenrolment
of all participants, especially the students, the encouragement by teachers and professors
Eduardo Sirtori, Dr Christopher Bochmann, director of the Music Department, Dr Benot
Gibson(UnIMeM),DrAnaTelles;thesuggestionsbysecretariesMariadeFtima,MariaAnae
Manoela de Barros; and the RMA. I thank the spiritual support by the University Pastoral,
whoseholymassopensthisMeetingattheHolySpiritChurch,seedoftheUniversityofvora.

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OrganizerofthisMeeting.Homepageoftheevent:
<http://paulinyi.blogspot.com/2011/11/encontro-internacional-de-musica-de.html>
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
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SobreoEncontrodeMsicadeCmara
ZoltanPaulinyi(UnIMeM,Portugal;OSTNCS,Brasil)
Paulinyi@yahoo.com, http://English.Paulinyi.com
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O "Encontro Internacional de Msica de Cmara" orienta-se para duplo objetivo:


incentivar a iniciao cientfica e expanso artstica contempornea dos alunos do
Departamento de Msica da Universidade de vora; promover o dilogo internacional de
compositores atuais com seus intrpretes. Para isso, estabeleceu-se o formato acadmico de
seminrios curtos seguidos de apresentaes musicais das obras selecionadas pelo corpo
docente e discente. Devido generosa quantidade de submisses internacionais,
selecionaram-seobrasexequveiscujosautoressedispuseramavirpessoalmenteaoevento.
Este Encontro herda perseverante esforo dos sete "Encontros de Violino e Msica de
Cmara" iniciados em Braslia, Brasil, a partir de dezembro de 2007. O acolhimento
institucional pela Unidade de Investigao em Msica e Musicologia (UnIMeM) da
Universidade de vora alarga o Encontro na incluso de compositores internacionais e na
maior diversidade de grupos de cmara. Indiretamente, o evento insere-se no projeto do
vencedor do Programa Bento de Jesus Caraa 2011/2012 da prpria Universidade, fato que
imediatamente agrega entusiasmados alunos e grupos de cmara da graduao. Na fase final
da organizao, tambm a Royal Music Association (RMA) acolheu o Encontro oferecendo
apoio na divulgao entre seus associados. Isto sinaliza apoio crescente para uma reedio
ampliadadesteEncontronaltimasemanadejunhode2012.
Um aspecto humano admirvel deste Encontro o empenho desprendido de todos os
participantes. Cada um age em benefcio do prximo: compositores, pelo destaque dos
intrpretes; intrpretes, professores e organizadores, pelo bem dos compositores e
participantes.Agradeoaparticipaovoluntriadetodososenvolvidos,principalmentedos
alunos, do incentivo dos professores Eduardo Sirtori, Dr. Christopher Bochmann, diretor do
Departamento de Msica, Dr. Benot Gibson (UnIMeM), Dra. Ana Telles, das sugestes das
secretrias Maria de Ftima, Maria Ana e Manoela de Barros, e do RMA. Agradeo o apoio
espiritualdaPastoralUniversitria,cujasantamissaabreoeventonaIgrejadoEspritoSanto,
origemdaprpriaUniversidadedevora.

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OrganizadordoEncontro.Homepagedoevento:
<http://paulinyi.blogspot.com/2011/11/encontro-internacional-de-musica-de.html>
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Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
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TIMETABLE

January16,2012,foropeningactivities:
19:15-RomanCatholicMassattheHolySpiritChurch,nexttotheUniversityRectorate.

January17,2012:
Lecturesat"Anexo"Hall,1stfloor,
DepartmentofMusic,Universityofvora,January17,2012.
14:00-Setupofthevideosystem.
14:15-WelcomebyDrChristopherBochmann(Portugal)
14:30-AlexandreFicagna(UnderPhDcourseatUNICAMP,Brazil)
15:00-DrMarcosLucas(Brazil)
(15:30-DrOrlandoAlves)
16:00-(break)

16:30-AinolnaimAzizol(Malaysia,undermaster'sstudyatUK)
17:00-DrMartinBlain(UK)
(17:30-DrSrgioAzevedo)
18:00-(break)

ConcertsattheMusicDepartment:
18:30-ChamberconcertPROGRAM1-Prof.Sirtori'sclass.
19:30-ChamberconcertPROGRAM2-Trio"SpiritusMusicum"andQuartet"DaCapo",
Prof.Paulinyi'sclass.

January18,2012,forclosingactivities:
12:00 - Roman Catholic Mass at the Saint Anthony Church, Giraldo's Square at the City
Centre.
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PROGRAM1(January17,18:30attheGreatHall)

G.P.Telemann(16811767)
DaSonateine-moll(originalparavioladagamba)
Cantabile-Allegro
Bassoon:RodrigoCenalmorMartn.

C.SaintSaens(18351921)
daSonateenSolMpourbassonetpianoop.168
Allegromoderato-AllegroScherzando
Bassoon:MonicaAcosta.

H.Villa-Lobos(18871959)
"CirandadasSeteNotas"parafagoteecordas(1958)
Bassoon:SandraOchoa.

A.Tansman(1897-1986)
da"Sonatine"pourbassonetpiano
-AllegroconMoto-LargoCantabile
Bassoon:JorgeLpezTejado.

SergioAzevedo(*1968)
"3Miniaturasparafagotesolo"
-Presto,Giocoso-Arioso-Meccanico
Bassoon:EduardoSirtori.

Piano:IanMikirtoumov
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PROGRAM2(January17,19:30attheMirrorsHall)

Ainolnaim(Malaysia/UK)-WayangKulitEmpat(ShadowPlayNo.4)

Trio"SpiritusMusicum":
DanielMonteiro(clarinete)
SandraOchoa(fagote/bassoon)
JosLeito(piano)

MartinBlain(UK)-ConnectingFlightsIIforClarinetQuartet(II/III)
AlexandreFicagna(Brazil)-Estudo(2011)
MarcosLucas(Brazil/UK)-VemdosQuatroVentosEz.37:9
(I-OBreath/II-Fantasia)

ClarinetQuartet"DaCapo":
AnaFilipaBotelho
AnaMargaridaNeto
DianaSousa
HliaVaranda

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Aboutthecomposers/Sobreoscompositores

AlexandreFicagnagraduadoemMsica(Licenciatura)pelaUniversidadeEstadualde
Londrina (UEL), onde trabalha atualmente como professor colaborador. Possui Mestrado em
Msica (Processos Criativos) pela Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), com
orientao da profa. Dra. Denise Garcia. Cursa Doutorado na mesma rea de concentrao,
tambm pela Unicamp, com orientao do prof. Dr. Silvio Ferraz. Suas composies foram
executadas em diversas cidades brasileiras (Londrina, Curitiba, Campinas, So Paulo, Belo
Horizonte). Recentemente foi um dos 59 contemplados com o XIX Prmio Funarte de
ComposioClssica,comotrio"VentonaJanela".
alexandre_ficagna@yahoo.com.br

Marcos Lucas (RJ-1964) Doutor em Composio Musical pela University of


Manchester (Inglaterra). Suas obras j foram apresentadas na Inglaterra, Irlanda, Esccia,
EUA, Alemanha, Itlia, Espanha, Eslovnia, Malta, Chipre e Brasil, por grupos como London
Sinfonietta, Pierrot Lunaire Ensemble, Janus Ensemble, Paragon Ensemble Scotland, Gemini
Ensemble, Lindsay String Quartet, Orquestra Sinfnica Brasileira, Orquestra Sinfnica
Nacional, Orquestra Filarmnica de Minas Gerais, Camerata Antiqua de Curitiba, Quarteto
Radams Gnattalli, Cron, Grupo Msica Nova, GNU, Calope e em Festivais como ISCM World
Music Days (Ljubliana), State of the Nation (Londres), VI Festival de Msica Contempornea
Tres Cantos (Madrid), Festival Spazio 900 (Cremona), Bienais de Msica Brasileira
Contempornea e Panorama da Msica Brasileira Atual (Rio de Janeiro). Possui vrios
prmios e menes honrosas (Procter Gregg Award 1996, Funarte 2001, Camargo Guarnieri
2008, Tinta Fresca 2010). Sua pera O Pescador e Sua Alma estreou em 2006-7 nos CCBBs
deBrasliaeRiorecebendo32rcitas.Desde2002,lecionacomposio,harmoniaeanlisena
UNIRIOondetambmdirigeogrupodemsicacontemporneaGNU.Temproferidopalestras
sobre msica brasileira contempornea no Brasil e no exterior. membro, desde 2005 do
grupodecompositoresPreldio21.
m.v.lucas@uol.com.br

O quarteto de clarinetas Vem dos Quatro Ventosfoi composto em 2009 sob


encomenda do Quarteto Experimental, e estreada em Maio de 2009 no Centro Cultural da
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Justia Federal (CCJF) no Rio de Janeiro/Brasil. A obra possui dois movimentos curtos com
duraototalaproximadade7minutos.
O primeiro movimento baseia-se numa passagem bblica do profeta Ezequiel, 37:9:
Ento ele me disse: Profetiza ao flego da vida, profetiza filho do homem, e dize ao flego
da vida: Assim diz o Senhor Deus: Vem dos Quatro Ventos, flego da vida, e assopra sobre
esses mortos para que vivam. O sopro da vida, explorado atravs do uso de tcnicas
expandidas, aqui interpretado como uma metfora do prprio ato da criao artstica.O
SegundomovimentoumapequenafantasiaemhomenagemaocompositorAlfredSchnittke
(1934-1998), que ficou conhecido pelo emprego de tcnicas poli-estilsticas. Tal como na
obra do compositor russo, neste movimento fazemos referncias diretas e indiretas
diferenteslinguagenseestilos.

J. Orlando Alves natural de Lavras - MG (13 mar. 1970). Bacharel em Composio


Musical pela UFRJ (1988), Mestre em Composio pela UFRJ (2001) e Doutor em Msica
Processos Criativos pela UNICAMP (2005). Professor Adjunto de Composio Musical da
UFPB desde fevereiro de 2006 e Coordenador do COMPOMUS desde fevereiro de 2007. Faz
parte do grupo Preldio 21: Compositores do Presente, junto com Alexandre Schubert, Caio
Senna,HeberSchnemann,MarcosLucas,NederNassaroeSrgioRobertodeOliveira.
Premiadoem1.olugarnoPrimeiroConcursoFUNARTEdeComposio,nacategoriaII
Duos,comaobraPantomimas,paraclarinetaefagote.Foipremiadotambmem2.olugarno
mesmo concurso, na categoria IV Quintetos, com a obra Quinctus, para quinteto de sopros.
No VII Concurso Nacional de Composio Musical do IBEU, obteve o 1.o lugar com a obra
Quantum, para quinteto de sopros. Recebeu Meno Honrosa no Concurso Nacional de
Composio Camargo Guarnieri, promovido pela Orquestra Sinfnica da USP, com a obra
orquestralCircinus.FoiumdosoitofinalistasdoVIIIConcursoNacionaldeComposioIBEU
2006, com a obra In " Sessions", para Big Band. Premiado em 3. lugar no Concurso
SESIMINASdeComposioparaOrquestradeCmara,BeloHorizonte-MG,7nov.2006.Em
2009,recebeuaBolsaFUNARTEnoProgramadeEstmuloCriaoArtstica.
jorlandoalves2006@gmail.com

Ainolnaim Azizol is one of Malaysias upcoming, young pianist-composer. He received


his formal music education at the tender age of 9, later on studying piano performance and
pedagogyattheUniversityOfScienceMalaysia(USM).Asforcomposing,thisyoungcomposer
self-thought himself all the basics. With a driving passion in exploring his musical sense and
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thought in composition, he was accepted to further his masters study in music composition
and technology at the Birmingham Conservatoire under the guidance of Joe Cutler, Simon
Hall,EdBennett,GeoffHannandamongothers.Ainolhaswrittenarangeofcompositionsand
most of his works was written for both western instruments and Malay Gamelan in form of
contemporary styled music. Some of his music has won several music composition
competitionsandalsohasbeenselectedforvariousperformancessuchasthe2011Malaysia
YoungComposersConcertSeries,2011YoungComposersinSoutheastAsiaCompetitionand
Music Festival Bandung by the Goethe Institute & UPI - Indonesia, Carl von Ossietzky
Composition Competition by the University of Oldenburg, Music Department 2011/12
Germany,InternationalChamberMusicMeetingbytheUniversityofEvora,Portugal2011etc.
Besides that, he was commissioned to compose new gamelan music by the Malaysian
GovernmentDepartmentofCulturalandArts2010/11.
Webpage:http://www.ainolnaim.wordpress.com
anllume@gmail.com

Martin Blain is a Senior Research Fellow at Manchester Metropolitan University.


Martins works have been performed in Europe, China, and the USA by a variety of leading
soloists and ensembles. His Percussion Quartet was recently featured at the Cutting Edge
Festival in London by BackBeat Percussion Ensemble and this work has received
performancesinChinaandtheUSA(BackBeatawarded1stPrizeattheConcertArtistsGuild
International Competition). Martins works have also received performances by such leading
new music ensembles as Equivox, Vamos, Black Hair, The Composers Ensemble and his
orchestral work FeverPitch was performed by The English National Philharmonic. Martin is
alsoafoundermemberofthelaptopensembleMMUlewherehecontinuestodevelopworks
that combine acoustic instruments with laptop performers. He is currently working with the
experimentaltheatrecompanyProto-typeTheatreonthedevelopmentofalaptopopera.
M.A.Blain@mmu.ac.uk

ProgrammeNotes:ConnectingFlightsIIforClarinetQuartet
ConnectingFlightsIIisathree-movementworkforClarinetQuartetthattakesabout15
minutes to complete. The work is part of a cycle of compositions concerned with the
development of rhythmic and harmonic structures within a post-serial framework. The first
movement is built on a motor rhythm developed from a series of small motivic fragments
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thesearecombinedandmanipulatedinavarietyofsettingsthroughoutthework.Thesecond
movementisshorterthanthefirstandisdesignedtoreleasemuchofthetensiongeneratedin
the first movement. Whilst providing some release from the chaotic harmonic and rhythmic
structuresinthefirstmovement,thesecondmovementalsofunctionsasastructuralupbeat
tothefinalmovementwhereweseeareturnoftheharmonicandrhythmicstructuresofthe
openingmovement:herethemotivicmaterialisreworkedanddevelopedintonewtextures.

Srgio Azevedo (born August 23, 1968) is a Portuguese composer. He also writes
articlesandbooksaboutmusic,collaboratesoftenwiththeNationalRadioBroadcasting,and
isateacherattheEscolaSuperiordeMsicadeLisboa(ESML)since1993.
Born in Coimbra, Portugal in 1968, he studied composition at the Academia de
AmadoresdeMsica(Lisbon)withcomposerFernandoLopes-Graa,andfinishedhisstudies
of composition at the Escola Superior de Msica de Lisboa, with Christopher Bochmann (a
disciple of the mythic Nadia Boulanger) and Constana Capdeville with the highest
classification (20/20). Azevedo followed several seminars at IRCAM and other institutions,
and worked in short periods with composers like Emmanuel Nunes (at the Gulbenkian
Foundation), Tristan Murail, Phillipe Manoury, Luca Francesconi, Mary Finsterer, Jorge
Peixinho,LouisAndriessenandSimonBainbridge.
Azevedo won several prizes of composition, in Portugal and abroad (like the United
Nations Prize), and his works have been played and commissioned regularly in several
countries (Spain, France, United Kingdom, Austria, Germany, Bulgaria, Brasil, Colombia,
Canada,USA,Italy,etc.)byprestigiousensembles,soloistsandconductors(LucaPfaff,Pascal
Roff, Jrgen Bruns, Nikolai Lalov, Brian Schembri, Fabian Panisello, Bruno Belthoise, Aline
Czerny, Lorraine Vaillancourt, Artur Pizarro, Antnio Rosado, Miguel Borges Coelho, Anne
Kaasa, Marc Foster, Jose Ramon Encinar, Brian Schembri, Ronald Corp, Galliard Ensemble,
Proyecto Gerhard, Le Concert Impromptu, Remix Ensemble, Ensemble Tlmaque, Plural
Ensemble, Nouvel Ensemble Moderne, Kammersymphonie Berlin, etc.), some of them being
availableincommercialCD's.
Azevedoworksfrequentlywithschoolsandstudents,composingagreatdealofdidactic
pieces, ranging from piano solo to small ensembles and school orchestras, and also with
children's choirs, collaborating mainly with conductor Joana Raposo. He is also a prolific
writer on music, and published two books: "A Inveno dos Sons" (Caminho, Lisbon 1999)
and "Olga Prats - An Extraordinary Piano" (Bizncio, Lisbon 2007), and has contributed
articles to many publications, such as "The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians",
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and works for other prestigious magazines and CD labels, like Naxos. He was also author of
broadcastings at RDP - Antena 2 and member of the CESEM, Center for Aesthetic and Music
Studiesfrom1993to2007.
In 2007 Azevedo begun his doctorate degree at Minho University with Elisa Lessa and
Christopher Bochmann. Azevedo has composed more than 150 works to date, mostly
orchestral and chamber music pieces, in several forms, and his music is performed regularly
inPortugalandabroad.Heis,since1993,ateacherattheLisbonSuperiorSchoolofMusic.His
musicispublishedbyAVA-MusicalEditions(www.editions-ava.com).
sergioazevedo68@gmail.com
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
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Collectivedocument:furtheractionsaftertheMeeting

Theparticipantswherestimulatedtorespondthefollowingquestions.
1. Howthismeetingchangedyourcomposition/performance?
2. WhatcanyoudoforpromotingthisMeetinganddevelopingnewplanstogether?

MartinBlain:
1. The Encontro Internacional de Msica de Cmara initiative has provided an
exciting opportunity for composers and performers to meet in an academic
setting to discuss and celebrate issues in current compositional practice. The
Meeting has, for me, reaffirmed the importance for composers to work closely
withcommittedperformersonthedevelopmentofnewworksabigthankyou
toDaCapoforthecontributiontothesuccessofthisevent.
2. I would be happy to host, through my own University, a similar event that
promotes the development of compositional practice with the support of
performers.

MarcosLucas:
1. Thismeetingwasanimportantchancetohearothercomposersaproachtomusic
and to listen to a carefully rehearsed performance of my clarinet quartet "Vem
dos Quatro ventos" I particularly like to work with student performers and this
interchange of experiences was an important feedback to my compositional
output.
2. Having participated in this edition of the Chamber Music Festival in vora, I can
makesomepublicityofittomycolleaguesatUNIRIO,whereIamalecturer.Iam
also a member of a composers group called "Preldio 21", and can encourage
theirparticipationinthefutureeditionsofthisevent.

AlexandreFicagna:
1. De duas maneiras: assistir execuo da pea permitiu observar como esta
funciona no palco, o que ficou bom e o que pode melhorar; e o contato com os
compositores, cuja troca de experincias me estimulou a explorar aspectos da
composioparaosquaiseunohaviameinteressadoatento.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
18
2. Quanto promoo do Evento, como sou um professor "novato", ainda no
conheo os mecanismos institucionais. O que poderia fazer divulg-lo entre
alunos e colegas de outras universidades, enfatizando sua importncia e
recomendandoaparticipao.

Ainolnaim:
1. I'm very excited throughout the meeting and pleased with the warmness of the
MusicDepartment'scommunity.
2. It would be great if the program could be held more than a day where we can
havemorechancetoworkcloserwiththeperformerandthestudents.Ihopethe
studentscaninvolvemoreinthemeeting;perhapstheycouldhavethechancein
managingtheprocessofthemeetingprogram.

ZoltanPaulinyi:
1. Thismeeting,morethanadialogue,offersanewchannelfor"communication".A
dialogue can easily fail in case a listener does not receive the message, for any
reason. Nevertheless, "communicate" means "put something in common". This
Meeting communicates, shares and publishes singular creative contributions
from the composers, opposed to more exhausted media that would prefer
tastelessimpersonalworks.
2. IamgladtoannouncethenextMeetingin24-29June2012willpremiereworks
by Christopher Bochmann and Z. Paulinyi at the University of vora. There is
already a call for new works posted at <
http://paulinyi.blogspot.com/2011/12/international-meeting-june-2012.html>,
both for composers and performers. Lecturers from other fields (History,
Sociology, Literature, Philosophy, etc) may also propose seminars to the
organizer(mailto:Paulinyi@yahoo.com).

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
19
SobreosIntrpretes/AboutthePerformers
TrioSpiritusMusicum

Clarinet: Daniel Monteiro +351914401815 danielfpmonteiro@gmail.com


Bassoon: Sandra Ochoa +351913323420 sandra_gochoa@hotmail.com
Piano: Jos Leito +351966329124 josepiano25@hotmail.com

O Trio Spiritus Musicum foi formado


acerca de um ano por trs alunos
da Universidade de vora, Daniel
Monteiro, clarinete, Sandra Ochoa,
Fagote e Jos Leito, piano.
Este grupo surgiu da vontade dos
seus membros em realizar
concertos e procurar conhecer o
variado repertrio desta formao.
O seu repertrio vai desde o
clssico ao contemporneo
passando por Glinka, Villa Lobos e
Ainolnaim Azizol.
A msica contempornea uma
das prioridades deste grupo que
visa o contacto direto com os
compositores para a estreia de
novas obras e novas oportunidades
profissionais.
O desenvolvimento deste grupo
deve-se tambm colaborao do
violinista/compositor Zoltan Paulinyi.
O Trio Spiritus Musicum encontra-se
sempre aberto a novas propostas e
desafios que surjam, pois todas so
vistas como novas oportunidades.
Spiritus Musicum Trio was
formed about a year for
three students of the University of
vora, Daniel Monteiro, clarinet,
Sandra Ochoa, bassoon and
Jos Leito, piano.
This group arose from the desire of
its members to play at concerts and
get to know the varied
repertoire of this formation.
Their repertoire ranges from
classical through contemporary
music, like Glinka, Villa Lobos and
Ainolnaim Azizol.
Contemporary music is one of the
priorities of this group that
seeks direct contact with the
composers for the premiere of new
works and new professional
opportunities.
The development of this group is
also due to the collaboration of
violinist / composerZoltan Paulinyi.
Trio Spiritus Musicum is
always open to new proposals and
challenges that arise, because
all are seen as opportunities.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
20
SandraGonalvesOchoa
@sandra_gochoa@hotmail.com
(00351/913323420

Sandra Gonalves Ochoa, nascida em 10.12.1987


na Alemanha, iniciou os seus estudos musicais em
1998 na Musik- und Kunstschule Remscheid, na
Classe de Piano com o professor Harald Mller. Em
2004 comeou os seus estudos na Classe de Fagote
com o professor Zsolt Pap na Escola Profissional de
Arte de Mirandela. Em 2006 iniciou os estudos no
Contrafagote, tendo aulas privadas com o professor
Robert Glassburner. Em 2009 ingressou na
Academia Nacional Superior de Orquestra na classe
de Fagote do professor Franz Drsam. Actualmente
estudante da Universidade de vora na classe de
Fagote do professor Eduardo Sirtori, encontrando-se
no ltimo ano de licenciatura do curso de Msica no
ramo interpretao.
Participou e trabalhou em Master Classes com os
Professores Carolino Carreira, Robert Glassburner,
Catherine Stockwell, Roberto Giaccaglia, Yoko
Matsuki e Eduardo Sirtori,
Foi membro em grupos de Msica de Cmara, em
trio de palhetas, quarteto de Madeiras, trio de
Madeiras e Quinteto Clssico onde trabalhou sobre
orientao de Cndida Oliveira, Ins Fernandes e
Robert Glassburner, Prof. Claudio Alberti, Prof.
Kalervo Kulmala.
Participou em Estgios de Orquestra da Esproarte
onde trabalhou com os Maestros: Pedro Neves,
Alberto Roque, Paco Soares, Antnio Saiote,
Francessco Belli, Artur Pinho e Cristobal Soler.
Participou tambm no 1 Estgio Nacional da
Orquestra Sinfnica Acadmica Metropolitana, no
qual trabalhou com Catherine Stockwell e o Maestro
Michael Zilm, no 2 Estgio da Orquestra Sinfnica
Piaget-Mirandela com o Maestro Christopher
Bochmann, no Workshop Pscoa 2008 no
Conservatrio Metropolitano de Msica de Lisboa
trabalhando com os Maestros Pedro Neves e Rui
Carreira e o professor Ricardo Santos; 15 Estgio
dos Templrios com o Maestro Octvio Mas Arocas,
Orquestra Aproarte com o Maestro Ernst Schelle,
tambm no 2 Estgio da Orquestra Acadmica
Metropoliotana e no Estgio Fondazione Gustav
Mahler Stiftung 2010 sob orientao de M. Philipp
von Steinaecker, Prof. Andreas Gosling .
Desenvolveu tambm actividade orquestral,
actuando em Orquestras como: Orquestra
Acadmica Metropolitana, Orquestra Metropolitana
de Lisboa, Orquestra Acadmica de Castelo Branco,
Orquestra Sinfnica da Pvoa de Varzim e Orquestra
Sinfnica da Universidade do Minho, Banda
Sinfnica Portuguesa e Ensemble Contemporaneus.
Sobre direcco de vrios maestros: Jean Marc
Burfin, Osvaldo Ferreira, Francisco Ferreira, Cesrio
Costa e Vera Baptista.

Sandra Gonalves Ochoa was
born on 10/12/1987 in Germany,
began her musical studies in
1998 at the Musik- und
Kunstschule Remscheid in the
Piano Class with Professor
Harald Mller. In 2004 she
began her studies in the
Bassoon Class of Professor
Zsolt Pap in the Professional
School of Art Mirandela. In 2006 she began studying
the Contrabassoon taking private lessons with
Professor Robert Glassburner. In 2009 she joined the
Academia Nacional Superior de Orquestra in the
bassoon class of Professor Franz Drsam. Currently
she is student at the University of vora in the
Bassoon class of Professor Eduardo Sirtori, being in
the last year of the degree course in music
interpretation.
She participated in master classes and worked with
Teachers: Carolino Carreira, Robert Glassburner,
Catherine Stockwell, Robert Giaccaglia, Yoko
Matsuki and Eduardo Sirtori.
She was a member of chamber music groups, a reed
trio, Woodwind Quartet, Woodwind Trio and Classical
Quintet where she worked under guidance of
Candida Oliveira, Ins Fernandes, Robert
Glassburner, Professor Claudio Alberti and Professor
Kalervo Kulmala.
Participated in stages with the Esproarte Orchestra
where she worked with conductors: Pedro Neves,
Alberto Roque, Paco Soares, Antnio Saiote,
Francessco Belli, Artur Pinho and Cristobal Soler.
She also participated in the 1st Stage of the National
Academic Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra, where
she worked with Catherine Stockwell and conductor
Michael Zilm, on the 2nd Stage of the Piaget-
Mirandela Symphony Orchestra with conductor
Christopher Bochmann, Easter Workshop 2008 at the
on Metropolitan Conservatory of Music of Lisbon
working with Maestro Pedro Neves and Rui Carreira
and Professor Ricardo Santos, the 15th stage of the
Templars with the Maestro Octvio Mas Arocas,
Orchestra Aproarte with Maestro Ernst Schelle, also
in the 2nd Stage of the Metropolitana Academic
Orchestra and the Fondazione Gustav Mahler
Stiftung 2010 under the guidance of M. Philipp von
Steinaecker and Professor Andreas Gosling.
She also developed orchestral work, acting in
orchestras like: Orquestra Acadmica Metropolitana,
Orquestra Metropolitana de Lisboa, Orquestra
Acadmica de Castelo Branco, Orquestra Sinfnica
da Pvoa de Varzim, Orquestra Sinfnica da
Universidade do Minho, Banda Sinfnica Portuguesa
and Ensemble Contemporaneous. Under the
direction of musical directors: Jean Marc Burfin,
Osvaldo Ferreira, Francisco Ferreira, Cesrio Costa
and Vera Baptista.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
21

Daniel Filipe Pereira Monteiro
+351914401815
danielfpmonteiro@gmail.com

Daniel Monteiro nasceu em


Resende, Viseu, Portugal em 10 de Maio
de 1986.
Iniciou os estudos musicais na
Fundao Conservatrio Regional de Gaia
(FCRG) no ano letivo de 2000/2001 na
classe do Prof. Lus Filipe Santos,
continuando em 2003/2004 na classe do
Prof. Nuno Pinto at 2007/2008. Em
2009/2010 frequenta o curso livre de
clarinete na Academia Nacional Superior
de Orquestra com o Prof. Jorge Camacho.
No ano seguinte admitido no Curso de
msica da Universidade de vora, variante
de clarinete, frequentando atualmente o 2
ano da licenciatura na classe do Prof.
Etienne Lamaison.
Participou em diversos Master
Classes com Clarinetes Ad Libitum, Iva
Barbosa, Nuno Silva, Rui Martins, Lus
Gomes, Nuno Pinto, Antnio Saiote e
Dominique Vidal.
Colaborou ainda com Orquestra
Nacional de Sopros dos Templrios,
Orquestra de Sopros da FCRG, Orquestra
Sinfnica da Feira, Orquestra de Sopros
Metropolitana de Lisboa, Ensemble
Contemporneos e Coral Sinfnico de
Portugal. Desde 2006 membro assduo
da Orquestra Filarmonia de Gaia.
Trabalhou com maestros como Sal Silva,
Lino Pinto, Mrio Mateus, Paulo Martins,
Pedro Neves, Vera Baptista, Octvio Mas
Arocas, Sergi Pellegrini, Guven Yaslicam,
Ovidiu Marinescu, Florin Totan, Nayden
Todorov, German Cceres, Berislav
Skenderovic, entre outros.
Atualmente leciona a disciplina de
clarinete na FCRG.

Daniel Monteiro was born
in Resende, Viseu, Portugal on May 10,
1986.
He began his musical studies at
the Fundao Conservatrio Regional de
Gaia (FCRG) in academic
year 2000/2001 in the class of
Professor Luis Filipe Santos, and continued
in 2003/2004 with
professor Nuno Pinto until 2007/2008. In
2009/2010 he attended the free course
of clarinet in the Academia Nacional
Superior de Orquestra with
Professor Jorge Camacho. On the following
year is admitted to the course of music at
the University of vora, variant -
clarinet, where currently attends on the 2nd
year of degree in the class of Professor
Etienne Lamaison.
He participated in
several Master Classes with
Clarinetes Ad Libitum , Iva Barbosa,
Nuno Silva, Rui Martins, Luis Gomes,
Nuno Pinto, Antnio Saiote and
DominiqueVidal.
Also collaborated with Orquestra
Nacional de Sopros dos Templrios,
Orquestra de Sopros da FCRG, Orquestra
Sinfnica da Feira, Orquestra de Sopros
Metropolitana de Lisboa, Ensemble
Contemporneos e Coral Sinfnico de
Portugal. Desde 2006 membro assduo
da Orquestra Filarmonia de Gaia. He
worked with conductors such
as Sal Silva, Lino Pinto, Mrio Mateus,
Paulo Martins, Pedro Neves, Vera
Baptista, Octvio
Mas Arocas, Sergi Pellegrini, Guven Yasli
cam, Ovidiu Marinescu,
Florin Tottan, Nayden Todorov,
German Cceres, Berislav Skenderovic,
among others.
Currently teaches clarinet at the FCRG.

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
22

Jos Antnio Martins Leito (piano), iniciou os seus estudos musicais aos 8 anos de
idadenaclassedepianocomumprofessorparticularFaustoAbalroado.
Com 12 anos integrou-se na Academia de Msica de Elvas na classe de piano, onde
estudoucomaProf.RosrioSousa6anos,nosquaisem3anosfez5graus,maistarde,aos17
anos de idade terminou o 8 grau com mdia de 17 valores. Enquanto ligado Academia de
Msica de Elvas, participou tambm no ciclo de concertos da Primavera em Elvas onde
partilhouumrecitalcomoMaestroAntnioVictorinoD'Almeida.
Actualmente est na Universidade de vora no ramo de interpretao a estudar com a
Prof. Dra. Ana Teles. Durante a sua formao musical fez vrios cursos de aperfeioamento
musicaldosquaissedestacamasmasterclassescomoProfessorDoutorChristopherSimonet
ecomaProfessoraDoutoraSaraBuechner.

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
23


Ana Margarida Martins de Carvalho Neto nasceu a 30 de Novembro
de 1992 em Cascais. Iniciou os seus estudos musicais com 11 anos de
idade, tendo comeado com a aprendizagem no clarinete com o professor
Paulo Gaspar em Azambuja. Em 2007 matriculou-se no Conservatrio
Metropolitano de Msica de Lisboa na classe de clarinete com o professor
Jorge Camacho. No ano seguinte entrou para o Curso Profissional de
Instrumentista de Sopro na Escola Profissional Metropolitana na classe dos
professores Jorge Camacho e Iva Barbosa.
Durante os seus anos de estudo musical frequentou diversas masterclasses e workshops de
clarinete, estilo clssico e jazz, com os professores Paulo Gaspar, Jorge Camacho, Iva Barbosa,
Cndida de Oliveira, Antnio Saiote, Juan Frrer ,Steve Cohen Valdemar Rodriguez, Mrcio Pereira,
Nuno Antunes, Nuno Silva, Lus Gomes, Rui Martins, entre outros.
Fez diversos workshops de orquestra, tendo inclusivamente estado presente nos cursos de Pscoa
e de Vero organizados pela Metropolitana, no Music Summer School organizado pela
Musinaction, na Musicalta 2010 na Alscia, em Frana, onde realizou diversos concertos pela
regio com um quinteto de clarinetes, e tambm na Orquestra Ibero-Americana, sob a direco de
Antnio Saiote em Arcos de Valdevez.
Em 2009 participou no 3 Concurso Jos Augusto Alegria organizado pela Eborae Musica tendo
obtido o 1 prmio do 2 Escalo e porteriormente gravado para a Antena 2. Actualmente
frequenta o 1 ano de licenciatura na Universidade de vora com o professor Etienne Lamaison.

Ana Margarida Martins de Carvalho Neto was born at 30th of November 1992 in Cascais. At
the age of 11 she started her musical studies with Paulo Gaspar, a clarinet teacher in Azambuja. In
2007 Ana entered in the Metropolitan Conservatory in Lisbon when she studied clarinet with Jorge
Camacho. One year later she started a professional course of orchestral music players in OML,
Lisbon, in the class of Jorge Camacho and later with Iva Barbosa.
During her musical studies Ana took part in many master classes and workshops of clarinet, Jazz
and Classic style, with Paulo Gaspar, Jorge Camacho, Iva Barbosa, Cndida de Oliveira, Antnio
Saiote, Juan Frrer, Steve Cohen, Valdemar Rodriguez, Mrcio Pereira, Nuno Antunes, Nuno Silva,
Lus Gomes, Rui Martins, etc.
Beside of clarinet workshops, Ana also took part in many orchestral workshops. She participated in
Summer and Easter workshops organized by OML, where she studied for four years, in the Music
Summer School organized by Musinaction, in Musicalta festival in 2010 in Alsace, France, where
she was part of many concerts with a quintet of clarinets along the region, and also in the Ibero-
American Orchestra, with the conduction of Antnio Saiote in Arcos de Valdevez.
In 2009 Ana won the 1
st
prize in a competition named 3 Concurso Jos Augusto Alegria in
vora, organized by Eborae Musica and did a recording to a national radio, Antena 2. Currently she
is in the 1
st
year of graduation in Clarinet in the University of vora with the teacher Etienne
Lamaison.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
24


Ana Filipa Casaca Botelho nasceu a 28 de Agosto de 1993 em
Castro Verde. Iniciou os seus estudos musicais em clarinete com 11
anos de idade no Conservatrio Regional do Baixo Alentejo. Terminou
o 8 grau em 2011 na classe do professor Hernni Moura.
Durante os seus anos de estudo musical participou em diversas
masterclasses e workshops de clarinete em Portugal com os
professores Antnio Saiote, Steve Cohen, Filipe Dias, Nuno Pinto, em
Espanha com Juan Ferrer e em Frana com Antnio Saiote.
Participou tambm em diversos estgios de orquestra tais como:
Orquestra Sinfnica Juvenil Portuguesa, sob a direco de Christopher Bochmann e Orquestra
Iberoamericana, sob a direco de Antnio Saiote. Em 2010 esteve presente no festival
Musicalta na Alscia, em Frana, onde realizou diversos concertos pela regio com um quinteto
de clarinetes.
Actualmente frequenta o primeiro ano em clarinete na Universidade de vora, sob a orientao do
professor Etienne Lamaison, e participa no Grupo de Msica Contempornea orientado pelo
professor Christopher Bochmann inserido nas actividades curriculares da universidade.

Ana Filipa Casaca Botelho was born at 28
th
of August 1993 in Castro Verde. At the age of 11
she started her musical studies in clarinet in the Regional Conservatory of Baixo Alentejo. She
finished her 8
th
degree in 2011 in the clarinet class of Hernni Moura.
During her musical studies Ana took part in many master classes and workshops of clarinet in
Portugal with Antnio Saiote, Steve Cohen, Filipe Dias, Nuno Pinto, in Spain with Juan Frrer and
in France with Antnio Saiote.
Ana took part in many orchestral academies as the Portuguese Junior Symphonic Orchestra with
the conductor Christopher Bochmann and the Ibero-American Orchestra with the conductor
Antnio Saiote. In 2010 Ana took part in Musicalta festival in Alsace, France, where she was part
of many concerts with a quintet of clarinets along the region.
Nowadays she is in the 1
st
year of graduation in Clarinet in the University of vora with the teacher
Etienne Lamaison and she is part of the Contemporary Chamber Music with the conduction of
Christopher Bochman, which is included in the curricular activities of the university.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
25

Diana Raquel Jesus de Sousa nasceu a 26 de Maro de 1990 na
Madeira.
Iniciou os seus estudos musicais em 2002 no Conservatrio
Escola Profissional das Artes da Madeira na classe do Prof. Manuel
Barros e concluiu o Curso Profissional de Instrumentista com o
Prof. Robert Donald Bramley.
de salientar que esteve em pases como a Finlndia (Helsnquia)
e Itlia (Milo) em projecto de Intercmbio atravs do mesmo
Conservatrio.

Trabalhou em Masterclasses com os professores: Nuno Silva, Lus Gomes, Rui Martins,
Vtor Matos, Emdio Costa, entre outros. Em 2011 participou no Workshop de Pscoa da
Orquestra Metropolitana de Lisboa Jnior sob a orientao do Maestro Pedro Neves.
Actualmente frequenta o 1 Ano de Licenciatura em Clarinete na Universidade de vora na
classe do Prof. Etienne Lamaison.

Diana Raquel Jesus de Sousa was born at 26th of March 1990 in Madeira. She started
her musical studies in 2002 in the Professional School of Arts in Madeira with Manuel
Barros and finished the Professional Course with Robert Donald Bramley.
It is noteworthy that Diana was in countries like Finland (Helsinki) and Italy (Milan) in a
dealing project with the Conservatory.
She has worked in master classes with: Nuno Silva, Lus Gomes, Rui Martins, Vitor Matos,
Emdio Costa, etc. In 2011 she participated in the Easter Masterclass of OML, in Lisbon
with the conductor Pedro Neves.
Currently Diana is in the 1
st
year of graduation in Clarinet in the University of vora with
the teacher Etienne Lamaison.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
26


Hlia Cristina Matado Varanda nasceu no dia 24 de Novembro
de 1992 em Moura. Iniciou os seus estudos musicais com 9 anos em
Alcovas. Em 2005 entrou para o Conservatrio Regional do Baixo
Alentejo Seco de Moura onde comeou por estudar com o
Professor Emdio Costa e posteriormente com o Professor Filipe Dias.
Em Julho de 2011 ficou em 2lugar no concurso Prmio Jos
Augusto Alegria e em Novembro fez uma gravao para a Antena 2.
Ao longo do seu percurso fez vrios estgios de orquestra de sopros
e masterclass de Clarinete com professores como Fausto, Rui
Martins, Nuno Silva, Lus Gomes, entre outros.
Actualmente encontra-se no 1 ano de Licenciatura em Clarinete, na Universidade de
vora, sob a orientao do Professor Etienne Lamaison.

Hlia Cristina Matado Varanda was born at 24th of November 1992 in Moura. She
started her musical studies at the age of 9 in Alcovas. In 2005 she entered the Regional
Conservatory of Baixo Alentejo Section of Moura, where she started studying with
Emdio Costa and later with Filipe Dias, both of them clarinet performers and teachers.
In July 2011 Hlia won the 2
nd
prize in the competition Prmio Jos Augusto Alegria and
in November she did a recording to a national radio, Antena 2. During her musical studies
Hlia took part in many orchestral academies and master classes of clarinet with Fausto,
Rui Martins, Nuno Silva, Lus Gomes, etc.
Nowadays Hlia is in the 1
st
year of graduation in Clarinet in the University of vora with
the teacher Etienne Lamaison.

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
27

COMPOSERS'PAPERS

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
28
Estudo,paraquartetodeclarinetes:manipulaodeimagens
acsticaspormeiodeimagensvisuais

AlexandreFicagna(UEL/Unicamp,Brasil)
alexandre_ficagna@yahoo.com.br

Resumo.Descriodoprocessodecriaodapea"Estudo",paraquartetodeclarinetes,em
que o ato de desenhar fez parte do processo criativo e antecedeu o detalhamento
composicionalnapartitura:trata-seportantodamanipulaodeimagensacsticaspormeio
de imagens visuais. A influncia da visualidade no processo de composio musical tem sido
enfatizada sobretudo por Sciarrino (1998), e pode ser observada no processo de diversos
compositores; destacamos Xenakis como exemplo do que chamamos de abordagem direta
neste tipo de relao. Nortearam a composio de Estudo os conceitos de "legibilidade
acstica" e "estados, eventos e transformaes". Deve-se ressaltar que no se trata da mera
transposiododesenhoemumapartituragrfica,masdeumprocessoqueenvolveatenso
entreoatodedesenharlivrementeeoposteriordetalhamentocomposicional.
Palavras-chaves:legibilidadeacstica;estados,eventosetransformaes;imagemacstica.

Abstract.InthecreativeprocessofStudy,forclarinetquartet,thepiecewasfirstcomposed
with drawings, which means the manipulation of acoustical images through visual ones.
Sciarrino emphasizes the visual aspects that take part in the music composition process,
observableinmanycomposers'sketches;asanexampleofadirectapproachtovisualmodels
we mention Xenakis and some compositional strategies he developed from this relation.
Before looking at Study itself, it's important to present two important concepts that took
partinitscreativeprocess:acousticalreadingandstates,eventsandtransformations.One
mustsaythisisnotaboutgraphicalscores,butasortoftensionbetweendrawingfreelyand
writingtechniques.
Keywords:acousticalreadability;states,eventsandtransformations;acousticalimage.

Introduo
Estudo,paraquartetodeclarinetes
1
,partedapesquisadedoutorado(emelaborao)
intituladaprovisoriamenteModelosvisuaisecomposiodesonoridades,sendoaprimeira
experincia de composio conscientemente orientada por elementos visuais fruto deste
trabalho. Em Estudo, o ato de desenhar fez parte do processo criativo e antecedeu o
detalhamento composicional na partitura: as estratgias e modelos composicionais surgiram
a partir de uma abordagem direta do modelo visual, que foi criado e alterado atravs de
desenhosegrafismos.

1
Instrumentao: 3 clarinetes soprano e um baixo, todos em Bb. A pea foi um pedido do clarinetista e
professordocursodeMsicadaUniversidadeFederaldeSoCarlos(Brasil),JosAlessandroSilva.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
29
Veremosquenosetratadatransposiodeumdesenhoparapartituragrfica,masde
um processo de intermodulao entre o modelo visual e as estratgias composicionais (que
tornam sonoro o modelo visual atravs da escrita). O que se busca criar uma metodologia
composicional em que a utilizao de desenhos permita trabalhar a composio no tempo,
numa velocidade mais prxima da intuio, antecedendo o detalhamento na partitura. Scelsi
fazumacomparaoqueilustraessaproblemtica:
... para um pintor Zen que possui a inspirao autntica, resulta possvel cobrir uma
superfcie, ainda que vasta, em poucos minutos; para um msico, a coisa bem
diversa. Uma partitura de msica, ainda que de piano, contm milhares de signos,
entre notas, acentos, ligaduras, sinais de cor, de expresso etc, alm do tempo
necessrio para calcular e sincronizar os ritmos e a escrita das vrias partes. ... o
temponecessrioparaatranscriomuitosuperiorpercepodainspirao,que
semprevelocssima,noimportacomosejarecebida(ScelsicitadoporSiqueira,2006,
p.73-traduodeA.Siqueira).

H tambm um outro aspecto: veremos que a visualidade acaba impregnando o


resultadosonoro,oqueAngius(2007)chamadelegibilidadeacstica.Igualmenteimportante
para a composio de Estudo foram as noes de estados, eventos e transformaes (Ligeti,
1993).
Antesdeabord-los,convmressaltarainflunciadosprocessosdeorganizaovisuais
na composio musical, tal como constata Sciarrino. Como breve exemplo das possibilidades
composicionaisadvindasdautilizaodemodelosvisuais,observaremosalgumasestratgias
desenvolvidas pelo compositor grego Iannis Xenakis a partir do que chamamos de
abordagem direta ou analgica do modelo visual
2
. Ao descrevermos o processo de criao
de Estudo nos concentraremos sobre a relao recproca entre o modelo visual e estratgias
deescrita.

1Visualidadeecomposiomusical
Pode-se constatar a interseco dos diversos sentidos realizada pela escuta musical
quando se observa que, mesmo numa obra destinada ao estudo das qualidades sonoras
destitudas de referncia causal - como o Tratado dos Objetos Musicais (Schaeffer, 1966) - o
empregodeterminologiaadvindadotato,visoepropriocepo,constante:fala-sedesons
rugosos,opacos,deobjetossonorosgestuais,texturais,etc.
OqueparaSchaeffereraumaaproximaopoucoprecisa,paraSciarrino(1998,p.61),j
na definio primria das qualidades do som empregamos critrios provenientes de outras
sensaes,oquerefleteaglobalidadedapercepohumana:mesmoquandofalamosdesons

2
Outraabordagemseriaaindiretaoumetafrica/conceitual,emqueocompositornochegaaexplorar
aspossibilidadesdosuportevisualipsofacto:asimagenssomanipuladasdiretamentecomoimagensacsticas
(viaescritaouimprovisao).
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
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agudos e graves estamos utilizando critrios de provenincia ttil, ainda que nenhum som
piqueoupossaterseupesoavaliadocomnossocorpo(Sciarrino,1998,p.61).
Ora,seamaisdedoismilniosutilizamossuportesvisuaisparaescrever-epelomenos
desde Perotin para compor - ento possvel que alguma coisa do espao, do visual, foi
passadadiretamenteparaamsica(SciarrinocitadoporGiacco,2001,p.32traduodeA.
Ficagna). No se trata do visual sustentando ou decifrando o sonoro, mas da organizao do
sonoroapartirdecritriosvisuais(Sciarrino,1998,p.92)
3
.
Como breve exemplo da manipulao de imagens visuais como se fossem imagens
acsticas mesmo processo de Estudo observaremos algumas estratgias composicionais
elaboradasporXenakis.

2Abordagemdiretademodelosvisuais:umbreveexemplo
Conhecido pela formalizao matemtica do seu processo composicional, Xenakis
diversasvezesrecorreuadesenhosparaimaginarfenmenoseprocessossonoros,revelando
umaimaginaovisualcertamenteligadasuaformaocomoarquiteto.Facilmentepode-se
encontrartextosdocompositorrelacionandomsicaearquitetura;almdissosofrequentes
em seus livros esboos composicionais realizados com o auxlio de grficos (para exemplos,
ver:Xenakis,1963,1971).
Segundo Gibson (2010), o uso de grficos no apenas lhe permitiu lidar de modo mais
efetivo com a representao dos sons contnuos e com a visualizao da evoluo global dos
eventossonoros(comonasnuvensoumassasdesons),masolevouaumaabordagemgrfica
dacomposio
4
.
Foi com o auxlio de grficos que Xenakis trabalhou suas principais imagens acstico-
visuais:
1) equivalncia entre glissando e linha, elemento de interseco Msica/Arquitetura,
como pode ser observado na similaridade entre os esboos de Metastasis e a
maquetedoPavilhoPhilips.

3
Diferentemente de Sciarrino cujo interesse reside nas modalidades de organizao comuns s artes
visuais e msica a questo para o musiclogo Franois Delalande parte de uma conquista artesanal: a
utilizao de um suporte visual de registro (notao) como suporte de criao, a escrita. Assim, da Ars Nova
msica serial tm-se um paradigmatecnolgico (relao entre um suporte material com uma prtica musical)
caracterizado pela arte de tecer linhas meldicas controlando as superposies 'verticais' (Delalande, 2001,
p.38).Emnossotrabalhoconsideramosasduasperspectivas,mascomnfasenaconcepodeSciarrino.
4
Estaabordagemdevesuaoperacionalizaoconcepodocompositordequetempoeespaoseriam
de uma mesma ordem estrutural subjacente, podendo ento o tempo ser concebido como uma srie de pontos
formandoumalinhareta(Xenakis,1963,p.26).
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Figura1:esboodoscompassos309a314deMetastasis(Xenakis,1963,p.22).
Figura2:esboofinaldoPavilhoPhilips(XENAKIS,1963,p.25).

2) elaboraodatcnicaconhecidacomoarborescncias,quediferedastexturasde
glissandipelacoordenaodaslinhasenoapenaspelasuperposiodasmesmas;
umexemplopodeserobservadonafiguraabaixo:
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Figura3:grficodeXenakisparaasarborescnciasdeErikhton
5
.

3) manipulao de eventos massivos, sejam texturas de glissandi ou as chamadas


nuvens de sons (ou ser massivo de sons descontnuos). Neste segundo caso, a
equivalncia estabelecida entre pontos e sons percussivos (pizzicati de cordas,
por exemplo). Na figura a seguir, o grfico construdo com auxlio da equao
gaussiana esburacado, processo que Solomos (2001) compara tanto com a
filtragem da msica eletroacstica quando ao ato de esculpir uma esttua numa
pedra
6
.

5
Extradodehttp://www.univ-montp3.fr/~solomos/7.html
6
Segundo o prprio compositor: a distribuio gaussiana mas a forma geomtrica uma modulao
plsticadamatriasonora(Xenakis,1971,p.13,traduolivre).
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Figura4:grficodoscompassos52-59dePithoprakta(XENAKIS,1963,p.31)

Pode-se observar que as trs estratgias aqui brevemente apresentadas so


basicamente manipulaes de linhas e pontos com o auxlio de um grfico. Para Solomos
(2001), a utilizao de grficos permitia a Xenakis concebereexperimentarvisualmente suas
sonoridades
7
.

3Legibilidadeacstica
Em Xenakis, imaginao visual e imaginao sonora esto de tal forma atreladas que a
partir da escuta tem-se a impresso de encontrar o fundamento visual de diversas
sonoridades. Solomos (2001) recorre a transcries grficas para explicitar este tipo de
relao: um exemplo a transcrio dos compassos 291-303 de Terretektorh, que revela os
tranadosquecaracterizampartesimportantesdapea.

7
Entendemossonoridadecomoosom(fenmenofsico)utilizadomusicalmente.Demaneirageral,uma
sonoridadeformadapordiversossons,sobrepostos,justapostosouentrelaados.
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Figura5:Terretektorh,compassos291-303,transcriogrficadeMakisSolomos
8

Essa caracterstica de uma obra musical, em que uma sonoridade parece revelar o que
teria sido sua origem visual, Angius chama de legibilidade acstica
9
. Referindo-se pea
Anamorfosi, de Sciarrino, Angius (2007, p.88) menciona o conceito e aponta que o que torna
possvelcaracterizarosdiversosplanossonorosemcorrelaocomaideiacentraldaimagem
aqutica o processo de estratificao da figura sonora sem renunciar sua legibilidade
acstica. Giacco (2001, p.45) no menciona o conceito, mas observa que no projeto de uma
novapea,Sciarrinopareceservir-sedeprincpiostraduzveisempontoselinhas,aplicando-
osmaisaosprocessossonorosdoqueacadasom.

4Estudo,primeiraetapa:modelovisual
Como comentado anteriormente, a composio da pea comeou pelo ato de desenhar:
imagens acsticas foram trabalhadas visualmente imaginando-se estados, eventos e
transformaes
10
,paradepoissetornaremsonorasatravsdeestratgiascomposicionais.

8
Extradodehttp://www.univ-montp3.fr/~solomos/18.html.
9
Ouvisibilidadeacstica.SegundoFerraz,seriacomosepudssemosverosom,aorigemtico-pictrica
dosom(Ferraz,1997).
10
A partir das imagens visuais e tteis de um sonho que teve quando criana, Ligeti elabora noes
formais que consideram a inexorabilidade da passagem do tempo. Em Apparitions, texturas sonoras estticas
reagememmaioroumenorgrauemergnciadeeventos;ograudetransformaodeambosrecproco,oque
impede o retorno dos elementos: os estados transformados requerem eventos com caractersticas ainda mais
novas (de registro, cor, densidade, intensidade, etc) para serem transformados. Neste modelo o compositor
quemcriaaimpressoaparentederelaocausalentreumeventoeumadeterminadatransformaodoestado
(Ligeti,1993,p.169-170).
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Depoisdealgunsesboos,emqueprocureidetalharvisualmenteoqueseriatexturade
base (figura 6), senti a necessidade de recorrer partitura para esboar uma espcie de
campo harmnico-textural. Ao voltar a desenhar, pareceu-me mais frutfero outro tipo de
visualizao(umavezquesuaimagemacsticatornava-semaisclara):apsmapearalgumas
possibilidades de relao estado-evento-transformao (figura 7), resolvi simplificar o
desenho e representar o conjunto instrumental de modo mais esquemtico, quatro linhas
retas representando o estado; retngulos com diversos tamanhos e hachuras como os
eventosesuastransformaes;ondulaeseoutrosdesenhoscomoasreaesdoestadoaos
eventos (a permanncia das ondulaes, por exemplo, significaria transformao do estado)
(figura8).
Esteoutromododevisualizaopermitiuimaginaroutrasfacesdasimagensacsticas:
o grau de impacto e propagao de uma transformao, a possibilidade de explorar no s o
espaoverticaldasalturas,mashorizontaldaposiodosinstrumentosnopalco,etc.
Figura6:visualizaoinicial-primeiroeventoeimpactonatexturadebase,compropagaopelatessitura.

Figura7:mapeamentodealgumaspossibilidadesdealteraesparaestadoseeventos.
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Figura8:visualizaofinal-eventoeprimeirasalteraesdoestado.Detalheparaasanotaes
complementares,considerandoapropagaodeuminstrumentoaoutro.

Comopossvelobservarnafiguraanterior,comparando-asprimeirastransformaes
nos compassos 18 e 19 (figura 9), os estados foram criados guardando alguma inteno de
similitudeentreasmorfologiasvisuaisesonoras,diferentementedoseventos,cujasimagens
acsticasforamelaboradasposteriormente.

Figura9:compassos17-21,ondeseobservasimilitudesediferenasemrelaoaomodelovisual
11
.

As figuras 6 a 9 sumarizam a cronologia do processo composicional e revelam que, dos


esboos iniciais ao resultado final, a utilizao de outro tipo de visualizao, bem como a
passagempelapartitura,levaramalteraodoplanoinicial:atexturadetrinados,deestado
inicial passa a transformao, predominando no incio da pea notas longas, permitindo que
pequenasalteraestornem-sesensveis.
Certamentehouveinflunciadoespaohomogneodapartituranestasalteraes,oque
no modifica a natureza desta primeira etapa: a concentrao do trabalho sobre as relaes
dos materiais sonoros (grau e tipo de alterao, se por impacto ou emergncia, por
exemplo), as morfologias dos estados e suas transformaes (por alterao de mobilidade,
densidade, ocupao espacial, etc), bem como o agenciamento temporal destes elementos. A
figura10mostraoesboovisualdapea.

11
Em todos os exemplos os instrumentos estaro escritos um tom acima da altura real (inclusive o
clarinetebaixo).
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Figura10:esboovisualdeEstudo.

5Estudo,segundaetapa:estratgiasdeescrita
Por uma questo de clareza na exposio do texto optou-se pela separao a seguir,
sempremantendoemmenteanolinearidadedoprocesso,emquemuitasvezesumaspecto
define-se mais claramente somente quando outro, a princpio distinto, comea a ser
vislumbrado.

5.1Campoharmnico-textural
Na passagem pela partitura descrita na etapa anterior, estabeleceu-se apenas o que
seriam os dois conjuntos de alturas a serem utilizados na pea, a princpio em alternncia,
mas com passagens graduais de um a outro: o primeiro uma aproximao temperada de
umasrieharmnicaconstitudaapenasdeparciaismpares(comooespectrodoclarinete),a
partir do 5 parcial de um F subgrave; o segundo, a partir do rearranjo das alturas obtidas
com a sobreposio de diferentes multifnicos, uma aproximao de uma srie harmnica
defectivadeD,quartaabaixodaanterior,apartirdo7parcial.
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Figura11:conjuntosiniciaisdealturas.
Asalturasforampermutadasedispostasemduassequnciasfixasdemodoamantera
ocupao espacial e a densidade harmnica uniformes mas em permanente variao. Apesar
de sempre percorridas na mesma ordem as sequncias raramente se repetem: omisses de
um termo a outro foram livremente utilizadas. Determinadas omisses, contudo, permitiam
contraes nas regies grave, mdia e aguda do conjunto: nestes momentos, que iniciam a
partirdoc.32,fez-seatransiogradualdeumacorharmnicaoutra.

Figura12:sequnciasadisposionatessiturafixa.Aordemsalteradaatravsdeomissesdeum
elementoaoutro.

Destacamosaseguir(figura13)umfragmentododesenhoemquehasugestopara
mudana de cor harmnica emergindo da textura, diferentemente da estratgia de
incrustao, reservada aos eventos. Interessante observar que no modelo visual esse tipo de
transformao ocorre pontualmente, predominando as do tipo proliferao de impacto. No
entanto, a partir da metade de Estudo a nova estratgia se estende s s transformaes
texturaisetorna-sepredominante.Veremosqueomodelovisualnonorma,oquepermite
suaintermodulaocomasestratgiasdeescrita.
Figura13:alinhapontilhadaeoscontornossugeremtransformaesporemergncia.

Quando comentamos sobre o desenho, vimos que havia a inteno de que os eventos
fossem contrastantes aos estados: sendo estes texturais e estticos, com conjuntos
harmnicos definidos, os eventos deveriam, ao menos no princpio, ser gestuais e
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harmonicamente conflitantes. Entretanto, na etapa seguinte, passam a ser concebidos de
modo a contaminar os estados, morfolgica e harmonicamente, ainda que mantendo a
oposiogestualXtextural(exemplo:figura9).
As emergncias texturais que ocorrem a partir do c.36 iniciam um processo que
conduz indiferenciao, textural e harmnica. Inicialmente atravs de arpejos, misturando
os conjuntos, depois atravs de escalas, com fragmentos de tons inteiros e cromatismos, at
um ponto de saturao (c.59) que relega a alguns poucos trinados resqucios dos estados
anteriores.
As transformaes subsequentes so mais incisivas: escalas tornam-se amplos
glissandos;estessotransformadosnumatexturademultifnicossuperpostos.
Figura14:Estudo,c.35-39.

Figura15:Estudo,c.59.

A imagem acstica inicial previa uma textura contnua, a princpio esttica, com certa
plasticidadedentrodealgunslimites,sobreaqualcontrastariamosprimeiroseventos.Para
tornar sonora esta caracterstica, ausente a partir do segundo modo de visualizao (aps a
passagem pela partitura), optou-se por borrar a definio harmnica atravs de oscilaes
microtonaisemtornodasalturassustentadas(observvelnafigura9).

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5.2Duraeseespao
Na tentativa de concretizar a imagem acima, era preciso que tambm as duraes
permitissemtalplasticidade,aindaqueatexturaprogridalentamente.Asoluoencontrada-
aplicadatantospropagaesnoespaodasalturasquantodosinstrumentosnopalco-foia
criaodeumaespciedetaleaglobal
12
.
A caracterstica deste dispositivo seria repetir-se sempre associado a uma nova
conformao de alturas e/ou alternncia entre os instrumentos. A talea constituda de
agrupamentos de 6, 8, 6, 5, 7, 6 e 5 semicolcheias, uma espcie de oscilao irregular que se
repete a cada 43 duraes (aproximadamente 16'' no andamento inicial da pea), sensvel
apenas como ligeira oscilao em torno de uma durao mdia. No decorrer da pea a
necessidadeporumaumentonataxademovimentaogloballevaareduesproporcionais
segundoumaregraarbitrria:asomadeveriasempreresultarnumnmeroprimo.
Com relao ao espao, como a talea posiciona as mudanas uma aps a outra, de um
instrumento a outro, e como no desenho havia a inteno de considerar a propagao dos
elementos tambm na panormica (evitando uma espcie de monotonia espacial),
mapeou-se quais combinaes poderia se obter com a disposio tradicional do quarteto
(figura16).Nofoiconsideradaumadistribuiodotipoaleatria,masalteraesnaordem
dos instrumentos seguem o princpio de omisso relativo s alturas: em certos momentos
um instrumento no realiza a mudana prevista, invertendo a ordem com aquele que a
realizaria em sua sequncia, o que permitiu variar a disposio espacial dentro da estrutura
datalea,semromperomovimentocontnuodatextura.

Consideraesfinais
Aconversodeumaimagemacsticaemimagemvisualpermitemanipulaesqueso
da ordem do visual, posteriormente convertidas em sonoras na escritura instrumental, ou
seja, manipula-se sonoridades e processos sonoros atravs de estratgias visuais. O
interessante nesse modelo a abordagem da visualidade considerando o dinamismo
temporal.
OquesepercebedesdeaprimeiraetapadoprocessocriativodeEstudoqueoprprio
esboo visual da pea (o desenho) influencia o processo composicional, trazendo elementos
de legibilidade acstica para relacionarem-se com o detalhamento na partitura: a
participao ativa da visualidade na elaborao das estratgias composicionais torna o jogo
mais complexo ao explicitar elementos e relaes de outros sentidos que permeiam o

12
Como no h uma fixidez de qual instrumentista toca qual altura, e sabendo que a projeo do som no
clarinetetendeavariarpeloregistro,nohumcontroleprecisosobreaprojeodosomnoespaoacstico.
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41
territriosonoro.Nesteformadecomporomodelonomolde:nohelementogeradorde
unidade,oprocessomoduladoporrelaesflexveis.
Figura16:mapeamentodapassagementreosinstrumentos.
Figura17:detalhedosrascunhosdeEstudo.Noexemplo,aassociaotalea,sequnciadenotas,disposio
espacial.

Uma consequncia desta abordagem seria uma dinmica de influncia recproca entre
materiais e estruturas. Como exemplo, a talea utilizada na pea agiu sobre o material,
condicionou algumas morfologias; mas o material reagiu, imps modificaes talea (suas
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42
contraes e expanses); e assim sucessivamente, numa espcie de tenso entre o ato de
desenharlivrementeeoposteriordetalhamentocomposicional
13
.
Comoocompromissocomoresultadomusical,nosetratadefazermsicadescritiva,
de seguir o desenho risca, mas de proliferar possibilidades a partir da influncia recproca
entre dois campos de fabulao que, na escuta, podem ser to visuais quanto sonoros:
desenhoepartitura.

Agradecimentos
Agradeoaomeuorientador,ocompositoreprofessorDr.SilvioFerraz,peloestmuloe
ensinamentos,tericosecomposicionais.
Agradeo ao Programa de Ps-Graduao em Msica e ao Fundo de Apoio ao Ensino,
Pesquisa e Extenso (FAEPEX), ambos da Unicamp, por fornecerem grande parte do auxlio
financeironecessriominhaparticipaonesteevento.
Agradeo Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), em especial ao Departamento de
MsicaeTeatroeaoCentrodeEducao,ComunicaoeArtes,pelosuporteparaconcesso
daminhalicenadocenteetambmpeloauxliofinanceiro.
AgradeoaoquartetoDaCapoporaceitareminterpretarminhapea.
Porfim,parabenizoeagradeoUniversidadedevora,aoseudiretor,Dr.Christopher
Brochmann, e em especial a Zoltan Paulinyi, pela aceitao de minha pea, pelas atenciosas
respostassminhasdvidasepelaorganizaodoevento.

Referncias
Angius, M. (2007). Vanitas e Altre Anamorfosi. In Come avvicinare il silenzio: la musica di
salvatoresciarrino.(pp.85-100).Roma:RaiEri.
Delalande, F. (2001). Le Son des Musiques: entre technologie et esthtique. Paris:
Buchet/Chastel.
Ferraz, S. (1997). Cadernos de anlises. Acedido em Dez. 16, 2011, em
http://silvioferraz.mus.br/desenhos_analises/varese_desenho.html
Ferraz,S.&Ficagna,A.(2011).Escreverosomsemdesfazerotempo:visualidadeecomposio
desonoridades.Artigoaguardandoparecerparapublicao.
Giacco,G.(2010).LanotiondefigurechezSalvatoreSciarrino.Paris:Harmattan.

13
Segundo Lachenmann: No creio que possamos fazer sem pensar em termos de estrutura. Mas
necessrio que um tal pensamento, e que as prprias tcnicas estruturais, sejam sem cessar questionadas e se
encontremconfrontadascomarealidade,isto,aosaspectosreaisdomaterial-necessrioqueelassepercam,
sereencontremeseredefinam.(LACHENMANN,1991,p.270)
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
43
Gibson,B.(2010).Drawingmusicalideas.IannisXenakisSymposium:past,present,andfuture,
1. New York. Acedido em Ago. 30, 2011, em http://bxmc.poly.edu/xenakis/gibson-
benot
Lachenmann, H. (1991). Quatre aspects fondamentaux du material musical et de lcoute.
Inharmoniques,8/9,261-270.
Ligeti,G.(1993).States,Events,Transformations.PespectivesofNewMusic,31-1,164-171.
Sciarrino,S.(1998).Lafiguradellamusica,daBeethovenaoggi.Milo:Ricordi.
Schaeffer,P.(1966).TraitdesObjetsMusicaux.Paris:Seuil.
Siqueira,A.R.(2006).OPercursoComposicionaldeGiacintoScelsi:improvisao,orientalismoe
escritura.DissertaodeMestradoemMsica.BeloHorizonte:UniversidadeFederalde
MinasGerais.
Solomos, M. (2001). Xenakis as a sound sculptor. Acedido em Ago. 25, 2011, em
http://www.univ-montp3.fr/~solomos/xenakas.html
Xenakis,I.(1971).Musique;Architecture.Tournai:Casterman.
Xenakis, I. (1963). Musique Formelles. Paris: La revue musicale. Acedido em Abr. 23, 2008,
http://www.iannis-xenakis.org/fxe/ecrits/mus_form.html.

Pequenabiografiasobreoautor
AlexandreFicagnagraduadoemMsica(Licenciatura)pelaUniversidade
Estadual de Londrina (UEL), onde trabalha atualmente como professor
colaborador. Possui Mestrado em Msica (Processos Criativos) pela
Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), com orientao da
compositora e professora Dra. Denise Garcia. Cursa Doutorado na mesma
rea de concentrao, tambm pela Unicamp, com orientao do
compositor e professor Dr. Silvio Ferraz. Suas composies foram executadas em diversas
cidades brasileiras (Londrina, Curitiba, Campinas, So Paulo, Belo Horizonte e Natal).
Recentemente foi um dos 59 contemplados com o XIX Prmio Funarte de Composio
Clssica,comotrio"VentonaJanela".

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AspectosAnalticosTexturaisdaPeaInterdependnciaspara
QuartetodeClarinetas

J.OrlandoAlves(UniversidadeFederaldaParabaUFPB,Brasil)
jorlandoalves2006@gmail.com

Abstract:Thisarticleaimstodescribeaspectsofthetexturalcompositionplanningappliedin
the composition of the piece Interdependncias for clarinet quartet. The compositional
planningusesanalyticaltoolstogeneratetheclustersorsoundmassinthecomposition.The
qualitative formulation, inspired by Wallace Berry, went applied to calculate the textural
conduct.

Resumo: O artigo tem como objetivo descrever aspectos do planejamento textural utilizado
nacomposiodapeaInterdependnciasparaQuartetodeClarinetas.Oplanejamentoutiliza
de ferramentas analticas para moldar os desdobramentos de agregados sonoros na
composio.Aformulaoqualitativa,propostaporWallaceBerry,foiaplicadaparaprevero
comportamentotextural.

Introduo
A pea Interdependncias, composta para quarteto de clarinetas, foi dedicada e estreada pelo
Quarteto Experimental
16
, no ano de 2009, na srie de concertos do Grupo Preldio 21
17
, realizados
no Centro Cultural da Justia Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
O princpio que norteou o planejamento composicional da pea foi buscar o controle do grau
diferenciado de independncia e interdependncia entre as camadas texturais. Utilizamos, como
referencial terico no planejamento composicional, a formulao analtica textural proposta por
Berry (1987) que busca representar numericamente as relaes texturais de independncia e
interdependncia. Esse referencial foi adotado tambm no planejamento das Disposies Texturais
(cinco peas para piano solo), compostas pelo autor do presente artigo em 2003 e descritas
analiticamente na tese de doutorado intitulada Invarincias e Disposies Texturais: do
Planejamento Composicional Reflexo sobre o Processo Criativo (Alves, 2005).

16 O Quarteto Experimental formado pelos clarinetistas: Thiago Tavares, Walter Junior, Marcelo Ferreira, Ricardo Ferreira
17
Grupo de compositores formado por Alexandre Schubert, Caio Senna, Neder Nassaro, Marcos Lucas, J. Orlando Alves e Sergio Roberto de
Oliveira. O grupo iniciou suas atividades em novembro de 1998. Em 2011, finalizou a 4 temporada de nove concertos realizados no Centro Cultural
da Justia Federal do Rio de Janeiro. O artigo Preldio 21: uma retrospectiva, publicado pela revsita Hodie (Alves & Oliveira, 2011), apresenta um
histrico dos treze anos de existncia do grupo.
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O planejamento e a realizao musical
A pea foi estruturada em trs sees: uma introduo (comp. 1 a 11), o desenvolvimento
(comp. 12 a 54) e uma coda (comp. 55 ao final). A introduo e a coda iniciam com um
multifnico, utilizado como recurso tmbrico para demarcar o incio das referidas sees. Na
introduo apresentada, gradualmente, a relao de interdependncia que ser, posteriormente,
desenvolvida. Podemos demonstrar essa relao atravs da formulao de Berry:

1 1 2 1 3 1 1 4
1 1 1 1
1
1

A figura abaixo apresenta os seus compassos iniciais da pea, onde podemos visualizar a
interdependncia entre a 2 e a 3 clarinetas no comp. 3 e a interdependncia de trs camadas (1, 2
e 3 clarinetas) no comp. 6.

Fig. 1: seis compassos iniciais da pea.
No desenvolvimento (comp. 12 a 54) ocorre uma intensificao da relao de
interdependncia, como podemos verificar na figura abaixo, que apresenta os compassos 22 a 26 da
pea.
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Fig. 2: trecho do desenvolvimento com a intensificao da interdependncia entre as camadas

Nessa seo (comp. 35 a 38) tambm ocorre a gradao planejada da interdependncia que
vai, pouco a pouco se destacando. Logo aps os trs compassos de total independncia (39 a 41), a
relao de interdependncia volta, tambm gradualmente, a tomar espao. Podemos sintetizar essa
idia na formulao analtica de Berry:
4 3 2 1 1 1 1 4
1 1 2 1 2 3
1 1 1 1
1

A coda (comp. 55 ao final) retoma e intensifica a utilizao do multifnico. Essa utilizao
interpolada por clusters, articulados em trinados, que se remete tambm a idia da interdependncia.

Concluso
A composio da pea Interdependncias foi concebida a partir de um planejamento textural
prvio, que traou procedimentos de insero da relao de independncia e interdependncia entre
as quatro camadas da instrumentao proposta. No presente trabalho, caracterizamos e
exemplificamos a utilizao desses procedimentos texturais que nortearam o discurso musical da
pea. Como previsto no planejamento, os procedimentos texturais pontuaram o fluxo do discurso
sonoro, garantindo o interesse musical.

Referncias
ALVES, J. Orlando (2005). Invarincias e Disposies Texturais: do planejamento
composicional reflexo sobre o processo criativo. Tese de Doutorado em Msica.
UniversidadeEstadualdeCampinas.

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BERRY, Wallace (1987). Structural Functions in Music. New York, Dover Publications inc.,
1976.
ALVES, J. Orlando; OLIVEIRA, Sergio Roberto (2011). Preldio 21: uma retrospectiva. Revista
Hodie, Goinia, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 67-86. Disponvel em:
http://www.musicahodie.mus.br/11.1/Musica%20Hodie_111.pdf

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Ousodemetforaseelementospoli-estilsticosemVemdos
QuatroVentos-Ez.37:9,paraquartetodeClarinetas.

Dr.MarcosVieiraLucas(UniversidadeFederaldoEstadodoRiodeJaneiro-UNIRIO,Brasil)
m.v.lucas@uol.com.br

Resumo: Neste artigo, discuto questes relativas s tcnicas de composio utilizadas em
VemdosQuatroVentos(Ez.37:9),paraquartetodeclarinetas.Lidoparticularmentecomo
usodemetforasetcnicaspoli-estilsticasdesenvolvidasporAlfredSchnittke.
Palavras-chave:metfora,poli-estilismo,tcnicasexpandidas.

Abstract: In this article, I focus on issues related to the compositional techniques used in
Vem dos Quatro Ventos (Ez. 37:9), for clarinet quartet. I deal particularly with the use of
metaphorsandpolistilistictechniquesdevelopedbyAlfredSchnittke.
Keywords:metaphor,polistylism,extendedtechniques.


Introduo:
Pode-se pensar o ato da criao artstica, metaforicamente, como um dar vida a algo inanimado, ou
ainda, numa viso mais potica, como um sopro de vida que ressuscita algum da morte. Tal foi a
viso do profeta Ezequiel (37:9) quando, guiado pela mo de Deus, viu-se subitamente transportado
a um vale repleto de ossos humanos secos e que foram trazidos de volta vida pela intercesso
divina. A passagem inspirou o primeiro movimento de minha obra Vem dos Quatro Ventos
Ez.37:9, para quarteto de clarinetas
1
. O texto bblico citado abaixo uma passagem conhecida
como a viso dos ossos secos:
Veio sobre mim a mo do Senhor; ele me levou pelo Esprito do Senhor e me deixou
no meio de um vale que estava cheio de ossos, e me fez andar ao redor deles; eram
mui numerosos na superfcie do vale e estavam sequssimos. Ento me perguntou:
Filho do homem, acaso, podero reviver esses ossos? Respondi: Senhor Deus, tu o
sabes.Disse-meele:Profetizaaessesossosedize-lhes:Ossossecos,ouviapalavrado
SenhorAssimdizoSenhorDeusaessesossos:Eisquefareientraroespritoemvs,e
vivereis. Porei tendes em vs, farei crescer carne sobre vs, sobre vs estenderei
pele e porei em vs o esprito, e vivereis. E sabereis que eu sou o Senhor. Ento
profetizei segundo me fora ordenado ; enquanto eu profetizava, houve um rudo, um
barulhodeossosquebatiamcontraossoseseajuntavam,cadaossoaoseuosso.Olhei,
e eis que havia tendes sobre eles, e cresceram as carnes, e se estendeu a pele sobre
eles,masnohavianelesoesprito.

1
Composta em 2010, Vem dos Quatro Ventos Ez. 37:9 foi encomendada pelo Quarteto Experimental e estreada por este grupo no Espao
Cultural Srgio Porto no Rio de Janeiro em Setembro de 2010, num dos concertos da srie Preldio 21 - Compositores do Presente. O grupo
Preldio 21 foi fundado em 1998 e formado por seis compositores: Alexandre Schubert, Neder Nassaro, Marcos Lucas, Caio Senna, Jos Orlando
Alves, e Srgio Roberto de Oliveira, e tem por finalidade divulgar sua prpria msica atravs de concertos, palestras e entrevistas. Para maiores
informaes ver: ALVES e OLIVEIRA (2010).
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Primeiro Movimento:
O primeiro movimento - O Breath - reflete, em seu incio, esta viso dos ossos secos, esqueletos
que vo aos poucos, atravs da pregao do profeta Ezequiel, tomando vida, com os tendes,
msculos e a carne sendo incorporados aos ossos. Esta viso dramatizada pelo quarteto, que
inicia a msica com rudos de ar sem altura definida e rudo das chaves (key slaps), como os rudos
dos ossos se juntando, descritos pelo profeta, (C 1-8, Ex. 1)

Gradualmenteo2e3clarinetesvoaderindoaestatexturaruidosaatqueoclarinete
baixo - aqui pensado como a figura de Ezequiel - profetiza aos ossos o que musicalmente
representadoatravsdepequenoserpidosfragmentosmeldicosesonsmultifnicos(C.18
a22,Ex.2).

Mas faltava ainda algo fundamental para que esses corpos pudessem voltar vida: O
sopro divino, representado pelo esprito que vem dos quatro ventos e assopra o ar nos
pulmes dos corpos inanimados. Esses vo ento, aos poucos, se pondo de p revelando um
grandeexrcitodeguerreirosdeIsraelretornandovida.Apassagemcontinuaassim:
Ento ele me disse: Profetiza ao esprito, profetiza filho do homem, e dize-lhe:
Assim diz o Senhor Deus: Vem dos Quatro Ventos, esprito, e assopra sobre esses
mortos, para que vivam. Profetizei como ele me ordenara e o esprito entrou neles e
viveram,esepuseramemp,umexrcitosobremodonumeroso


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Aos poucos os outros clarinetes vo aderindo a essa textura de rpidos fragmentos
meldicos e a seo atinge um primeiro clmax no compasso 29. Aqui aparece o primeiro som com
altura definida claramente perceptvel, pois antes deste momento nenhum som, isoladamente, teve
tempo de se destacar da textura. Este d sustenido distribudo por trs oitavas no ensemble e, nos
compassos seguintes, cede lugar a um primeiro acorde: uma trade maior na primeira inverso com
um trtono (G-C#) na voz aguda. Este acorde-motivo uma espcie de assinatura musical que
tenho empregado em muitas das obras que compus recentemente, geralmente aparecendo em
importantes momentos de articulao formal. (C. 28-31, Ex. 3).


O clarinete baixo ressurge expressivamente num recitativo ornamentado que reitera esta
coleo de notas do acorde-motivo, mas acrescenta tambm outras notas importantes em sua
pregao, principalmente o f 2, que mantm relao de trtono inferior com o baixo (Si3) do
acorde-motivo (C. 34-44 somente clarinete baixo, Ex. 4).


O processo harmnico que se instaura a partir deste recitativo do clarinete baixo
promove uma transformao gradual do acorde-motivo que, aps ser reiterado e distorcido
nos clarinetes 1, 2 e 3, agora se transforma em dois trtonos superpostos: f-si / d#-sol (C.
44-48,Ex.5)
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H um retorno momentneo textura dos compassos 26-28 - o rudo do sopro sem altura
definida (C.49-50) - aps o qual a msica dirige-se a um segundo clmax, sobre a nota r distribuda
pelo ensemble em quatro oitavas. Esta passagem de carter marcial remete idia do exrcito
numeroso que se levanta de volta vida. As vozes extremas mantm um pedal duplo sobre a nota
r, enquanto que as vozes centrais vo caminhando por movimento contrrio, cromaticamente,
gerando tenso harmnica. (C.54-59, Ex. 6)


Aps um curto trecho de certa independncia polifnica o movimento termina em uma
cadnciaquere-contextualizaotrtonosi-f,doscompassos46e47emnovoacordequartal
(C.60-63,Ex.7)


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Segundo Movimento:
O segundo movimento uma pequena fantasia em homenagem ao compositor russo Alfred
Schnittke (1934-1998). Este ficou conhecido por sua esttica poli-estilstica que apresentava, entre
outros recursos: citaes (literais ou modificadas) a distoro, o grotesco, a pardia, o humor e a
ironia. Tais caractersticas, que marcaram sua produo composicional aproximadamente entre os
anos de 1967 e 1988, foram particularmente desenvolvidas em obras como a Segunda Sonata para
violino Quasi una Sonata (1967-68) ou no Concerto Grosso No1 (1977).
Na Fantasia, me aproprio livremente de alguns dos traos do poli-estilismo Schnittkeano,
entre eles a citao (literal e modificada), a distoro, e o humor. Aps uma curta introduo de
doze compassos inicia-se a primeira seo, onde uma citao (no literal) do primeiro movimento
dos Noturnos de Debussy (Nuages) estabelecida pelo ensemble (C. 13-16, Ex. 8).

Esta textura , em seguida, re-apresentada de maneira variada nos clarinetes 1 e 2, agora
com as alturas derivadas da escala de tons inteiros (coleo: Bb, C, E, F#, G#), para em seguida
sofrer interferncia do clarinete 3 e clarinete baixo. Estes ltimos apresentam material contrastante
tanto pelas alturas utilizadas (coleo: Eb, F, F#, A, B) nos ostinati com dinmica e articulao e
andamento diferentes (C. 17-20, Ex. 9).


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Aos poucos o contraste vai se intensificando, tornando-se mais agressivo, como uma
discusso, at que o primeiro clarinete desliga-se da textura e inicia outra citao -desta vez literal -
do concerto para clarinete e orquestra em L Maior (K662) de Mozart. O ensemble, aos poucos,
parece contagiar-se com a msica Mozarteana e adere gradativamente textura literal do
acompanhamento do concerto (C.35-37, Ex.10).


Esta teatralidade dos instrumentistas outra caracterstica marcante da msica de
Schnittke,influenciadaporsuaatuaocomocompositordemsicaincidentaledesenvolvida
emobrascomoaSegundaSonata,mencionadaacima,comoafirmaPeterSchmelz:
Em um nvel criativo fundamental, a sonata estava enraizada no drama. AQuasiuna
Sonata,eespecialmenteseumotivoB-A-C-H,forambaseadosnapartituradeSchnittke
paraodesenhoanimadoGlassHarmonica(Steklyannayagarmonika)
2
.(Schmelz,2009,
p.255)

Uma srie de arpejos descendentes do acorde de R maior - elemento aqui usado com
certa carga de humor - faz uma transio para a prxima seo (C.48-58) que se configura
comoumaversobastantedistorcidadotemadoconcertoMozarteano,aquiapresentadonos
violinos1e2sobreumatexturaestticanoregistrogravedosdemais,comoumaespciede
lamentoquefinalizaaobra(C.48-52,Ex.11).

2
Onafundamentalcreativelevel,thesonatawasrootedindrama.TheQuasiunaSonata,andespeciallyitsB-A-
C-Hmovive,weredrawnfromSchnittkesscoretothecartoonGlassHarmonica(Steklyannayagarmonika)
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Consideraes Finais:
Vem dos Quatro Ventos uma obra singela que lida com a questo da criao musical: o
trabalho composicional, o artesanato e tcnica por um lado, e inspirao (ou intuio) por outro. Seu
primeiro movimento centrado na questo da representao musical atravs de metforas, e para
isso faz uso de tcnicas expandidas como os rudos de chaves e o sopro sem alturas definidas.
No primeiro movimento, encontramos na passagem de Ezequiel 37:9 um texto instigante,
tanto em termos de sua significao, como metfora da criao musical, quanto na sua imagem
potica, da qual tiramos partido para concepo geral da obra. Na Fantasia, recorre-se citao,
literal ou no, que ento submetida diferentes contextos atravs da distoro e humor, traos
presentes na msica de Alfred Schnittke.
A formao de um compositor envolve o aprendizado de muitas disciplinas como harmonia,
contraponto, instrumentao e orquestrao, anlise, tcnicas de composio eletroacstica, msica
assistida por computador, entre outras. Embora no constituam a composio em si mesma, essas
disciplinas so as ferramentas fundamentais que, uma vez articuladas de maneira coerente e
original, so as possveis causas do sucesso de uma obra.
Mas existe algo que est alm da aquisio destas ferramentas e do domnio das tcnicas de
composio, e que se manifesta de maneira mais ou menos subjetiva, nem sempre de forma
racional. A inspirao, como sugere Jonathan Harvey em seu instigante trabalho sobre o assunto a
causa oculta:
pode ser quase impossvel para o ouvinte apontar a sua presena na obra acabada,
por outro lado, sem ela a obra no possuiria a individualidade pela qual,
presumivelmente, ns a admiramos. Inspirao ao mesmo tempo a influncia mais
misteriosaemumaobra,eamaisfundamental,porquesemelaaidentidadeessencial
daobraestariaperdida(Harvey,1999,p.x)
3
.

3
it may be almost impossible for the listener to pinpoint its presence in the finished work, yet without it the
work would not have the individuality for which, presumably, we admire it. Inspiration is at once the most
mysterious influence on the work, and the most fundamental, because without it the works essential identity
wouldbelost.
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Longe de querer discutir neste curto texto a pertinncia ou abrangncia do termo
inspirao,oqueHarveyjfezbrilhantementeemseutrabalho,chamoaatenoparaofato
de que um dos significados correntes da palavra remete ao processo pelo qual se inspira ar
para os pulmes, uma interessante analogia com a passagem de Ezequiel aqui tomada como
umainstnciametafricadacriaoartstica.

Referncias Bibliogrficas:

ALVES, J.Orlando; OLIVEIRA, Srgio Roberto. Grupo Preldio 21: Uma retrospectiva. In: Musica
Hodie Vol. 11, No. 1 / 2011. Disponvel em:
http://www.musicahodie.mus.br/11.1/Musica%20Hodie_111.pdf
A BIBLIA SAGRADA, Antigo e Novo Testamento. Traduo para o portugus por Joo Ferreira
de Almeida. 2 edio no Brasil, revista e atualizada. So Paulo: Sociedade Bblica do Brasil,
1993.
HARVEY, Jonathan. Music and Inspiration. London, Faber and Faber Limited, 1999.
SCHMELZ, Peter J. Such Freedom, if Only Musical Unofficial Soviet Music during the Thaw.
Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009.

MarcosLucas-Professoradjunto,membrodoPPGMelotadonoDepartamentodeMsicada
UniversidadeFederaldoEstadodoRiodeJaneiroUNIRIO(2002).BacharelemComposio
Musical pela UNIRIO (1990), Mestre em Composio pela UFRJ (1994), e Doutor em Msica
pela University of Manchester (1999). Premiado em diversos concursos de composio no
Brasil e Exterior. Atualmente realiza Estgio Snior na University of Salford - UK, na rea de
peraeMusicTheatre.



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Mensagensparaopassado:Vmhlch...1912

SrgioAzevedo(ESMLPortugal)
sergioazevedo68@gmail.com

Abstract.
The piano quartet V mhlch 1912 (In the mists 1912), written in 2010, is based in three
fragmentsfromVmhlch,apiano-cycleoffourpieces,writtenin1912byMoraviancomposer
Leo Janek. This piece follows several other pieces where I use, as a departure point,
elementsfrompiecesfromothercomposers:Lopes-Graa,Mozart,Schubert,etc.Thisprocess
is a form of communication through the ages with my musical loves, as it develops some
fragments towards unknown regions. The music resulting from this process, similar to the
hypothetic cloning of vanished animals from fragments of DNA, is also a by-product of the
presentage,somethingunavoidable.Thegoalisnotre-composeinthestyleof,butmelting
presentandpastinanew,agelesslanguage,amusicallanguageworkingasmyprivatetime-
machine.
Keywords:quotation,temporalcommunication,musicastimemachine.

Resumo.
O quarteto com piano V mhlch 1912 (Nas brumas 1912), escrito em 2010, baseia-se um
trs fragmentos de V mhlch, ciclo de quatro peas para piano, escritas em 1912 pelo
compositormoravoLeoJanek.Estapeainsere-senoseguimentodeoutrasobrasminhas
que utilizam, como ponto de partida, elementos de peas de diversos compositores: Lopes-
Graa, Mozart, Schubert, etc. Este processo uma forma de comunicar atravs das eras
comosmeusamoresmusicais,aodesenvolveremdirecesinsuspeitadasalgunsfragmentos.
Processo semelhante a uma hipottica clonagem de seres desaparecidos a partir de
fragmentos de ADN, a msica resultante porm tambm produto da era actual, como no
podiadeixardeser.Nosetrataportantoderecomporaoestilode,masdefundirpresente
epassadonumanovalinguagemquesepretende,precisamente,intemporal,equefunciona,a
nvelpessoal,comoaminhamquinadotempoprivada.
Palavras-chaves:citao,comunicaotemporal,msicacomomquinadotempo.

Em 2010 o Ensemble Darcos, com o qual j tinha colaborado em concertos


comentados,ecujodirectorartstico,ocompositorNunoCorte-Realhaviasidomeualunona
ESML, encomendou-me uma obra para quarteto com piano. Trata-se de uma formao com
pouca histria na msica portuguesa, havendo muito poucas peas para essa combinao
instrumental. No mesmo concerto seria tocada a verso reduzida de Riklada, de Janek, e
aindaumquartetocompianodeBrahms.Aproximidadecomumdoscompositoresquefazem
partedomeupanteopessoal,Janek,tornouessaencomendaemalgomuitoespecial.Jh
vrios anos que em certas peas utilizo fragmentos de outras obras para com eles construir
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algo novo, algo que, no meu universo pessoal, representa uma comunicao com o passado,
uma linha directa com compositores que, para mim, so muito mais do que meros nomes
numa enciclopdia: fisicamente desaparecidos, vivem porm nas suas obras, e permitem-me
comunicarcomelesatravsdomeiocomumquenosune:acomposiomusical.
Escrever uma nova obra criar um novo universo; cada comeo de uma nova obra
um novo Big Bang que despoleta energia e forma novos mundos, mundos em perptua
expanso. Sabia que Janek tivera planos para um trio com piano, e que vrios motivos da
Sonata para Violino tero sido retirados desse projecto que, ou nunca foi terminado, ou foi
destrudo pelo compositor. No querendo porm usar fragmentos dessa maravilhosa sonata,
por diversas razes que no interessa aqui explicitar, preferi antes ater-me a um ciclo para
piano escrito em 1912, intitulado V mhlch, ou, Nas brumas. Este ciclo representa o ponto
maisaltodaproduoparapianosolodocompositormoravo,etambmaltimagrandeobra
queescreveuparaesseinstrumento,seexceptuarmosasduaspeasconcertantesdosltimos
anos.Escolhiesteciclo,paraalmdasrazespessoaisquereferinoquererrevelar,tambm
pelofactodeosgestosqueretireiseprestaremaseradaptadosformaodoquartetocom
piano. No pretendi sequer esconder a origem pianstica dos trs fragmentos seleccionados:
estes, em todos os casos, so ouvidos somente no piano em vrias ocasies, ou so tocados
pelopianonumcontextoemqueascordasfazemoutracoisaqualquer.
A ideia no era compor ao estilo de, nem re-compor ou imaginar uma nova pea tal
comoestaseriaescritaporJanek.Pelocontrrio,estamsicanuncapoderiatersidoescrita
em 1912, nem por Janek nem por outro compositor qualquer. O que pretendi, tal como
noutraspeassemelhantementebaseadasemmsicadeoutroscompositores,msicaqueuso
como ponto de partida (Mozart, Schubert, etc.), foi, de certa forma, fundirpassadoepresente,
unir a minha linguagem com outra linguagem, criando dessa forma um objecto novo que
resultadasduas,masqueofazdeformainextrincvel.Trata-sedealgoquenadatemquever
nemcomneo-romantismosoups-modernismos,nemcom,piorainda,aqueletipodemsica
que usa as citaes em colagens que pretendem criar uma dialctica de confronto entre
pocaseestilos,masquemuitasvezesresultaapenasnumacaticaacumulaodemateriais
irreconciliveis.
Semeviroparaopassadoembuscadesentidoeinspiraoparaopresenteeofuturo,
terei de relembrar Borges, o grande escritor argentino, que declarou uma vez preferir olhar
paraosescritoresdopassado,porqueosseuscontemporneos,vivendonamesmapocaque
ele, tinham grandes probabilidades de escreverem todos como ele, ou Borges como eles.
Olhando para uma poca longnqua, essa possibilidade atenua-se. Como dizia Madame de
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Stel, S novo o que est esquecido. No indo to longe, e embora o conto PierreMnard,
autordoQuixote,domesmoBorges,aesseslimitesnosconduza,lanceiomeuolharpara1912
eparaessestrsfragmentos,todosdamesmapeadociclodequatro:

Exemplo1-JanekVmhlch(A):

Exemplo2-JanekVmhlch(B):

Exemplo3-JanekVmhlch(C):

Estes fragmentos aparecem por esta ordem (a mesma por que aparecem na obra
original), sendo que o C s surge no quarteto bastante mais tarde. O incio uma mera
instrumentao do motivo A, a que se segue imediatamente uma verso do motivo B j
comelementosadicionaisqueotransfiguram:

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Exemplo4AzevedoVmhlch1912(A):

Exemplo5AzevedoVmhlch1912(B):

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Exemplo6AzevedoVmhlch1912(C):

A obra divide-se em 6 andamentos tocados atacca, quase todos eles lentos, e os 3


fragmentos iniciais do origem a diversos contextos, alguns dos quais os usam em novas
combinaes,comonoexemploseguinte:

Exemplo7AzevedoVmhlch1912(BeA):


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Ou em verses que, desses motivos, retiram elementos ainda mais bsicos (como um
nicointervalomeldico)quesoreiterados,transformados,etc.:

Exemplo8AzevedoVmhlch1912(transformaodeC):

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Exemplo9AzevedoVmhlch1912(outratransformaodeC):

O grau de transformao destes fragmentos vai gradualmente aumentando at que


delesrestasomenteumamemrialongnqua.Apenasnofimdaobra,ecomoquenumsbito
lampejo dessa memria perdida que, num instante, se desvanece mais uma vez, (desta vez
parasempre),surgenovamenteomotivoA:

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Exemplo10AzevedoVmhlch1912(ltimareiteraodomotivoA):

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Exemplo11AzevedoVmhlch1912(fimdaobra):

Autilizaodos3fragmentosemcontextoscujanaturezaestilsticaseparececomade
Janekouadasuapoca,atransiodoRomantismoparaosculoXX,masno,mercde
subtis modificaes na textura, ritmo ou outros parmetros, causa um efeito de estranheza
que pode ser equiparado ao conceito freudiano de uncanny (Das Unheimliche, 1919), a
sensaodesconfortveldedepararmoscomalgoquepossui,simultaneamente,familiaridade
e estranheza devido a pequenos pormenores que no se coadunam com o original que nos
familiar. Os mecanismos da memria contribuem para essa sensao, que tambm se
aproxima do dj-vu, e que vrios artistas utilizaram de forma magistral (Vertigo, de
Hitchcock, 1958). Kundera, cuja ligao familiar e emocional a Janek conhecida, usa
tambmesteconceitosuamaneiraemvriosdosseusromances:segundooromancista,
onossodesconfortoeestranhezanosurgemquandodeumanovaconquista,comumanova
mulher,mascomaquelamulherquejfoi,outrora,nossa(omesmosepassando,obviamente,
emsentidoinversomulher-homem).
V mhlch 1912 uma obra qual esse conceito no indiferente, ao explorar
materiaisquenossofamiliares,masquesosimultaneamenteapresentadosemformasque
os tornam inquietantes, vagamente estranhos, porque familiares e no-familiares ao mesmo
tempo, como nesta passagem em que um gesto tipicamente romntico nunca poderia ter
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sido escrito, porm, por um compositor romntico, mas que tambm no demonstra
evidnciaporquerazonuncaopoderiatersido:

Exemplo12AzevedoVmhlch1912(DasUnheimliche):

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Somente no compasso 46 deste exemplo, os clusters no piano se tornam


efectivamente um elemento claramente disruptivo, embora ainda perfeitamente integrados
nograndgesteabrangentedopianismoultra-romnticoenasuavirtuosidademaiordoque
omundo.Nochegaportantoaexistirumverdadeiroconflitoentreopianoeascordas,que
continuam a sua harmonia tonal, uma vez que ambos os gestos, no obstante a diferena
harmnica, se integram, como gestos, na mesma linguagem romntica. O cluster torna-se
ento o pequeno elemento de estranheza, aquilo que torna o momento uncanny. Neste
particular, como no recordar Mahler e Freud? O que tornava a msica de Mahler uncanny
para o pblico eram aqueles fragmentos de marchas militares e de msica popular no meio
das sinfonias e ciclos de canes. No porque a linguagem de um ponto de vista fosse
diferente (toda a msica perfeitamente tonal e estilisticamente da mesma poca), mas
porque aqueles fragmentos se reportavam a contextos sociais e estticos nos antpodas do
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que era suposto ser a sala de concertos. O aparecimento da banalidade na grandeza,
disfarada com as mesmas roupagens tonais, tornava a msica resultante numa fonte de
estranhezaedesconfortoesttico.
TerminolembrandoasnotasdeprogramaqueescreviparaVmhlch1912:

Em 1912, o compositor checo Leo Janek escreveu quatro obras para piano
intituladas V mlhch (Nas brumas, ou Por entre a nvoa). Do sculo XVIII ao XX
(inclusive) e, do ponto de vista da mera glosa, desde sempre, tem sido hbito dos
compositores escreverem variaes sobre temas alheios, gnero dos mais comuns na
msica erudita e tambm parte integrante do mundo do jazz, que desde h muito
improvisasobreosstandards(temasclssicosdejazz).Porm,oquemeinteressou
nestaobraespecficanofoiatcnicadavariaosobreumtema,masoutroprocesso
muitomaiscomplexo.Oquemefascinaametamorfosepoticadeumaideia,atravs
daqualentronumuniversoquejnoexiste,qualmquinadotempoqueregressaa
1912, e que permite modificar minha maneira o curso da Histria. Trs curtos
fragmentos iniciais originam as metamorfoses dos dois primeiros andamentos, e
ressoam, embora j mais longinquamente, no final do terceiro. Neste universo
paralelo, Leo compe portanto mais peas do que aquelas que efectivamente nos
deixou, e numa dessas peas impossveis, resolve ampliar algum do material de V
mlhch para um quarteto de violino, viola, violoncelo e piano. Sente,
inexplicavelmente, que est em comunho com uma poca muito mais tardia, e
interroga-se, mas leva o trabalho at ao fim. E porque no? No mundo da criao
artsticaasleisdafsicanoseaplicam,eosparadoxosdeRussellsopossveiseat-
novamente:porqueno?desejveis.

Biografia
Srgio Azevedo nasceu em Coimbra em 1968. Estudou inicialmente com Fernando Lopes-
Graa e terminou os estudos de composio na Escola Superior de Msica de Lisboa, com
Christopher Bochmann e Constana Capdeville, tendo obtido a classificao mxima. Ganhou
vriosprmiosemPortugalenoestrangeiro,eassuasobrastmsidoregularmentetocadase
encomendadas em vrios pases por prestigiadas orquestras, ensembles, solistas e maestros,
estando vrias delas disponveis em CD. Em 2011 foi distinguido com o importante "Prmio
Autores" da Sociedade Portuguesa de Autores na categoria de "Melhor Trabalho de Msica
Erudita de 2010" com o Concerto para Piano e Orquestra. Publicou ainda dois livros e
contribuiu com artigos para diversas publicaes, colaborando com o Museu da Msica
PortuguesanaediodasobrascompletasdeFernandoLopes-Graa.desde1993professor
na Escola Superior de Msica de Lisboa, e a sua msica publicada pela AVA - Edies
Musicais(www.editions-ava.com).

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Composition-as-research:ConnectingFlightsIIforClarinet
Quartetaresearchdisseminationmethodologyforcomposers

DrMartinBlain(ManchesterMetropolitanUniversity,England)
m.a.blain@mmu.ac.uk

Abstract.
This article will consider the relationship between the making of a composition and the
disseminationofitsresearchinsights,forcomposersdevelopingpracticewithinacademia.It
will provide a context for the discussion by considering the position of the UK Higher
Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) on the dissemination of practice-based
research. It will briefly reflect on current practice within the wider context of the arts in
Higher Education, before going on to discuss the practice-as-research (PaR) initiative as a
potentialmodelforcomposer-researcherstodevelopmethodologiesforthedisseminationof
their work. From this position, I will discuss my recent composition, ConnectingFlightsIIfor
ClarinetQuartetinanattempttodrawouttheresearchinsightsexposedthroughthemaking
ofthework.

Keywords:
Research dissemination, practice-as-research, process, methodology, embedded, practitioner
knowledge, contextual framework, critical reflection, post-serial, fragmentation, chord
multiplication.

Introduction
The Encontro Internacional de Msica de Cmara initiative provides an exciting
opportunity for composers and performers to meet, within an academic Forum, to
disseminate and discuss recent activity in a variety of compositional practices. However, the
how and the what composers are to disseminate and discuss within their research
communities, at meetings of this kind (as well as at other research dissemination
opportunities) has become an issue for consideration. For some, a musical composition may
standaloneasevidenceofaresearchinquiry,withitsresearchimperativesclearlyarticulated
throughthepractice,throughtheproductionofanotatedscoreand/oraperformanceofthe
work.Forothers,assuggestedbyRobinNelson,itmaybehelpful,particularlyinanacademic
institutional context where much rides on judgement made about research worthiness, for
other evidence to be adduced. (2006:112) Here, there is a suggestion that, for Nelson, the
production of new knowledge and/or substantial new insights within a research inquiry,
may not only be an outcome as evidenced within the product, but may also reside in the
processesthathaveleadtothemakingofthework.
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This article will, therefore, consider the relationship between the making of a
composition and the dissemination of its research insights, for composers developing
practice within academia. It will provide a context for the discussion by considering the
position of the UK Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) on the
disseminationofpractice-basedresearch.Itwillbrieflyreflectoncurrentpracticewithinthe
wider context of the arts in Higher Education, before going on to discuss the practice-as-
research initiative as a potential model for composer-researchers to develop methodologies
for the dissemination of their work. From this position, I will then discuss my recent
composition,ConnectingFlightsIIforClarinetQuartetinanattempttodrawouttheresearch
insightsexposedthroughthemakingofthework.

1ResearchContext
As the UK Higher Education research communities prepare for a research audit in
Autumn 2013, HEFCE has recently published criteria for its Research Excellence Framework
(REF) on the articulation of practice-led research. It reports that, research outputs (this
includesmusiccomposition)mayincludeastatementofupto300wordsincaseswherethe
research imperatives and research processmight further be made evident by description
andcontextualisinginformation.(REF2012:87)Whilstthisstatementiswelcomedandoffers
someguidancetocomposersonhowtomaketheresultsofaresearchinquiryexplicitforthe
purpose of the REF exercise, it only partly addresses the issue of how composers working
withinanacademicinstitutionalcontextcanbestdisseminatetheirresearchinsightsforthe
benefit of their respective research communities. At a time in the UK when HEFCE has made
the decision to bring together the research communities of Music and the research
communities of Drama, Dance and the Performing Arts for the REF process, I would suggest
that it is pertinent for composers working within academia, to consider the relationship
betweenartspractice-as-researchandmethodologiesforresearchdissemination.
Whilst there have been initiatives within the music academic community to develop
methodologies for practice-based research, much has centred around performance practice
1

and the community has not dealt specifically with the development of appropriate methods

1
In2007,theUniversityofLondonranatwo-yearproject:Practice-as-ResearchinMusicOnline(PARMO).One
of the outcomes of the project was to provide a resource for capturing and disseminating what was once an
ephemeral event. It also, however, made the assumption that traditional modes of dissemination, for musical
scoreswaswelldeveloped.
(www.Jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/reppres/sue/primo.aspx)(accessed29/1/12)
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for the practice of composition
2
. In England, within the wider context of arts practice, the
practice-as-research
3
initiativeoverthelasttwodecadeshasbeguntoestablishnewpractice-
led methods for research practitioners across the arts communities. More recently, an AHRC
project: Practice-as-Research Consortium North West
4
(Parc NW) has invited postgraduate
research students, project partners and other interested parties to share experiences and
exchange knowledge and to explore the development of appropriate methods for the
dissemination of research where practice remains a substantial element of the research
inquiry. This has resulted in arts practitioners from across a wide range of arts disciplines
coming together to share their research insights and to discuss issues in research
dissemination.
One method I have found particularly useful when considering my own approach to
thedisseminationofcompositionalresearch,isthemodelproposedbyNelson.(2006)When
consideringthenotionofapractice-as-researchinquiryhesuggeststhat:
Poststructuralism fosters a sceptical and radical mode of thought which
resonates with experimentation in arts practices insofar as play is a method of
inquiry, aiming not to establish findings by way of data to support a
demonstrable and finite answer to a research question, but to put in play
elements in a bricolage which afford insights through deliberate and careful
juxtaposition.(2006:109)[italicsaremine,exceptbricolage]

Nelsons point is well made and certainly resonates with my own compositional thinking.
Fromthisposition,Nelsonoffersamodelthatcombinesthreespecificareasforconsideration:
Practitioner Knowledge; Conceptual Framework; and Critical Reflection. This tripartite
structure encourages the practitioner-researcher to move freely between these positions as
the research unfolds and suggests that the model may encourage the production of new
knowledge and/or substantial new insights through the interplay of encounters exposed
throughout the research inquiry, what Nelson, refers to as Praxis (theory imbricated within
practice). (2006:115) Of relevance to this discussion, I am particularly drawn to Nelsons
triangulationmodelwhenconsideringmyownresearchjourney.Throughmyexperiencesas
a composer, I continue to develop a variety of skills (what Nelson might refer to as
practitioner knowledge). These may include, but are not limited by, a developed

2
ComposersdohavetheopportunitytopresenttheirworkatnationalandinternationalconferencesalthoughI
am unaware of any attempt to develop research dissemination methodologies in the area of composition-as-
research.Ifthereaderisawareofanydevelopmentsinthisarea,Iwouldbegratefultoreceiveinformation.
3
In2001,theUniversityofBristolranafive-yearAHRBproject,PracticeasResearchinPerformance(PARIP)to
investigatecreative-academicissuesraisedbypracticeasresearch.
(http://www.bris.ac.uk/parip/introduction.htm)(accessed20/1/12)
4
Seehttp://parcnorthwest.miriadonline.info/(accessed20/1/12)

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understanding of proportion within the musical structures I generate; of how melodic and
harmonicmaterialcanworkwithinmydevelopingmusicallanguage;ofhowmusicaltextures
can be manipulated within my developing soundscapes. These skills, or knowledgies have
been developed and refined through time by a process of play and encounters within my
compositionalpractice.Theseskillshavebecomeembeddedintomypracticeandalthoughat
times may appear to be working at an instinctive/sub-conscious level during the process of
composition, and possibly hidden from view in the musical score or at the point of
performance,couldbemadevisibleatthepointofresearchdissemination.
Aspartofaresearchjourneyitisimportantforapractitioner-researchertobeableto
positiontheirpracticewithinthewidercontextofaresearchcommunity;Nelsondefinesthis
area of exploration within his model as the conceptual framework, and suggests that, [o]ne
way in which creative practice becomes innovative is by being informed by theoretical
perspectives, either new in themselves, or perhaps newly explored in a given medium.
(2006:114) Here, both the researcher (composer) and the research community (other
composers),Iwouldsuggest,havearesponsibilitytoeachothertodisseminatetheresultsof
research, allowing the community to fully engage with current thinking in compositional
practice. Whilst the 300-word statement required by the assessors for the REF exercise, to
drawouttheresearchimperativesandresearchprocess,mayprovidesufficientinformation
for the panel to make an informed judgement regarding the quality of the research, I would
suggestthatthisparticularmethodofresearchdisseminationmaynotbeofsignificantbenefit
tothewidercompositionalresearchcommunity.Here,thisiswhereNelsonsmodelmaybeof
value,andIwouldsuggestapositionfortheresearchcommunitytoconsider.
Critical reflection on the processes at play remain an important element within the
research journey. Here attention is drawn towards the processes that have contributed
towards the making of the work. This may include a reflection on the use of a specific
conceptual framework and may draw on elements contained within the practitioner
knowledge element of the model. However, it is important to stress that in Nelsons model,
thetriangulationandtherelationshipbetweeneachelementremainfluid.WhatIhavefound
particularly exciting and useful about Nelsons model for the development of a practice-as-
researchmethodology,isthatitisnotsuggestingthatIdoanythingverymuchdifferentfrom
whatIhavebeenattemptingtodoasacomposer.Asacomposer,Ihavecontinuallyreflected
on my working methods and at times have gained insights into developing solutions to
specific compositional problems; I work with, and react against a variety of compositional
practicesandtraditionsandseemyworkasdevelopingwithinalineageofinfluences;and,I
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am hopeful that these experiences in someway have become embedded within my
compositional practice. However, for me, Nelson has exposed and brought into focus the
research processes at play in my practice and has suggested that new knowledge and
substantial new insights are likely to occur, and be made evident, not only within the final
product (the composition), but also at a variety of points along a research journey. This, I
wouldsuggest,canonlybenefitthecompositionresearchcommunity.Sohowisthisworking
inrelationtomyownmethodofdissemination?Iwillnowconsidermyownresearchjourney
in relation to Nelsons model through my recent work Connecting Flights II for Clarinet
Quartet.

2ConnectingFlightsII
ConnectingFlightsIIforClarinetQuartet,ispartofaportfolioofcompositionsconcerned
with the development of rhythmic and harmonic structures within a post-serial framework.
The portfolio aims to develop individual works that are a practical exploration of the
possibilities and tensions for the contemporary composer in a postmodern environment
workinginwhatisessentiallyamodernisttraditionhere,Iamparticularlyinterestedinthe
work of Berio, Boulez and Ligeti and see my work as continuing/developing within this
tradition.Subsequentlyeachworkexaminestherelationshipbetweenmodernistconcernsof
unity in relation to postmodernist notions of fragmentation and its impact on the
development of musical structures. At the local level, rhythmic and harmonic structures are
explored through a variety of conceptual and analytical frameworks Ill discuss these in
more detail later. To date, the portfolio of work includes: Fiver Pitch (1999) for Large
Orchestra;ConnectingFlights(2001)forWindQuartet;TherapyforClarinet,Violin,Celloand
Piano (2002); Percussion Quartet No 2 (2009); and Connecting Flights II (2011); two further
compositions are planned: one for Piano and Laptops; one for Chamber Orchestra. However,
forthisarticle,myfocusofattentionwillbeonmyrecentcompositionConnectingFlightsII.
ConnectingFlightsIIisathree-movementworkthattakesabout15minutestocomplete
andtakesitsnamefromanobservationmadebyRobertLepage,atheatremaker,reflectingon
his own creative practice. In conversation with Rmy Charest, Lepage described his own
process of making theatre as something that takes shape in flight, when its meaning and
directionescapeus,whenitbecomesarebelliousbeastthatwereunabletocage.(1995:159)
On reflection, the process Lepage is describing here, about his experience of making theatre,
appearedtoresonatewithmyownexperienceofgeneratinganddevelopingmaterialsforthe
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portfolio, so it became an aide memoire for my thinking through my process of making, and
hassubsequentlyremainedasatitleforsomeoftheworksintheportfolio.
The research questions Connecting Flights II poses are concerned with the technical
developmentofharmonicandrhythmicproceduresinthedevelopmentoftheworkandtheir
subsequent structural implications within each of the three contrasting movements. Boulez,
whendiscussingmusicalsyntaxinBOULEZONMUSICTODAYsuggeststhat:
[i]twouldsurelybeillusorytotrytolinkallthegeneralstructuresofaworktoone
and the same global generative structure, from which they would necessarily
derive in order to assure the cohesion and unity, as well as ubiquity of the work.
Thiscohesionandubiquitycannot,inmyopinion,beobtainedsomechanically;the
principleofallegianceofstructurestoacentralauthorityseemsrathertoresortto
Newtonian models, contradicting the development of present-day thought.
(Boulez1971:99)

I would suggest here that Boulezs insight into the principles at play regarding the
development of musical structures, is supported by his own practice his practitioner
knowledge. Conceptually, Boulez withdrew from the mechanically-driven world of total
serialismhehadcreatedforhimselfinPolyphonieX,(nowwithdrawnasacomposition),and
Structures Book 1a, to a position where creative insight and musical experimentation
returned to his working method and played a more significant role in the decision making
process. Here, Boulez, pre-empts Nelsons observation of the poststructural condition in
relation to current arts practices, and in principle, is close in its conceptual approach to the
way Lepage describes his own practice. Nelson, Lepage and Boulez are connected by the
desire to allow practice to develop through the calculated, but experimental and playful
juxtapositionofmaterials.

3-1Developmentofharmonicmaterial
One analytical framework I have found useful for the development of harmonic
material within a post-serial framework within my work, is the Boulezian concept of chord
multiplication
5
.Putsimply,thisisaprocesswhereonesetofpitch-classesistransposedonto
another set of pitch-classes resulting in a complex array of clusters that can be manipulated
withinavarietyoftexturalsettings.Whilstcomposingthework,Iwasparticularlyinterested
in developing non-functional harmonic structures as a way of moving away from traditional
practicesandaprocedurebasedontheBoulezianconceptofchordmultiplication(ornested
transposition) provided a useful starting point. Of course, through the process of developing

5
Forafullexplanationoftheconcept,seeBoulez.(1975:39-40)
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harmonicmaterialsforthework,otherprocessesweredevelopedandhavecontributedtothe
work. Whilst a full analysis of the harmonic material used in ConnectingFlightsIIis beyond
thescopeofthisarticle(ifinfactafullanalysisofanymaterialispossible),Iwillofferabrief
analysisoftwotypesofharmonicmaterialusedinthework.
I established a sequence of 24-pitches (See fig. 1(i)). The first 8-pitches were
established at the piano as two 4-note chords through a process of improvisation, and the
remaining 4-pitches in the first twelve-note collection, to my ear, appeared to work well
together,sowereaddedtothecollection.However,Ididnotwanttoworkwithinstrictserial
procedures so decided to extend the pitch sequence to allow a wider network of pitch
relationships to develop, and this was established through a process of experimentation I
was guided by my practitioner knowledge, developed through the process of working with
non-tonal structures in previous works, both within the portfolio as well as other projects.
FromthiscollectionofpitchesIdevelopedtwoformsofharmonicmaterial:onebasedonthe
serial procedure of pitch rotation; the other developed from the Boulezian concept of chord
multiplication.

3.2Harmonicmaterialtype1
Pitchrotationoftheoriginal24-notepitchsequenceproducestwenty-fourformsofthe
originalpitchsequenceandfig.1(i)showsthecollectionof4-notegroupingsfromwhichthe
firstsix4-notechordsareproduced.Fig.1(ii)showsthepitchesasharmonicmaterial.During
the process of developing this type of harmonic material, I was aware that my positioning of
pitches within each chord was being directed by my experience of working with traditional
voice-leading techniques in past projects the outer voices conform to established practices
of contrary and similar motion and the inner voices move, where possible, by step or to the
nextavailablepitch.Ifindthismethodofdevelopingnon-tonalharmonicprogressionsworks
wellinmycompositionalpractice.

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Fig. 1: Connecting Flights II, pitch and harmonic material type 1: i) 24-note pitch sequence; ii) 4-note chords
constructedfromthe24-notepitchsequence;iii)exampleofelongationofchordtypea.

3.3Harmonicmaterialtype2
My adaption of the chord multiplication technique allowed me to develop a different
pathway through the initial material. Here, I divided the original form of the pitch sequence
into 3-note groupings (see fig. 2(i)). Groups a and b are then combined to produce a 6-note
chordandmyvoicingofthepitchesisguidedbymyear.Theresulting6-notechordpatternis
then transposed onto each of its five other pitches (see fig 2(ii)). This procedure is repeated
forthecombinationofgroupingsfroma-dande-htoproduceachordmatrix(seefig.2(iii)).
This process created seventy-two 6-note chords. The challenge now is to use the material
creatively and expressively through a process of experimentation. For Connecting Flights II,
my chosen pathway through the material was to move through the matrix diagonally, from
top-left to bottom-right for the groupings a-d, and then from bottom-left to top-right for the
groupings e-h; of course, many pathways are possible and would be likely to produce a rich
varietyofharmonicmaterialforfurtherexplorationandthiscouldbeexploredfurtherinlater
works from a position of experience from working within this particular harmonic system.
The generation of seventy-two, 6-notes chords and its many potential harmonic pathways is
far too many for the work under discussion. For Connecting Flights II, this process created
twelve 6-note chords which after considering and re-voicing some of the chord structures,

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

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Fig. 2: ConnectingFlightsII, harmonic material type 2: i) 24-note pitch sequence; ii) example of 6-note chord
constructionfromthe24-notepitchsequence;iii)matrixof6-notechords.

inresponsetotheinsightsexposedduringthedevelopmentoftype1harmonicmaterial,are
presentedinfig.3;Iwouldexpectthistypeofharmonicconstructiontoworkwellinmypiece.
Thecreationofa24-pitchsequencetogetherwithtwoinitialharmonicpathwaysthroughthe
material has created a rich variety of pitch-based material for me to explore and consider
through the process of play. In order to discuss how my harmonic material unfolds in
ConnectingFlightsII,Iwillgivesomeconsiderationtohowtherhythmicmaterialinthework
hasbeenconceivedanddeveloped.
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

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Fig.3:ConnectingFlightsII,twelvechordsdevelopedfromonepossiblepathway.

4.1Developmentofrhythmicmaterial
Whilst the rhythmic material developed in ConnectingFlightsIIis closely aligned to the
harmonic relationships unfolding within the work, and at times it is difficult to tease out the
complexities of construction of both the rhythmic and harmonic devices at play, for the
purposes of this article, through analysis and critical reflection, I will attempt to draw out
some of the devices used as part of my working methodology in relation to the rhythmic
contentofthework.ConnectingFlightsII,isaworkinthreecontrastingmovements.Thefirst
movement is built on five short rhythmic (motivic) gestures that expand and contract
throughout the duration of the movement (see fig. 4 for a visual representation of each
gesture).Gestures1and2areconceivedasmusicalshapesforfutureharmonicexploitation;
gestures 3 and 5 will provide irregular rhythmic activity; and gesture 4 is introduced to
exploretexturethroughtimbrevariation.Inmovementone,thegesturesarewoventogether
into a fragmented musical fabric controlled, at the global level, by a combination of
palindromic structuring, interrupted by the deliberate and careful juxtaposition of materials
derived from one or more of the five rhythmic gestures at any one time, at the local level of
operation.

Fig.4:ConnectingFlightsII,fiverhythmicgesturesusedinthe1
st
movement.

OneconceptualframeworkthatIhavefoundusefulinthedevelopmentofthisapproach
is to consider the relationship between the rhythmic gestures notated as visual images and
the work of Paul Klee. Klees PEDAGOGICAL SKETCHBOOK has been a resource for many
composers
6
.SibylMoholy-Nagysinsightfulintroductiontotheworkexplainsthat,Klees:

6
See Hall, Michael. (1984) Harrison Birtwistle. London: Robson Books. p26, for further information on
Birtwistlesobsessionwiththework.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
78
creativelifederivedalmostequalinspirationfrompaintingandfrommusic.Man
painted and danced long before he learnt to write and construct. The senses of
form and tone are his primordial heritage. Paul Klee fused both of these creative
impulsesintoanewentity.(1953:7)

PEDAGOGICAL SKETCHBOOK is rich in musical metaphor and it is of little wonder that


composershavefoundtheworkofvaluewhenattemptingtolocatecontextualframeworksto
aid the development of musical material. From Klees opening suggestion on taking, [a]n
activelineonawalk,movingfreely,withoutgoal.Awalkforawalkssake(1953:16),tothe
final section where Klee suggests how the visual arts student (or a student from another
discipline, for that matter) might address issues of balance and control in their practice,
(1953:51-61)thereismuchtoexplore.SohowdoesthisworkinConnectingFlightsII?

4.2Firstmovement
In fig. 5, at the beginning of the first movement, we see four of the gestural fragments
working within a post-serial harmonic framework. Gesture 1 unfolds in bar 1 within each
voiceofthequartetwithitspitchcontenttakenfromthefirstsectionofthepitchsequencein
fig. 1(i), and this is juxtaposed with rhythmic material taken from gesture 2 in the following
bar here, harmonically the quasi-serial procedure explored in bar 1 is replaced by a fixed-
pitch harmonic field, and this is replaced by something different at bar 3, to maintain the
fragmentarynatureofthestructure.Noticehowthegesturalfragments,whentheyreappear,
are changed in some way this is what I call repetition within variation. Gesture 2 in the
second bar maintains its shape when repeated at bar 6 and is voiced within a fixed-pitch
harmonicfieldbuthaschangeditssurfacedetail:anexampleofKleesinstructiontoconsider,
[a]nactiveline,limitedinitsmovementbyfixedpoints.(1953:18)

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
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79

q
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Fig.5:ConnectingFlightsII,movement1,bars1-8.

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
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80

7
8
7
8
7
8
7
8
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Fig.6:ConnectingFlightsII,movement1,bars15-20.

One of the controlling devices I have explored when attempting to fuse together
disparateandfragmentaryelementsinascore,istoallowthestartandendpointsofsimilar
fragmentstobecontrolledbytheprinciplesoftraditionalvoice-leadingtechniques.Thisalso
works particularly well when the fragments to be joined are not adjacent in the musical
structure.Infig.6,atbar15-16,clarinets2,3and4developgesture3.Thegesturalfragment
returnsatbar20havingbeeninterruptedbythere-voicingofgestures1and2atbars17and
18respectivelyandtheyareconnectednotonlybythesimilarityoftheirrhythmicdesignbut
alsobytheirvoice-leadings.
Throughoutthismovementmyconcernwastodevelopeddisparatelayersofmaterial
connectedthroughimpliedvoiceleadings
7
andthiscanbeseenworkinginfig.7a,inrelation
to the development of harmonic material type 1 in its inverted form see fig 7b, as this will

7
For a further discussion on this approach to developing fragmented musical structures, see Cone, Edward. T.
(1968)Stravinsky:TheProgressofaMethodinBoretz,Benjamin.andCone,Edward.T.(1968)Perspectiveson
SchoenbergandStravinsky.PUP:Princeton.

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
81
help to identify the distribution of the pitch material in the example. Here the 6-note chord
structuresprovideatemplateforthegesturalfragmentsastheyunfoldintime,asnotallthe
selected pitches are used in the final solution. Notice how the first clarinet melodic line uses
the pitches over a four-bar time frame to expand and develop the visual shape of gesture 1;
eagle-eyedviewerswillnoticeanEnaturalinbar39inthe4
th
clarinetpartthispitchchange
wasnecessarytofitwithintherangeoftheinstrumentaswellasthemusicaldemandsofthe
phrase.

q
7
8
7
8
7
8
7
8
3
8
3
8
3
8
3
8
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8
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Fig.7b:ConnectingFlightsII,harmonicmaterialdevelopedfromtheinvertedformofthepitchsequencetype1.


4.3Secondmovement
Movementtwooffersatemporaryharmonicresolutiontotheapparentchaoticrhythmicand
harmonic construction of the first movement and because of its relatively short duration, it
takes c.2 20 to complete, it can be experienced as a structural upbeat to the virtuosic third
movement. One of the research questions that materialised for me, as a consequence of
elongatingchordtypea,infig.1(ii),wastoconsiderhowtheunfoldingofarepeatingmelodic
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
82
line could interact with a non-repeating harmonic structure. The rhythmic material used in
this section is simple in design and provides a platform for the harmonic progressions to
unfold at a much slower pace than in the first movement. In fig. 8, we see the melodic line
developed from the chord sequence first established in fig. 1, but now the melodic line
includestheadditionalpitchesfromtheelongatedchordexperiment.Theelongationofchord
a,wasdevelopedtoenhancethemelodiclineforthissectionandwasdevelopedinresponse
toKleesdirectionconcerning[t]he sameline,circumscribingitself.(1953:17)Themelodic
line, first heard between bars 181-8 is repeated between bars 190-5 with some rhythmic

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Fig.8:ConnectingFlightsII,movement2,bars181-95.

a(1)-------(2)----(3)-------(4)bcd
a(2)----------(3)cdca(4)-----(1)
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
83
variation.Thesevenchordsthatweregeneratedaspartoftheharmonicdevelopmentprocess
infig.1,arenowusedtore-harmonizetherepeatedversionofthemelodicline.Theintervallic
relationship within each chord type is maintained and through a process of play and
experimentation, the chord shapes are transposed onto different pitches within the melodic
line. For example, chord a(4), in fig. 9(ii), has its highest pitch as G4 (where middle C is
identifiedasC3);theintervallicstructureofthischordtypeisre-positionedasthesixthchord
in fig. 9(iii), with its highest pitch as F sharp. The final decision on what chord structures
would be used to re-harmonise the repeated melodic line was made through a process of
experimentationandpersonaljudgement.


Fig.9:ConnectingFlightsII,movement2,bars181-95:(i)originalchordsestablishedinfig.1;(ii)chordsshapes
from(i)maintainedandtransposedtonewpositioninthesequence.

4.4Thirdmovement
Thefinalmovementattemptstore-worktherhythmicandharmonicmaterialfromthe
first movement. The structure is built on the juxtaposition of three contrasting musical
textures, with the addition of a coda that references sections from the first movement. The
threetexturesaredynamicanddevelopindifferentways.Forthisarticle,Iwillfocusonone
texture within the movement that explores the notion of complex layering. Here, I am
particularlyinterestedindevelopingaframeworkforthissectionthatincorporatesthepitch,
rhythmicandharmonicmaterialsgeneratedforthework.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
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84

&
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Fig.10:ConnectingFlightsIImovement3,layeringof(i)pitch;(ii)rhythmicactivity;(iii)harmoniccontent.

Infig.10,weseethethreelayersofactivityusedtofurtherdevelopeachrepetitionof
this particular texture. At bar 223 we hear an unfolding of the 24-pitch sequence that is
controlled by a motor rhythm that is generated through the repetition of small irregular
rhythmic cells. After developing the rhythmic patterning of the pitches as seen in fig. 10(i),

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Fig.11:ConnectingFlightsII,movement3,bars223-5;developmentofpitchmaterial.

through a process of experimentation, I used the resulting semi-quaver number pattern to
generate the rhythmic activity for each repetition of this section. I worked with the number
pattern 3-2-3-2-4-2-3-4 and allowed the sequence to repeat with variation by re-sequencing
thenumberpatternforaslongasnecessary;thisgaveaconsistencytotherhythmiclanguage
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
85
andwecanseethisinoperationinfig.11.Inaddition,theaccentedfirstnoteineachsequence
ofnumbersprovidesaspatialdimensioninperformanceastheaccentscreatetheillusionof
moving the sound around the performance space. Harmonically, the individual lines weave
theirwaythroughthepathestablishedbytheoriginal24-pitchsequence.

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Fig.12:ConnectingFlightsII,movement3,bars259-62;developmentofrhythmicmaterial.

At bar 259 see fig 12, an additional layer of rhythmic activity is introduced into the
texture. The rhythmic pattern identified in fig. 10(ii), is gradually introduced into the score
through a process of transformation. In addition, the layered rhythmic activity is explored
furtherthroughtheintroductionofpitchestakenfromthe24-pitchsequencedevelopedinfig.
1(i).
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
86

7
16
7
16
7
16
7
16
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
4
5
8
5
8
5
8
5
8
7
16
7
16
7
16
7
16
2
4
2
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2
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2
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2
4
2
4
2
4
2
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8
5
8
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8
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8
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8
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8
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Fig.13:ConnectingFlightsII,movement3,bars270-75;developmentofharmonicmaterial.

A final layer of activity is added to the texture at bar 270 - see fig 13. Here, the
harmonic structure of the texture is transformed to combine both sets of harmonic material
devised for this work (type 1 and type 2). The layers now include the original 24-pitch
sequence generated through a non-repeating motor rhythmic pattern; a second layer of
rhythmic activity that is controlled through the unfolding of the original 24-pitch sequence
although at a faster rate than the first layer; and now a final layer of rhythmic and harmonic
activity voicing the chords from fig, 3, developed through the chord multiplication technique
explored in fig. 2. The musical texture created through this interplay of encounters of
disparateelementsisoneofcontrolledchaos.

Conclusion
The recent emergence of practice-as-research within the academy, particularly within
the performing arts tradition, has, for arts practitioners, working within an academic
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
87
institutional context, brought into question the relationship between the making of a work
andthemeansbywhichitsresultingproductionofnewknowledgeandnewinsightscanbe
disseminated within and beyond the academy. Nelsons observation that play has become
part of a legitimised research methodology that is now better understood within the wider
research community, has seen a shift in emphasis in practice-led arts research from one of
scientific rigour to artistic rigour. Boulezs understanding of how musical structures may
workandthewayLepageexperiencestheprocessofmakingtheatre,wouldsuggestthatplay
andexperimentareimportantelementsintheactofcreatingwork.
AtthebeginningofthisarticleIsuggestedthatcomposersmaywanttoconsiderthatthe
how and the what need to be disseminated and discussed when invited to talk about their
workwithinanacademiccontext.IhavefoundthePaRmethodologyanditsrelatedmethods
as explored within the wider context of arts practices, and particularly within the Drama,
Dance and Performing Arts communities within academia, particularly useful. They have
provided a framework for me when considering how to disseminate research in musical
composition. For arts practitioners developing work within an academic institutional
context,thenotionthatnewknowledgeand/orsubstantialnewinsightscanoccurthrough
practice is not disputed. However, where and when the insights occur and what we might
meanbynewknowledgeasaconsequenceofconductingresearchasacomposerremainone
of contention. By considering my working processes and positioning my compositional
practice within Nelsons classifications for Practitioner Knowledge, Critical Reflection, and
ConceptualFramework,Ihavebeenabletogiveconsiderationtowhatcanbedisseminated
and discussed at events of this kind. However, what I have found most useful, whilst
attemptingtopositionmyworkwithinthebroadercontextofapractice-as-researchinquiry,
isthatthroughtheprocessofresearchdissemination,Iambeginningtobetterunderstandmy
ownworkingprocesses.

References
Biggs,Michael.andKarlesson,Henrik.(2011)ed.,TheRoutledgeCompaniontoResearchinthe
Arts.London:Routledge
Boulez, Pierre. (1971) Boulez on Music Today. (translated by Susan Bradshaw and Richard
RodneyBennett).FaberandFaber:London
Charest, Remy. (1995) Connecting Flights. (translated by Wanda Romer Taylor). London:
Methuen
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
88
Cone, Edward. T. (1968) Stravinsky: The Progress of a Method in Boretz, Benjamin. and Cone,
Edward. T. (1968) Perspectives on Schoenberg and Stravinsky. PUP: Princeton
Hall,Michael.(1984)HarrisonBirtwistle.London:RobsonBooks
Klee, Paul. (1953) Pedagogical Sketchbook. (translated by Sibyl Moholy-Nagy). Faber and Faber:
London
JISC. (no date) Practice-as-Research in Music Online (PRIMO) [online] [Accessed on 29
th

January2012]
http://www.Jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/reppres/sue/primo.aspx
Nelson, Robin. (2006) Practice-as-research and the Problem of Knowledge, in Performance
Research, 11:4, 105-116
PARC North West. (no date) Practice as Research Consortium North West [Online] [Accessed
on24
th
December2011]http://parcnorthwest.miriadonline.info/
PARIP. (no date) Practice as Research in Performance [Online] [Accessed on 24
th
December
2011http://www.bris.ac.uk/parip/introduction.htm
REF. (2012) Panel criteria and working methods. [Online] [Accessed on 30th January 2012]
http://www.hefce.ac.uk/research/ref/pubs/2012/01_12/01_12_2D.pdf

Shortbiographyabouttheauthor

Martin Blain is a Senior Research Fellow at Manchester Metropolitan University. Martins


workshavebeenperformedinEurope,China,andtheUSAbyavarietyofleadingsoloistsand
ensembles. His Percussion Quartet was recently featured at the Cutting Edge Festival in
LondonbyBackBeatPercussionEnsembleandthisworkhasreceivedperformancesinChina
and the USA (BackBeat awarded 1st Prize at the Concert Artists Guild International
Competition). Martins works have also received performances by such leading new music
ensemblesasEquivox,Vamos,BlackHair,TheComposersEnsembleandhisorchestralwork
Fever Pitch was performed by The English National Philharmonic. Martin is also a founder
member of the laptop ensemble MMUle where he continues to develop works that combine
acoustic instruments with laptop performers. He is currently working with the experimental
theatrecompanyProto-typeTheatreonthedevelopmentofalaptopopera.

1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
89

WayangKulitEmpat(ShadowPuppetNo.4)

Ainolnaim(Malaysia/UK)
Email: anllume@gmail.com



Abstract.WayangKulitEmpat(shadowpuppetNo.4)isoneoftheseriesinTheWayangKulit
piece and for this particular series, it was composed specifically for a Trio; using a clarinet,
bassoonandpiano.Thepieceisofaconceptualformofmusicwhere,itwascomposedbased
on the materials in a Malay traditional theater; wayang kulit (shadow puppet play). These
ideas are transformed and combined with the materials of classical western music, resulting
into a new aesthetical form. It is a combination of both visual and sound performance
disciplinary.Fromthepieceplayedbythetrio,itcreatesasettingofspirituality,mysteryand
etherealnessintotheenvironment.
Keywords.WayangKulit,ShadowPuppetPlay,MalayTraditionalTheater.

Introduction
Shadow play is one of the oldest forms of theaters in Asia. In Malaysia it is generally
known as wayang kulit. Wayang kulit has more than one specific name and has a variety of
styles throughout South-East Asia. This theater usually derives from local folk stories,
legendarymyths,religiouscustomsandeverydayoccurrence.Thestoriesaretoldbythe
puppet master (tokdalang) who manipulates the puppets (called patung) movements,
whichareprojectedonscreenbythepuppetsshadows.
The puppets come in a variety of shapes and colors, which define the characters in the
stories. In this very old form of theater, a small ensemble of musicians plays various
traditional instruments to accompany the movement of the puppets and to add suspense or
dramatotheeventsinthestories.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
90

Withthosematerials,thepiecewascomposedasfollow:
No. Original Synthesis
1. Puppetsshadows. Performersshadows.
2. Puppetmaster. Music(score).
3.
Music accompanying movements
andeventsinthestories.
Playing movements/ gestures and
musicresultingthestories.
4.
Scales: Heptatonic, Hexatonic,
Pentatonic.
Scales:Bitonal(HexatonicCandE)
-CEF#G#AB+EF#GA#BC
5. Colotomicstructure. NonColotomicfreemeter.
6. Nonharmonious(nonchordal). Harmonious(dyads,triadsetc.).

Conclusion
Wayang Kulit Empat sets a ritual like performance through its sonority (audio) and
playingmovements(visual).Themaingoalforthepieceistobringupthesenseofspirituality
totheaudiencethroughouttheperformance.However,thevisualaspectoftheperformanceis
toaccompanythemusic,wheretheplayingmovements/gesturesaretheresultoftheplayers
interpretation on the music. Those movements support the music, emphasizes on it and
resultstothewholestoryofthepiece.

Acknowledgements
Thanks to International Chamber Music Meeting committees, University of Evora,
UNIMEM, Trio Spiritus Musicum and fellow friends for contributing to the work and
performance.

References
Mutusky, Patricia. Tan, Sooi Beng. (1997) Muzik Malaysia: Tradisi Klasik, Rakyat dan
Sinkretik,SiriKebudayaanAsiaTenggara.Penang:TheAsiaCentre.
Matusky, Patricia. (1993) Malaysian shadow play and music: continuity of an oral tradition
South-EastAsiansocialsciencemonograph.US:OUP.
1stInternationalMeetingforChamberMusic
Universityofvora,16-18January2012.
91
Sweeney, Amin. (1972) Malay shadow puppets: the Wayang Siam of Kelantan. UK: British
Museum.
Osnes, Beht. (2010) The Shadow Puppet Theatre of Malaysia: A Study of Wayang Kulit with
PerformanceScriptsandPuppetDesigns.US:McFarland.
Read,Gardner.(1976)ContemporaryInstrumentalTechniques.NewYork:SchirmerBooks,A
DivisionofMacmilanPublishingCo.,Inc.
Kennnan,KentWheeler.(1970)TheTechniqueofOrchestration,2
nd
Edition.EnglewoodCliffs
(NewJersey):Prentice-Hall,Inc.
Cope, David. (1997) Techniques of The Contemporary Composer. US: Schirmer, Thomson
Learning,Inc.
WayangKulitEmpat
(ShadowPlayNo.4)
Audience

PerformanceNotes
Setup

Thescreencanbemadefromthinwhitecloth(aslongasthelightcango
throughthescreenandcreatecleardarkshadows.)
Morelightsourcemayneededtoprojectcleardarkshadowonthescreen
andonlytheshadowoftheplayercanbeseenbytheaudience.
Notation

BoxGestureindicatesparticularmusicalfigure(s)
toberepeatedalongthethickblacklineandthe
lengthisdeterminedbytheplayer(cue).Small
notevalueintheBoxGestureindicatesthetotal
notevaluepresentinthebox.

Breathpointindicatesinhalingsound;
soft(smallinhale), stress(slightlybiginhale).

Keyopen(all) Keyclose(notedkey) Keyclose(all)

Indicatestovibratethesoundatfreespeedunlessindicated.

Indicatestosustainthesound/letitring(vibrate).

ScratchStringsindicatestoscratchthestringwithfingernailsoutward(up
arrow)andinward(downarrow),
Thesoftestdynamicsign(exceptsilence)mustbeaudibletothefaraudienceand
balancewithotherparts.Amplificationmayapply.
Piano
Light
Clarinet
Bassoon
Screen

.
_

.
_

Clarinet
Bassoon
Piano
, p
,
mp
Mystic and Expressive (very slow)
e = 38
,
mp
p
Mystic and Expressive (very slow)
e = 38
Cl.
Bsn.
Pno.
, mp
mf
6
sfp
sfp f sfp f
f
mp
ppp

Rubato
Air Blow-Reed, hollow sound

Free In

.
_
_
,
3rd altissimo
Ainolnaim
(Shadow Play No.4)
Wayang Kulit Empat

.
Air Blow-Crook, slow breathing-like
Rubato
.
4th Breath
_
_
Rubato
L.H.
3

s
_
Silenty press all keys from A0 to A1
followed by middle pedal

SOST.
.

. ,
_
vib.
gradually faster
vib.
-----------
gradually faster
-----------
_
s
, muted strings
5:4x 5:4x
_
SOST.
- -
,
.

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
,
,
,
,
,
,


,

,
,

,
_
_
_
_

,
,
,
,
,
,

, ,
,

,
,

, ,
,
, ,

, ,

,
,

,
, ,
,
, , , , ,
,
,

,
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

,
,
,
,
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

_ ,
.
_

.
_

Cl.
Bsn.
Pno.
,
mp
9
sfp f mp
mf
mf mf

Cl.
Bsn.
Pno.
, p
pp
11
,
p
pp
pp
,
pp
mp
_
continue soft with airy sound (mp)
.,
_
vib.
gradually faster
-----------
_

s
5:4x
_

DAMP.
3 3
3
_

3
_

3
_

_
3
_
DAMP.
3
, _ _ ,

,
,

, ,

. .

,

,
,
,

_ ,
, ,
,
, , ,
,
, , , ,
,
, ,
,
,
,

,
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

,
. . ,
,

,
_ , _
,

,
,

,
,

,
,
,
,

,
,

,
,

,
,
,
,

,
,

, ,
,

,
-
,
,

,
,

,
,
-
,

,
,

,
,
-

,
,
,
,

,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,

,
,
,
,
,

,
,
,
-

,
,
,
, ,
,
,

2
.
_

.
_

Cl.
Bsn.
Pno.
f
p
f
12
p f mf pp
mf

f
Cl.
Bsn.
Pno.
p f p f
,
mp
mp
,
,
13
mp
, ,
mf
,
f
p ,
p
pp
pp
pp
,
_
mf
flz.

3:2e
_
3:2q
_
,
,
,
,

,
,
,
_
L.H
R.H
_

flz.

flz.
.
Air Blow-Reed, hollow sound
- - -
_
,
3rd altissimo
Fade Away .....
3
_

. .
_

s
_
R.H.
Fade Away .....
_

SOST.

Scratch strings inward, outward


All Chromatics A to C#

L.H.
.

, ,

,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,

,

,
,

, ,

, ,
,
, ,
,
,
,
,
,

_
,
,
,
,
,
,

,
,

,
,

,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
,
_ _ _
,
,
,
,
,
,
-
,
,

, ,


-
,

, .
,
,

_
_
_
_

,
,

,
,

,
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
3

ATTACHMENT

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