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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM

Drone Terms
Glossary or Lexicon of Terminology, Acronyms, Concepts, etc.
Collected by Alister William Macintyre We can try to learn a topic from documents filled with unfamiliar terminology. Here is an alternative read terminology explanations, each with See other related concepts, to wrap our minds around, and drill down to more details. Content here is about suspected government technology misconduct, suggested solutions. Last updated 2013 March 12
Version 5.18

Drone Terminology Table of Contents Introduction (2 Sep 20) ....................................................................................................... 4 Doc Structure (2 Sep 03)..................................................................................... 5 Non-Drone content (2 Sep 22) !...................................................................................... 6 Bogus info which Kills (2 Oct 05) .............................................................................. 6 Flaws not fixed (2 Sep 26) .......................................................................................... 8 British Hillsborough Disaster Scandal (2 Oct 12) ...................................................... 9 Haiti 2010 Earthquake compound disasters (2 Oct 08) ............................................ 10 Disaster Warnings Ignored (2 Sep 25)...................................................................... 11 Terminology (2 Sep 12) !.................................................................................................. 11 Terms Numbers+ (3 Mar 05) ........................................................................................ 12 4th Amendment+ (2 Oct 06) ...................................................................................... 12 5th Amendment+ (2 Oct 22) ...................................................................................... 14 14th Amendment+ (2 Oct 22) .................................................................................... 15 400 feet+ (3 Jan 10) .................................................................................................. 15 Terms A+ (2 Sep 23) .................................................................................................... 17 AECA illustrated (2 Sep 20) ..................................................................................... 18 AEODRS+ (2 Oct 13)............................................................................................... 19 Al+ (2 Dec 20) .......................................................................................................... 21 AN+ (2 Oct 19) ......................................................................................................... 22 AO+ (3 Feb 11)......................................................................................................... 23 Army+ (2 Oct 27) ..................................................................................................... 23 AS+ (2 Nov 29)......................................................................................................... 24 ATC+ (3 Feb 01)....................................................................................................... 26 Attorney General+ (2 Oct 01) ................................................................................... 29 AU+ (3 Feb 01)......................................................................................................... 30 Authority (2 Nov 29) ................................................................................................ 31 Terms B+ (2 Oct 27) ..................................................................................................... 32

Drone terminology, acronyms, etc. in folder: Studies / Drones

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Biometric+ (2 Sep 27)............................................................................................... 33 Border+ (2 Nov 02)................................................................................................... 34 Terms C+ (2 Oct 27) !................................................................................................... 35 CB+ (2 Oct 17) ! ....................................................................................................... 37 CBRN+ (3 Jan 28) .................................................................................................... 38 CI+ (2 Oct 31) ! ........................................................................................................ 40 Citizen+ (3 Feb 05) ................................................................................................... 41 CO+ (2 Oct 27) ! ....................................................................................................... 43 CON+ (2 Oct 27) ...................................................................................................... 44 COU+ (2 Dec 19)...................................................................................................... 45 Cruise Missile illustrated (2 Sep 23)......................................................................... 46 CSCI+ (3 Jan 28) ...................................................................................................... 48 Terms D+ (2 Oct 01)..................................................................................................... 48 Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station+ (2 Oct 23) ! ....................................................... 49 DBS+ (2 Nov 24) !.................................................................................................... 51 DHS+ (3 Feb 01)....................................................................................................... 52 DNA+ (2 Nov 02) ..................................................................................................... 54 DoJ+ (2 Nov 02) ....................................................................................................... 55 DOL+ (2 Oct 06)....................................................................................................... 55 Drone+ (3 Mar 09) .................................................................................................... 57 Drone Police+ (3 March 04) ..................................................................................... 59 Drone Strategic+ (2 Oct 08)...................................................................................... 62 Dual Use+ (3 Feb 25)................................................................................................ 64 Terms E+ (2 Dec 02) ! .................................................................................................. 64 EPIC+ (2 Oct 17) ...................................................................................................... 65 eTrace+ (2 Oct 26) !.................................................................................................. 66 Terms F+ (2 Sep 23) !................................................................................................... 67 Fast and Furious (2 Oct 14) ...................................................................................... 68 Fast & Furious ATF Organization Chart (2 Sep 26)................................................. 69 Fast and Furious Flaws (2 Sep 24)............................................................................ 71 Fast and Furious HQ Fantasy Picture (2 Sep 24)...................................................... 73 Fast and Furious Local progress (2 Sep 23) .......................................................... 73 FATA+ (3 Feb 01) .................................................................................................... 74 FIG+ (3 Feb 14) ........................................................................................................ 75 Fly-Over+ (2 Nov 01) ............................................................................................... 76 Fusion+ (2 Nov 09)................................................................................................... 77 Fusion Center Mitigation+ (2 Nov 02) ..................................................................... 80 Fusion Center Problems+ (2 Nov 02) ....................................................................... 80 Fusion Center Recommendations+ (2 Nov 02) ........................................................ 81 Future+ (2 Sep 27) .................................................................................................... 83 Terms G+ (2 Nov 29) ! ................................................................................................. 83 Geneva+ (2 Oct 26)................................................................................................... 85 GH+ (3 Feb 01)......................................................................................................... 86 GPS+ (2 Oct 15) ....................................................................................................... 88 Gun+ (2 Oct 02) !...................................................................................................... 90 Gun Runner Flaws (2 Oct 01)................................................................................... 91

Drone terminology, acronyms, etc. in folder: Studies / Drones

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Gun Runner Impact+ (2 Sep 26)............................................................................... 92 Gun Walking+ (2 Oct 02) ......................................................................................... 92 Gun Walking Dysfunctional Pattern+ (2 Sep 24) ..................................................... 94 Gun Walking Major Differences+ (2 Oct 10)........................................................... 95 Terms H+ (2 Nov 28) ! ................................................................................................. 96 Human+ (2 Oct 08) ................................................................................................... 98 Human Rights Regions+ (2 Nov 02) ........................................................................ 98 Terms I+ (2 Nov 02) ..................................................................................................... 99 ICC+ (2 Oct 19) ...................................................................................................... 101 IG+ (2 Nov 29) ! ..................................................................................................... 102 Innocent+ (2 Nov 14).............................................................................................. 104 International Law+ (2 Nov 29) !............................................................................. 105 IS+ (2 Nov 14) ........................................................................................................ 106 Terms J+ (3 Feb 01).................................................................................................... 108 Terms K+ (3 Feb 26) ! ................................................................................................ 109 Terms L+ (2 Nov 28) !................................................................................................ 111 LOAC+ (2 Dec 03) ................................................................................................. 112 Terms M+ (2 Oct 27) .................................................................................................. 113 MCO+ (2 Oct 06) ! ................................................................................................. 114 Micro+ (2 Nov 28) !................................................................................................ 115 Mitigation+ (2 Nov 29)........................................................................................... 116 Model+ (2 Oct 06) ! ................................................................................................ 117 MSLU+ (2 Sep 27) ................................................................................................. 117 Terms N+ (2 Oct 08)................................................................................................... 118 NATO+ (2 Oct 24).................................................................................................. 119 Next Gen+ (2 Oct 06) ............................................................................................. 121 NIC+ (2 Dec 14) ..................................................................................................... 121 NOAA+ (2 Nov 29) ................................................................................................ 122 Terms O+ (2 Dec 14) .................................................................................................. 124 Open Fields+ (2 Nov 01) ........................................................................................ 125 OS+ (2 Oct 26)........................................................................................................ 126 Terms P+ (3 Mar 12) ! ................................................................................................ 127 PHVPH+ (2 Sep 27) ............................................................................................... 130 PIC+ (2 Nov 02) ! ................................................................................................... 130 POE+ (2 Nov 01) .................................................................................................... 131 Privacy+ (2 Oct 23) ! .............................................................................................. 132 Privacy-Home+ (2 Sep 17) ! ................................................................................... 134 Privacy Violations+ (2 Sep 20)............................................................................... 135 PRO+ (3 Jan 07) ! ................................................................................................... 136 Terms Q+ (2 Oct 23)................................................................................................... 136 Terms R+ (2 Nov 04).................................................................................................. 138 R/C+ (2 Oct 26) ...................................................................................................... 140 Rendition+ (2 Dec 01) ! .......................................................................................... 141 Robot+ (2 Dec 02) .................................................................................................. 142 Terms S+ (3 Feb 26) !................................................................................................. 143 Search Location+ (3 Feb 26)................................................................................... 146

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM

See Through Walls+ (2 Sep 16) ! ........................................................................... 147 Self Defense+ (2 Oct 27) ! ...................................................................................... 147 SG+ (3 Mar 02) ! .................................................................................................... 149 Sosa+ (2 Oct 18) ! ................................................................................................... 150 SP+ (3 Feb 01) !...................................................................................................... 151 SU+ (3 Jan 28) ........................................................................................................ 153 Terms T+ (2 Dec 02) ! ................................................................................................ 154 Targeted Killing+ (3 Jan 24)................................................................................... 155 Taser+ (3 Feb 01) ! ................................................................................................. 156 Tracker Power+ (2 Oct 27) ..................................................................................... 158 Terms U+ (2 Oct 13) ! ................................................................................................ 159 UG+ (2 Sep 22)....................................................................................................... 161 UN+ (2 Oct 13) !..................................................................................................... 161 Unintended Consequences+ (2 Oct 12) .................................................................. 163 UPI+ (2 Oct 08) ...................................................................................................... 164 USAO+ (2 Oct 18) !................................................................................................ 165 Terms V+ (2 Oct 15) ! ................................................................................................ 166 Terms W+ (3 Feb 21) ! ............................................................................................... 167 Wide Receiver+ (2 Sep 27)..................................................................................... 168 Wide Receiver Causes+ (2 Sep 24) ........................................................................ 170 Wide Receiver Exception Knew+ (2 Sep 24) ......................................................... 171 Wide Receiver Flaws+ (2 Sep 24) .......................................................................... 172 Wide Receiver Local Progress+ (2 Sep 24) ........................................................ 173 Wide Receiver Policy Violations+ (2 Sep 24)........................................................ 173 Wide Receiver Post-Investigation+ (2 Sep 24)....................................................... 174 Wire Tapping+ (2 Sep 27) ...................................................................................... 175 For more info (2 Sep 06)................................................................................................. 175 Al Mac Research split (2 Oct 09).................................................................... 175 Drone Research Sharing Sites (2 Oct 09) ................................................................... 177 Contacting author (2 July 10) ................................................................................. 178

Introduction (2 Sep 20)


This collection, of definitions of terminology relevant to studying Drones, is a portion of Al Mac research into the use of drones around the world, and what the controversies are all about, found in a companion (main) document = Drone Notes by Al Mac, but also see Document Split for evolving organization of Al Mac notes. While studying info about drones, I also step into other government operations, with similar concerns and issues, which may ultimately ought to be moved or split into a separate research notes document. There are a great many controversies. I try to map them in the main document = Drone Notes by Al Mac, but many are explained through the terminology here. I want to both present an academically or journalistically fair representation of the various view points,

Drone terminology, acronyms, etc. in folder: Studies / Drones

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM

and share my personal view point, when analyzing what the heck is going on, and what can be done about problem areas. The Author of this research, Alister Wm Macintyre, welcomes other people to download copies of Als work, but warns that different cited sources have different attribution and copyright restrictions, so care should be followed downstream, in selecting where to reuse the material.
Users of my research hold Alister Wm. Macintyre harmless, and also the places I upload my research to, and agree that my copyright is reserved and that the information is available for the intended purpose of helping my social network friends share an understanding on how humans ought to do a better job of learning about our world, so that we can take constructive action to improve it. I am doing this using individual documents focusing on different topics which appear to be vastly misunderstood by policy makers, and large segments of voters, to try to avoid any one document being excessively large. Some of my research content is direct quotes from other sources. I try to give credit every time I do this , and structure the quotes, so it is pretty obvious that they are quotes.

Doc Structure (2 Sep 03) Topic subtitles end in a date signifying when that info was last updated, in the format
YEAR MONTH DAY, so by viewing table of contents, we see where most recent input to these research notes, especially aiding people with copy of an earlier version.

Version numbers are incremented, as replacement editions of this document are


periodically uploaded various places for convenience of other people who can then pick and choose which of my research efforts they wish to download, and also see if the last version I have uploaded is numbered beyond the last that they downloaded.

Some chapter headings have # symbol, after date of last update. This means source(s) here have estimates of # drone attacks, persons killed, injured, who are justified targets and who are alleged innocent victims, or collateral damage. Figures vary significantly for many reasons, discussed in Drone Notes. Some chapter headings have $ symbol, after date of last update. This means source(s) here have estimates of cost of drones, taxpayer investments, or what it costs for ordinary people to get into this market. Some chapter headings have ! symbol, after date of last update. This means content here includes what I consider to be: seriously controversial; wild speculation; conspiracy theory; or many people (sometimes including me) have serious doubts of the factual

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basis. The content can be either the myth, or debunking info. There are multiple areas of dispute, so I may later add to symbol collection to help with that. My general policy on chapter breaks is to try to have no more than two pages for one chapter. When some chapter runs longer than that, I periodically review to see if it can be broken up into something more digestible.
When I share links, I include entire url in footnotes. This because, depending on nature of original sources, and how the doc is ultimately copied, shared, accessed, hyperlinks sometimes become inoperative, for some people.

Non-Drone content (2 Sep 22) !


I have info in here on some government scandals other than drones, because there may be consistent patterns. Maybe we can learn from other disasters, how to better mitigate future ones. I have studied some other disasters, to try to figure out how they happened, how maybe we could have done a better job dealing with them, and what we can learn from this to better mitigate against the next time. In some cases, my research effort only got part of the way to my overall goals. Those past research efforts have been uploaded to a Disaster Avoidance collection on Google Doc Drive, and other places.1

Bogus info which Kills (2 Oct 05)


We have been hearing about incidents on a regular basis, where a police raid hits wrong home, with serious consequences, even death, for innocent people, then the police say Oops, isolated incident. Here they are on a map of the USA, just the cases reported by news media.2 There are thousands of these alleged isolated incidents. This is not an epidemic, it is a pandemic, maybe even a modern day plague, like those of the middle ages, and definitely a man made disaster. How long must this be state-of-art, before it can be fixed? Has the GAO or DoJ IG ever looked into this? There are numerous witness statements and video, of police chasing after some person, and sometimes killing them. The witnesses and video show clearly that the person was either totally innocent, or guilty of nothing more than crossing the street other than where there was a cross walk. Yet the police reports justify these killings. Any person killed by the police is automatically labeled as a felon fleeing a serious crime. Many police are
1

Disaster Avoidance collection on Google Drive Docs: https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4bZMTA0YTM0YzktNTI0YS00NjVhLTg5NTItY2RiZjhiM2MzODkw/edit Haiti Prizm http://www.haiti.prizm.org/ Box Net on Linked In, if you are connected to me there. http://www.linkedin.com/in/almacintyre Here is my collection of Drone documents found on Scribd. http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3807680 You can link from there to my research uploaded, on topics other than Drones. http://www.scribd.com/AlMac99 2 http://www.cato.org/raidmap/

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seizing and destroying video from witnesses. The presumption is that the police are corrupt, because in most of the USA, it is legal for the citizenry to take pictures of events in public, including the police doing their job. Where there are laws against wiretapping, which includes recording a conversation with the police, they usually allow the recordings when one of the parties to the conversation, such as the person who is talking with the police, has given permission for the recording. Apply this state-of-art to US military drone attacks around the world. Bogus intelligence can lead to attacks on innocent people. It does us no good to have allegedly precision weapon systems like drones and torture, 3 when they are being used on the wrong people. In fact, the rate of error converts former friends and allies into enemies, leads victims to make up whatever bogus stories they think might end the abuse. The Vietnam War was a royal mess, partly because Washington DC politicians, with little or no military experience, were trying to micro-manage a situation for which they had little understanding. The mess did not begin to end until the news media was able to get truth to the voters. We are seeing history repeat with drone warfare. The more the boots on the ground (real human soldiers) are separated from high command, the less high command can see their own mistakes, because there is no one they will listen to regarding those mistakes. In the drone warfare, there are no boots on the ground, and there are Washington DC politicians micromanaging decisions what intelligence to use to determine where drones to attack, and often in places where journalists cannot observe. If and when the police raid the home of serious criminals, it is necessary that they use extreme force to subdue whoever is in there, or else the police may get shot. The problem is combination of raid innocent home, those innocents have some medical problem, when combined with the violence, can kill them. If we had less privacy, if the police really knew who in what homes, with what medical problems, and if we could trust them not to make mistakes on purpose, then the thousands of people dead from incidents like this, may still be living. It is the same thing with Tasers and other non-lethal weapons used to kill. Hundreds of people are dead in the USA, from being attacked by those weapons by the police. Those people either had a medical problem which the non-lethal weapons exacerbated, or the police used the non-lethal weapons contrary to how they should have been trained in their proper usage. Thanks to the label non-lethal, some police management decisions can be, to save money, dont need the proper training. Years ago, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) used to bomb some department store, with hundreds of shoppers injured, then after first responders arrived on scene, another bomb would go off, outside the facility, killing and injuring many of them. We all thought this was horrible terrorism, when we read about it in the news media. But today, there are stories of the USA doing the same thing. Drones hit some building, a restaurant, a car just outside a child day care center, some tribal leaders holding a court of law session, or
3

I do not believe torture is a precision weapon system, but apparently some in government do.

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other place, because it has one or two people there who are targeted for assassination. People in the neighborhood rush to the rescue of those in the rubble, including police firemen, doctors, then the drone returns for a double tap on the rescue effort, using the theory that anyone who would rescue our enemies, must also be enemies. There is supposedly a group of oversight people in Congress which are watching this happening, and approving of it, claiming that the only people attacked by drones are militants, that one way of defining a militant, is that they got attacked by a US drone.

Flaws not fixed (2 Sep 26)


Theres been resentment against USA for many reasons for many years. What triggers an explosion may be a film which attacks religion, but that is like a spark in a sea of gasoline. Due to budget cuts, we have embassies not protected by US marines, and long overdue tor audits. US intelligence agents stationed there, are forbidden to leave the embassy. They get their info from local people, who must enter the embassy through security provided locally, so their identities are not confidential. This severely undermines quality of intelligence which can be provided.4 48 hours before a US embassy was attacked in Libya, the Egyptian intelligence service warned the USA what was about to happen. This warning was not communicated to the US diplomatic service.5 This reminds me of 9/11. 6 months in advance, US intelligence was warned of an imminent attack coming against US commercial airlines, but the FAA was not told about this threat. See Cruise Missile illustrations. There are non-proliferation treaties to try to limit the spread of nuclear weapons, and other WMD, and also to limit spread of systems which can be used to deliver them. According to GAO 2004 audit, 30% of US exports of this stuff were to nations on do-not-export-to list, approved by US government agencies to violate US rules. In 2012 GAO audit, identifying nations which now had this technology, they omitted several of the nation violations found in the 2004 audit. Did they get the stuff back? The above history is going to repeat. There are US agencies whose job it is to enforce these export controls.6 Leaders of some of these agencies are totally ignorant of US laws and the responsibilities of their agencies.7 Air Traffic Control (ATC) had a security audit by the Inspector General. Policy Makers did need to learn that 95% of ATC is unprotected from malware and hacking. However, the report to the general public did not need to spell out which ATC facilities were vulnerable to which kinds of attacks. Criminals and Terrorists read these reports also, you know.
4

More info on this mess: http://aviationintel.com/2012/09/25/a-total-mess-why-arent-americans-beingtold-the-truth-about-what-happened-in-benghazi/ 5 I read about this in the Israeli news media in English. 6 See AECA illustration for starters. 7 http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/09/26/going-mad-with-drones/

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Look at the behavior reported with the ATF Gun Walking into Mexico. Both ATF and US Attorney offices are shown to be seriously dysfunctional in multiple operations, handled the same flawed ways, found to be flawed by IG reports, and yet the problems do not get fixed, as we see by the same type flawed strategies in later similar operations. How common is it for IG and GAO to report some problems with some government agency, then those problems do not get fixed? We need to know whats wrong, so it can get fixed. The report does not need to include enough info on witnesses, so that they can be assassinated to torpedo the trials. There are repeating stories of local offices of government agencies doing things which are in violation of US laws, and/or policies of their agencies, yet higher authority oblivious to this. While Congress and US President are among those not informed, they have a responsibility to insist on systems where higher authority does know what is being done at local level. These problems with misinformation reported by US government offices, to higher ups and through leaders to the general public, is sometimes also a challenge in other nations.

British Hillsborough Disaster Scandal (2 Oct 12)


1989 April 15, over 50,000 people travelled to Hillsborough Stadium in Britain to watch a football game. The persons, in charge of public safety, were inexperienced with this stadium, football games in general. In a small area, there was an unbearable crush of fans, poured in by the authorities, in numbers far in excess of standing room only capacity, with no way to exit, compressed against each other to the point that they could not breathe, lost consciousness, slipped into piles of people, but it took a while before authorities realized how serious this was, stopped the game, and attempted rescue. A few fans managed to climb fences, but were pushed back by police, insensitive to reality. Many called for help from the police, but were told to shut up, or were ignored. 96 fans died Hundreds injured. 162 treated at local hospitals Thousands traumatized Afterwards there were allegations and counter-allegations, leading to a judicial inquiry, which did not satisfy the general public. However, it did note that the quality of testimony from police, was in inverse proportion to their rank. Today, we are accustomed to seeing police officers armed with individual radios, communicating effectively with HQ. In 1989 that technology was in its infancy. Communications between police on the ground, those in charge, etc. was as poor, or poorer than the situation 2011 Sept at Indiana Fairgrounds, where a storm was brewing, the National Weather Service gave predictions accurate within minutes, but the people in charge were clueless about the meanings of what the weather service was telling them, and what it meant when there was black skies with lightning flashes, rapidly approaching. Similarly, and Hillsborough, the authorities in charge failed good communications with those closest to the crowds.

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The lack of competent top management, the poor quality of the radio communications, police interfering with rescue attempts, because they misinterpreted the situation, seriously undermined the quality of rescue. In 2009, on the 20th anniversary of the disaster, another government inquiry was initiated, with its report published Sep 2012.8. It reported that there was absolutely nothing the fans did do cause this disaster. For example, allegations were totally bogus regarding: Drunken fans (untrue any alcohol consumed was consistent with leisure reality) Unruly crowd behavior (untrue system was killing people, who were in pain) Fans arriving late (untrue poor design caused this) Fans entering the stadium improperly (untrue) It found there had been previous incidents of crowd crush in same place, although not as serious as this one, in which public safety was compromised everywhere, this all well known, so it was a case of red flags not being properly addressed. There had also been other sites with crowd crush incidents, identified in the report, leading to proposed safety standards, but fear of violence between competing teams fans, had a greater influence on stadium design. The police initially treated the crowd crush as some kind of disorder, not a human tragedy, and was hostile to medical personnel at the football stadium, which were trying to participate in the rescue. There was a protocol, in place to proclaim a serious disaster, which was not invoked. Even after ambulances were called, there was no medical coordination appropriate to the scale of the disaster, except for 2 hospitals. Police behavior, towards bereaved relatives, was insensitive, adding to their distress. 116 police, ambulance, and general public witness reports, developed at time of incident, had been re-written later, to make the police look better. Police had also briefed the news media in ways which were extremely inaccurate.

Haiti 2010 Earthquake compound disasters (2 Oct 08)


The 2010 Jan Earthquake in Haiti was an educational disaster on several levels: The earthquake hit a capital city, destroying records and institutions not duplicated elsewhere. Rescue efforts arrived to find infrastructure wiped out. It was like stepping into medieval Europe, with no plumbing, no electricity, no Internet, no phones, no fuel for transportation. Yet the rescue effort personnel came with 21st century gadgets and expectations of a working infrastructure. Efforts to coordinate different rescue agencies and governments collapsed into chaos, negative teamwork. Instead of repairing local native institutions, the rescuers did more damage. $ Millions were spent on thousands of audits into what went wrong, in which 99% of the audits paid no attention to the work already done by the others. Some audits found info not found by most others, but over 95% of the audit work duplicated the work of other audits.

Available at www.official-documents.gov.uk and

http://hillsborough.independent.gov.uk

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM When we looked at GAO and IG reports of US government relief work, and UN audits of UN agency work, we find that the flaws in aid to disaster victims, were the same flaws which had been reported for the past 50 years with the rescue organizations, to other disasters around the world. The operational problems are not getting fixed. Is this state of art found in other government operations?

Disaster Warnings Ignored (2 Sep 25)


Katrina hurricane damage, Haiti earthquake, Nuclear Tsunami in Japan, and other disasters were predicted in advance. The predictions could not nail down exactly when the disaster would occur, but they did nail the location, and the scale of damage, because sciences of prediction are getting better and better. When policy makers are warned that we are overdue for a particular kind of disaster, in a particular location, and that it is sure to happen some time in the next 30 years, sometimes politicians assume they do not need to do anything about it until the end of the 30 years, where state of art has shown that sometimes it is going to happen in a few months, or year or two. Many earthquakes start deep below the Earth, where there is movement, which can be detected before the earthquake actually begins. Even when it has started, deep below the surface of the Earth, it takes many minutes to reach the surface. Sensors planted in advance can communicate whats coming, at the speed of electricity, to set off sirens on the surface giving the people maybe 15 minutes warning before the earthquake arrives.9 In some nations, this kind of early warning system has already been installed. In other nations, the scientists and politicians are afflicted by the not invented here syndrome which leads them to be in denial of the science behind this technology. When I studied causes of the Great Recession, I found that it was essentially an Economic Train Wreck, where many witnesses saw the disaster coming in time to stop it, but they were prevented from stopping it by Federal Regulators, and cases brought to the US Supreme Court which ruled in favor of the train wreck being allowed to play out.

Terminology (2 Sep 12) !


With every new technology, applications, regulators, etc. there is inevitably terminology, acronyms, references, new concepts, not recognized by all people who wish to discuss the subject. Here is a lexicon of some of what I have seen, which maybe ought to be explained, and links (in footnotes) to accessing additional info, and my sources, about all of these topics. Warning: In my effort to Grok this stuff, I might not yet be using some terminology precisely correctly.

See Earthquake Science Ukraine in my Google Drive document collection. See EQ Science Notes in my Linked In Box Net document collection.

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In aggregate, this collection of terminology, paints a picture of the scope of whats happening with drone warfare. I have encountered specialized terminology, not yet explained here, some because I still have to figure out what it all means. The overwhelming volume of specialized military drones in the air, on the ground, and in the water, is sounding very like the army of Sky Net in the Terminator Science Fiction series. References to chapters and sections, not found in this collection of terminology, are within my separate Drone Notes document.

Terms Numbers+ (3 Mar 05) 1st Amendment of US Constitution has some relevance to the legalities of
targeting US citizens for killing by drones or other means, and violent actions taken against apparently peaceful protests, including: o Freedom of Assembly o Freedom of Religion o Freedom of Speech st 1 Amendment Court Rulings: US Supreme Court, and other courts, have recognized that intrusive government surveillance of expressive activities, such as political or social activism, can violate the First Amendment. o See: Drone Police; Fusion Center. nd 2 Amendment of US Constitution has some relevance to the legalities of targeting US citizens for killing by drones or other means, including: o Right to be Armed o See: Gun Walking; NRA. 3d printed autonomous drones.10 3 miles of airport when flying a radio controlled plane within this distance of an airport, the operators are required to inform air traffic control.11

4th Amendment+ (2 Oct 06)

4th Amendment of US Constitution has relevance to legalities of targeting US


citizens for killing by drones or other means, and actions by the police taken against people photographing them doing their job, including: o Freedom from Unreasonable Searches & Seizures. o Search Warrants need Probable Cause. o Protection from excessive and arbitrary government intrusion. o See: Privacy. th 4 Amendment Jurisprudence: o It is a continuing question, how the demands of 4th amendment protection applies to an ever-changing society in which new and

10 11

http://www.wired.com/design/2012/11/3d-printed-autonomous-airplane/ http://www.cnn.com/2013/03/04/us/new-york-drone-report/index.html?hpt=hp_t2

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM pervasive forms of technology are increasingly common, such as whats happening with drones, and the militarization of police. o It states, in part: o The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated. o There have been court rulings that peoples papers and effects are not protected, when the government did not intrude into their persons or homes, or what they did, did not qualify as a search. o For example, going to the phone company, internet service provider, or your bank, to get info about you, is not an intrusion of your home. Wire-tapping your phone conversations, where the tap interception point is outside your home, is not protected via 4th amendment. There have been court rulings both ways on this. o In Katz v. United States (1967), the Court held that an FBI agents use of a bug to listen to the private conversations of Mr. Katz while in a telephone booth violated his Fourth Amendment rights. Although he was in a public telephone booth and there was no physical invasion, the Court noted that what a person seeks to preserve private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected.12 o In Kyllo v. United States, according to Townhall,13 in their Sep 2012 magazine, the US Supreme Court decided that using thermal imaging from outside a persons home without a warrant, was unlawful. o In Jones v. United States, according to Townhall,14 in their Sep 2012 magazine, the US. Supreme Court held that 24x7 surveillance, without a warrant, was unlawful. o When analyzing domestic drone use under the 4th Amendment, a reviewing court may be informed by cases surrounding privacy in the home, privacy in public spaces, location tracking, manned aerial surveillance, those involving the national border, and warrantless searches under the special needs doctrine. o See: Drone Police; Privacy; See Through Walls. 4th Amendment Warrant: Traditionally, for the police to invade a person, or their private property, they need a warrant from judicial authorities, with very few exceptions.

12

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept CRS = Congressional Research Service FAS = Federation of American Scientists 13 http://townhall.com/ Townhall is a US conservative magazine. http://magazine.townhall.com/featured https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Townhall.com 14 http://townhall.com/ Townhall is a US conservative magazine. http://magazine.townhall.com/featured https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Townhall.com

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Courts have granted the Police exceptions when they have reason to suspect probable cause, or when there is a serious security or health or safety issue. o Courts also allow suspicionless-searches such as at the border, police roadblocks, and commercial businesses. These are where they are checking everyone, looking for specific limited criminal exceptions sneaking through under cover of innocent people, such as drugs or sobriety-lacking. o See: Border; Curtilage; Fly-Over; PHVPH; Plain View Doctrine; PrivacyHome; Search Location; See Through Walls; Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant; Vehicle Tracking. 4.4 pounds is a ceiling on drones authorized by some FAA regulations. See: COA; FAA. See: Drone Dimensions section in Drone Notes.

5th Amendment+ (2 Oct 22)

5th Amendment of US Constitution has relevance to the legalities of targeting


US citizens for killing by drones or other means, and justifiability of torture, including: o Due Process of Law. o Prohibits Self-Incrimination and Double Jeopardy. o Some protections are a combination of the 5th and 14th amendments. Law enforcement may not use race, religion and/or other protected characteristics as grounds for determining whom to target for investigation. Information about an individual, already contained within one government database, should not be shared with another government entity on the sole basis that the individual belongs to a particular race, or ethnicity, or practices a particular religion. o Provides a route for compensation if loud aircraft noise takes from the peace and quiet, and enjoyment for people on the ground. o See: Citizens of USA; Drone Police; Fusion Center. 5 miles of an airport, is a limitation on drones authorized by some FAA regulations. See: COA; FAA. See: Drone Dimensions section in Drone Notes.. 5 percent, or less, of US military drones are weaponized, as of 2012.15 6th Amendment of US Constitution has some relevance to the legalities of targeting US citizens for killing by drones or other means, including: o Trial Rights o Must be notified of the charges and evidence against you o Right to a Lawyer, in criminal cases

15

http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/09/how-terrified-should-we-be-of-the-pentagonsplan-to-automize-drones/261944/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM

11th Amendment of US Constitution has some relevance to the legalities of


victims of US drone attacks, seeking justice from US. o Immunity of government from some law suits

14th Amendment+ (2 Oct 22)

14th Amendment of US Constitution includes some elements of topics hot in


recent news: o Citizenship defined, such as born in USA, whose parents are illegals. o Equality of different people under the Law. o The 14th Amendment forbids each state government from denying to any person, within its jurisdiction, the equal protection of the laws and therefore prohibits government institutions and employees from discriminating against individuals on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, or religion. o See: Fusion Center. 25 pounds (11.3 kilos) is a ceiling on drones authorized by some FAA regulations. See: COA; FAA. See: Drone Dimensions section in Drone Notes. .50 caliber o Remember mini-gun used in Terminator II movie, which looked like a full size machine gun? Thats what were talking about ATF helping deliver to Mexican cartels. o See: ATF Scandals; Fast and Furious Flaws. 55 pounds are cut-off for FAA issuing approval for drones over USA. Congress authorized FAA to issue regulations for drones less than 55 pounds. 16 o See: COA; FAA; NAS.

400 feet+ (3 Jan 10)


400 feet has shown up several places in legislation and regulations regarding the use of unmanned aircraft over the USA. Footnotes link to some of those places. 17 Also see section on Drone Dimensions. 911 for a Medical Drone: Here is an article about the development of a UAV which can be summoned by a smart phone, land in a battle zone, pick up an injured soldier and fly them back to base.18

16

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/drones_nas.html downloaded as CRS Drones in NAS 2012 Sept. CRS = Congressional Research Service; FAS = Federation of American Scientists; NAS = US National Air Space.
17

http://amablog.modelaircraft.org/amagov/2012/03/08/your-questions-answered-the-400-foot-limit-formodel-aircraft/ 18 http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2012/12/start/autonomous-flight

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM

2007 FAA UA (unmanned aircraft) Rules (2 pages) may get referenced


multiple places in my notes. I have uploaded a copy to my Drone Info collection on Google Doc Drive, and share link to that collection.19 o As of these regulations, published Feb 2007: o No person may operate a UAS (unmanned aircraft system) in the NAS (US National Air Space), without FAA authorization. o For people operating UAS as public aircraft, the authority is COA system (Certificate of Authorization), where the UAS has an SAC (Special Airworthiness Certificate). I do not yet know when this system started, or what the rules were before it started. I will update these notes as I figure out more info. o For model aircraft, the authority is AC 91-57, which I have also uploaded to my Drone Info collection with the designation DOT Model Aircraft 91-57, because it was issued by DOT (Department of Transportation). o AC 91-57 only applies to hobby modelers, not persons or companies for business purposes. This clarifies a situation in my Drone Dimensions section, where all sorts of businesses in trouble for doing exactly that, such as aerial photos of real estate, make movies. We do not know when it became illegal for business uses of model aircraft. o Also see: COA; DOT; FAA; NAS; SAC; UA; UAS. 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map20 This is a link to the 210 page, 4 meg, PDF which is the second edition. As I extract useful info from it, I will be citing page # in the PDF, where I found the stuff, not page # in the actual doc, whose page #s are a bit off, for reasons hopefully obvious, once Yall view it. Also see DoD. 4,000 feet (up to) above Ground level, of the nearest airport, is considered to be Class C aircraft in the USA.21 Prior to entering Class C airspace, the pilot must establish communication with the ATC tower. This is mandatory. See: Airspace classes. 18,000 feet is a cut-off in 2007 FAA UA Rules shared in my Drone Info Google Doc Drive collection.22 Sees page 1 bottom of 3rd column. o Unmanned aircraft (UA) flight above 18,000 feet must be conducted under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), on an IFR flight plan, must obtain ATC clearance, be equipped with at least a Mode C transponder (preferably Mode S), operating navigation lights and / or collision avoidance lights and maintain communication between the Pilot-in-command (PIC) and Air Traffic Control (ATC). o Unmanned aircraft flights below 18,000 feet have similar requirements, except that if operators choose to operate on other than an IFR flight plan, they may be required to pre-coordinate with ATC. o See: ATC; IFR; PIC

19 20

https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4b-ZLWR0bmZLS3d5OVk/edit http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 21 http://www.ehow.com/list_7448333_class-airspace-flight-rules.html 22 https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4b-ZLWR0bmZLS3d5OVk/edit

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM 30,000 drones may be in Americas skies before 2030s. I had seen this prediction in some news media, where other articles disputed that estimate. See footnote for a credible source.23

Terms A+ (2 Sep 23)

A2AD = Anti Access Area Denial

AAEL = Advanced Airship Flying Laboratory. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map24 TOC Appendix A.2 on Unmanned Airship Systems (UAS). AAG = Assistant Attorney General. See: AG; DAAG.. AAV = Autonomous Aerial Vehicles25 ABV = Assault Breacher Vehicle. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map26 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs).. ACLU = American Civil Liberties Union o ACLU is one of several activist organizations which argue that drones pose a unique threat to privacy. o It has filed several FOIA seeking facts about controversial areas of US use of drones,27 and alleged targeted killing.28 o See: EPIC; FOIA; targeted killing. Acronym = initials, for some name, used rather than spelling out the whole thing. When the acronym, and the name, would end up in very different locations in this reference list, I may define one place, and mention in the other place referencing the main definition. AD = Assistant Director. See: DAD. AD/2A = Area Denial and Anti-Access. See 10 thoughts on Drone Future,29 #9 page 9.
ADCR = Automatically Deployed Communication Relays ADEPT = All-Domain Execution and Planning Technology ADS-B = Automated Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast. Aircraft of the future will use GPS to know their precise location, then communicate that as part of the Air Traffic Control System (ATC). This system will be required on manned aircraft in US NAS by 2020, since Next Gen will expect it. 30 o See: ATC; GPS; Next Gen; NAS.

23

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept CRS = Congressional Research Service FAS = Federation of American Scientists 24 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 25 http://matternet.net/ 26 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 27 www.aclu.org/national-security/predator-drone-foia 28 www.aclu.org/national-security/targeted-killings http://www.aclu.org/keep-america-safe-free/aclu-appeals-court-thursday-arguing-against-cias-secrecyclaim-targeted 29 http://aviationintel.com/2012/07/09/tylers-10-thoughts-on-the-future-of-drone-warfare/ 30 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/drones_nas.html downloaded as CRS Drones in NAS 2012 Sept. CRS = Congressional Research Service; FAS = Federation of American Scientists; NAS = US National Air Space.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM


ADUUV = Advanced Development Unmanned Undersea Vehicle

AECA illustrated (2 Sep 20)


AECA = US Arms Control Act. This limits: o sale or transfer of certain Info and technologies to foreign nations and foreign entities;32 and o requires end-use monitoring, to try to prevent foreign customers from passing or proliferating the technologies to nations banned from direct US sales. o AECA Licensing and Transfer Agencies relevant to Drones Technology, See: BIS Export OEE Administration in Commerce; DDTC in State; DSCA in DoD. o AECA End use Monitoring Agencies relevant to Drones Technology, See: BIS Export OEE Enforcement in Commerce; DDTC in State; DSCA in DoD. o AECA Enforcement Agencies, relevant to Drones technology, See: BIS Export OEE Enforcement in Commerce; CBP; DoJ; FBI; ICE
31

o The US executive branch is considering reforms to the US export control system in an Export Control Reform Initiative, including the creation of a single control list and a single info technology system. This initiative could affect export control licensing and enforcement efforts involving drones and related technologies and components.
o See: BIS; Blue Lantern; CCL; Commerce; Cruise Missiles; DDTC; DHS; DoD; DoJ; DSCA; DSS; GAO; Golden Sentry; ICE; MTCR; State; UAV; Wassenaar Arrangement.

Break for illustration.33

31 32

See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf Given government secrecy what all is covered by this, and the proliferation of people sharing info on the Internet, enforcement of this must be quite a challenge. Note that while all the illustrations of drones in GAO report on drones by nation, are of the aerial kind, other official reports, such as from DoD, show that there are also variants which operate on land, sea, and under the sea. 33 Source GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf

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AEODRS+ (2 Oct 13)


AEODRS = Advanced Explosive Ordnance Disposal Robotic Systems Aerospace Industries Association: http://www.aia-aerospace.org/ AFB = Air Force Base AFI = Mexican Agencia Federal de Investigacion. It was an investigative agency inside PGR similar conceptually to FBI, DEA, UMS. AFI was replaced by PFM in mid 2009. See: PFM; PGR.


34 35

Africa Human Rights


o See Human Rights Regions. AG several meanings AG = Attorney General. See: AAG; DAAG; DAD; DAG. AG = Adjudicative guidelines34 AGRM = Attorney General of the Republic of Mexico. o See: Attorney General; MAGO. AFSPC = Air Force Space Command 35 AHAR = Autonomous High Altitude Refueling Basically, drones will need the

same kinds of services as manned flight.


o See Autonomous Drone AI = Artificial Intelligence

http://cryptome.org/dodi/sec-clear-denied.pdf http://aviationintel.com/2012/10/10/unmanned-game-changer-autonomous-aerial-refueling-is-a-reality/

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o

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM


See: Autonomous Drone; Needle in Haystack.

Air Regulatory Authority in the USA, is complex and divided.36 o Aircraft owned or leased by federal and state agencies, counties, and municipalities. o Civil aircraft, operated by private individuals and corporations. o These two categories are regulated differently. o Now add drones to the mixture. o Prior to the 2012 legislation, we had: o Model aircraft for non-commercial purposes (and commercial outfits in violation), such as hobby and experimental; o Drones used by military and other government agencies; o Civilians gaining access to cheap drone imports and from kits. o The FAA may be ill-equipped to manage licensing for drone operations, on a case by case basis. Demand for their usage could well ultimately parallel the volume of people who want state licenses to operate cars, boats, trucks, motorcycles, etc. Air Space Classes are defined by ICAO, with various nations adopting some or all of these classes.37 o The six airspace classes in the U.S. are A, B, C, D, E and G. There is not an F class airspace in the U.S., although Class F does exist in other parts of the world. o Class A (Alpha): 18,000 to 60,000 feet., required to be on IFR (Instrument Flight Rules). o Class B (Bravo): Up to 10,000 feet above sea level, airspace surrounding the busiest airports in the U.S, such as Boston Logan, Los Angeles LAX, or Dallas DFW.38 To fly into Class B airspace, you must have an altitude encoding transponder and have received an air traffic control (ATC) clearance into the Class B airspace. o Class C (Charlie): surrounds some large airports which have a control tower and radar approach control. This airspace is from the surface up to 4,000 feet above the airport. To fly into Class C airspace, you must have an altitude-encoding transponder and have established two-way communications with ATC controlling the Class C. o Class D (Delta): is from the surface up to 2,500 feet above the airport. Class D airspace surrounds an airport which has a control tower that is not Class B or C. These airports are usually for general aviation aircraft. To fly into the Class D airspace, you must establish two-way communications with the control tower. A transponder is not required. o Class E (Echo): is any other airspace that is controlled. Communications are not required with ATC or anyone else.

36

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/drones_nas.html downloaded as CRS Drones in NAS 2012 Sept. CRS = Congressional Research Service; FAS = Federation of American Scientists; NAS = US National Air Space.
37 38

http://www.ehow.com/list_5907869_classes-airspace.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Class_B_airports_in_the_USA

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Class G (Gulf): is airspace which is uncontrolled. No communications with anyone are required. o Also See: ICAO. Airworthiness of unmanned aircraft means the vehicles are safe to operate, and the operators have been certified by FAA or DoD as knowing what they are doing, and what the rules are. For more info on details of implementing this, see 2007 FAA UA Rules shared in my Drone Info Google Doc Drive collection.39 Most useful info there is page 1 bottom 2nd column, top of 3rd column.

Al+ (2 Dec 20)


Alias e-mail account = where someone uses something other than their real name, or anything which might give anyone a clue as to who the real owner of the account is.40 So why is it Ok for the US government to do this, but not Ok for the citizenry? Alien Tort Statute of 1789: see ATS. Al-Qaeda = a global militant group founded by Osama Bin Laden to fight against governments for political gains.41 Alternatives, practical, for current Drone attack policy? o Pakistan = None42 AMA: o Academy of Model Aeronautics,43 such as people who got to fly Radio Controlled (RC) Model Aircraft, before US Congress and FAA cracked down and made a lot of stuff illegal, which had been a fun hobby until then, and also with some for profit commercial applications. o American Medical Association, is the more familiar AMA usage. o See RC chapters within Drone Dimensions of Drone Notes. AMC = American Movie Classics. o Watch Breaking Bad. Notice how inept and clueless klutzes federal law enforcement is, in that series. o This Breaking Bad series could be inspired by the ATF Gun Walking operations, which facilitated supplying Mexican Drug Cartels with some serious fire power. o See: ATF; Gun Walking. Amendments to US Constitution: Various ones have been cited by people as allegedly prohibiting various actions by US government, State governments, local police etc., in their opinion. o See alphabetically specific digits in front of alphabetical section.

39 40

https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4b-ZLWR0bmZLS3d5OVk/edit http://www.scribd.com/collections/4041017/CREW-Regarding-Alias-Email-Accounts 41 http://pakistanbodycount.org/definitions 42 http://ricks.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/11/07/drones_here_to_stay 43 http://www.modelaircraft.org/aboutama/gov.aspx

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o See my Economy Disaster research notes in my Disaster Avoidance collection.44 The terminology section of the Economy document, also addresses this kind of issue. Americas Human Rights45 o See: Human Rights Regions;; IACHR; OAS.

AN+ (2 Oct 19)


ANPR = Automatic Number Plate Recognition.46 o See: Drone Police; NoPhoto; Search Location; Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant. Anti-Drone Chip is one of my many Mitigation Suggestions. o Since US drones are being used to target any persons, seen by drone operators to be armed in some region, including the local police, here is another of my mitigation suggestions: o Pakistani military develop a chip which spies on drone transmissions within a few miles of the chips location, identifies orders to fire weapons, in what direction. o This chip would be embedded in a badge issued to Pakistan government employees, including: police; judges; mayors, etc. o If the chip determines that the weapons fire is coming directly towards it, it would immediately send signals designed to: Blow up the weapon immediately, before it arrives. Blow up the drone. Notify Pakistan government of the: date; time; GPS location; which government employee the USA tried to assassinate. o Extra batteries, and recharging equipment, would be issued to government employees assigned to areas where local electricity is unreliable. o When employment of government official ends, they turn in their gun, badge, and chip, all of which are carefully accounted for. o Pakistani government would have a record of all employees to whom the chips were issued, and a system for issuing updates to the chip software, as needed, as US drone technology is improved. o This chip would serve to put a chill into the US policy that considers employees of friendly governments, and their families, to be expendable. After a few $ billion dollars in drone hardware has been destroyed, the US would think twice about indiscriminately killing and maiming Pakistani military, Pakistani government officials, and innocent civilians, then claiming that only enemies are killed by drones. Further, any CIA informant which makes such persons targets, might lose their CIA job. o Pakistan can justify this in the UN by declaring that if there is an alleged problem with government employees of government X, that it is

44

https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4bZMTA0YTM0YzktNTI0YS00NjVhLTg5NTItY2RiZjhiM2MzODkw/edit
45
46

http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/b-32.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Police-enforced_ANPR_in_the_UK

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM government Xs job to deal with them, not other governments. If you think some of our employees should be killed, then you come through legal channels to argue your case, not continue this approach. o See: Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station; Khassadar; Mitigation Suggestions; War Crime.

AO+ (3 Feb 11)



AOPA = US Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association


AOR = Area of Responsibility APUC = Average Procurement Unit Cost (for DoD), denoted in

millions of dollars. 47 o See: ASP; DoD. AQ = Al-Qaeda.

AQAP = Al-Qaeda in Arabian Peninsula 48 ARCI/APB = Advanced Rapid COTS [Commercial Off The Shelf] Insertion/Advanced Processor Build

ARCS = Autonomous Robotic Capability Suite. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map49 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets.
ARGOS = On-time information system ARGUS from DARPA = Autonomous Real-Time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance

Imaging System50 o Once attached under an unmanned aerial vehicle, an ARGUS camera can patrol at 17,500 feet and send back high resolution images of 1.8 gigapixels. o The images are so crisp and clear that an analyst can actually see what color shirt a subject is wearing. o See: DARPA; Drone Police.
ARM = Autonomous Robotic Manipulation Armas Cruzadas Operation, which ICE started in 2008, targets firearms trafficking to Mexico, but the ICE operation focuses on smuggling networks, such as tunnels under the border, and drugs flown under the radar. o See: ATF; Fast & Furious; Gun Runner; Gun Walking; ICE; SBS; Wide Receiver.

Army+ (2 Oct 27)

47

Army Combat Structure51

American Security Project uses such data in Drone Cost Analysis. http://americansecurityproject.org/issues/asymmetric-operations/the-strategic-effects-of-a-lethal-dronespolicy/ http://www.scribd.com/doc/102744195/The-Strategic-Context-of-LethalDrones?secret_password=2fk4qznpqupr7fraj21g 48 https://www.propublica.org/article/everything-we-know-so-far-about-drone-strikes 49 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 50 http://www.businessinsider.com/darpa-argus-mega-camera-most-detailed-surveillance-camera-in-world2013-1 51 https://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/wsh2013/app.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Squad is the smallest military unit in the Army. It is led by a Sergeant. An infantry squad is typically 9 soldiers. An armor squad is typically 4 soldiers (the crew of a tank). There are typically 10 in a squad of engineers. Three to four squads make up a Platoon. o Platoon is led by a Lieutenant. An infantry platoon is typically 40 soldiers. An Armor platoon is typically 16 soldiers (the crew of 4 tanks). Three to four platoons make up a Company. o Company is led by a Captain. There are typically up to 220 soldiers in a Company. An Artillery unit of this size is called a Battery. Armored Cavalry or Air Cavalry unit is called a Troop. Five companies make up a Battalion. o Battalion, is tactically and strategically self sufficient, and is led by a Lieutenant Colonel. Armored Cavalry or Air Cavalry unit is called a Squadron. Two or more Battalions make up a Brigade. o Brigade is led by a Colonel. Three Brigades make up a Division. o Division is led by a Major General. Two or more divisions make up a Corps. o Corps is led by a Lieutenant General. ARTS = All-Purpose Remote Transport System. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map52 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs).. ARV = Armed Robotic Vehicle. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map53 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs).

AS+ (2 Nov 29)


ASAC = Assistant Special Agent in Charge. See: RAC; SAC. ASAP = As Soon As Possible.
ASW Anti-Submarine Warfare

ASD = Assistant Secretary of Defense ASP = American Security Project54 ASP = Application Service Provider. o Until the invention of ASPs, our computer data was on our computers, managed by software we wrote ourselves or had someone write for us, or we purchased and/or licensed. o With an ASP, our data can be hosted on someone else computer, managed by an ASP, with their software. This is a trade-off between lower cost of managing our info, and lower security or privacy on Internet. o The process, of our people connecting over Internet to our data at ASP site, is an extra area of risk of data breach. o If the police demand to see our info on our computer, we know about it. o If they demand to see our data on an ASP, we might not know.
ASR = Automated Speech Recognition

52 53

http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 54 http://americansecurityproject.org/issues/asymmetric-operations/the-strategic-effects-of-a-lethal-dronespolicy/drone-information-sources-annotated-bibliography/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Assassination has been legally defined, for the US Army Law of War Manual,
to have different meanings in peace time and war time.55 o See: Legal Geography of War chapter of my Drone Scribd document. o See: International Law; MOOTW. Assassination Ban Around the time of the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, and the assassination of his brother Robert Kennedy, the CIA had had a secret plot to assassinate Fidel Castro. President Reagan ordered a ban on assassinations by US forces, for fear it would increase the probability of assassination attempts against US leaders. That ban was rescinded by President Bush shortly after 9/11 but many people, including US government officials, do not realize this, in their writings and speeches about drones and other covert actions. Defining what exactly is an assassination, is another element of what may be missing from this ban. o Some people question whether drone strikes violate this ban.56

However, President Bush lifted a 25 year ban57 on US assassinations58 just after 9/11.59 o U.S. State Department Legal Adviser, Harold Hongju Koh, in a March 2010 speech to American Society of International Law, disputed that drone attacks violate the Assassination Ban because the term assassination only applies to unlawful killings, while drone attacks are lawful.60 o See: Extra Judicial Killing; LOAC; Targeted Killing. Assassination in Peace Time, has been defined (for the US Army) as any murder for political purposes, of public figures, or of private persons, conducted by covert means.61
o See: Assassination.

Assassination in War Time, has been defined (for the US Army) where legalized killing is part of the role of the Armed Forces, combatants are subject to attack at any time or place, regardless of their activity when attacked.62 o So, if the Legal Geography of War theory is accepted, then this ruling justifies drone attacks anywhere in the world, as far as the

55

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 56 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 57 https://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RS21037.pdf 58 http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/06/world/threats-responses-hunt-for-suspects-fatal-strike-yemen-wasbased-rules-set-bush.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm 59 http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/2012/11/03/ok-fine-shoot-him-four-words-that-heralded-adecade-of-secret-us-drone-killings/ 60 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 61 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 62 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM US Assassination ban is concerned, although other Laws might play a role. o U.S. State Department Legal Adviser, Harold Hongju Koh, in a March 2010 speech to American Society of International Law, disputed that there was anything wrong with targeting leaders of the enemy, citing as precedent when the US assassinated Admiral Yamamoto in WW II.63 o See: Assassination Ban; International Law; Self Defense; Sovereignty.

ASTM = American Society for Testing and Materials

ATAG = Air Transport Action Group.64 They help the industry cooperate on development and implementation of improvements. Also see IATA

ATC+ (3 Feb 01)


ATC = Air Traffic Control. It has been hacked. The IG (Inspector General) of DOT (Department of Transportation) did a computer security audit of this at least a year ago. If I remember correctly, maybe 1% of ATC had computer security of any kind, and usually it was anti-spam for e-mail, not firewalls for preventing hacking of info communicated for air safety. So current state of art, it is allegedly very easy for hacker terrorists to steer aircraft over our nation to crash into each other, or cause other accidents on purpose. ATF = US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Fire Arms, and Explosives, a US agency, within DoJ, dealing with violations of trafficking in certain regulated substances and weapons. o See: Armas Cruzadas; Attorney General Holder; Attorney General Mukasey; eTrace; DoJ; Gun Walking; N-Force; N-Spect; Radar Screens; SWB; Violence on Mexico US Border. ATF Milwaukee = here is info about what sounds like more ATF corruption.65 o Contrary to many news reports, there are a lot more ATF scandals than this latest event and Fast and Furious.66 What many of them have in common, is the ATF has standards for doing things correctly, not taught to personnel at local offices, who kind of make things up as they go along, without relying on anything learned in the long history of the institution. ATF claims to have made reforms after Fast & Furious.67 We will just

63

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 64 ATAG http://www.atag.org/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_Transport_Action_Group 65 http://www.policemisconduct.net/atf-messmilwaukee/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Policemisconductne t+%28PoliceMisconduct.net%29 66 http://cleanupatf.org/forums/index.php?/topic/430-atfs-milwaukee-sting-operation-marred-bymanagement-mistakes-failures/ 67 http://dallasmorningviewsblog.dallasnews.com/2013/01/d-c-official-says-atf-changed-from-fast-andfurious-era.html/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM have to see, if those reforms have any lasting effect. Removing the agents who ran a seriously flawed operation ignores the fact that US Attorneys approved the operations, a case of punishing the low level people who obeyed orders, and leaving the perpetrators in place. See summary under: ATF Scandals. David Salkin68 put his single-story building on E. Meinecke Ave. up for rent on Craigslist, and got two offers: Lease to a church or Fearless Distributing. He went with Fearless Distributing, since they offered more money.69 Turns out Fearless Distributing was an ATF sting operation. Angry residents say this ATF operation introduced more crime into their neighborhood, than was there previously. 70 Then the place got burglarized, more than once.71 ATF lost over $35,000.00 in merchandise, an agents machine gun, lesser guns and ammunition.72 Previously, the building owner found it odd that despite his warning, the distributors failed to hook up the burglar alarm, which led, unsurprisingly, to embarrassing burglaries.73 The burglar alarm came with the rented facility.74 The ATF has weapons stolen or loses them more frequently than the public might think, according to a 2008 report from the Office of the Inspector General with the U.S. Department of Justice. In a five-year span from 2002-'07, for example, 76 ATF weapons were stolen, lost or missing, according to the report.75 That's nearly double the number compared with the FBI and DEA, when considering rates per 1,000 agents. See: DEA. Salkin assessed the damage to his property, utility bill thanks to the renters prior to burglary, concluded they owed him, the landlord $15,000.00 to make him whole. This included a months rent not paid. The ATF disagreed. They said they only owed $3,200.00 and the security deposit should be returned. If this had been any other renters than the ATF, the case can be settled in a court of law, where landlord and renter each show their side of the situation, and a judge decides what is fair. The

o o

68 69

http://www.linkedin.com/pub/dave-salkin/3/491/127 www.jsonline.com/watchdog/watchdogreports/letter-to-atf-demands-answers-on-flawed-milwaukeestorefront-sting-758jliv-189281911.html 70 http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/01/31/lawmakers-call-for-probe-into-botched-atf-sting-inmilwaukee/ 71 Different news stories have different spins on this. One version is that an ATF agent left lots of guns and ammo in a vehicle parked outside a coffee shop, when he went in for refreshments, so the thefts there should not be counted as part of the sting operation, where he was just a helper, not officially part of that operation. 72 http://www.twincities.com/wisconsin/ci_22492459/atfs-flawed-sting-efforts-milwaukee-draw-ire http://www.620wtmj.com/blogs/johnmercure/189101811.html 73 http://dallasmorningviewsblog.dallasnews.com/2013/01/is-it-a-good-idea-to-give-the-atf-even-more-todo.html/ 74 http://cleanupatf.org/forums/index.php?/topic/430-atfs-milwaukee-sting-operation-marred-bymanagement-mistakes-failures/ 75 http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/a0829/final.pdf 142 pages

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM ATF told the landlord to submit a claim to the federal government, and to quit contacting them. o In an e-mail, an attorney for the ATF said that any further attempts to contact the agents, seeking resolution of your financial claim, constitutes harassment of federal agents, which is a serious felony.76 o Congress is now asking the ATF for an explanation of their attitude about this, after seeing landlord evidence of the scale of the damage, such as the hole ATF cut in his wall, to install a camera to collect evidence on whoever responded to their sting operation.77 o In part of the mess, left behind by the ATF, was a confidential document, with personal information about the undercover agents involved. This may constitute a breach, which should be reported to the state attorney general, then ATF pay a fine for not securing personal information better. o The ATF is refusing to answer news media questions about this. The U.S. attorney only mentions good things about the operation seizures of 145 guns and over 30 arrests. The Journal Sentinel said the wrong people were charged in three of those arrests, including one in which they charged a man for selling drugs to them, even though he was in prison at the time as a result of a previous ATF case. Maybe the man in prison had had his identity stolen by whoever the ATF was dealing with this time? Federal Bureau of Prisons spokesperson swears this guy was in their custody on the exact same day that the ATF has video evidence of him engaged in the drug sale. This means all their video evidence is suspect. o A lesson from this, for other people, is if you ever are contacted by the ATF seeking to rent your property, or transact other business, refuse to do so, because they cannot be trusted to conduct business according to the rule of law. ATF Rebellion o Some employees of ATF are outraged at how their government agency reputation has been seriously harmed by scandals, so they are taking various actions to try to clean up their image, get the truth out, etc. o http://www.cleanupatf.org/ ATF Scandals, See:78

76

www.jsonline.com/watchdog/watchdogreports/atfs-milwaukee-sting-operation-marred-by-mistakesfailures-mu8akpj-188952581.html 77 www.jsonline.com/watchdog/watchdogreports/members-of-congress-seek-inquiry-of-faulty-atfoperation-in-milwaukee-308jb1a-189126461.html http://wtaq.com/news/articles/2013/jan/31/more-lawmakers-want-answers-in-faulty-atf-operation-inmilwaukee/ http://gazettextra.com/weblogs/latest-news/2013/jan/31/flawed-atf-sting-milwaukee-draws-ire/ http://www.wsoctv.com/news/ap/crime/news-from-around-wisconsin-at-558-pm-cst/nWCR9/ 78 CBS News Uncovers Gunrunning Scandal Within the ATF. http://www.cbsnews.com/2100 18563_162-20035609.html It is unclear which scandal this really was, since it is clear from OIG report that people who knew part of the overall story, but not all of it, were often referring to activities in one operation or project, by the name of another one.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o ATF Milwaukee o Deliverance Project o DoJ Policy Changes in response to ATF Scandals o Fast and Furious Operation Oct 2009 to Jan 2011 o Gun Runner Project. o Gun Walking (what these operations and projects have in common) o Wide Receiver Operation Mar 2006 to Oct 2010 AT+L = Acquisition, Technology and Logistics. ATM = Automated Teller Machine.79 ATS = Alien Tort Statute of 1789.80 It applied to violations of International Law, as Laws of Nations then existed, such as piracy and torture, which have been significantly redefined over time. It also applies to violations of US treaties. o It allows law suits to be filed in USA by or against foreign people, corporations, governments, and their agents. o This law was rediscovered in the 1980s and applied to Human Rights and other violations, which had since made their way into International Law. There have been many court cases struggling with interpretation of this. What is international law now, and was it intended by the original framers that this should apply to what is in international law which did not exist in 1789? Congress reaffirmed intent of its wide coverage, to stay current with changes in international law, by citing it in the Torture Victims Protection Act. o Some other nations think it is improper for US courts to rule on violation of International Law, where the USA is not directly involved. What is the US connection when Acts done by corporation or people foreign to USA. Acts done against corporation or people foreign to USA. Perpetrators are government officials of nation foreign to USA. o Some cases have been bought by victim refugees, who achieved asylum status in USA. They are now legal residents of USA, bringing claims for the human rights violations for which they were awarded asylum status. 81 o See: International Law; International Law Courts; Reciprocity; Sosa.

Attorney General+ (2 Oct 01)

Attorney General (AG): this person is the senior official in the US Dept of
Justice (DoJ) in charge of all federal law enforcement agencies, except maybe a few under DHS and DoD. The AG shares a responsibility with the President and Congress, to have management systems so the people in charge know what is being done by the people under their command. In my opinion, it is improper to

79 80

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automated_teller_machine https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alien_Tort_Statute 81 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/10/oral-argument-in-kiobel-justices-seem-inclined-to-shut-ats-doorfurther-but-will-it-remain-ajar/ http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/10/todays-headlines-and-commentary-281/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM blame the AG, President, or Congress, for the corrupt and flawed operations done on their watch, of which they may have known nothing, but it is proper to blame them for not having management systems which could have nipped these problems in the bud. o See: AGRM; ATF Scandals; DoJ; EOUSA; Gun Walking; Mitigation Suggestions; President of USA; Radar Screen; US Congress. o Also see Non-Drone Content section in the introduction to this glossary of terminology. Attorney General Holder82 became AG Mar 2009. o He changed US policy March 2011, in the wake of several ATF scandals becoming public, no longer covered up. o Tactics are no longer allowed, which let firearms cross the border, whether controlled delivery, or gun walking. A conference call, with SWB (South West Border) US Attorneys, warned them to terminate any such current operations. o IG investigation determined that AG Holder was not in the loop, with respect to the bad stuff going on with ATF Scandals, until after Congress caught him apparently lying. o See: ATF Scandals; Controlled Delivery; DoJ Policy Changes in response to AFT Scandals; Gun Walking; SWB. Attorney General Mukasey83 became AG Nov 2007. To help with his Senate confirmation hearings, he was provided with a briefing paper about the Henandez Case, which was ATF Phoenix office working successfully with Mexican authorities to catch cartel operatives moving US guns to Mexico. o In review of draft language, there was a statement about this being the first-ever operation of its kind. The Deputy Assistant Director West, who had previously been briefed about Wide Receiver, pointed out that this is not first ever. There have been past cases like this. He may not have known that many of the past cases were unsuccessful. He wasnt referring to Wide Receiver, but cases going back to the early 1980s. o Apparently the first-ever misinformation was never corrected. o IG investigation determined that Mukasey was never briefed on any gun walking case other than the Hernandez one. o See: AG; ATF Scandals; Gun Walking; Wide Receiver.

AU+ (3 Feb 01)


AUMF = Authorization for Use of Military Force.84 o After 9/11, US Congress gave this to the President, to go after the people responsible, and to try to prevent anything from that happening again.85 That authorization is still active.

82 83

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Holder https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Mukasey 84 http://afgeneralcounsel.dodlive.mil/2013/01/24/time-for-a-new-aumf/ https://www.propublica.org/article/everything-we-know-so-far-about-drone-strikes 85 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o John O. Brennan, Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism, in an April 2012 speech at the Wilson Center, said AUMF does not restrict the use of military force against Al Qaida to Afghanistan.86 o Attorney General Eric Holder in a March 2012 speech at Northwestern University School of Law, defended the legality of the lethal targeting program. He asserted that AUMF provides domestic authority and that the existence of an armed conflict provides international legal authority to target enemy belligerents.87 o See: Citizens of USA; Co-Belligerent; Self Defense.
AUSA = Assistant US Attorney o AUSA supervised ATF agents in Gun Walking operations, which were almost totally inept. o ATF agents work directly (in theory) with AUSA to develop Gun Runner fire arms trafficking related cases for prosecution. o See: ATF; Gun Runner; Gun Walking; USAO. AUSV = Autonomous Unmanned Surface Vehicle. o See: Autonomous Drone.

Authority (2 Nov 29)

Authority Federal: Authority for the actions, of local offices of

federal agencies, rests in Washington DC.88 There is grave risk of overzealous, poorly informed, unqualified, disconnected bureaucrats haphazardly making decisions which are life-changing for the general population with nary a thought to the consequences. o Remember in WW II War Crime trials, many defendants claimed they did not know this bad stuff was happening? The judges did not accept that defense. You are responsible for the people who report to you. You should know what they are doing. o Somehow that logic never got translated into placing proper accountability for Abu Graib; mysterious death of Gitmo prisoners; innocents who got tortured; Great Recession; and other recent scandals.
o See: ATF Scandals; President of USA; Radar Screens; US Congress; War Crime.

Auto: See: ANPR; Drone Police; Vehicle Tracking. Autonomous Drone = Concept of a Drone which does not require human involvement to pilot it, decide where it is to go, decide who it is to shoot at, refuel it, maintain it, update its programming.89 There have been stories alleging that

86

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 87 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 88 Thanks to Bob Speth and Terry Frazier for reminding me of this dimension. 89 Autonomous Drones

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM some drones are in testing which go part way towards these goals, not yet achieve all of them in one craft. o See: AHAR; AUSV; AWS; SAWS. AUVSI = Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International.90 AWS = Autonomous Weapon Systems. o QUOTING International Committee for Robot Arms Control (IRAC):91 o Department of Defense Directive 3000.0992 for the development and use of autonomous and semi-autonomous functions in weapon systems defining an AWS as A weapon system that, once activated, can select and engage targets without further intervention by a human operator. The ability of the system to select and engage targets autonomously makes it an AWS even if it is human-supervised with a possible human override; thus human on the loop is assigned the same status as human out of the loop, a conservative (good) policy. o UNQUOTE o See: Autonomous Drone. AZ = Arizona state where controversial ATF operations were conducted: Fast and Furious; Wide Receiver. o See: ATF; Fast and Furious; Gun Walking; Wide Receiver.

Terms B+ (2 Oct 27)


Back Door, a concept made public by the movie Wargames, is when a
producer of software or hardware, includes a way for the producer to hack into any customer or customer of customers computer systems. This threat to

national security is discussed in Boats Missed chapter of Drone Issues. o See: Manchurian Chip. 93 BACN = Battlefield Air Connectivity Node
BAMS = Broad Area Maritime Surveillance

BAMS UAS = Broad Area Maritime Surveillance Unmanned Aircraft System. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map94 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). Also mentioned in the summary of GAO Drones Military 10-508 t = 2010 March testimony.(21 pages) BAT = Battlefield Air Targeting. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map95 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).

http://blogs.cfr.org/zenko/2012/09/04/the-coming-future-of-autonomous-drones/ http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/AutonomyReport.pdf 2012 Nov 28 I started a Drone Robots doc, on Autonomous Killer Robot Drones, what I have on it, in time may diverge from references in Drone Terms. 90 http://www.auvsi.org/Home/ 91 http://icrac.net/2012/11/dod-directive-on-autonomy-in-weapon-systems/ 92 I have downloaded this, naming it DOD Autonomous Weapon Policies 2012 Nov. 93 http://aviationintel.com/2012/10/10/unmanned-game-changer-autonomous-aerial-refueling-is-a-reality/ 94 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 95 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM BATF = US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Fire Arms, and Explosives, a US agency, within DoJ. See: ATF. BATMAV = Battlefield Air Targeting Micro Air Vehicle, such as the WASP. . See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map96 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). Battalion. See: Army Combat Structure. Battery. See: Army Combat Structure. BEAR = Battlefield Extraction-Assist Robot. See: page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map97 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs); and page 8 Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. Bill of Particulars, in a legal case = details supplementing an indictment. The indictment may be a simple listing of crimes allegedly violated, while the bill of particulars spells out details of what was done, (which of course the court case will need to prove,) which are the basis of the charges. 98 BINLEA = Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs within Dept of State. It provides training, operations, intelligence, and logistical support for Foreign counter-narcotics programs. o See: LEA; NAS; State. Bird Dog = A Wireless GPS tracking device which emits periodic signals identifying location, but does not log nor maintain any data about the overall movements. See: GPS.

Biometric+ (2 Sep 27)


Biometric means identification based on biological attributes, such as: DNA; finger prints; eye retina; physical characteristics like height age gender, color of skin hair eyes, etc. See: DNA. Biometric Recognition: See: Drone Police. BIS = US Bureau of Industry and Security, within Dept of Commerce. BIS 99 administers CCL with the support of DTSA and other government agencies. It also monitors end-use, to limit proliferation on to prohibited third parties. o See: AECA; CBP; CCL; DDTC; DSS; DTSA; ICE; OEE. Blogosphere RSS Radio Outline: o Different people can be updating stuff via Internet (public) or Intranet (private) regarding project progress, in hyper-linked outline format. o As they post new info, other people who are subscribing, via RSS or other systems, to news of their efforts, receive computer alerts that the site has been updated, and heres link to what changed. They can drill down to more details. o See: FIG-LEAF; Hyper-Linked; RSS; URL.

96 97

http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 98 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/07/government-files-opposition-in-kiriakou-case/ 99 See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM

Blue Lantern = A DDTC administered program monitoring end-use of


munitions covered by AECA export controls, to catch any foreign customers trying to pass technologies along to third parties outside those they may be proliferated to.100 o See: AECA; DDTC; Golden Sentry.

Border+ (2 Nov 02)


Border: When we cross an international border, authorities may search anything we are carrying with us: our persons; our clothing; our luggage; our electronic devices. Authorities have a legitimate and reasonable interest in blocking importation of illegal drugs; aliens; weapons; counterfeit goods; communicable diseases; smuggling without paying proper taxes; and many other threats. These warrantless searches can include ships when they are 25 miles from US shores. o Routine searches, at border crossings, do not need a warrant. For example, searches of our luggage, drug sniffing dogs, going thru metal detectors, pat-downs looking for weapons.. o Non-routine searches, at border crossings, do need a warrant. For example: Prolonged detention; strip search; body cavity search.101 o See: 4th Amendment; CBP; Privacy-Violations; SBS; Search Location; Violence on Mexico US Border. Border Liaison Program of ATF is supposedly the front line of Gun Runner
project. This must be a future goal, since coordination details not yet defined nor implemented. o See: ATF; Gun Runner Project. BP = British Petroleum. See: NDTC; POE. BPAUV = Battle Space Preparation Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Brain Control: See Mind Control. Branches of US Government: Officially there are 3 branches of USA: Administrative; Legislative (Congress); and Judicial (Court System). Various pundits have suggested that there are unofficial fourth branches of our government: o Agencies which get the job done, which often must be given immense power to do their jobs. President and Congress can shut them down individually, but collectively they are a force to be reckoned with. o Civil Service = the vast number of unelected personnel, who work in government for decades, and know a lot more about whats going on than politicians elected for a few years, or people appointed by them to head departments and agencies. o Lobbyists, which now have their fingers and influence into every law which is passed, every department and agency of federal state and local government.

100

See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf 101 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o News Media, formerly called The Fourth Estate, and Social Media. This is because what rules public policy debate is not what has really happened, but what the people think has happened, which they learn from the media. o See: CREW; Departments of US Government; President of USA; US Congress. Belligerent: See Co-Belligerent. BJA = Bureau of Justice Assistance.102 o See: DoJ; PM-ISE. Brigade. See: Army Combat Structure. BSIR = Biannual Strategy Implementation Report made by SAA to FEMA regarding progress spending HSGP grant funds. o See: DHS; FEMA; HSGP; SAA. Bus Station. See Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station attacked by US drone March 17, 2011, killing and maiming many people participating in a government Jirga; Jirga..

Terms C+ (2 Oct 27) !


C2 = Command & Control. See page 5 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map103 TOC Chapter 2 Future Vision. C3PO (I do not know what the letters stand for, as in acronym naming): o From the Wookleepedia,104 QUOTE: o A bipedal, humanoid protocol droid designed to interact with organics, programmed primarily for etiquette and protocol. He was fluent in over six million forms of communication, and developed a fussy and worryprone personality throughout his many decades of operation. o UNQUOTE o See R2-D2
C-4 = a type of explosives C4ISR = Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance CA = Counter-Autonomy

CAA = British Civil Aviation Authority which is similar to the US FAA, in that they regulate what flies in the skies over Britain, and allegedly cares more about security and safety, than privacy..105 CAISUCA = Cyber Audit Information Security Upgrade Costing Advisors o This is another organization function which does not exist, but I dreamed up as a way to solve many problems which keep cropping up again and again in GAO and IG reports. o GAO and OIG and whatever agency manages security clearances, and perhaps more, would jointly form this organization, composed of

102 103

http://nsi.ncirc.gov/about_nsi.aspx http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 104 http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/C-3PO 105 http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/2012/08/31/more-drone-than-debate-newsnight-loses-track-ofissues-at-hand/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM personnel and resources provided by leading technology companies such as IBM Google Microsoft. It might be a public-private partnership, also bringing in cyber professional agencies of government. Whenever a GAO or IG audit finds serious problems with record keeping, notification systems, privacy, security, data navigation, data sharing, etc., the auditors could call on CAISUCA to do a follow up of those problems found by the audit. Depts and Agencies could also request such a visit to look at challenges not recently reviewed by GAO or OIG. Government officials, invoking a CAISUCA visit, would need to know whether the material is classified, or sensitive, which impacts credentials needed for who will work on this team follow up. CAISUCA would send in a team to inspect beyond GAO IG initial observations. They would come up with a report to be an addendum to the GAO IG report. The CAISUCA report would suggest alternative solutions, and include costs to implement, including technology acquisition, and training of personnel. Some solutions might not need any new technology. See: GAO; Mitigation Suggestions; IG; LIONS; N-Force; OIG; OSII Suggestions; QISTUK; TBA.

CALO = Cognitive Assistant that Learns to Organize

CAP = Combat Air Patrol Captain. See: Army Combat Structure.


CAOC = Combined Air Operation Center Caroline Incident of 1837 it set the standard of grounds for one nation to invade another, until the rules got changed again due to 9/11.106 See: Self Defense; Sovereignty. CASPER = Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning. CAT = Cross-Agency Tours. o This is not now happening. It is one of my suggestions how to address cooperation failure, where agencies with similar missions are often working at cross-purposes. o A delegation of HQ personnel from DHS DoJ etc. law enforcement agencies could conduct semi-annual tours of local offices of one particular agency, such as ATF or CBP, to be briefed on whats going on here, and the challenges this office is struggling with. The delegation would invite Mexico and Canada to include representatives from those nations judicial and law enforcement agencies. For some challenges, the visitors may be able to suggest solutions, due to their parallel operations. For some investigations, the visitors might want to assign temporary liaison personnel to help out, or more frequent visitors, and ask their departmental chain of command to provide funding to improve whats happening here. In organizing this, priority should be given to Strategic Intelligence Offices, since the DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov report107 on

106

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM ATF Gun Runner project, discovered that most all federal agencies: Have such offices; Have strategic reports of immense potential value to sister agencies; Have zero interaction with each other.
o o Where activities are a big surprise to the visitors, thats a red flag regarding cooperation and reporting failure. See: DHS; DoJ; GC Armas; Mitigation Suggestions.

CB+ (2 Oct 17) !


o CBD = Convention on Biological Diversity which contains articles related to indigenous peoples and their traditional knowledge in relation to conservation of the environment (Articles 8j, 10c, and others).108 o See: FATA; Indigenous People. o CBP = US Customs and Border Protection109 is part of Dept of Homeland Security (DHS). o CBP inspects traffic crossing US borders, to seize drugs, cash, guns, and other contravand. o CBP duties include: protecting USA from a spectrum of unwanted stuff crossing into the nation, such as: illegal immigrants; terrorists; counterfeit goods; various fruits & vegetables & livestock, which can be carrying infectious diseases. o CBP also inspects selected exports to determine whether proper licenses were obtained prior to shipment and may interdict suspicious items being shipped. o CBP is the "largest law enforcement air force in the world," according to the Government Accountability Office (GAO), with an air fleet comprising more than 270 manned aircraft.110 o Inspector General (IG) found many problems with CBP drone usage. 111 See May 2012 in Drone Notes Calendar of key drone dates. o See: AECA; BIS; Border; CCL; DHS; Drone Police; DSS; GC Armas;; POE; SBS.
107

http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder, since this content is other than my Drones research. Within this 2012 Sep report, there was reference to an earlier Nov 2010 IG report on ATF Gun Runner here: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/e1101.pdf which I downloaded, naming it: DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov. 108 www.cbd.int 109 http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/06/what-the-heck-is-homeland-security-doingwith-180-million-in-drones-mostly-sitting-around/258474/ 110 http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/06/21/drone_sweet_drone 111 Inspector General finds many problems with CBP use of drones. http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIG_12-85_May12.pdf https://epic.org/2012/06/new-report-finds-border-survei.html https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/06/federal-government-moves-forward-drone-programs-despite-poorplanning-and-lack

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM CBP Domestic Droning: UAS missions for CBP in US National Air Space (NAS), and near US borders, are launched and recovered from National Air Security Operation Centers (NASOCs) in Sierra Vista, Arizona; Corpus Christi, Texas; Cocoa Beach, Florida; and Grand Forks, North Dakota. 112 o See: NAS; NASOC; UAS. CBP Suggestions: o CBP could get briefings from US Army, USGS, and State dept Allies, about technologies which can help CBP learn alternative ways to detect tunnel building under SWB. o USGS would explain how we now detect, and map seismic disturbances so weak that humans dont feel them. Can the seismic instruments detect Mexico cartel tunnel builders? Mexico City already has instruments to detect earthquakes before they reach the surface, mentioned in links from Disaster Warnings Ignored chapter of Non-Drone Content in Introduction section, so Mexico is probably ahead of USA with this technology. o The US Army could explain how tunnels were detected, which North Korea dug under the 38th parallel, and how sophisticated they were, compared to Mexican cartel tunnels under SWB. o Historians could brief contemporary CBP personnel about countless tunnels dug under Berlin Wall during Cold War, and by POW escapees during WW II. o See: Mitigation Suggestions; POW; QISTUK; SWB; US Army; USGS.

CBRN+ (3 Jan 28)


CBRN = Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, or consequences of WMD getting used, or abused.113 See: page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map114 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs); and page 8 of Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. Also see WMD.
CBRNE = Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear or High-yield Explosive

CCF = Continuous Combat Function, defines militants in a combat zone, who may be targeted at any time by the military.115 CCL = US Dept of Commerce Control List116 of certain technologies, and components, which have both civilian and military applications, and thus nay require export restrictions. o See: AECA; BIS; CBP; DDTC; DTSA; ICE; OEE.

112 113

http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIG_12-85_May12.pdf The only known use of Chemical Weapons in WW II, was when a stockpile of Allied chemical weapons were being unloaded at a port in Italy, which got bombed by the Germans, who were just bombing their enemy, totally unaware of the nature of the targets. A ship carrying those chemical weapons munitions was hit, and the stuff leaked out into the Allied troops at the port. That was not weapons use in the conventional sense. 114 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 115 See in my official document collection: UN Drone Legalities 2010 May. 116 See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM CCTV = Closed Circuit TV Cameras often found in public places, to help police both monitor activity in real time, and have detective work clues, after some crime has been reported. See: Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant. CDMI = Code division multiple access CENAPI = Mexico National Center for Info, Analysis, and Planning, in order to fight crime (Spanish version letters where CENAPI comes from). o This is a unit of MAGO. o ATF (allegedly) works with them to deploy Spanish eTrace. o See: ATF; eTrace 4.0; GC Armas; MAGO. CHAMP = Counter-Electronics High Power Microwave Advanced Missile Project a drone delivers a missile, which delivers EMP. 117 o See: EMP. Cheetah = a DARPA drone which broke the speed record in 2011 for legged robots.118 At 18 mph (29 kph) it is now faster than what a human can do. The previous legged robot speed record was 13.1 mph. o See: DARPA. ChemBots = Chemical Robots. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map119 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. Chemical Weapons may have got included among banned WMD because of their potential to do widespread damage to many humans.120 o See: CWC; WMD. Child = A young human being below the age of full physical development or below the legal age of majority. o Global Research, of Canada, has a list of children, ages 1-19, killed by US drones in Pakistan and Yemen, thru Jan 2013.121 o Pakistan Body Count is counting all below the age of 12 (male or female) as children.122 o See: Civilian; Double Tap attack. CHR = UN Commission on Human Rights, replaced by HRC o See: HRC. Chromite is an iron chromium oxide.123 o See Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station; Jirga. Church Commission124 was a 1975 Congressional investigation of several recent scandals within government agencies whose oversight was now obviously too minimal.

117

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2241525/The-Boeing-blitzing-drone-cripple-nationselectronics.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490 118 http://icrac.net/2012/03/darpa-cheetah-sets-speed-record-for-legged-robots/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-17269535 119 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 120 http://afgeneralcounsel.dodlive.mil/2013/01/28/how-chemical-weapons-became-taboo/ http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138771/richard-price/how-chemical-weapons-became-taboo 121 http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-children-killed-by-americas-drones-crimes-against-humanitycommitted-by-barack-h-obama/5320570 122 http://pakistanbodycount.org/definitions 123 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromite 124 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_Committee

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM CIA assassinations, regime changes, and other covert activities; spying on domestic snail mail, without letting the US Postal Service knowing what they were doing FBI spying on Civil Rights leaders, wiretaps without warrants, opening peoples snail mail Intelligence community spying on US domestic politics US Army spying on civilian population Watergate Scandal of President Nixon o This history is worth reviewing because history seems to have repeated through Fusion Centers, funded for purposes of National Security, but instead used by agencies whose job it is to defend the Constitution, but instead run by people who are either ignorant of the Constitution, or enemies of it, determined to roll back all Civil Rights improvements of the entire history of the USA, including repeal of the Bill of Rights. There were multiple results of this investigation, some good, some not so good. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) came into existence, thanks to the Church Commission. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) came into existence, thanks to the Church Commission. Information sharing across government agencies was shut down, to the point that national security was compromised, as we saw with 9/11. o See: Fusion Center.

CI+ (2 Oct 31) !


CI = Confidential Informant. See: CIRC. CIA = US Central Intelligence Agency. o While in general, we have Branches of Government, broken into Departments, broken down into Agencies and Offices, CIA is an exception. It is not in any Dept of US Government. It is an agency independent of all the departments. It reports to the DNI. o The CIA was originally a foreign intelligence service, but in recent years it has also become a paramilitary force. It is believed to have approx 30-40 drones, and is seeking to increase the size of its drone fleet. 125
o Allegedly all US drone attacks are carried out by either CIA or JSOC, under guidance by the President of the USA.126

o Stephen W. Preston, General Counsel of the Central Intelligence Agency, in an April 2012 speech at Harvard Law

125

http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/cia-seeks-expansion-of-drone-fleet-2012101927w0k.html 126 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012)

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM School on CIA and the Rule of Law, listed many applicable laws and procedures. See footnotes.127 o See: DIA; DNI; DoD; JSOC; NSA. 128 CICC = Criminal Intelligence Coordinating Council.
C-IED = Counter Improvised Explosive Device CIKR = Critical Infrastructure Key Resources.129 CIRC = Confidential Informant Review Committee.

Citizen+ (3 Feb 05)

Citizens of USA killed abroad by US government drones, or other means: o Attorney General Eric Holder in a March 2012 speech at Northwestern University School of Law,130 argued that when US citizens have decided to commit violent attacks against their own country from abroad, the US Supreme Court has made clear that citizenship does not provide immunity from attack, but the Fifth Amendment prevents a citizens deprivation of life without Due Process of law. He gave examples of circumstances under which lethal force would be lawful against a U.S. citizen. o If the citizen is: a senior operational leader of al Qaeda or an associated force with which the United States is engaged in an armed conflict, who is actively engaged in planning to kill Americans abroad (with the consent of the foreign government or where that government is unwilling or unable to take action); o lethal action is lawful if: the government determines through a thorough and careful review that the individual poses imminent threat of violent attack against the United States, capture is not feasible, and the operation is consistent with applicable law of war principles of necessity, distinction, proportionality, and humanity. o See: AUMF; Co-Belligerent; Distinction; Immediacy; Necessity; Proportionality.

127

CIA and the Rule of Law Synopsis https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. Full speech
http://www.cfr.org/rule-of-law/cia-general-counsel-stephen-prestons-remarks-rule-law-april 2012/p27912
128 129

http://nsi.ncirc.gov/about_nsi.aspx http://nsi.ncirc.gov/about_nsi.aspx 130 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Citizens United = A US Supreme Court Case which elevated corporations to have many of the same constitutional rights as human citizens.131 o Drone Robots explores some related implications, such as: o Sky Net, and the rise of the Machines, as depicted in the Terminator movies, will not be here for decades, but Sky Net Parallels are already here in human organizations, thanks to Citizens United, and the rise of the Lobbyists. Civil War = An Internal Armed Conflict, as opposed to an invasion by a foreign power. o Although, in history, other nations have been known to help out each side in such a conflict, the terminology of international law can evolve over time. o Also, in history, when a Civil War ends with the original government no longer in power, it is sometimes called a successful Revolution, where the new leaders are free to change name of nation, enact a replacement constitution, initiate war crimes trials, etc. o See: Geneva Conventions; ICRC; Internal Armed Conflict; International Law; LOAC; Non-international Armed Conflict; Regime Change; War Crime. CIVIC = Campaign for Innocent Victims in Conflict,132 an organization dedicated to promoting the right of civilian victims to amends. Civilian used to mean: unarmed pedestrian; person not on active duty in the armed services or police or firefighting force; who do not belong to any terrorist group or anti-government organization.133 o Now in the war on terror, any public gathering of persons of military age, may be labeled militants, Ok to be killed by the US CIA or military. 134 o See: Child; Distinction; Proportionality. Clothing, designed to camouflage people from drone surveillance? 135 o To be effective, I think it also needs to protect the face, and address drone interception of your phone conversations. o Partial face protection is provided via a stealth hoodie which uses metalized material designed to counter thermal imaging used by drones to spot people on the ground.136 o Theres also a cell phone pouch made of a special "signal attenuating fabric." The pocket blocks phone signal so that it can't be tracked or

131

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizens_United_v._Federal_Election_Commission http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 133 Webster and http://pakistanbodycount.org/definitions 134 http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/2012/05/29/analysis-how-obama-changed-definition-of-civilianin-secret-drone-wars/ 135 https://rt.com/usa/news/drone-artist-harvey-surveillance-665/ http://dish.andrewsullivan.com/2013/01/28/dressing-for-big-brother/ 136 https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2013/01/anti-surveillan_1.html
132

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM intercepted by devices like the covert "Stingray" tool137 used by law enforcement agencies like the FBI. o See: Drone Police. CMP = Britains Closed Material Procedures CN3 = Communications / Navigation Network Node. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map138 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. CNAV = Collaborative Networked Autonomous Vehicle. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map139 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets.
CNO = Chief of Naval Operations

CO+ (2 Oct 27) !


Co-Belligerent = Additional organization(s), accused of same belligerent behavior as initial enemies, in a war. o DoD General Counsel Jeh Johnson, in a Feb 2012 speech at Yale Law School, explained that AUMF, after 9/11, limits who the US may attack, to Al Qaeda and associated forces, construed consistently with the concept of co-belligerency in the law of war, defined as:140 1. an organized, armed group which has entered the fight alongside al Qaeda, and 2. is a co-belligerent with al Qaeda in hostilities against the United States or its coalition partners. o See AUMF; Citizen of USA; DoD; LOAC; Non-International Armed Conflict; Self-Defense; Unlawful Combatant. Co-Defendant = Additional person(s), accused of same crime(s) as first defendant in a criminal trial. COA = Certificate of Authorization from FAA authorizing some organization to deploy drones over USA. o Over 50 COAs had been issued in the 2 years prior to 2007 FAA UA Rules shared in my Drone Info Google Doc Drive collection,141 dated Feb 13,2007, according to the FAA. o Over 300 COAs had been issued as of the end of 2011, widely reported in the news media, citing anonymous government sources. o Over 750 COAs had been issued as of April 2012, according to info from FAA to EFF, pursuant to FOIA. o See: EFF; FAA; FOIA.
COI = Community of Interest COIN = Counterinsurgency

137

http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2013/01/10/stingray_imsi_catcher_fbi_documents_shine_light_on _controversial_cellphone.html 138 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 139 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 140 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 141 https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4b-ZLWR0bmZLS3d5OVk/edit

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Collateral Damage: In warfare, and other conflicts, the nature of the weapon(s)
and skill(s) of their operators, can often mean that in addition to performing the intended damage by their users, many innocent bystanders and their property can also be hurt in the process. See Innocent Bystander.

Colonel. See: Army Combat Structure. Commerce = US Dept of Commerce, in some government documents. o See BIS; CCL; Departments of US Government. Common Carrier. See Privacy Snail Mail. Company. See: Army Combat Structure.

CON+ (2 Oct 27)



CONOPS = Concept of Operations

Conspiracy Theory142 is where people explain an activity, in the context of some secret cabal, or people with a weird agenda. Such theories often come from people seeking simple explanations in a reality which is really very complex. Some Conspiracy Theories are concocted and promulgated by people who know better, but are doing it for propaganda purposes. o Some people assume that all drones are armed.143 From perspective of people on the ground, we probably do not know, until it is too late. o Here is some nonsense about the EPA and drones.144 o Some people in Pakistan think the drone attacks are intended to destabilize Pakistan to help with some plot hatched in India or Israel.145 o However, sometimes truth is stranger than fiction, a story may sound like urban legend, but may actually be factural. o See: Fly-Over; Gun Walking; Kafkaesque; See Through Walls. Controlled Delivery is different from Gun Walking.
With controlled delivery, the weapons movement is strictly controlled with an under cover escort, or cooperating courier surrounded by law enforcement, with arrests made as soon as delivery completed. o See ATF; Gun Walking. CONUS = Continental United States Corps. See: Army Combat Structure. Corpus Delecti is Latin for body of the crime. o Many in ATF think US attorneys cannot prosecute a case unless the firearm has been recovered, and the investigation has a clear chain of testimony who sold the weapon to whom, when they did not have the right kind of resale license, and who exported the weapon, without an export license. Some US Attorneys supervising ATF investigation shared in this belief. o

142 143

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conspiracy_theory http://thetandd.com/news/opinion/at-home-drones-spur-anger-at-obama/article_93f608a0-c0a6-11e18049-001a4bcf887a.html 144 http://www.latimes.com/news/politics/topoftheticket/la-na-tt-epa-spy-drones-20120619,0,2898522.story 145 http://paktribune.com/articles/Drone-Attacks-Damage-the-US-Interests-242932.html

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o

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There had been instances where an attorney declined to purse a case because not all of this evidence existed. However other prosecutors were able to get convictions with much less evidence. o This is part and parcel of a larger issue where ATF agents have the job of gathering evidence for the US Attorneys to use in legal cases, and there is a wide gulf between what the ATF agents think the lawyers need, and what the lawyers think is legitimate investigative practices. o See: ATF; Gun Walking. COTS = Commercial Off The Shelf.

COU+ (2 Dec 19)


Counter Insurgency = Strategy of occupying some nation for the purpose of fighting rebels, terrorists, or whoever, based there.146 Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan have shown that the U.S. military is not very good at counter insurgency. By comparison, the US has shown it is very good at light infantry commando raids, such as by Special Forces, and the Marines. Also see SEAL. Counter-Terrorism Security Group at US White House decides who belongs on the drone kill lists.147 It also decides how many military drones need to be allocated to CIA, DoD, other government organizations. o The group includes officials from the CIA, Pentagon, State Department and other agencies. o See CIA.
CP = Constitution Project148 CPD = Capability Production Documents.

CRCL = DHSs Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. o See: DHS; HIR; I+A; IIR. CREW = Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington.149 They have done FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) requests against every agency of every branch of government in USA - federal state local, asking about lobbyist involvement in running our government, then they share what they find out, via Scribd.150 The results are pretty scary. Crime Guns = Guns recovered by law enforcement, known or suspected, to have been used in a crime.151

146 147

http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/end-counterinsurgency-and-scalable-force http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/cia-seeks-expansion-of-drone-fleet-2012101927w0k.html 148 www.constitutionproject.org They figure out how America can both protect against crime and terrorism, while at the same time not violate the privacy and civil liberties of the innocent general public. One of their study methods is via their Rule of Law Programs bipartisan Liberty and Security Committee. 149 CREW http://www.citizensforethics.org/ http://www.scribd.com/citizensforethics 150 http://www.scribd.com/explore/Most-Recent 151 http://www.examiner.com/article/crime-gun-trace-map-withholds-key-data-needed-to-draw-meaningfulconclusions

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Crime Reports = when a government agency, whose role is outside of law enforcement, or justice, learns about something they think may be a crime, so they make report about it to the relevant judicial authorities.152 CRM = DoJ Criminal Division. CRS = US Congressional Research Service. See Official Reports List in Drone Notes.

Cruise Missile illustrated (2 Sep 23)

Cruise Missile is now a type of Drone bomb delivery technology. o First Illustration, below, is of components of a cruise missile. o Second illustration is to which nations the USA exported approx 500 cruise missiles, training in their use, and related items between 1998 and 2002, as approved by DSCA in 37 agreements. o Third illustration relates to 2,490 cruise missile and drone technology exports approved by Commerce 1998-2002. GAO felt that Commerce inspections of 3rd party risk could stand improvement, since entities, in some nations, have higher risk of violating US export restrictions, than others. o See: AECA; Commerce; DSCA; GAO; MTRC.

Breaks for illustrations.153

152 153

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/12/crimes_reports.html Source: GAO Drones by Nation 04-175 2004 Jan http://www.gao.gov/assets/250/241243.pdf

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CSCI+ (3 Jan 28)



CSCI = Computer Software Configuration Item CSG = Carrier Strike Group

CUGV = CBRN-UGV. See: CBRN; UGV. Curtilage is US legal-speak for the area immediately surrounding a private residence, but still contained within the property fence line, such as the front and back yard, the drive-way. This area is not subject to as good 4th Amendment protection, as inside the home itself, depending on how the area is used, how far it is from the home, and whether viewing whats there is concealed from observation by people outside of the private property, o The US Supreme Court noted in an aerial surveillance case:154 o The 4th Amendment protection of the home has never been extended to require law enforcement officers to shield their eyes when passing by a home on public thoroughfares. Nor does the mere fact that an individual has taken measures to restrict some views of his activities preclude an officers observations from a public vantage point where he has a right to be and which renders the activities clearly visible. o See: 4th Amendment; 4th Amendment Jurisprudence; Drone Police; Open Fields;
Privacy-Home; Search Location; See Through Walls; Suspicionless Drone search Warrant. Customs. See: Border; CBP; GC Armas.

CWC = Chemical Weapons Convention.155 o See: WMD.

Terms D+ (2 Oct 01)


DAAG = Deputy Assistant Attorney General. See: AAG; AG. DAD = Deputy Assistant Director. See AD. DAG = Deputy Attorney General. See: AG; ODAG. DARPA156 = US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. o DARPA is one of several federal agencies with drones in US National Air Space (NAS). DAS = Distributed Aperture System. See 10 thoughts on Drone Future,157 #10 page 10.
DASN (C4I) = Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy C4I

154

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012

Sept.
155 156

http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138771/richard-price/how-chemical-weapons-became-taboo http://www.darpa.mil/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DARPA 157 http://aviationintel.com/2012/07/09/tylers-10-thoughts-on-the-future-of-drone-warfare/

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Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station+ (2 Oct 23) !


Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station was attacked by a US drone March 17, 2011, killing and maiming many government officials, and innocent civilians, attending a government approved community meeting. o Datta Khel is a town in North Waziristan, Pakistan. Witness testimony indicates that 42 were killed, mainly innocent civilians, and 14 injured. The bus station was also destroyed. o Nearly all the killed had been heads of large households, where their income, as government employees, had gone to support local businesses. Because these men held government positions reserved for elders with experience and years of wisdom, their sons cannot take over their fathers jobs. This strike was the opposite of government stimulus, a kind of regime change to devastate the local economy, by wiping out all tribal elders of the region, in one drone strike, using several missiles. Thanks to US government secrecy, we still do not know whether or not this was a deliberate US foreign policy objective. o The Nomada Bus Depot is a large open space in the middle of town, large enough to hold community meetings. They thought it was safe to do so, because of US propaganda claiming that only terrorists are targeted by drones. That community now knows that US drones also kill many innocents, who have nothing to do with terrorism. According to a Pakistani military commander in North Waziristan, Brigadier Abdullah Dogar, the maliks had even taken care to alert the local military post of the planned jirga ten days beforehand.158 We have yet to learn what communication, if any, there was between the local military and US drone operators, to identify this as a government approved meeting. 159 o US officials insist that only insurgents were killed in this attack.

158

http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) Chris Woods & Christina Lamb, Obama Terror Drones: CIA Tactics in Pakistan Include Targeting Rescuers and Funerals, THE BUREAU OF INVESTIGATIVE JOURNALISM (Feb. 4, 2012), http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/2012/02/04/obama-terror-drones-cia-tactics-inpakistaninclude-targeting-rescuers-and-funerals/ 159 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION
CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) Salman Masood & Pir Zubair Shah, CIA Drones Kill Civilians in Pakistan, N.Y. TIMES (Mar. 17, 2011),

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o

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Pakistani military says that a government-sanctioned Jirga160 was being held at the bus station, when it was attacked.161 The Jirga had been called to resolve a dispute with a local chromite mine, which is a major regional employer. In attendance were:
All relevant stakeholders in the running of the chromite mine, and the persons involved in the dispute;

Many members of the local government, including 35 Maliki,162 other tribal elders, and Khassadars.163 4 representatives of the Taliban were also attending, since the Taliban had agreed to abide by the community decision on how to resolve the dispute.164 Perhaps they were the reason for the USA to assault this peace talk conference. Other key community leaders were also in attendance.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/18/world/asia/18pakistan.html (American officials on Thursday sharply disputed Pakistans account of the strikes and the civilian deaths, contending that all the people killed were insurgents.); Sebastian Abbot, AP Impact: New Light on Drone Wars Death Toll, GUARDIAN (Feb. 25, 2012), http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/10112674 (Regarding the APs findings [of civilian deaths in the ten deadliest attacks in North Waziristan between August 2010 and February 2012, including the March 17, 2011 incident] US officials rejected the accounts of any civilian casualties, but declined to be quoted by name.); Scott Shane, Contrasting Reports of Drone Strikes, N.Y. TIMES (Aug. 11, 2011), http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/12/world/asia/12droneside.html (quoting an unnamed US official as stating: Theres no question the Pakistani and US government have different views on the outcome of this strike. The fact is that a large group of heavily armed men, some of whom were clearly connected to Al Qaeda and all of whom acted in a manner consistent with A.Q.-linked militants, were killed.). The US position appears to reflect the Obama administrations controversial practice of classifying all military-age males in a strike zone as combatants . . . unless there is explicit intelligence posthumously proving them innocent. Jo Becker & Scott Shane, Secret Kill List Proves a Test of Obamas Principles and Will, N.Y. TIMES (May 29, 2012), http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/29/world/obamas-leadership-in-war-onalqaeda.html?pagewanted=all. 160 See Jirga. This is a type of court hearing, ruled over by a panel of village elders, sometimes with local armed police in attendance, to act like bailiffs. 161 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) See Masood & Shah, (quoting Pakistani military chief, General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani,

as saying immediately after the strike: It is highly regrettable that a jirga of peaceful citizens, including elders of the area, was carelessly and callously targeted with complete disregard to human life.). http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/18/world/asia/18pakistan.html
162

See Malik (plural = Maliki). They are like judges or lawyers, appointed by the government to represent the interests of the people in the tribal judicial system. 163 See Khassadar. They are hired by the government to act as auxiliary police, under the supervision of Maliki. 164 In other places in my research notes, I have found that Pakistan has identified Good Taliban and Bad Taliban, where the Bad Taliban are fighting Pakistan, and the Good Taliban are working in cooperation with the government. One of Pakistans grievances with the US military, is that the US does not honor Pakistan distinguishing the Taliban on this basis, attacking both friend and foe, indiscriminately.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Surviving witnesses estimate that there were over 50 tribal elders there, including the Maliki. o This is definitely a war crime. It would be the equivalent of bombing a civilian court house downtown in some city, doing the kind of local damage we saw in the OK City bombing, then claiming it was entirely justified because one or more persons there were enemies of the state. Or lets have a bombing of the UN HQ in New York, then claim it was justified because there were peace talks going on there with our enemies, and we did not approve of those talks. Whoever provided the info that this was a justifiable target for US drones, should be arrested and brought before the International Criminal Court for War Crimes.165 However, the USA is providing cover for that person, protecting them from being brought to justice. Family of one of the victims, are bringing law suit about this in British court system, contesting Britains involvement in US drone use in Pakistan.166 o See: Anti-Drone Chip; Chromite; ICC; Jirga; Khassadar; Malik; Mitigation Suggestions; Regime Change; War Crime.

DBS+ (2 Nov 24) !


DBS = Computer Data Base System. See: Needle in Haystack. DC = US Deputies Committee consisting of the Deputy Secretaries of all US Departments and Agencies.167 DCGS = Distributed Common Ground Station DCS = Direct Commercial Sales o See AECA; BIS; CCL; DDTC; DSCA. DDOS = Distributed Denial of Service Cyber attacks.168 DDS = Dry Deck Shelter DDTC = US Department of State Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

Munitions, covered by AECA, are licensed for DCS by DDTC.169 o See: AECA; BIS; Blue Lantern; CBP; CCL; DCS; DSCA; DSS; ICE;
MTCR; Wassenaar Arrangement.

165 166

DEA = US Drug Enforcement Agency, part of DoJ. o DEA enforces controlled substance laws and regulations, and investigates organizations and individuals involved in the growing, manufacture, or distribution of controlled substances intended to be trafficked into the USA. o There is often a nexus between drug and firearms trafficking, so ATF and DEA (supposedly) work together on joint task forces. o See: ATF; DoJ; GC Armas; Sosa. Death Craft = Drones used for killing people.170

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_crime http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/oct/23/uk-support-us-drones-pakistan-war-crime?newsfeed=true 167 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/11/thoughts-on-the-september-draft-cybersecurity-executive-order/ 168 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/11/lisa-monaco-speech-on-cyber-a-little-late/ 169 See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM DECA = Defense Export Control Agency, of israel Defense Attache Office. See: DoD; GC Armas. Deleted Weapons = those involved in government secrecy.171 o See: ERW; NSDD. Deliverance Project was an inter agency, cross-border investigation of transportation networks used by Mexican cartels to deliver drugs, weapons, and cash. o Prosecution of the smaller operation of Wide Receiver was rolled into that to help cover up the mistakes in judgment of Wide Receiver, without any apparent effort to fix those mistakes for future similar operations, such as Fast and Furious. o Several flawed ATF operations shared many of the same leaders, using similar flawed strategies: Deliverance Project. Fast and Furious Operation Oct 2009 to Jan 2011 Gun Runner Project. Wide Receiver Operation March 2006 to Oct 2010 o See: ATF Scandals; Fast and Furious; Gun Walking; Wide Receiver. Departments of US Government: See footnote links to lists of them.172 Several are relevant to Drones, and government misconduct spelled out here. o See: Branches of US Government; DHS; DoD; DoJ. DES = AZ Dept of Economic Security. It can be used to check alleged employment income of a person spending oodles of cash to buy guns, assuming that payroll is the only legitimate form of income. See: AZ; Gun Walking. DHP = Dynamic Honey Pot173

DHS+ (3 Feb 01)


DHS = US Department of Homeland Security174 o Some US states also have departments with the same name. o DHS is one of the largest departments in the US government. Its mandate includes: Anti-Terrorism Domestic Border protection Citizenship Critical Infrastructure protection

170 171

http://cryptome.org/2012/06/obama-deathcraft.htm https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/nsdd_7.html 172 http://www.usa.gov/directory/federal/index.shtml https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_government_of_the_United_States https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_federal_agencies 173 https://www.controlsystemsroadmap.net/efforts/Pages/Intelligent-Cyber-Sensor.aspx 174 http://www.dhs.gov/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Homeland_Security http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/06/what-the-heck-is-homeland-security-doing-with180-million-in-drones-mostly-sitting-around/258474/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Cyber Security Emergency Management - FEMA Immigration Ready dot Gov Transportation Security Agency (TSA) US Coast Guard US Secret Service, which protects the Currency, President, and other key officials o DHS is one of several federal departments and agencies to be flying drones over US National Air Space (NAS).175 o See: CBP; Departments of US Government; DNI; DoD; Fusion Center; I+A; ICE; ISE; PM-ISE; RB; SLPO. DIA = Defense Intelligence Agency Dike = An ancient Greek concept: even application of standards, distribution of justice, same for everyone, government and citizen, rich and poor, property owner and homeless. This is a concept which has fallen out of legislatures and courts in recent years, although many citizens and groups advocate its return. 176 Disposition Matrix = a replacement name for Drone Kill List.177 o The Matrix charts targets against resources being applied to tracking them down and eliminating them. o See: Extrajudicial Killing; Kill List. Distinction = a US legal justification for killing our enemies. It requires that attacks be limited to military objectives and that civilians or civilian objects shall not be the object of the attack.178 o See: AUMF; Citizen of USA; Civilian; Extra Judicial Killing; International Law; LOAC; Self Defense; Targeted Killing. Division. See: Army Combat Structure. DIY = Do it Yourself.


175 176

https://rt.com/usa/news/dhs-drone-surveillance-napolitano-156/ Thanks to alias inkhorn for providing me with name of the concept. https://plus.google.com/u/0/108007903544513887227/posts/efTEoiwiN8U 177 Disposition Matrix http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/10/obama-plans-for-10-more-years-of-extrajudicialkilling-by-drone/264034/ http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/plan-for-hunting-terrorists-signals-us-intends-tokeep-adding-names-to-kill-lists/2012/10/23/4789b2ae-18b3-11e2-a55c-39408fbe6a4b_story.html http://www.aclu.org/national-security/aclu-comment-targeted-killing-disposition-matrix http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/10/john-brennan-diminishing-the-cia-role-in-drone-strikes-and-otherkey-items-in-the-2nd-miller-article/ http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/10/kill-lists-the-disposition-matrix-and-the-permanent-war-thoughts-onthe-post-article/ http://www.lawfareblog.com/2013/01/institutionalizing-lethal-force-beyond-the-battlefield/ https://buckssecurity.wordpress.com/2012/10/25/kill-lists-and-thefuture/?goback=.gde_3798271_member_178623906 http://reason.com/archives/2012/10/30/drone-war-double-think https://www.propublica.org/article/everything-we-know-so-far-about-drone-strikes 178 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. http://opencanada.org/features/the-think-tank/comments/the-slow-death-of-the-non-combatant/

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DNA+ (2 Nov 02)


DNA = Deoxyribonucleic acid, long strings of genetic material, which are used in police forensics to try to identify, or exclude, suspects. DNI = US Director of National Intelligence has many duties. They include: o head of the intelligence community, establishing objectives and priorities for collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of national intelligence.179 o This includes whats going on with drone technology of other nations. o See: CIA; DHS; DIA; DoD; ISE; NCTC; NSA; PM-ISE DOHA = Defense Office of Hearings and Appeals180 Do Not Kill Registry = a petition.181 DoD = US Dept of Defense182 HQ at the Pentagon. o DoD is one of the largest US Departments. It is composed of the various different types of military: Air Force; Army; Army Corps of Engineers; Navy; Marine Corps; Special Forces; National Guard and Reserve; Space Command; Missile Defense; Cyber Warfare; Weapons Research; Drones; Special units associated with WMD; Procurement of Weapons; Civilian Contractors, some Intelligence agencies; Regional Unified Commands, and more stuff. A small amount of this has been transferred to DHS. o Here is 2009 Dod Drone Roadmap. (4 Meg)183 Raffaela Wakeman writes July 10, 2012 in LAWFARE Blog,184 QUOTE o Conor Friedersdorf at The Atlantic185 looks closely at the 2009 Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap, the Pentagons plan for the use of drones from 2009 through 2034, and wonders whether we may get to a point when drones are completely autonomous. For the record, Missy Cummings of MIT says not in her lifetime.186 o UNQUOTE o See: CBP Suggestions; Departments of US Government; DHS; DIA; DNI; DSB; DSCA; DSS; GC Armas; ISE; JAG; NSA; PM-ISE. DoE = both: US Dept of Education; and US Dept of Energy.

179

See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf 180 http://cryptome.org/dodi/sec-clear-denied.pdf 181 http://www.donotkill.net/ 182 http://www.defense.gov/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Defense https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Department_of_Defense_agencies 183 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 184 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/07/todays-headlines-and-commentary-222/ 185 http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/07/the-pentagons-vision-pervasive-drones-on-land-airand-sea/259541/ 186 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/03/lawfare-podcast-episode-5-missy-cummings-on-drones-dronesdrones/ However, I have seen news media reports, in 2012, of DoD testing drones which decide where to go, and what to do, based on their internal programming, instead of a human operator. Those reports shared in my Drone Notes.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM DoI = US Dept of the Interior187

DoJ+ (2 Nov 02)


DoJ = US Dept of (civilian) Justice.188 Its mandate includes: o ATF o Anti Trust o Criminal prosecutions, and also Civil violations o DEA o Interpol in USA o FBI o OIG o Prisons and Paroles o USMS o Some stuff which used to be in DoJ has been transferred to DHS. o Among other things, DOJ prosecutes suspected AECA violations. Investigations can result in criminal prosecutions; fines; and imprisonment or administrative penalties, such as export denial orders barring a party from exporting any U.S. items for a specific period of time. o See: AECA; ATF Scandals; Attorney General; BI; DEA; Departments of US Government; EOUSA; FBI; ISE; JAG; LIONS; OIG; OLC; PM-ISE; USAO; USMS. DoJ Policy Changes in response to ATF Scandals: o March 2011 mandate to federal law enforcement agencies to interdict firearms in USA, where lawful authority to do so. If any current operation is letting guns walk to Mexico, stop them immediately. o July 2011 ATF began an improved program for HQ to monitor ATFs most sensitive cases. o Fall 2011 DoJ changed how they review court applications, to make sure the lawyers know what the hell is happening, instead of just making sure legal jargon is correct. o Nov 2011 clarification whether suspicious firearm transfer discovered, or government involved entrapment scheme, public safety is more important than perfecting criminal prosecution. o Nov 2011 ATF established review committees for both undercover operations and use of confidential informants. o See: ATF Scandals; CI. Gun Walking.

DOL+ (2 Oct 06)


DOL = Dept of Labor. Theres one at the federal level, and one for each state government.

187 188

http://www.doi.gov/index.cfm http://www.justice.gov/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Justice

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Maybe it should be called Dept of Employers, because it enforces laws regarding the behavior of employers to employees. o See: Departments of US Government. Domestic Drone Surveillance implies a range of local state or federal government uses in the USA, including: investigating and deterring criminal or regulatory violations; conducting health and safety inspections; performing search and rescue missions; patrolling the national borders; and conducting environmental investigations. Some of this activity could be by private enterprise, NGOs, academia, private citizens. 189 o See NGO. DOMEX = NDIC Document and Media Exploitation Team. See: NDIC. DOT = US Department of Transportation (DOT GOV)190 is over the FAA, and other agencies managing and regulating US national transportation. o Think: Air; Highways; Pipelines; Railroads; Waterways. o Some agencies have moved to other depts., or been closed down. o See: ATC; Departments of US Government; DHS; FAA. Double Tap attack: first attack goes after alleged militants, then as fire fighters and police and other volunteers rush in to aid the victims, another attack comes after them. This practice is widely considered to be a war crime. o Over 20 instances of double tap attacks, in Pakistan, have been reported by credible news media, immediately after they allegedly occurred. Pakistan Living Under Drones, and The Bureau of Investigative Journalism (TBIJ) research efforts, were able to confirm 12 of them.191 o Due to the high probability of attacks on rescuers, first responders and humanitarian organizations now have a rule of waiting six hours before attempting to help any surviving victims of a US drone attack. General public witnesses have said it is at least hour except for some brave souls who have gone immediately to help the children, then they too were killed by the double tap. o See: War Crimes. DPH = Civilians who Directly Participate in Hostilities, thus making themselves legitimate targets of the Military.192

189

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept. http://www.dot.gov/

190

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Transportation
191

http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 192 See in my official document collection: UN Drone Legalities 2010 May.

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Drone+ (3 Mar 09)


Drone traditionally has been used in many contexts.193 Contemporary interest is in unmanned vehicles, which are typically operated in the sky, 194 as robots on the ground, and can also be under the sea. Here are some pictures of drones, and their infrastructure, so we are on the same page of communications.195 o Definition is important when it comes to legislation. Like assault rifle ban which listed certain weapon models, so the manufacturers came out with new models which were same as banned models.196 o Also see: COA; FAA; GCS; Nuclear Drones; R*; SAC; U*. Drone Attack = An attack by a flying Drone - An unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) which is designed to deliver weapons (attack targets) without an onboard pilot.197 Types of Drone Attacks in Pakistan, by CIA, according to: CIA Drones Pakistan 2012 Nov:198 o High Value Targets (Allegedly chapter 51 of the UN Charter authorizes such attacks); o Imminent Threats, mainly to troops in Afghanistan (If US and NATO have an Afghan presence after 2014, these will continue); and o Signature Strikes (shooting at people based on suspicious behavior, where their identity and actual activities unknown). o Then there are people really working for the CIA, who carry credentials claiming they are in the diplomatic service, so they have diplomatic immunity for doing things no diplomat should do. Drone Caucus = Group in US Congress, which receive campaign contributions, from Drone Manufacturers, and allegedly push legislation to serve the interests of those manufacturers.199

193

Here is a guide to major types of drones: http://opencanada.org/features/the-think-tank/graphic/a-drone-field-guide/ http://opencanada.org/indepth/drone-week/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drone A male bee, whose sole function is to get the queen bee pregnant. A human being who contributes nothing to our civilization. Make an unpleasant sound, like humming, machinery noises. Talk in a monotonous tone. Certain kinds of musical notes. 194 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle https://dronewarsuk.wordpress.com/aboutdrone/ 195 http://cryptome.org/2012-info/killer-drones/killer-drones-controls.htm http://cryptome.org/2012-info/uk-drones/uk-drones.htm https://encrypted.google.com/search?q=drones&hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=5qM&rls=org.mozilla:enUS:official&prmd=imvnsul&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=RF7ZT8amJqJ6AGz3dnLAg&ved=0CHgQsAQ&biw=1432&bih=718&sei=-1_ZT_3SHcPH6gHMiK3LAg 196 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-03-01/drone-wars-the-definition-dogfight/4546598 197 Wikipedia and http://pakistanbodycount.org/definitions 198 2012 Dec 14 downloaded http://cryptome.org/2012/11/cia-drone-kills.pdf which is a one page article in the New Yorker, about why the former US Ambassador to Pakistan was disenchanted with CIA drone usage there. 199 Drone Caucus: http://www.democraticunderground.com/101635398

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Drone Cyber Security: US and Israel have woken up to the need to protect Drones from hacking, GPS spoofing etc. and have finally begun to repair this design lapse, but what they are doing is classified. 200 o See: GPS. Drone Dogfights = Drones fighting drones in the skies.201 Drone Experiential Victims = People who witnessed drone strikes, or drone surveillance, and are still alive, or family members of drone victims.202 Drone Family Member = a member of a family, affected by drone attacks.203 Drone Free Zone = Somewhere it is even possible to enforce laws banning the use of drones.204 Drone Humor: Many drones carry deadly weapons, but some people are able to make jokes about them.205 Drone Identification: When there is a drone nearby, shouldnt there be an identification of the owner operator? o CDT proposes a license plate for drones, via a radio frequency identification, serving the same purpose as the letters on the tail of a manned plane.206 o See: CDT. Drone Info = Collection of Al Mac research documents and official sources, shared via the Internet.207

http://thenewamerican.com/usnews/foreign-policy/item/12078-us-drone-manufacturers-contribute-millionsto-congressional-campaigns 200 http://i-hls.com/2013/01/cyber-security-for-unmanned-air-systemsuas/?goback=.gde_3623430_member_209995345 201 http://news.cnet.com/8301-13576_3-57457501-315/drone-dogfights-by-2015-u.s-navy-preps-forfuturistic-combat/ 202 http://livingunderdrones.org/report-introduction/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 203 http://livingunderdrones.org/report-introduction/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 204 http://afgeneralcounsel.dodlive.mil/2012/12/26/drone-free-zones/ http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/12/will-berkeley-become-a-drone-free-zone/ http://www.forbes.com/sites/toddwoody/2012/12/21/drone-wars-come-home-as-berkeley-considers-banon-robotic-aircraft/ http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/Clerk/City_Council/2012/12Dec/City_Council__12-18-2012__Regular_Meeting_Agenda.aspx America is already a police state, thanks to deniability of drones. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/dec/21/coming-drone-attack-america 205 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2013/02/whats-the-deal-with-the-new-york-times-and-really-bad-dronehumor/ 206 https://www.cdt.org/blogs/joseph-lorenzo-hall/0803license-plates-drones 207 Anyone, with the url, may access my Drone Info document collection on Google Drive: https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4b-ZLWR0bmZLS3d5OVk/edit I also have a Drone Info collection on Scribd. http://www.scribd.com/collections/3807680/Drone-Info You have to be a member of Linked In, and connected to me there, to access my Box Net Folders. http://www.linkedin.com/in/almacintyre My Linked In collection includes Drone Info, and other topics.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Drone Journalism = News Media can use drones to photograph public events.208 In USA this may require FAA licensing. Drone, Mini Military: This is one of three major categories of UAVs studied by GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July.209 o Mini Drones are one of two or the vast majority of UAV systems in operation from 2005 to 2011. They look about the size of a model airplane, can be launched by throwing into the sky by a soldier. o They fly at low altitude, for short duration (about an hour) for close range to where launched. o According to US GAO analysis,210 Israel exports both mini and tactical drones. o See: Drone, Strategic Military and Tactical Military. Drone Nations = Al Mac directory of nations & others (e.g. Terrorists) who have drones operating wherever. Drone Notes = Al Mac main Research Notes into the overall collection of Drone controversies what all is happening, what are the issues? Drone Reports = Al Mac directory of source documents. Drone Robots = Al Mac notes regarding drones and robots operating on programming, outside of humans in the loop, directing them what to do, who to kill.

Drone Police+ (3 March 04)

Drone Police: Drones can be equipped with:211 (perhaps not all these
different things in the same drone) o Weapons, lethal and allegedly non-lethal.212 o high-powered cameras213 (including live-feed), which can track 65 different people simultaneously, from altitudes above 20,000 feet,

Linked In discontinued this feature December 2012. 208 https://www.eff.org/mention/why-drone-journalism-rocky-ride 209 from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf 210 This per the report, I called GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July, downloaded http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf from http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-536 thanks to http://blogs.cfr.org/zenko/2012/09/13/who-else-has-drones/ via http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/09/todays-headlines-and-commentary-269/ 211 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept 212 Non-Lethal weapons can kill and maim. While police may be authorized to use them with the intent of temporarily stunning, or restraining a suspect, they can cause great pain, permanent injury, even death. There is considerable evidence that some police departments mis-use them, to torture people, some of them innocent. 213 The U.S. Army recently acquired a 1.8 gigapixel camera for use on its drones. This camera offers 900 times the pixels of a 2 megapixel camera found in some cell phones. It can track objects on the ground 65 miles away from an altitude of 20,000 feet. US Army unveils 1.8 gigapixel camera helicopter drone, BBC NEWS (December 29, 2011 6:11 p.m.), http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-16358851

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM and see targets from 25 miles down range, according to Townhall,214 Sep 2012 magazine, and EPIC.215 thermal imaging devices216 and heat sensors; foliage-penetration radar217 license plate readers,218 detect who is armed, behaving in ways a government might consider suspicious enough for signature strikes;219 sophisticated radar, including laser radar (LADAR). "Gorgon Stare" technology,220 which Wikipedia defines221 as a spherical array of nine cameras attached to an aerial drone . . . capable of capturing motion imagery of an entire city. This imagery can then be analyzed by humans or an artificial intelligence, such as the Mind's Eye project222 being developed by DARPA.223 Coming soon: facial recognition, or soft biometric recognition, which can recognize and track individuals based on attributes such as height, age, gender, and skin color;224

o o o o o o

o
o

214

http://townhall.com/ Townhall is a US conservative magazine. http://magazine.townhall.com/featured https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Townhall.com 215 US Army Unveils 1.8 Gigapixel Camera Helicopter Drone, BBC News Technology (2011 Dec. 29).

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-16358851 Customs and Border Protection Today, (July/Aug 2004), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Support Border Security http://www.cbp.gov/xp/CustomsToday/2004/Aug/other/aerial_vehicles.xml
From https://epic.org/ and http://www.epic.org/privacy/drones EPIC testified on Panel II of Congress House Transcript Drones in USA Skies 2012 July Abstract Summary = http://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=719102 Full 865k Transcript = https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=719102
216

Infrared cameras, also known as thermal imaging, can see objects through walls based on the relative levels of heat produced by the objects. See Draganflyer X6, Thermal Infrared Camera,

http://www.draganfly.com/uav-helicopter/draganflyer-x6/features/flir-camera.php 217 https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/12/newly-released-drone-records-reveal-extensive-military-flightsus


218

This sensor can recognize and permit drones to track vehicles based on license plate numbers.

http://www.cbp.gov/xp/CustomsToday/2004/Aug/other/aerial_vehicles.xml
219

via drone-list: http://news.cnet.com/8301-13578_3-57572207-38/dhs-built-domesticsurveillance-tech-into-predator-drones/


220 221

http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2009/02/gorgon-stare/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorgon_Stare 222 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind%27s_Eye_%28US_Military%29 223 https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/12/newly-released-drone-records-reveal-extensive-military-flightsus 224 This sensor produces three-dimensional images, and has the capability to see through trees and foliage. U.S. ARMY, UAS CENTER FOR EXCELLENCE, EYES OF THE ARMY US ARMY ROADMAP FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS 20102035, at 83 (2010). Clay Dillow, Army Developing Drones that Can Recognize Your Face From a Distance, PopSci (Sept. 28, 2011, 4:01 PM), http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2011-09/army-wants-drones-can-recognize-your-faceand-read-your-mind

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Monitor all cell phone traffic involved in a gathering of people (without their knowledge or consent), cracking wi-fi codes.225 o According to Business Week, QUOTE:226 The drones sensors can look at a crowd from a mile overhead and identify which individual fired his gun in the last hour by picking up the heat off the barrel. What the sensors cant do, though, is tell you why the AK-47 was fired. Was it fired by a Taliban or a tribal policeman chasing away Taliban? Or was it fired 20 minutes ago celebrating a wedding? o UNQUOTE o Thus, if the drone can detect which weapon is still warm, it can detect which vehicle engine still warm, thus driven recently. o See: 4th Amendment; CBP; Fusion Center; GigaPixel; NoPhoto; Robo Cop; Search Location; See Through Walls; Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant; TaserDrone. o In Drone Notes, see: Financial Alternatives chapter, in Statistics section; Police with Weaponized Drones, in Non-Lethal Kills; Where in USA section, with chapters on Police by City, County, and State, reported to be using drones. o In Drone Reports, see: under those I downloaded; National Security docs; Consider Later; and Scribd references. Collectively they include many stories about what police are doing with drones, citizen concerns with how police can use drones, what police and persons working with police have done; etc., as depicted in: Congress House Transcript Drones in USA Skies 2012 July; CRS Drones in NAS 2012 Sept; DHS IG Audit CBP 85 2012 May; DoJ IG Audit ATF; IACP Police Drone UA Guidelines; Hillsborough almost 100 dead, many hundreds injured, due to police incompetence, then covered up for 20 years; MA Chemist thousands of court cases sabotaged; Mexico gov report on Fast & Furious; Miami Dade police respond to FOIA with details on how they using their drones.

From https://epic.org/ and http://www.epic.org/privacy/drones EPIC testified on Panel II of Congress House Transcript Drones in USA Skies 2012 July Abstract Summary = http://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=719102 Full 865k Transcript = https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=719102 225 http://firstamendment.staging.wpengine.com/2013/02/lapds-use-of-stingray-cell-phone-monitoring-toolrevealed-by-fac-public-records-request/ 226 http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-02-14/drones-transparency-on-rules-for-their-use-is-a-must

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o In Drone Scribd, see section on reports about Police Drone Usage. Drone Police Germany:227 Drone Police Unpopular see footnotes.228 Various reports indicate the notion of police using drones to spy on innocent people, is very unpopular with innocent people. Well, they need to speak up to local and state government, because complaining about it has little or no effect. Drone Propaganda: Government says one thing. Witnesses say something else. There is no correlation between the two stories, but there is an obvious pattern to the differences. The Government says the drone program is very successful in killing militants, and only militants. Witnesses talk about the huge numbers of innocent deaths, and how fear of being the next victim has altered community life.229 Drone Scribd = Synopses of some Drone documents now in my Drone Info collection on Scribd. Where some documents appear to have incomplete or misleading info, I attempt to find citations to help their authors expand the work. Drone Sources = Collection of official sources of Drone Info, in a subfolder of Al Mac Linked In Box Net shared files.230

Drone Strategic+ (2 Oct 08)

Drone, Strategic Military: This is one of three major categories of UAVs studied by GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July.231 o Strategic Drones are among the most versatile, typically capable of operating up to 30,000 to 45,000 feet in altitude with a

227

Via drone-list:

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polizei-Drohne German Wikipedia, I will translate the beginning for you: "Police Drones" are micro drones used by the (german) police for intelligence. In Germany the police in "Niedersachsen", "Hessen", "Nordrhein-Westfahlen", "Sachsen" and "Berlin" use them, also the Federal Police. There are complications in practical use in consequent of high launching costs, costs due to crashes and worries related to data privacy. Amongst other ones http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMT_Aladin and EMT Fancopter

You can also look at sources on German Wiki Site.


228

http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jIMxKGiGs3fAqtO2XsIJesQoyNdg?docId=77739c 9af56549749ae8caacf95e0444 229 http://livingunderdrones.org/visualizing-the-lies/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 230 You have to be a member of Linked In, and connected to me there, to access those Box Net Folders. http://www.linkedin.com/in/almacintyre 231 from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM maximum endurance of more than 20 hours. They look like a large air plane, needing a decent sized airport for take off and landing. They probably can use aircraft carriers. o They fly medium to high altitude, long range (hours to days) and are not limited to line-of-sight. o See: Drone, Mini Military and Tactical Military. Drone, Tactical Military: This is one of three major categories of UAVs studied by GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July.232 o Tactical Drones are one of two or the vast majority of UAV systems in operation from 2005 to 2011. They look like a small air plane, which needs a small air field, or chunk of straight highway, to land or take off. o They fly low to medium altitudes, have medium endurance (up to several hours) with a range limited to line-of-sight (186 miles, 300 kilometers, or less). o According to US GAO analysis,233 this is the type of drone operated by most military in the world. o According to US GAO analysis,234 Israel exports both mini and tactical drones. o See: Drone, Mini Military and Strategic Military. Drone Terms = this collection of definitions of terminology, acronyms, concepts, etc. companion document to Drone Notes by Al Mac. Drone Warfare 101 Several links, to be added in the footnotes, provide a crash course in comprehending this topic, which has evolved dramatically in recent decades.235 DSA = Drone Security Agency. No such organization exists, but I suggest we may need one to handle security from rogue drones, and cyber attacks on drones, which are areas of concern for which existing government agencies appear illequipped. o See: FAA; FCC; Mitigation Suggestions; MSLU; NDTC; TBA; TSA. DSCA = Defense Security Cooperation Agency. DoDs DSCA administers FMS under supervision and general direction of the State Dept.236 o See: AECA; BIS; CCL; DDTC; DoD; DSS; FMS; Golden Sentry; ICE

232 233

from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf This per the report, I called GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July, downloaded http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf from http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-536 thanks to http://blogs.cfr.org/zenko/2012/09/13/who-else-has-drones/ via http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/09/todays-headlines-and-commentary-269/ 234 This per the report, I called GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July, downloaded http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf from http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-536 thanks to http://blogs.cfr.org/zenko/2012/09/13/who-else-has-drones/ via http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/09/todays-headlines-and-commentary-269/ 235 http://www.mepc.org/journal/middle-east-policy-archives/drone-warfare-blowback-new-american-waywar?print 236 See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM DSB = Defense Science Board, a US Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent advice to the Secretary of Defense. 237 DSS = Defense Security Service provides threat assessments in support of its mission to oversee the protection of U.S. classified information and data in the hands of cleared DOD contractors.238 o See: AECA; BIS; CBP; CCL; Cruise Missiles; DDTC; DoD; DSCA; ICE; OEE. DTO = Drug Trafficking Organization.

Dual Use+ (3 Feb 25)


Dual Use = Sciences and Technologies which can be used for either peaceful civilian, or military purposes.239 Due Process of Law: See 5th Amendment of US Constitution; Citizens of USA.

Terms E+ (2 Dec 02) !


EAR = Export Administration Regulations EC = European Commission ECCN = Export Control Classification Number EDM = Engineering Development Model

EFF = Electronic Freedom Foundation240 eGuardian = a data base of Suspicious Activity Reports (SAR), shared by the FBI and Fusion Centers. o See: FBI; Fusion Center; SAR. EMP Beams241 = powerful bursts of microwaves can fry every piece of electronics in its path from personal computers and cameras to hightech hospital equipment and flight control computers. Imagine one of these drones taking out a stock exchange or a water management system. Or a computer-controlled dam. Electronics are essential to all aspects of modern civilization: autos; 100% transportation; 100% critical infrastructure, electricity (to run pipe lines, gas pumps). Getting hit with this is like taking your civilization back to the stone ages.

237 238

See DoD Autonomous Drones 2012 July report in my collection of official sources. See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf 239 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual-use_technology https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2013/02/dual_use_oversight.html 240 https://www.eff.org/ 241 http://io9.com/5954756/we-now-have-drones-equipped-with-emp-beams-++-and-that-could-be-lethal http://www.nationalterroralert.com/2012/10/26/boeings-new-missile-takes-down-electronics-withouttouching-them/ http://www.nbcnews.com/technology/futureoftech/boeings-new-missile-takes-down-electronics-withouttouching-them-1C6663618 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2241525/The-Boeing-blitzing-drone-cripple-nationselectronics.html?ITO=1490&ns_mchannel=rss&ns_campaign=1490

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o See: CHAMP.


EO = Electro-Optic

EOD = Explosive Ordinance Disposal. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map242 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). EO/IR = Electro-optical and infrared sensors, o See: IR. EOUSA = Executive Office for United States Attorneys. o See: Attorney General; DoJ. EPA = Environmental Protection Agency. o Contrary to Right Wing Propaganda theory, EPA is not yet using drones to spy on ranchers and farmers suspected of violating anti-pollution laws.243

EPIC+ (2 Oct 17)


EPIC 2 very different groups. EPIC = Electronic Privacy Information Center244 o One of several activist organizations which argue that drones pose a unique threat to privacy. o See: ACLU. EPIC = El Paso Intelligence Center = ATF Gun Runner clearing house for intelligence and investigative info. 21 federal agencies have representatives there. o In 2009, OSI requested that all local ATF divisions to share intelligence continuously with EPIC, which is responsible for resharing it with Mexico and US agencies. o See: ATF; Gun Runner; Gun Desk; OSII. ER/MP = Extended Range / Multi-Purpose. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map245 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). ERSG = European RPAS Steering Group.246 See RPAS. ERW = Enhanced Radiation Weapons247 o See: NSDD.
ESU = Electronic Surveillance Unit. ETMS = Engineering Works & Traffic Information Management System

242 243

http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf EPA http://www.latimes.com/news/politics/topoftheticket/la-na-tt-epa-spy-drones-20120619,0,2898522.story http://midwestdemocracy.com/articles/false-reports-of-epa-drones-over-midwest-farms-alarm-public/ 244 https://epic.org/ and http://www.epic.org/privacy/drones EPIC testified on Panel II of Congress House Transcript Drones in USA Skies 2012 July Abstract Summary = http://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=719102 Full 865k Transcript = https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=719102 245 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 246 https://dronewarsuk.wordpress.com/2012/09/07/europe-to-open-skies-to-drones-by-2016-sayscommission-document/ 247 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/nsdd_7.html https://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-7.pdf

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eTrace+ (2 Oct 26) !


eTrace is ATF crime hand gun tracing system, accessible by law enforcement worldwide over Internet, which ATF tried to expand into Mexico during Gun Runner project. o Gun tracing (in theory) enables ATF to track a gun: From manufacturer or importer; To wholesaler and retail dealer; Then identify the original retail purchaser. o See: ATF; eTrace 4.0; Gun Runner; Gun Runner Flaws; Mexico Organized Crime; N-Force; N-Spect. eTrace 4.0, also known as Spanish eTrace, receives and provides trace results in Spanish. o Originally ATF planned to provide this to all federal and state laboratories in Mexico, but this on hold in 2010 due to objections from Mexican federal Government. ATF gave OIG conflicting info about the circumstances and time line. o See: ATF; eTrace; OIG. EU = European Union. EUM = End Use Monitoring248 EUROCAE = European Organization for Civil Aviation Equipment o The FAA works with them, and other organizations, to define to define software or information assurance criteria for aircraft systems. o See: FAA.

Europe Human Rights are spelled out at many institutions: the European Union (EU), the Council of Europe, the European Commission and the European Parliament.249 o See: Human Rights Regions. Experiential Victims. See: Drone Experiential Victims. Export Control Reform Initiative. See AECA. Extradition: When a person is in nation-X, and is sought by nation-Y to be tried for something which is a crime in nation-Y, judicial authorities of nation-Y may go to the courts of nation-X and ask that the person be surrendered to nation-Y. o Courts in Nation-X generally grant this request, provided:
o The alleged misdeeds are a violation of the laws of both nations. For example, Poetry is illegal in Taliban controlled areas, but nowhere else in the civilized world, so the Taliban cannot extradite anyone for Poetry.

248

Nation-Y can show that there is sufficient evidence to try this particular person for the claimed crimes. o Nation-Y can be trusted not to apply the death sentence if that is banned by Nation-X. o See: National Laws; Reciprocity; Sosa. Extra Judicial Killing is defined different ways by different authorities. 250
o

http://www.dsca.osd.mil/samm/ESAMM/C08/8.htm European Convention on Human Rights and its Five Protocols http://www.hri.org/docs/ECHR50.html
249

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o In the US Torture Victims Protection Act, it is defined as: a deliberated killing not authorized by a previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.251 o Courts have found that state sponsored terrorism constitutes extra judicial killing, so that citizens, impacted by that, may bring court cases against the states involved, although good luck on those states paying any attention to those court cases. o Attorney General Eric Holder in a March 2012 speech at Northwestern University School of Law, defended the legality of the lethal targeting program. He asserted that AUMF provides domestic authority and that the existence of an armed conflict provides international legal authority to target enemy belligerents.252 o U.S. State Department Legal Adviser, Harold Hongju Koh, in a March 2010 speech to American Society of International Law, disputed that drone attacks constitute unlawful extra judicial killings arguing QUOTE that a state that is engaged in an armed conflict or in legitimate self-defense is not required to provide targets with legal process before the state may use lethal force. UNQUOTE253 o See: Assassination; AUMF; Co-Belligerent; Disposition Matrix; Judicial Killing; Kill List; Self Defense; Targeted Killing. Extraterritorial Counterterrorism Operations prior to 9/11 were conducted
by the US mainly via: the military; law enforcement with the permission of the nations involved; and only very rarely with secret CIA assassinations.254

Terms F+ (2 Sep 23) !


FA = Fire Arms. FAA = USA Federal Aviation Administration (FAA GOV). is in charge of coordinating domestic (non-military) flights over USA air space, including unmanned aircraft.255 o FAA also = US Federal Arbitration Act.

250 251

http://forusa.org/tags/extrajudicial-killings https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 252 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 253 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 254 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 255 https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/07/faa-releases-thousands-pages-drone-records See Drone Notes section = The Horses Mouth, for links to various government agency sites with official Drone information, so called because unfortunately, some info sources at other end of horse.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o FAA Modernization and Reform Act (P.L. 112-95) is what US Congress passed
Feb 2012 calling on FAA to draft regulations for drones in US NAS.256

o See: ATC; CAA; COA, DOT; EUROCAE; FCC; NAS; NIAP; SAC; TSA. Facial Recognition. See Drone Police. FAQ = Frequently Asked Questions (with their answers) FAR's = Federal Air Regulations. FAS = Federation of American Scientists.257

Fast and Furious (2 Oct 14)


Fast and Furious (FF) was an ATF Gun Walking operation which began late Oct 2009, thanks to suspicious firearms sales identified at a Phoenix area FFL (Federal Firearms (seller) Licensee). By end 2009, ATF had identified a significant firearms trafficking group, and were using technology and techniques superior to those used in Wide Receiver, but FF had serious sabotage from local US Attorneys office, without which the crime families could have been arrested much sooner. o While this operation started during the Obama administration, details, on the gun walking, were kept secret from the White House and HQ of the agencies involved (ATF, DoJ, and others) until after Brian Terry was killed by one of the guns. People who blame the President, or Attorney General for this operation, are people who do not know the facts. See Wide Receiver for similar operation during Bush administration. o Info in the news media is disconnected from reality, perhaps thanks to bogus info in most of the official reports. However, I believe the situation is worse than how the news media has painted it, thanks to DoJ and ATF being seriously dysfunctional. I also have some problems with IG report. Info in DoJ IG Audit ATF 2012 Sep,258 while specific FFL not named, theres enough info so the cartel can figure out who cooperated, giving them motive for assassination. There was no compensation to FFL, and no formal CI (Confidential Informant) relationship, but behavior was very similar to FFL-CI of Wide receiver.

256

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept For time-line of deadlines for FAA to complete portions of these regulations, see Calendar section of Drone Notes, and also in official document FAA Timeline Summary http://www.scribd.com/doc/101485506/Timeline-for-Domestic-Drone-Integration 257 FAS info about drones includes: https://www.fas.org/sgp/news/secrecy/2012/06/061412.html
258

http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder, since this content is other than my Drones research. Within this report,
there is reference to an earlier 2010 Nov report on OIGs website at http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/index.htm which I located and downloaded for later study.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o ATF and US Attorneys office decided, at local level, against confronting suspected straw purchasers, in order to try to map the entire groups money and weapons movement between USA and Mexico, and identify higher players in the cartel organization. They were totally unsuccessful in this goal. The weapons went into Mexico, and were used in massacres. 259 o FF problems seemed consistent with other ATF Gun Walking operations, perhaps because many of same people (in ATF offices and US Attorneys offices) were involved in the management of various SWB (US South West Border) operations, using the same flawed strategies, including: Deliverance Project. Fast and Furious Operation Oct 2009 to Jan 2011260 Gun Runner Project. Wide Receiver Operation Mar 2006 to Oct 2010 o See: Armas Cruzadas; ATF; ATF Scandals; Deliverance Project; Fast and Furious ATF Organizational Chart; Fast and Furious Flaws; Fast and Furious HQ Fantasy Picture; Fast and Furious Local progress; FFL; Gun Runner Project; Gun Walking; IG; Mitigation Suggestions; OIG; Straw Purchase; SWB; Wide Receiver.

Fast & Furious ATF Organization Chart (2 Sep 26)


Here is how ATF was organized during Operation Fast and Furious. This is from page 248 DoJ IG Audit ATF 2012 Sep.261 There is a time line of what all happened with ATF offices, US Attorneys, etc. on page 246 which I was unsuccessful in extracting. That time line would have been more useful to general public readers, I believe, if peoples names there included whether they are ATF agent, US Attorney, or some other id and title. Break for Illustration.

259

http://dailycaller.com/2012/10/01/univision-report-connects-operation-fast-and-furious-scandal-tomurders-of-mexican-teenagers/ 260 Although the local office is no longer doing the investigation, and their data has been used for criminal prosecution, Operation Fast and Furious was still listed as an active case in the funding stream, at time of IG 2012 Sep audit. 261 http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder..

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At the time of Operation Fast and Furious, the ATF Chain of Command leadership included: Director, Deputy Director, Assistant Directors for eight offices, a Chief of Staff, and a Chief Counsel. Largest office was Field Operations = 25 field divisions, and office of International Affairs. Each field division has a local Field Intelligence Group (FIG), considered to be the main intelligence asset for that division. According to DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov report,262 it typically includes: A supervisor agent 1-2 intelligence agents.
262

http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder, since this content is other than my Drones research. Within this 2012 Sep
report, there was reference to an earlier 2010 Nov report on OIGs website at http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/index.htm but when I went to this link, in the 2012 Sep IG report, I found We are sorry, but we are unable to locate the page you requested on the Department of Justice web site. I searched DoJ site, and eventually found a Nov 2010 IG report on ATF GunRunner here: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/e1101.pdf which I downloaded, naming it: DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov.

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1-2 industry operations intelligence specialists, 2-4 intelligence research specialists, 1-2 investigative analysts, and 1 secretary. FIG collects, evaluates, and distributes tactical and strategic intelligence to all offices of the division. See: ATF; ATF Scandals; FIG-LEAF; OSII.

Fast and Furious Flaws (2 Sep 24)


See DoJ IG Audit ATF 2012 Sep.263 This info shows clearly that Fast and Furious (FF) operation began, due to information which came to local ATF office about suspicious gun buying. The operation, intended to trace gun trafficking to Mexican Drug Cartel leadership, where the good intentions could not be properly implemented for many reasons: Quality of cooperation between US and Mexican authorities did not measure up, with serious problems on both sides. o Precisely how they would track the weapons into Mexico, was apparently not on the ATF radar screen. ATF agents were assigned to cases and job responsibilities, where they were new on the job, new to the type of operation, new to ATF, and their relevant training was a joke. o It reminded me of BP Oil Spill where people were assigned jobs, with zero training, zero documentation, and alarms turned off so people could sleep. ATF agents had beliefs about probable cause, without written confirmation from US Attorneys. o These beliefs shaped how they conducted the operation, leading to thousands of guns to Mexico cartels, which would not have happened had the miscommunication not been there. Initially, the FF group was staffed with one leader experienced in firearms trafficking investigations and two total beginners. o Reason for this was staffing constraints and anticipated more experienced personnel to come to Phoenix later. o Those new arrivals expressed lots of gripes with how the operation was being conducted, but they were over-ruled by local management which had approved the flawed process. Why bring in people who know the subject, if you are not going to use their expertise?264 Much of the groups activities management was in violation of ATF policies for newbie agents and newbie managers. US Attorney bad boss-subordinate relationships over ATF agents.

263 264

http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder. That is common state-of-art in todays business world. There are professionals in the subject, hired to do the job, then their expertise is over-ruled by non-technical managers, where the opinions of managers who are not experts in the topic, over-rules the opinions of the people trained in the subject. What is needed are like CPAs and MDs who have certifications, where it is illegal for them to go against their training and industry standards.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o The ATF agents had beliefs about what the lawyers needed, which were flawed. o The lawyers had beliefs about what the agents should be doing, which were disconnected from the reality. o There was massive lack of communication, of key details. It seemed to me that the ATF agents were acting like they were in an adversarial relationship with the lawyers and with higher ups, where they had a duty to pull the wool over the eyes of both, incite additional adversarial relationship, falsely telling higher ups that the lawyers were messing them up. This lack of team work also applied to the lawyers. On multiple occasions higher ups tried to get help to the over-worked lawyers, who refused the help, but higher ups did not know this, assumed incorrectly that the help, they had provided, was in fact working the case. o Lower level personnel were painting pictures to higher authority, designed to make the lower level personnel, and their operations, look much better than they really were. Much info up chain of command to boss, in requests to judges, was definitely misleading, perjury. Both ATF agent offices, and US Attorney offices, were seriously undermanned for their gigantic case loads. It was impossible for them to do their jobs any way other than superficially. There was miscommunication between various offices, and rank & file of the offices, and their bosses, of ATF, DEA, FBI, ICE, USM, US Attorney, investigating some of the same suspects. Public Safety did not appear to be on radar screen of the people in charge of relevant ATF agents or US Attorneys office, although multiple agents expressed serious misgivings about the probable results, and as it turned out they were correct. There were surveillance challenges inside private property, such as the auto body shop, where weapons presumably changed vehicles, so they did not know which to follow. They used tracking devices Jan-Mar 2010 on suspect vehicles, but they had limited battery life. I believe they should have got: o Bugs outside stash houses with video zoom. o Bugs with video planted inside the crooked operations; o Drone with See Through Walls capability; o All of which require a search warrant. They did a little of this. Some of the weapons were serious military grade. o Example: F rifle is mounted on a tripod, fires belt-fed ammo, is over 5 feet long, weighs over 100 pounds. Several of these were included in the shipments to Mexican cartels, facilitated by the FF ATF operation. See: ATF; BP; DEA; Fast and Furious; FBI; ICE; IG; IRS; OIG;; QISTUK; Radar Screens; See Through Walls; USM.

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Fast and Furious HQ Fantasy Picture (2 Sep 24)


Reports from the local ATF and DoJ organizers included: Heres what we are trying to accomplish, which sounded great, but in reality what they accomplished was to identify 20 straw purchasers, and did nothing regarding their goals to get at the higher ups in the Mexican drug cartels. Heres statistics on weapons recovered, implying the FF people (local Fast and Furious personnel) did the job, when in fact they had nothing to do with it. Higher ups, and judges, accepted bogus stories without question, stories which were misleading at best, total lies at worst. Just as in Wide receiver, same leaders expressed same misgivings, but did not force a change in policy risks. March 2010 the ATF Deputy Director got a detailed briefing that left him sufficiently concerned to request an exit strategy with time line for investigation completion. Well he got an exit strategy, but there seemed no urgency for completion until after Agent Terry was killed. o The guy, who allegedly bought the guns, used to kill Brian Terry, claimed his vehicle was broken into, his id stolen, maybe someone else used his id. o This illustrates the need to have photo of who bought the guns. See: ATF; DoJ; Fast and Furious; Radar Screens; Straw Purchase.

Fast and Furious Local progress (2 Sep 23)


This ATF investigation started in late Oct 2009 out of the Phoenix AZ office. There had been no arrests nor indictments, in the case until weapons used, in the killing of CBP agent Brian Terrys 2010 murder, were traced to the Fast and Furious operation. Jan 2011 was indictment of Fast & Furious Suspects. 30 days into the investigation, the group had identified 341 firearms purchased from 5 FFLs in Phoenix area, by apparent straw buyers, and the groups leader was doing much better documentation than Wide receiver had done until the investigation completed. o This documentation went to top of ATF HQ Dec 2009 and Jan 2010. o However, all documentation was seriously flawed. 40 days into FF investigation, ATF had got a stationary video surveillance camera near one of the fire arms stash houses. By end 2009, 619 firearms from one FFL who expressed concern to ATF that this was going on much longer than prior investigations. Nov 2009 to July 2010, FFL-1 sold 1,420 firearms to Op FF subjects, which was approx 80% of all FF sales in that time frame. March to Aug 2010 FF had Electronic Surveillance authorized. Jan 2011 Federal Grand Jury indictment against 20 FF subjects. 1,961 firearms had been purchased, 710 recovered, as of Feb 2012. Two of the FFLs gave ATF advance notice of the suspicious purchases. The ATF group attempted to follow the purchasers and guns. When helping purchasers carry weapons to vehicles, FFL personnel were on look out for companions and

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM license plates. They also used an ATF-system to record phone calls with the suspects, and in one case ATF got a camera inside FFL store. o Identification of license plates was key, because driving tactics of the suspects, combined with under-staffing of ATF, made continuous surveillance impractical. Missing from this operation: Traffic cameras on roads out of town, programmed to look for those license plates, triggering alerts to dispatch surveillance to suspects on the move again. See: ATF; AZ; CBP; Fast and Furious; FFL.

FATA+ (3 Feb 01)


FATA = Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.265 o See: FCR; Jirga; Khassadar; Malik. FBI = US Federal Bureau of Investigation is in US Dept of Justice (DoJ). o The FBI can take the lead in certain export control investigations involving counterintelligence and counterterrorism.266 o The FBI is one of several federal agencies flying drones in US National Air Space (NAS). o See: AECA; BIS; CBP; GC Armas; PHVPH. FC multiple meanings FC = Pakistani Frontier Corps267 FC = Fusion Center o See: Fusion Center. FCC = US Federal Communications Commission. o They regulate the RF (radio frequencies) used to communicate with various aircraft (manned and unmanned) flying over USA. They have done this on a case by case basis, much like the FAA approves who may fly UAV over USA.268 o They regulate under what circumstances people may listen in on other peoples electronic communications.

265

http://livingunderdrones.org/report-introduction/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 266 See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf 267 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 268 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/drones_nas.html downloaded as CRS Drones in NAS 2012 Sept. CRS = Congressional Research Service; FAS = Federation of American Scientists; NAS = US National Air Space.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o According to Townhall,269 in Sep 2012 magazine, the FCC says they want some drones to use as portable cell phone towers over disaster areas, so there can be cell phone reception, when a disaster has knocked out the usual infrastructure. o See: 4th Amendment; Drone Police; FAA; IMSI Catcher; MITM; PrivacyViolations; RF; UAV; Wire Tapping. FCR = Frontier Crimes Regulation,270 a system of laws for Pakistans FATA, which institutionalizes both the Pashtun tribes traditional reliance on the jirga as the primary mechanism for dispute resolution, and the British maliki patronage system used to subjugate the tribes. Under FCR, individual residents can bring disputes before selected tribal elders called maliki (singular: malik), who settle disputes in a jirga according to Pashtun codes. o See: FATA; Jirga; Khassadar; Malik. Fear: According to Townhall,271 in their Sep 2012 magazine, there are two groups of people who have anything to fear from US domestic droning: o People who have done something wrong. o People who have done nothing wrong. Fearless Distributing = an ATF scandal in Milwaukee. o See: ATF Milwaukee; ATF Scandals FEMA = US Federal Emergency Management Agency. o See: HSGP. FF = Fast and Furious o See: ATF; Fast and Furious; Gun Walking. FFL = Federal Firearms Licensee

FIG+ (3 Feb 14)


FIG = Field Intelligence Group. See: Fast & Furious ATF Organization Chart. FIG-LEAF = Field Intelligence Group (FIG of local ATF offices) learn earlier about fire arms info (LEAF), at HQ. o This does not yet exist, but is one of my suggestions about how ATF could clean up their act, and change from being inept, to being productive. o Instead of isolated ATF field operations, having their data on a computer network which does not talk to HQ, FIG-LEAF would be a network hosted and shared with OSII providing indexing capabilities similar to those listed in the See: directory, in bold.

269

http://townhall.com/ Townhall is a US conservative magazine. http://magazine.townhall.com/featured https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Townhall.com 270 http://livingunderdrones.org/report-introduction/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 271 http://townhall.com/ Townhall is a US conservative magazine. http://magazine.townhall.com/featured https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Townhall.com

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o The local office computers, laptops, etc. would be networked to a network in the field division, which in turn would be networked to HQ, so that people at HQ would be able to access local info, if they wanted to know what local offices doing. o See: ATF; Blogosphere RSS Radio Outline; Fast & Furious ATF Organizational Chart; Google Desk Top; HQ; IBM Terabyte Indexing; Mitigation Suggestions; Needle in Haystack; OSII; UPI. FinCen = Financial Crimes Enforcement Network Finger Pointing is an exercise found in offices where management seeks to blame someone for stuff which has gone wrong. Getting at the facts is like an exercise in Chaos Mapping, because everyone is describing problems in a manner which removes reasonable suspicion from themselves, and selecting people to blame based on who they dislike, not based on reasonable suspicion. o I believe this has had a lot to do with why OIG found conflicting stories, which they did not find credible, in the investigation of ATF scandals. o See: ATF Scandals; Glitch; Group Think; OIG; Please the Boss. Firearms trafficking is not a violation of federal law. However, persons who sell firearms must either have a federal license to do so, or be a bona fide gun collector. See: ATF; Gun Walking. FISA = Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act272 o Maybe US military + CIA drone killings should get review by FISA court?273 o See: PHVPH. FISC = Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.274 FIST = Field Intelligence Support Team of ATF OSII in SWB. o See: ATF; Gun Runner; OSII; SWB.

Fly-Over+ (2 Nov 01)

Fly-Over: Before drones, it was not unusual for manned aircraft to fly over
people homes and private property, such as police helicopters. o The US Supreme Court has ruled in several Manned Aircraft cases that the 4th Amendment is not violated, when the fly-over can see what is in plain sight., and the aircraft is flying where it is legal to do so275 o There have been cases where the police used this approach to find people growing marijuana, and there have also been private enterprise flying over private enterprise. In one case, Dow Chemical refused EPA access to their industrial property, so EPA hired a private firm to fly over with cameras.

272

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_Intelligence_Surveillance_Act http://www.lawfareblog.com/2013/02/context-for-judicial-oversight-of-the-targeted-killing-program-abrief-history-of-the-creation-of-the-foreign-intelligence-surveillance-court/ 273 See Drone Scribd for relevant discussion, in the wake of Memo Gate. 274 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2013/02/context-for-judicial-oversight-of-the-targeted-killing-program-abrief-history-of-the-creation-of-the-foreign-intelligence-surveillance-court/ 275 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o See: 4th Amendment; 4th Amendment Jurisprudence; Curtilage; Plain Sight Doctrine; Search Location;. See Through Walls; Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant. FMCSS = flight and mission control support systems276
FMS = Foreign Military Sales. o See: AECA; DSCA; State. FMV = Full Motion Video

FNS = Federal Network Security, within DHS. FOIA = Freedom of Information Act277 o A Citizen's Guide on Using the Freedom of Information Act and the Privacy Act of 1974 to Request Government Records, House Committee on Government Reform, September 20, 2005, House Report 109-226 (PDF)278. Foundation for Fundamental Rights, A Pakistan Non-Profit Legal Advocate for Drone Victims.279 FOUO = For Official Use Only280 FREND = Front End Robotics Enabling Near-Term Demonstration. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map281 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. FRN = Field Reporter Number, or Preparer Number. Intelligence Reports, to DHS from Fusion Centers, generally do not have authors identified, but they do have this code # identifying the original source of the material. o See: DHS; Fusion Center; HIR; I+A; IIR. FTCA = Federal Tort Claims Act, allows the US government to be sued on tort claims. o See: Sosa.

Fusion+ (2 Nov 09)


Fusion Center (FC) = Effort to gather, organize, and react, to terrorism intelligence data collection, at a network282 of regional locations, in the wake of 9/11. o There are at least 77 such centers scattered across the USA. Fewer than 15% describe their goal as purely anti-terrorism. Most are concerned with all hazards; all different potential crimes; including law enforcement activities, intelligence activities, man-

276 277

http://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=696153 https://www.fas.org/sgp/foia/foia2007.pdf 278 https://www.fas.org/sgp/foia/citizen.html


279

http://livingunderdrones.org/report-introduction/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 280 http://cryptome.org/dodi/sec-clear-denied.pdf 281 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 282 http://nsi.ncirc.gov/about_nsi.aspx

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM made disasters and acts of terrorism, natural disasters and other information. These centers have come under much criticism for the quality of what info they choose to collect, the quality of what they do with that collected info, and their apparent disregard for the privacy and civil liberties of innocent members of the general public, engaged in constitutionally protected activities. Also agencies, which work with these centers, have come under criticism for lying to Congress about what they are doing, and how they are interacting with them. In Congress Senate Fusion Centers 2012 Oct,283 there is evidence of a great many lies from DHS to Congress regarding FCs, DHS involvement in FCs, and DHS investigations of FCs. What the Senate investigation found, sounds very similar to the OIG investigation of ATF scandals. The role, of officials in the know, is to praise the place in need of federal funding, so as to get that funding. Truth is not part of their job. Their intention is to pool the knowledge and expertise of a spectrum of personnel associated with federal state and local law enforcement, other emergency services, and judicial organizations, also military, and sometimes private enterprise. They operate with a mixture of funding from federal (20-30%) and state (70-80%) organizations, with no statutory authority nor oversight. Vast databases of information are being compiled on individuals without any reasonable suspicion that these individuals are linked to terrorism or any other criminal activity. We could imagine future drone killing of people, using as justification that they were listed as a potential enemy of the state, in one of these data bases, thanks to the mentality that someone who looks different, is a threat. 284 Or other innocent activities like using a cell phone camera in public, or misplacing personal property, or stating personal opinion on the Internet, can lead to someone being placed on a no fly list, denied public assistance, denied a job, denied personal credit, denied access to education. Federal regulation 28 C.F.R. Part 23 prohibits federal funding to state law enforcement organizations which collect or maintain personal information about individuals in criminal intelligence databases unless there is reasonable suspicion that the individual is involved in criminal conduct and the information is relevant to that criminal conduct or activity.

o o

283

report from link at bottom of page: http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/subcommittees/investigations/media/investigative-report-criticizescounterterrorism-reporting-waste-at-state-and-local-intelligence-fusion-centers 284 At least two Fusion Centers had reports on the Cop Block article when it is OK to shoot in self-defense against cops: http://www.copblock.org/23434/whenshouldyoushootacop/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Some fusion centers issued reports listing organizations as being a threat to national security. The evidence is that those organizations, and their membership, had engaged in constitutionally protected activities such as: Anti-War public lobbying organization, and peaceful protests. Environmental promotion organization, and peaceful protests. Freedom of peaceful assembly to present grievances with government, and to suggest changes to government policies. Freedom of peaceful religious prayer meetings. Freedom of non-violent speech. Voter registration drives. Wearing head gear associated with their religion, such as funny hats and head bands. Wearing hip hop clothing, in a social or recreational gathering. Wearing jewelry symbols of their religion, such as the Christian Cross, Star of David. Women and Minority rights promotion and education. o Here are some examples of Constitutional violations, by Fusion Centers (FC), where apparently political ideology, ignorant of US constitution, has over-ridden national security and law enforcement duties. 2009 Feb, a Texas FC circulated Prevention Awareness Bulletin, describing Muslim lobbying groups as providing an environment for terrorist organizations to flourish and warned that the threats to Texas are significant. The bulletin described various kinds of peaceful cultural activities which Muslims typically participate in, which should be monitored. 2009 Feb, a Missouri FC issued a report describing support for presidential campaigns of Ron Paul or third party candidates, possession of the iconic Dont Tread on Me flag, and anti-abortion activism, as signs of membership in domestic terrorist groups. A Tennessee FC listed an American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) letter to public schools, on its online map of Terrorism Events and Other Suspicious Activity. The letter advised schools that holiday celebrations focused exclusively on Christmas were an unconstitutional government endorsement of religion. A 2009 Virginia FC Terrorism Risk Assessment Report described student groups at Virginias historically black colleges as potential breeding grounds for terrorism and characterized the diversity surrounding a military base as a possible threat. o See: 1st Amendment; 1st Amendment Court Rulings; 5th Amendment; 14th Amendment; ATF Scandals; Church Commission; CP; DHS; Drone Police; eGuardian; Mitigation Suggestions; OIG; Privacy; QISTUK; TCP.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o In Drone Reports, see sources listed under Activist Summary and National Security Docs.

Fusion Center Mitigation+ (2 Nov 02)

Fusion Center Mitigation needs to be better than what the Church


Commission attempted. o I think part of it needs to be our educational system civics classes make sure to include a study of the Church Commission, and review of which mitigation efforts succeeded and which did not solve such problems, which made things worse, and how can we get a balance, which accomplishes the needs of the nation, without destroying what the nation stands for. o See: Church Commission; Fusion Center Recommendations. Fusion Center National Network.285 o See: DHS; Fusion Center.

Fusion Center Problems+ (2 Nov 02)

Fusion Center Problems found by US Congress Senate Fusion

Centers 2012 Oct report:286 o Reporting from fusion centers often flawed, and unrelated to terrorism. o Some reports had nothing of value. o If published, some draft reporting could have violated the Privacy Act. o Most fusion center reporting related to drug smuggling, alien smuggling, or other criminal activity. o Terrorism-related reporting was often outdated, duplicative and uninformative. o DHS intelligence reporting officials, who repeatedly violated guidelines, faced no sanction. o DHS did not sufficiently train its fusion center detailees to legally and effectively collect and report intelligence. o Short-staffing and reliance on contract employees hampered reporting efforts. o Reporting officials arent evaluated on the quality of their reporting. o A hastily-implemented and poorly coordinated review process delayed reporting by months.

285

http://nsi.ncirc.gov/about_nsi.aspx http://www.dhs.gov/state-and-major-urban-area-fusion-centers 286 (see link at bottom of page) http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/subcommittees/investigations/media/investigative-report-criticizescounterterrorism-reporting-waste-at-state-and-local-intelligence-fusion-centers thanks to http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/10/devastating-senate-committee-report-on-fusion-centers/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Retaining inappropriate records is contrary to DHS policies and the Privacy Act. o Problems with DHS reporting are acknowledged, but unresolved. o DHS does not know how much it has spent to support fusion centers. o DHS does not exercise effective oversight of grant funds intended for fusion centers. o FEMA monitoring visits do not confirm grant funds are used appropriately. o Federally required A-133 audits are not useful to monitor grant spending. o DHS grant requirements do not ensure states spend fusion center funds effectively. o DHS cannot say whether its spending has improved fusion centers ability to participate meaningfully in the Federal counterterrorism mission. o Two Federal assessments found fusion centers lack basic counterterrorism capabilities. o Despite promises, DHS has not assessed fusion center performance. o Some DHS-recognized fusion centers do not exist. o Many fusion centers do not prioritize counterterrorism efforts. o DHS Success Stories do not demonstrate centers value to counterterrorism efforts. o Fusion centers may have hindered, not aided, some Federal counterterrorism efforts. o See: DHS; Fusion Center; GIGO.

Fusion Center Recommendations+ (2 Nov 02)

Fusion Center Recommendations by US Congress Senate Fusion


Centers 2012 Oct report:287 o Congress should clarify the purpose of providing federal monetary and other support for DHSs fusion center efforts. The Subcommittees investigation could not verify that the statutory basis for DHSs involvement in fusion centers to strengthen federal counterterrorism efforts was reflected in the departments efforts. Congress should require DHS to conform its efforts to match its counterterrorism statutory purpose, or redefine DHSs fusion center mission. o DHS should reform its intelligence reporting efforts at state and local fusion centers to eliminate duplication. DHS

287

(see link at bottom of page) http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/subcommittees/investigations/media/investigative-report-criticizescounterterrorism-reporting-waste-at-state-and-local-intelligence-fusion-centers thanks to http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/10/devastating-senate-committee-report-on-fusion-centers/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM reporting from fusion centers duplicates often poorly better intelligence-sharing processes undertaken by other agencies. The Joint Terrorism Task Forces receive threat-related information; the National SAR Initiative shares suspicious activity reports from state and locals; and the Terrorist Screening Center gathers information on state and local officials interactions with individuals in the National Counter Terrorism Centers TIDE database. o DHS should improve its training of intelligence reporters. DHS must ensure that any DHS personnel engaged in reporting intelligence information from within the United States be adequately trained and certified to prevent violations of U.S. law or DHS guidelines, policy or regulations. o DHS should strictly align fusion center grant funding to meet federal needs. When FEMA gives states and cities grant funds for a fusion center, it should not allow those dollars to be spent on items that do not directly contribute to improving the fusion centers abilities to contribute to its federal mission of counterterrorism. o DHS should track how much money it gives to each fusion center. FEMA should identify how much money it grants to states and urban areas for direct or indirect support of each individual fusion center, and report those amounts annually to Congress. o PM-ISE should evaluate fusion center capabilities and performance. At the request of DHS, the Program Manager for the Information Sharing Environment (PM-ISE) in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence conducted a national assessment of fusion center capabilities that produced useful findings, and PMISE should use that model to conduct future evaluations. In addition, it should begin to evaluate fusion centers performance as participants in federal counterterrorism information-sharing efforts. o DHS should link funding of each fusion center to its value and performance. Granting funds for state and local fusion center efforts year after year, without expecting or even examining the results received from previous grants, provides no mechanism to ensure federal taxpayers receive a return on their investments. o DHS should timely disclose to Congress significant problems within its operations. Serious issues plagued DHS fusion center efforts for years, yet officials were reluctant to share them with Congress. Even when asked about these problems, DHS avoided acknowledging the problems, initially withheld documents, and repeatedly resisted subcommittee requests, which unnecessarily prolonged the Subcommittee investigation. o DHS should align its practices and guidelines to protect civil liberties, so they adhere to the Constitution, federal law, and

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM its statutory mission. DHS should strengthen its protections to prevent DHS personnel from improperly collecting and retaining intelligence on Constitutionally protected activity. It should not retain inappropriate and illegal reporting. It should strictly enforce policies, and hold all of its employees to the highest standards, including by promptly barring poorly performing personnel from issuing domestic intelligence reports involving Americans. o See: DHS; DNI; FEMA; Fusion Center; GIGO; PM-ISE.

Future+ (2 Sep 27)


Future Shock = a psychological condition described in a 1970 book 288 by the futurist Alvin Toffler. People experiencing or witnessing too much change, in too short a period, can have difficulty grasping enough of it to deal effectively with it. They can become overwhelmed and disoriented. Toffler popularized the concept information overload. A documentary film based on the Future Shock book was released in 1972 with Orson Welles as on-screen narrator. o While this terminology arrived in the mid 20th century, the concept has existed all through history. o We see it in nations at risk of losing wars, because they failed to grasp technological change or new tactics fast enough. In WW II, the German Blitzkrieg used tactics and weapons which were not new, just used in a different mixture, with great surprise and shock for other nations whose leadership was not expecting this. o The 9/11 commission found over a dozen prior instances of terrorists flying hijacked planes into national monuments, or attempting to do so, but on the day of the attack, 99% of US leaders saw the event as totally unexpected. o The 2011 Japanese tsunami was no surprise to tsunami experts, who had predicted exactly what risk was being taken at Fukushima and other nuclear power plants, whose management and government regulators had chosen to ignore the risks, then in the aftermath stated that the event was beyond their imagination. The reality was future shock preventing wise planning of complex industry. o I am seeing many people suffering from future shock today, unable to have a rational conversation about national security legislation. FY = Fiscal Year
FYDP = Future Year Defense Program FYDPEDM = Future Years Defense Plan Engineering Development Model

Terms G+ (2 Nov 29) !



288

G+ = Google Plus, a social network. GAO = US Government Accountability Office.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Future_Shock

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o See Official Report List in Drone Notes. It is moving to Drone Reports. o See: CAISUCA; CBP; GC Armas Suggestions; Mitigation Suggestions. GAO Suggestion: o A GAO report, issued 2012 July,289 listed 76 nations with drones. o A GAO report, issued 2004 Jan,290 listed 41 nations with drones. o One thing in these reports is an evaluation of US companies shipping drones, and delivery vehicles for WMD, with the approval of named US government agencies, many in violation of treaties to limit the proliferation of such technology to not get to nations not supposed to get that technology, according to the non-proliferation treaties. o Most of the listed violations, from 2004, were missing from the 76 nations 2012 report. I added them to my Drone Nations document. o In my opinion, the GAO should have an internal index listing contemporary and recent projects, how to contact personnel involved in current projects, or access reports from recent projects, with tags indexing key topics. If they had that, and if people working on the 2012 project had consulted it, we would not be having a GAO report in 2012 lacking critical data which another GAO investigation found in 2004. o I suggest both: GAO fix this; OIG across government be invited to participate in this correlation effort. o See: IG; OIG; Mitigation Suggestions. GC Armas is a monthly meeting held at CENAPI headquarters in Mexico City which serves as the coordinating entity for joint U.S.-Mexico operations related to the detection, monitoring, and detention of arms trafficking suspects crossing the border. o U.S. agencies which attend GC Armas are ATF, ICE, the DEA, Defense Attach Office (Department of Defense), FBI, CBP, Narcotics Affairs Section, and Office of Foreign Assets Control (Department of the Treasury). o Mexican law enforcement agencies in attendance are the PGR and the PGRs CENAPI, the Mexican Foreign Ministry, Mexican Military, Mexican Navy, the Secretariat of Public Security, Customs, and the National Security and Investigation Center (intelligence agency). o Hopefully this meeting has damn fine security, since it would appear to be an obvious target for a Mexican cartel drone attack with high explosives.

289

I named my copy GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July. I downloaded it from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf 290 I named my copy . GAO Drones by Nation 04-175 2004 Jan. I downloaded it from http://www.gao.gov/assets/250/241243.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o As we have seen from DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov report291 on ATF Gun Runner project, and DoJ IG Audit ATF 2012 Sep report292 on ATF Gun Walking operations Wide Receiver then Fast and Furious, ATF appears to be congenitally incapable of helping the rest of the law enforcement world in combating the movement of guns to Mexican cartels. I have not yet read relevant audits on other agencies to find if any have a better score on the cooperation performance frontier. o See: ATF; CBP; CENAPI; DEA; DoD; DoJ; Fast and Furious; FBI; Gun Runner; Gun Walking; ICE; IG; Mitigation Suggestions; NAS; PGR; Wide Receiver GC Armas Suggestions: o As I learn about the state-of-art, I have suggestions how it can be improved. o Add to the agencies, invited to send representatives, to include US GAO and OIG, and equivalent for Mexico. They should bring with them, on CDs, a collection of audits of their relevant organizations activities with respect to trafficking (in drugs, weapons and humans) across the US Mexican border. They should be authorized to do additional reports on the challenges faced, which could be alleviated through better cooperation. o See: GAO; IG; Mitigation Suggestions; OIG. GCS = Ground Control Station293 for unmanned aircraft GD = Google Desktop, an application to search whats on our PC, like we can search the Internet. General. See: Army Combat Structure.

Geneva+ (2 Oct 26)


Geneva Convention(s),294 usually refers to international law treaties regarding humanitarian treatment of: prisoners, of war and armed conflicts (military and civilian), the wounded, sick, and ship-wrecked, civilians in a military conflict; prohibitions against the use of torture; etc.

291

http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder, since this content is other than my Drones research. Within this 2012 Sep report, there was reference to an earlier Nov 2010 IG report on ATF Gun Runner here: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/e1101.pdf which I downloaded, naming it: DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov. 292 http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder, since this content is other than my Drones research. It details ATF Gun Walking operations: Wide Receiver; then Fast & Furious. 293 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle 294 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneva_Conventions

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o The Geneva Conventions generally focus on treatment of people who are no longer combatants, or never were legal combatants, in a military conflict.295 o The Hague Conventions focus on the conduct of the war, prohibitions against certain types of weapons. o As with any international law, theres the problem of nations which have not signed the agreements, and nations which choose not to comply with them. o Several nations, other than the USA, are saying that what the USA is doing with drones, is in violation of the Geneva Conventions, International Law, and should be labeled as War Crimes. o See: Hague Conventions; International Law; LOAC; Sovereignty; Targeted Killing; Unlawful Combatant; War Crime.

GH+ (3 Feb 01)



GH = Global Hawk. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map296 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). GHMD = Global Hawk Maritime Demonstration. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map297 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).
GIG = Global Information Grid

Gigapixel cameras used to outfit drones are among the highest definition cameras available, and can provide real-time video streams at a rate of 10 frames a second.298
GIGFYDP = Global Information Grid Future Years Defense Plan. GIGO = Garbage In, Garbage Out. This is terminology developed in the Information Technology (IT) or Management of Information Systems (MIS) industry decades ago, before competent systems were implemented to catch and correct bad information, before it got propagated through computer systems. Before GIGO was fixed, companies would often make decisions based on bad information. Today there are many systems of standards and audits to ensure good quality data. Of course, not all organizations choose to use such protections against GIGO.

295

If the circling drones are used to terrify the citizens below into providing intelligence, that could be a violation of the Geneva Convention. Torture can lead to people giving out info, they think the torturers want to hear, such as the notion of WMD in Iraq. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/oct/23/truth-uk-drones-policy 296 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 297 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 298 US Army Unveils 1.8 Gigapixel Camera Helicopter Drone, BBC News Technology (2011 Dec. 29), http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-16358851 From https://epic.org/ and http://www.epic.org/privacy/drones EPIC testified on Panel II of Congress House Transcript Drones in USA Skies 2012 July Abstract Summary = http://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=719102 Full 865k Transcript = https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=719102

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o

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM


Today, GIGO is a good reflection of the state of art of US government intelligence reports, and top management understanding of whatever the heck is going on. o Local State Law Enforcement Organizations (LEOs) collect raw intelligence information, where they are often totally ignorant, or maybe even hostile to, both the Constitution, and English Language Grammar and Spelling. This info is transmitted to federal offices which have no authority to tell the local info sources to clean up their act, and have no say in the funding (hundreds of $ millions per year to Fusion Centers to keep doing this). Months must then be expended to clean up the reports so that they meet standards of English Grammar, Academic Citations, and respect Citizen Bill of Rights, with a growing backlog of hundreds of packages of this garbage waiting for review. o See: ATF Scandals; Fusion Center; IIR; IT; LEO; MIS; Oversight; RB; SLPO; US Congress. Gitmo = Short for Guantanamo Bay Cuba, a place the USA has been housing detainees captured in the war on terror. GJC = Global Justice Clinic at NYU School of Law.299

Glitch = No Fault Error. Instead of an exercise in Finger Pointing, we


identify what has gone wrong, and what is needed to fix it. With this focus, people are honest about the problems, and have an enthusiastic team effort at improving organizational performance to fix both the identified errors, and the processes which create them. o See ATF Scandals; Finger Pointing; Group Think; Organizational Glue; Please the Boss. Glomar: In 1968, the CIA told journalists that it could neither "confirm nor deny" the existence of a ship called the Glomar Explorer. This kind of response is now called a Glomar, and is often used with respect to Drone operations, and other classified activities.300 gMAV = Gasoline Micro Air Vehicle. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map301 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).
GMTI = Ground Moving Target Indicator302 GN&C = Guidance, Navigation and Control Golden Sentry = A DSCA program which monitors end-use of sensitive technologies exported to foreign military customers, where those technologies 303 are restricted by AECA against re-sale in a banned proliferation manner. o See: AECA; Blue Lantern; DSCA.

299

Google Desk Top allows us to search what is on our Personal Computer, like
using a search engine on the Internet. It could stand improvement locating words

http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 300 https://www.propublica.org/article/everything-we-know-so-far-about-drone-strikes 301 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 302 http://aviationintel.com/2012/10/10/unmanned-game-changer-autonomous-aerial-refueling-is-a-reality/ 303 See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM inside documents, PDF, Excel, etc. It is basically linking on basis of subject of email, title of document, etc. telling us where something is located, what e-mail folder, file folder, etc. o This technology is needed, in my opinion, for search a network, within government agencies and companies, sensitive to their OS and DBS, so that people, working some project, can know who else in the company, has data on that same project, on their connected desk tops, as opposed to located on corporate shared network folders. o There is also the security consideration, normally handled by OS middleware, regarding who should have access to: Even know the document exists; Know it exists, and some statistics about it, but not able to access its details. Back it up, without having access to the contents. Allowed to look at the details, make copy of the details, but may not update or delete the document. May make comments, linked to the document, without updating it directly. May edit the document, add to its contents. May delete the document, transfer its controls to another user. o See: DBS; FIG LEAF; OS; PDF. GOV = abbreviation for government, also used as domain suffix of government web sites.

GPS+ (2 Oct 15)


GPS = Global Positioning System. This is a USA system. o GPS receivers receive almanac data from satellites, and also calculate position by calculating distance from visible satellites and using triangulation method to calculate its position. o GPS receivers also work on NMEA Standards. Most of the computer programs and devices, which provide position and other data given by the GPS receiver, includes info like position (latitude and longitude), altitude, speed, time etc.304 o Military Global Positioning System (GPS) signals have long been encrypted to prevent counterfeiting and unauthorized use. o Civil GPS signals were designed as an open standard, freelyaccessible to all. These virtues have made civil GPS enormously popular, but the transparency and predictability of its signals give rise to a dangerous weakness: they can be easily counterfeited, or spoofed. Like Monopoly money, civil GPS signals have a detailed structure but no built-in protection against counterfeiting.305

304 305

http://www.scribd.com/doc/69421118/Drone-Mid-Year-Presentation-1 Congress House Transcript Drones in USA Skies 2012 July Panel I testimony by Mr. Todd E. Humphreys, Ph.D Abstract Summary = http://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=719102

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Hacking a UAV by GPS spoong is but one expression of a larger problem: insecure civil GPS technology has over the last two decades been absorbed deeply into our national critical infrastructure. Besides UAVs, civil GPS spoong also presents a danger to manned aircraft, maritime craft, communications systems, banking and nance institutions, and national power grid. o Satellite navigation systems other than GPS include: the Russian GLONASS system (fully operational), the European Galileo system (undergoing in-orbit validation of early spacecraft; may be operational by 2019), and the Chinese Compass system (global system in preliminary test phase). o Small, low power, inexpensive GPS + GLONASS receivers are now available o-the-shelf. These appear to be an excellent option for immediately improving navigation security in existing systems. o See: Bird Dog; NMEA; SCADA; UAV. GRIT = ATF Gun Runner Impact Team, which operated within Houston Field Division. It deployed 100 agents, investigators, and support staff to that division for 120 days, conducting over 1,000 inspections of gun dealers. It generated over 1,000 investigative leads which led to the seizure of over 400 fire arms. o See: ATF; Gun Runner Project; Gun Walking. o Also see DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov report.306 Group Think When a supposed team effort has such strong peer pressure that contrary voices are persuaded to shut up, because they are allegedly undermining the teams productivity. The bosses of the team have more votes for this than the members of the team. Thanks to consolidation of US Intelligence operations after 9/11 we have much more group think than in past history. In my reading of OIG analysis of ATF Scandals, it is evident to me that the IG does not have Group Think on their radar screen. o See: ATF Scandals; Finger Pointing; Glitch; OIG; Organizational Glue; Please the Boss. GTMO = Guantanamo.
GUI = Graphical User Interface

Full 865k Transcript = https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=719102 See Feb 2012 in Drone Dates for description of their spoofing demonstration.
306

http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder, since this content is other than my Drones research. Within this 2012 Sep
report, there was reference to an earlier 2010 Nov report on OIGs website at http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/index.htm but when I went to this link, in the 2012 Sep IG report, I found We are sorry, but we are unable to locate the page you requested on the Department of Justice web site. I searched DoJ site, and eventually found a Nov 2010 IG report on ATF GunRunner here: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/e1101.pdf which I downloaded, naming it: DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov.

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Gun+ (2 Oct 02) !


Gun Desk = ATF office within OSII located originally at DEA then moved to EPIC. o See: ATF; DEA; EPIC; Gun Runner; OSII. Gun Runner Project was an ATF national initiative to combat firearms trafficking along the US South West Border (SWB). This project was referenced by DoJ IG Audit ATF 2012 Sep, and detailed in DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov report (see below). o Several flawed ATF operations shared many of the same leaders, using similar flawed strategies: Deliverance Project. Fast and Furious Operation Oct 2009 to Jan 2011 Gun Runner Project. Wide Receiver Operation March 2006 to Oct 2010 o This is part of South West Border (SWB) Initiative (SWBI). o 2005 it started in Larado Texas as a pilot project. o 2006 it expanded to a national initiative, consisting of 4 of ATFs field divisions, headquartered in: Dallas Houston Los Angeles Phoenix Phoenix division was where Fast & Furious, and Wide Receiver operations occurred. o 2007 June, ATF published a strategy document. o 2010 Nov DoJ OIG released DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov report,307 which reviewed effectiveness of ATF implementation of this project. o While Gun Runner project was in operation, it appeared like ATF was making a sincere effort to perform its constitutional duty of getting guns out of the hands of criminals, the opposite of what ATF did in the Gun Walking operations: Wide Receiver; then Fast & Furious. However, entirely too much of ATFs duty was missing from its radar screens, as shown below in Gun Runner Flaws.. o See: Armas Cruzadas; ATF Scandals; DoJ; Fast and Furious; Fast and Furious ATF Organizational Chart; GC Armas; GRIT; Gun Walking; IG; OIG; Radar Screens; Southwest Border Initiative; Violence on Mexico US Border; Wide Receiver.

307

http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder, since this content is other than my Drones research. Within this 2012 Sep
report, there was reference to an earlier 2010 Nov report on OIGs website at http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/index.htm but when I went to this link, in the 2012 Sep IG report, I found We are sorry, but we are unable to locate the page you requested on the Department of Justice web site. I searched DoJ site, and eventually found a Nov 2010 IG report on ATF GunRunner here: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/e1101.pdf which I downloaded, naming it: DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov.

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Gun Runner Flaws (2 Oct 01)


OIG found significant weaknesses in ATFs implementation of Gun Runner, undermining its effectiveness. USAOs seem unwilling to prosecute many ATF cases. Gun gets used in a crime, then those responsible often get off Scot free because theres a statute of limitations on gun trafficking. ATF does not have a system for tracking long guns, now the cartels weapons of choice. Many leads were neither timely nor usable. ATF managers must rely on two separate case management systems, and dont have any system to track whats going on. Many ATF field divisions, inside SWB region, ignored each other. Each local ATF office is a law unto itself with its own way of doing things, which does not include coordination with other local ATF offices. Success would have required coordination with CBP, DEA, ICE, and Mexico, none of which ATF seemed qualified to do. Instead ATF pretty much ignored them, even though cooperation was in the official game plan. ATF and ICE cannot work like a team, dont keep each other in the loop on similar activities, even though higher ups of both agencies want cooperation. Coordination with Mexico was not on ATF radar screen. OIG cited a June 2009 GAO report that only 25% of US hand guns seized in Mexico actually get traced by ATF thanks to a 75% data error rate.308 Mexico officials often dont use ATF hand gun tracing because the system is Mexicanhostile. Similarly Mexican government agencies are USA-hostile.

308

In a previous research effort, I determined that US government record systems can achieve an error rate of 4-6% when money is not involved. When there are holes in a system, through which criminals can steal money, the error rates jump to around 10-25%, because the government agencies cannot deal with the astronomical fraud until they fix their systems. For example, the IRS is paying $millions, or was that $billions, to people who steal social security #s, then early in January file fraudulent income tax returns, collect thousands of $ in refunds, then disappear. In February, or later, when the real owner of the social security # now has all the bank statements etc. needed for an accurate return, they do their filing, the IRS realizes there has been some fraud, and they give the good guy the third degree, demanding back the funds that went to the bad buy. I have now found another exception to the 4-6% standard.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM

OIG called on ATF to conduct the kind of operation which we see later with Gun Walking, which replaced inept small operations, with inept large operations. OIG should have made repair of ineptitude a prerequisite to larger scale efforts.
See: ATF Scandals; Border Liaison Program; CBP; DEA; eTrace; GRIT; Gun Walking; ICE; Mexico Organized Crime; Mitigation Suggestions; N-Force; Radar Screens; SWB; USAO.

Gun Runner Impact+ (2 Sep 26)


OIG found that while ATF ran this project: Trace requests of fire arms seized in Mexico rose from 1% to 8% of all Mexico.309 Cases referred for prosecution to US Attorney offices (USAO) increased 109%310. Defendants referenced for prosecution increased 37%. Gun dealer compliance inspections increased 133% via compliance inspection hours increasing 102%. Problems in gun sales, referred by ATF Industry Operations personnel to ATF criminal enforcement personnel, increased 47%. See: ATF Scandals; Mexico Organized Crime;. OIG; USAO.

Gun Walking+ (2 Oct 02)

Gun Walking = US government alleged aid to gun sales into hands of Mexico
drug cartels, billed as a system to identify and catch criminals, it did no such thing, because of failure to think through the process before implementing it. o This apparently started under the Bush administration, if not earlier, but now President Obama has declared executive privilege on Fast & Furious, which was latest USAs Gun Walking effort to arm Mexican cartels, going back several Presidents. Thus Congress is blocked from getting at the facts, and attempting relevant government reform, assuming Democrats and Republicans could ever agree on whats needed, to put a stop to this continuing Kafkaesque system. o See DoJ IG Audit ATF 2012 Sep.311 This info shows clearly that the operations began, due to information which came to local ATF offices

309

By itself, this statistic could mean either: The problem got eight times worse during the project; Mexico made better use of ATF tools; or Someone needs to attend my sisters math class in Statistics. 310 However, elsewhere in OIG report we are told that USAO refused to prosecute many of the cases brought to them by ATF I have yet to see a statistic on ratio between convictions and refusals.
311

http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder, since this content is other than my Drones research. Within this report,
there is reference to an earlier 2010 Nov report on OIGs website at http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/index.htm but when I went to this link, in the 2012 Sep IG report, I found We are sorry, but we are unable to locate the page you requested on the Department of Justice web site. I searched DoJ site, and eventually found a Nov 2010 IG

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM about suspicious gun buying. There were multiple operations, which intended to trace gun trafficking to Mexican Drug Cartel leadership, where the good intentions could not be properly implemented for several reasons: Quality of cooperation between US and Mexican authorities did not measure up, where a lot of the problems on the US side. ATF agents were assigned to cases and job responsibilities, where they were new on the job, new to the type of operation, new to ATF, and their relevant training was a joke. It reminded me of BP Oil Spill where people were assigned jobs, with zero training, zero documentation, and alarms turned off so people could sleep. US Attorneys as bosses over ATF agents, with a bad bosssubordinate relationships. The ATF agents had beliefs about what the lawyers needed, which were flawed. The lawyers had beliefs about what the agents should be doing, which were disconnected from the reality. There was massive lack of communication. Lower level personnel were painting pictures to higher authority, designed to make the lower level personnel, and their operations, look much better than they really were. o As of Aug 2012, 14 defendants have pleaded guilty, although over 40 people have been identified as trafficking over 2,000 firearms, mainly AK47 style rifles and FN Herstal 5.7 caliber pistols. o Different people in ATF and US Attorney office explained to the IG their different definitions for Gun Walking. Police witness crime, but opt out of taking action. This did not seem to be the scenario. Local management ordered the crimes to be allowed to happen, in hopes of collecting evidence of higher ups in the cartel operations. Entrapment where under-cover officers try to entice or coerce a suspect who might not otherwise be tempted to do the crime. This also did not appear to be the scenario, although at least one defendant claimed that was the case, and communications with FFL and CI could infer that possibility. Straw Buying as described in Operations Wide Receiver and Fast and Furious, where the crooks initiate bad stuff, law enforcement merely facilitates their wishes. That is what was happening here. o As explained on MSNBC Rachel Maddow Show: Under Arizona (weak) law, an adult may purchase infinite weapons, declaring them exclusively for that adults use in the USA. Then 2 minutes later, they may change their mind and sell or give them to someone else.

report on ATF GunRunner here: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/e1101.pdf which I downloaded, naming it: DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM ATF agents tracked many such straw purchases 312 in a stream into Mexico Drug Cartels, but under US system of justice, they may not make an arrest unless approved by a prosecutor. No prosecutor would approve such arrests.313 Thus, the problem might not be that ATF agents facilitated weapons traffic to Mexico. It is elsewhere in the combination of Arizona legislature and prosecutors offices. There is an NRA right wing conspiracy theory, that the gun walking scandal was dreamed up by the Obama White House to promote gun control. Any legislator, who does not vote how NRA wants, gets labeled to the voters as someone opposed to the 2nd amendment to the US constitution (the right to bear arms).

Dave Kopel and Jon Caldara explain the process and compare this scandal to Watergate. They imply this started with the Obama administration, contrary to many other reports.314 Clearly US Government officials have committed criminal violations of US and Mexican law, including: International Gun Smuggling at least 2,500 assault weapons sent from USA to Mexico Murder 150+ shootings in Mexico Obstruction of Congressional Investigations Obstruction of Justice Perjury See: Armas Cruzadas; Attorney General Holder; Attorney General Mukasey; ATF; ATF Scandals; AZ; BP; Conspiracy Theory; Controlled Delivery; Deliverance project; Fast and Furious Operation; GC Armas; Gun Runner Project; Kafkaesque; Mitigation Suggestions; NRA; Radar Screens; Straw Purchase; Wide Receiver Operation.

Gun Walking Dysfunctional Pattern+ (2 Sep 24)


Here is pattern shared by: Fast and Furious; Wide Receiver. Fast and Furious (FF) Operation ran during Obama administration, but no one at HQ of ATF nor DoJ knew anything about the bad details until after CBP Brian Terry was killed with one of the almost 2,000 guns that FF had walked into Mexico drug cartels. Wide Receiver (WR) Operation ran during Bush administration, but no one at HQ of ATF nor DoJ knew anything about the bad

312

We have seen with DEA raids on Medical Marijuana dispensaries, licensed by state governments, that even though something is legal under legislation of a state of USA, the federal government does not necessarily accept that as a valid exception to federal law. In other words, if the feds say something is illegal, the states cannot reverse that, they can only add to the legal constraints or limitations. Thus, while straw purchases are legal under AZ law, they are not under federal. 313 The OIG 2012 Sept audit confirmed this was true for operation Fast and Furious, but this was not an issue with the previous operation Wide Receiver. 314 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h1P-SevPVig http://www.volokh.com/2012/06/22/fast-and-furious-explained/ http://www.policemisconduct.net/alcohol-tobacco-firearms-agency/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM


details until trial lawyers asked how best to cover-up the bad stuff done by local offices. Local ATF investigation where theres a group leader and some agents, taking their scope of operation direction from a lawyer in local US Attorneys office (USAO). ATF local office, and USAO, both have hundreds of operations competing for resources, so each engages in a misinformation campaign, aimed at higher ups, to show value for funding, more agents, etc. to this operation. ATF HQ only sees the alleged good stuff at this point. ATF local office spends up to approx 2 years collecting evidence on the crooks, who are allowed to transport lots of guns to Mexico cartels, in violation of federal law, not until end of ATF local office investigation, but until they get arrested due to actions of the trial lawyers. 1,961 fire arms under Fast and Furious 474 fire arms under Wide Receiver. Unknown how many between time ATF local office investigation ended, and trial lawyers did their thing. Then case goes to trial lawyers in different USAO than what ran the operation. They can take up to 3 years to start arresting prosecuting etc. During trial preparation, theres discussion with HQ how best to cover up the bad stuff done by local offices. ATF & DoJ HQ finds out for first time about the bad stuff, maybe 5 years after it happened. Since there is rapid turnover of personnel, it is responsibility of prior administration, not current management. HQ assumes this case was an isolated incident, takes no action to inform local office of flaws in how they conduct themselves. There are many flaws which I talk about in my write-ups on each of the operations, which include: There is a conflict of interest with ATF regulating the same gun dealers (FFL) whom are being used, not just as Confidential Informants (CI), but also partners, in an operation which has the appearance of entrapment impropriety. ATF HQ has rules about how stuff is to be done, which does not get communicated in training to local offices, such as how to cooperate with Mexican authorities, need to have State Dept in the loop, if you are doing a cross-border operation. Local personnel seem to consider the general public expendable, in their incompetent quest to get beyond the straw buying operation to higher ups in the cartels. Many of same people in local offices have another investigation, where they conduct themselves pretty much the same way. See: Attorney General Holder; ATF Scandals; CBP; DoJ; Fast and Furious; Radar Screens; Wide Receiver.

o o

o o o

o o

o o

Gun Walking Major Differences+ (2 Oct 10)


See explanation of Robo Signing within Wide Receiver Causes. Both Wide Receiver (under Bush administration) and Fast and Furious (under Obama administration) used Robo Signing in legal documents filed with judges seeking warrants.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM

Robo Signing of Wide Receiver used personnel assigned to other cases. Robo Signing of Fast and Furious was done by in-house local USAO (US Attorney Office).
GWOT = Global War on Terror(ism)

Terms H+ (2 Nov 28) !


HACK DOWN = a phrase invented by Al Mac, for a new situation, which may need new terminology. A SHOOT DOWN is when in real world combat, an aircraft gets SHOT at, and enough damage is done to force it to come down, maybe crash, maybe crash land. A HACK DOWN is when the attack is CYBERNAUTIC a computer attack, hacking into its systems, to take over the delivery of instructions to its systems what to do, to cause it to come down to attempt a landing, although depending on the quality of the cyber attack, it might be a crash landing. The Hague Convention(s) focus on the conduct of the war, prohibitions against certain types of weapons, or used in certain ways. For example: o Article 25 of the 1907 Hague IV Convention prohibits aerial bombardment by whatever means of undefended towns, villages, or dwellings. Some drone strikes are in violation of this. o See: Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station, Geneva Convention; Sovereignty. HALE = High Altitude Long Endurance unmanned aircraft orbits, or time on station.315 o See: Autonomous Drones. HART = Heterogeneous Airborne Reconnaissance Team. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map316 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. Hernandez Case. See: Attorney General Mukasey. HHS = US Dept of Health and Human Services. HIPAA = Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.317 o See Privacy - Health Information HIR = Homeland Intelligence Report. o Raw Intelligence from Fusion Centers was packaged in HIR sent to I+A of DHS, which then re-distributed them to local law enforcement, and various federal agencies. o April 2009, news media broke a story about a Fusion Center intelligence report labeling as terrorists, people because they were anti-abortion, antiimmigration, or in favor of some government authority being transferred from federal to state and local. Thanks to public outcry over this reality, DHS Deputy Secretary Jane Holl Lute ordered I&A to ensure certain types of intelligence products were reviewed and approved by officials from

315 316

http://aviationintel.com/2012/10/10/unmanned-game-changer-autonomous-aerial-refueling-is-a-reality/ http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 317 Heres how to make sure your company is in compliance: http://www.unbeatenpathintl.com/hipaacworld/source/Computerworld%20article.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM DHSs Privacy Office (PRIV), Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties (CRCL), I&As Office of Intelligence Oversight (I/O), and the DHS Office of General Counsel (OGC) before release o October 2011, DHS changed its terminology to Intelligence Information Reports, or IIRs, but the format was largely unchanged. o Until Oct 2011, HIRs and IIRs were drafted using Microsoft Word, then transmitted via unclassified ordinary snail mail. DHS has since switched to using a secure network developed by DoD, to share document drafts.318 o See: Church Commission; CIA; DHS; DoD; Fusion Center; I+A; IIR.
HIRWG = HIR Working Group, started May 2010. o See: HIR; IIR. HQ = Head Quarters

HRC = UN Human Rights Council o See: UPR


HRI = Human-robot Interaction

HRW = Human Rights Watch, an NGO319


HSDL = Homeland Security Digital Library320 is a collection of federal

government documents, including resources from state and local agencies, research institutions, think tanks, non-profits and more. I went looking there for OIG reports on drones. HSDN = Homeland Secure Data Network.321 o See: Fusion Center.
HSGP = Homeland Security Grant Program, administered by FEMA, finances a lot of Fusion Centers. o Through the HSGP, FEMA provides roughly $800 million annually to

states and municipalities for the broad purpose of building and sustaining national preparedness capabilities.
o See: DHS; FEMA; Fusion Center; LETTP; SAA. 322 HSSAI = Homeland Security Studies & Analysis Institute

HUAV = Hybrid Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map323 TOC Appendix A.2 on Unmanned Airship Systems (UAS). HUD = US Dept of Housing and Urban Development.

318

We all are probably well aware that our Pentagon electronic systems are frequently breached, much more so than what goes via the Post Office, except by the CIA, as found out by the Church Commission. 319 See in Drone Robots, section on their Nov 2012 report on autonomous killing machines..
320

http://www.hsdl.org/?search=&page=1&advanced=advanced&all=OIG+drone&any=&exact=&without=& begindate=&enddate=&searchfield=&collection=limited&submitted=Search 321 http://www.dhs.gov/state-and-major-urban-area-fusion-centers http://www.dhs.gov/news/2009/09/14/new-information-sharing-tool-fusion-centers-announced 322 http://www.gizmag.com/homeland-security-predictions/24452/ 323 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf

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Human+ (2 Oct 08)

Human Rights, in International Law, are quite extensive.


o I researched this topic, when I was looking into the aftermath of the Haiti Jan 2010 earthquake, and wrote up what I found in several places, particularly H3R Haiti Housing Human Rights, in my Disaster Avoidance research notes collection.324 Human Rights Law: o Just as a Democracy cannot function without the people's participation, Human Rights Law cannot function without human beings knowing, claiming and exercising their rights. o In mid 2012, some people in the US created and distributed a propaganda attack Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and other religious interests. This triggered riots against US embassies in many nations, and cyber attacks against US infrastructure. The people were objecting to the USA, because they did not understand that private individuals were responsible, and they did not know how to get justice under International Law, the laws of USA, the laws of their nations, or Human Rights Laws. o See: IACHR; ICCPR; ICESCR; IHBR; IHL; IHRL; International Law Courts; Legal Nexus to USA; National Laws; UDHR; UN Charter.

Human Rights Regions+ (2 Nov 02)


Human Rights have been established in different Regions of our world, and approved by most of the nations of those regions. Here are starting points for researching this parallel info further. The language might not mention drones specifically, but should address the effects, on innocents. People get labeled as being terrorists, criminals, without proof. Their families appeal to courts, which rule that they have no jurisdiction over executive branches of government.325 Meetings sanctioned by local government, to address judicial issues, are assaulted, wiping out leaders of local, legally constituted, government. o See: Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station. The people get torn to shreds by military weapons, their homes destroyed. Their surviving families suffer grievous medical harm, no finances for relief. 326 Rescue workers get the same brutal treatment. o See: Double Tap. Families of victims do not get any relief from legal systems.

324

https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4bZMTA0YTM0YzktNTI0YS00NjVhLTg5NTItY2RiZjhiM2MzODkw/edit 325 Details of this in ACLU section of Drone Scribd. 326 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012)

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For the Americas, it's under the Organization of American States (OAS http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/b-32.html For Europe, there is information available at virtually all its institutions: the European Union, the Council of Europe, the European Commission and the European Parliament. And basic instrument is the European Convention on Human Rights and its Five Protocols http://www.hri.org/docs/ECHR50.html For Africa, there is the Organization for African Unity (OAU). Many environmental conventions are also related to human rights issues. The right to a clean environment, and the right to fresh water, have been formally recognized by international experts as a human right. HUMINT = Human Intelligence. Something often lacking from the brains of people operating Fusion Centers to gather info for DHS. o See: DHS; Fusion Center Problems; GIGO. Hyper-Link: You know that blue underlined stuff in documents and Internet which links you to other pages or sites? The technical name for that is hyper-link. o See: Blogosphere RSS Radio Outline; FIG-LEAF; URL.
HVT = High Value Target

Terms I+ (2 Nov 02)


I+A = Intelligence and Analysis, a DHS office for coordination with Fusion Centers. o I&A also (supposedly) oversees the intelligence activities of DHS component divisions.327 o See: DHS; Fusion Center; I/O; Oversight; RO. IAA = Intelligent Anomaly Assessment328 IACHR = The Inter-American Court of Human Rights329 of the Organization of American States (OAS).330 o The USA is a member, along with Canada, Latin American and Caribbean States. o When this court rules against a nation, that nation can decide to ignore the ruling, if it thinks its national interests take precedence, as has happened several times with the USA. At this point, the situation becomes a black eye for the nation found to be in violation of human rights. o See: Human Rights Law.

327

To do proper over sight, there needs to be a way of knowing what they are doing, perhaps independent audits to compare what auditor finds with what they say on their official reports. It is evident that over sight is broken many places in government of US, and in international bodies such as the UN. 328 https://www.controlsystemsroadmap.net/efforts/Pages/Intelligent-Cyber-Sensor.aspx 329 http://www.cidh.oas.org/Basicos/English/Basic.TOC.htm 330 http://www.oas.org/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM IACP = International Association of Police Chiefs.331 IATA = International Air Transport Association.332 They represent, lead, and serve, the airline industry. They have many core functions, such as setting airfares for international travel. They set various codes, which are used world wide. Also see: ATAG. IBHR = International Bill of Human Rights. o It consists of the following: o UN Charter, signed and ratified by 193 nations, including USA. o ICCPR, Civil and Political rights, signed and ratified by most of the world, including USA. o ICESCR, Economic Social and Cultural rights, signed and ratified by most of the world, signed but not ratified by USA. o UDHR, Universal Declaration of Human Rights. o See: ICCPA; ICESCR; UDHR; UN Charter. IBM = International Business Machines. o See: Needle in Haystack; OSII Suggestions. IBM Education Card is no longer offered,333 but I thought the concept has applicability to people in other industries, in need of being encouraged, by their employers, to attend classes to upgrade their know-how in areas relevant to the work place. o While it existed, for people who bought the card, they got unlimited attendance at IBM education nation-wide, offered by IBM partners, universities, technical conferences. o See: QISTUK. IBM Terabyte Indexing: IBM is technologically ahead of Microsoft when it comes to DBS which cross-index astronomical volumes of data, but to get this capability, you need to have the data on an IBM platform. o See: DBS; FIG-LEAF.. IC = Intelligence Community ICAO = International Civil Aviation Organization,334 a United Nations (UN) standards agency. They assign all sorts of codes associated with: aircraft registration (code letters we see on the tail), airline initials unique identification; nations; their airports; airspace standards; passport standards. o See: Airspace Classes.

331

Police Drone Code of Conduct from IACP

http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/08/iacp-approves-uav-guidelines/ http://www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/IACP_UAGuidelines.pdf 332 IATA http://www.iata.org/Pages/default.aspx https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Air_Transport_Association 333 http://www-304.ibm.com/jct03001c/services/learning/ites.wss/us/en?pageType=page&c=a0000148 334 ICAO http://www.icao.int/Pages/default.aspx https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Civil_Aviation_Organization

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ICC+ (2 Oct 19)


ICC = International Criminal Court. o The USA is not a signatory to this UN treaty. o The ICCs jurisdiction includes War Crimes committed after this court was founded in 2002.335 o See: Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station; ICJ; International Law Courts; UN; War Crime. ICCPR = The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights o The USA, Canada, all European, South American and most Asian and African countries have both signed and ratified this instrument. That means it is also National Law, protecting citizen's rights. o Page 132 of Living Under Drones (in Pakistan)336 lists sections of ICCPR which may be violated by how drone strikes are conducted. o See: ATS; Human Rights; IHBR; National Laws. ICE = US Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the largest investigative agency inside Dept of Homeland Security (DHS), whose duties include:337 o Stopping illegal movement of people and goods, including narcotics, weapons, and human smuggling. o Catching illegal aliens, and the people who help them;
o Investigating suspected export control violations involving both U.S. Munitions List and CCL items.

o See: AECA; Armas Cruzadas; BIS; CBP; CCL; DHS; DSS; GC Armas; SBS. ICESCR = The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. o All European and most other countries have signed and ratified this instrument. USA has signed it, but not yet ratified it. The act of ratification makes it part of a nations laws, and a treaty the nation is supposed to abide by. o See: ATS; Human Rights; IHBR. ICJ = International Court of Justice, where nations can bring cases against each other. The USA participates in this. o If the ICJ rules against a nation, and the accused decides it is in their national interest to ignore the ruling, there is nothing the ICJ can do about it.338 o See: IACHR; ICC; International Law Courts.

335

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_crime http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 337 See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf 338 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/43685778/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/ If illegal immigrants in USA are to be denied fair treatment in US courts, because of their illegal status, then what ensures that US citizens will be treated fairly in other nations? http://www.haiti.prizm.org/H3R%20Haiti%20Housing%20Human%20Rights%20v%202.9.pdf
336

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM ICRC = International Committee of the Red Cross. Sometimes they make rulings about the nature of some conflict.339 See Internal Armed Conflict. ICS = Intelligent Cyber Sensor340 distinguishes between component failure and cyber security incidents, and monitors the overall health of an energy delivery system. Idaho National Laboratory341 in DOE, is one of several Federal government
organizations flying drones in US National Air Space (NAS).342 o See: DOE.

IEDs = Improvised Explosive Devices. o They may have started in war zones, but they are now being used in nations outside war zones. o See: UGV.
IEEE = Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IFR = Instrument Flight Rules.343 Also see VFR. I-Gnat-ER = Improved Gnat Extended Range. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map344 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).

IG+ (2 Nov 29) !


IG = Inspector General. o See: CAISUCA; CBP; GAO Suggestion; GC Armas Suggestions; Mitigation Suggestions; OIG. IHL = International Humanitarian Law.345 IHRCRC = Stanford Law Schools International Human Rights and Conflict Resolution Clinic.346 IHRL = International Human Rights Law o See: Human Rights; Human Rights Law; Human Rights Regional. IIR = Intelligence Information Report. o Raw Intelligence from Fusion Centers is packaged in IIR sent to I+A of DHS, which then re-distributes them to local law enforcement, and various federal agencies. o April 2009, news media broke a story about a Fusion Center intelligence report labeling as terrorists, people because they were anti-abortion, anti-

339 340

http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/14/us-syria-crisis-icrc-idUSBRE86D09H20120714 https://www.controlsystemsroadmap.net/efforts/Pages/Intelligent-Cyber-Sensor.aspx

341
342

Idaho National Laboratory is in DOE (Department of Energy); more info 2012 July: https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/07/faa-releases-thousands-pages-drone-records
However, they are better known for projects on the frontiers of intelligent energy infrastructure, such as this one: https://www.controlsystemsroadmap.net/efforts/Pages/Intelligent-Cyber-Sensor.aspx 343 http://www.ehow.com/list_7448333_class-airspace-flight-rules.html 344 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 345 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_humanitarian_law Also see Israel in list of nations with drones, in Drone Notes. 346 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012)

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103

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM immigration, or in favor of some government authority being transferred from federal to state and local.347 Thanks to public outcry over this reality, DHS Deputy Secretary Jane Holl Lute ordered I&A to ensure certain types of intelligence products were reviewed and approved by officials from DHSs Privacy Office (PRIV), Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties (CRCL), I&As Office of Intelligence Oversight (I/O), and the DHS Office of General Counsel (OGC) before release. o Under the new procedure, as reports come in, they get assigned a tracking #, stored in a DHS shared network folder, with any accompanying materials, then the four offices notified of the new additions. Officers in each office, review the material, communicate back to I+A, then all 4 offices must approve the revised draft before it moves forwards. o DHS Deputy Under Secretary for Operations James Chaparro was in charge of I+A operations until early 2010. He thought this process was needlessly slowing the process down. When poorly written reports came in, it sometimes took months before a final draft got approved. o By the end of 2011, there was a backlog of over 500 IIR waiting for review, and those in the process taking on average 3 months to get cleaned up and approved, or tossed out as useless. o Prior to October 2011, DHS used the terminology Homeland Intelligence Reports, or HIRs, with same content format. o Until Oct 2011, HIRs and IIRs were drafted using Microsoft Word, then transmitted via unclassified ordinary snail mail. DHS has since switched to using a secure network developed by DoD, to share document drafts.348 o See: Church Commission; CIA; CRCL; DHS; DoD; FRN; Fusion Center; GIGO; HIR; I+A; I/O; OGC; PRIV; RB; SLPO. Immediacy (or Imminence) One of the three standards of grounds for one nation to invade another, set by the Caroline Incident of 1837, until the rules got changed again due to 9/11.349 See: Citizens of USA; FCC; Necessity; Proportionality; Self Defense; Sovereignty; Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant; Wire Tapping. IMSI Catcher = fake cell phone tower for man-in-middle interception.350 o Under FCC regulations, it is illegal for private individuals to intercept other people phone calls, but technical implementation is easy, and FCC enforcement is weak. o See: Drone Police. IMU = inertial measurement unit

347

e.g., Soon, Well All Be Radicals, ACLU, http://www.aclu.org/blog/national-security-technologyandliberty/soon-well-all-be-radicals (4/16/2009); Transcript Of Hannity, Segment Joe The Plumber At Atlanta Tea Party, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,516835,00.html (4/15/2009). 348 We all are probably well aware that our Pentagon electronic systems are frequently breached, much more so than what goes via the Post Office, except by the CIA, as found out by the Church Commission. 349 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 350 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IMSI-catcher

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Indigenous People: US drone use in the Pakistan Tribal Areas may be a violation of UN Human Rights, but have the USA and Pakistan signed, ratified, and honor the relevant sections? o Details in the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and ILO Convention 169, also on the rights of indigenous and tribal peoples, as well as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) which contains articles related to indigenous peoples and their traditional knowledge in relation to conservation of the environment (Articles 8j, 10c, and others - www.cbd.int ). o See: FATA. Information Overload = difficulties people can have understanding issue(s), discussing them intelligently, and making rational decisions, caused by the presence of too much information, not well organized.351 Also see Future Shock. Injured in Drone Attack = Any physical damage to the body caused by a drone strike. Injuries can be direct by blast waves and shrapnel, or can be in-direct due to building collapse, or stampede while rushing from the scene of the attack. 352 Innocent Until Proven Guilty = a legal principle, where Pakistani lawyers say that everyone killed by US drone strikes are innocent until the USA proves otherwise.353
INP = Innovative Naval Prototype

Innocent+ (2 Nov 14)

Innocent: When someone is arrested and charged with some heinous crime,
family friends neighbors often proclaim that this person could not possibly have done that crime, they are a good nice person. They are in denial, or the judicial system has made a mistake. o Eventually there is usually a trial, where evidence of guilt is revealed, and the jury either convicts the accused, or declares them innocent. The rest of us learn the truth. o Similarly, when people are killed by drone strikes, their families, local community, Pakistani government, etc, often proclaim that the victims were innocent civilians, and minor children, who are not involved with the militants. The US denies this, but because of evidence destroyed by drone strike, and US refusal to display proof of guilt, other people have no way of knowing who to believe. Innocent Bystander: When person(s) attack specific target(s) with intent to do
bodily harm or property damage, sometimes there are some other people there, who were not targeted, but the nature of the attack can hurt more people than those specifically targeted, due to the weapon(s) used and the skill(s) of the attackers. The target(s) can also be Innocent of any wrong doing. o See: Collateral Damage; Latency.

351 352

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_overload http://pakistanbodycount.org/definitions 353 http://worldnews.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2012/06/26/12403677-for-many-pakistanis-usa-meansdrones?chromedomain=worldblog

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Insurgent Math - retired General Stanley McChrystal, former commander of the US-led coalition forces in Afghanistan, says: 354 o QUOTE o For every innocent person you kill, you create ten new enemies. o UNQUOTE Intelligence failures for USA, just to put some events in perspective, to help when various people claim the latest event is the worst ever they know about. o 9/11 o Benghazi consulate security o Drones killing innocents o Iraq WMD -> US invasion, 3,000 US killed, unknown how many Iraqis. o Police raids on innocent families355 Internal Armed Conflict = a Civil War. o All fighters caught up in an internal armed conflict are obliged to respect international humanitarian law, also known as the law of armed conflict, according to the ICRC. This includes specific sections of the 1949 Geneva Conventions356 o Also see: Civil War; Geneva Convention(s); ICRC; LOAC; NonInternational Armed Conflict. Internally Consistent = The notion that if you are going to tell a story, and you hope people will believe you, the ingredients within the story need to make sense, when viewed from the perspective of any of the other elements of a story.

International Law+ (2 Nov 29) !


International Law = What nations of the world can agree to. States disregard codes of conduct if they perceive them to be contrary to their national interests. 357 If the rest of the world thinks some nation is in violation of international law, they cannot force the violator to cease and desist, except via PR pressure, sanctions, or by military action against the alleged villain. o See section on International Law in Drone Scribd document. It reviews multiple first rate documents on this topic. o See: Geneva Convention(s); LOAC. International Law Courts
o o They have evolved so that when a person has allegedly done crimes in nation-X, they can be called to account for it in a court in nation-Y. They have not yet evolved similarly in civil law. A person or corporation which allegedly did some misdeeds in nation-A, cannot be sued by some other person or corporation in the courts of nation-B.

354 355

http://blogs.tribune.com.pk/story/12357/drone-strikes-there-is-no-moralising-the-indefensible/ http://www.cato.org/raidmap/ 356 http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/14/us-syria-crisis-icrc-idUSBRE86D09H20120714


357

http://ricks.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/06/27/are_the_strategic_costs_of_obama_s_drone_policy_greater _than_the_short_term_gains_0

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o

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM


See: ATS; IACHR; ICC; ICJ; National Laws; Reciprocity; Sosa; War Crime.

Intranet is like Internet, except where Internet is accessible to the public all over the world, an Intranet only connects to people within a particular company, government agency, academic institution, etc. and people they do business with. o See: Blogosphere RSS Radio Outline; FIG-LEAF.
IO = Intelligence Officer for example, DHS I+A posted them at Fusion Centers from 2006 onwards. o IO and RO (Reports Officer) are limited by Presidential Executive Order358 to overt collection practices, which includes info acquisition from: Observation, government-to-government dialog, elicitation, and sharing of data openly acquired, where the info sources know

the info is being shared.


o See: DHS; Fusion Center; I+A; RB; RO; SLPO. I/O = DHSs I&As Office of Intelligence Oversight.

o See: DHS; HIR; I+A; IIR.


IOC = Information Operations Center IOCI&W = Initial Operational Capability Indications and Warnings IOE = Integrated Operations Environment IP = multiple meanings IP = Intellectual Property IP address = Internet protocol address359 IR = Infrared.

o The longer wavelengths in IR bands are not absorbed or attenuated by clouds or fog and are emitted by warm objects at night, so IR sensors are capable of providing images beyond the capabilities or normal human sight. o In the far infrared spectrum, passive millimeter wave sensors provide thermal imaging capabilities particularly for night vision and thermal imaging applications.
o See: Drone Police; See Through Walls. IRAC = International Committee for Robot Arms Control360 o See: Autonomous Drone; AWS. IRS = US Internal Revenue Service IRTPA = Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004.

IS+ (2 Nov 14)



358 359

IS = Interference Specication ISAF = International Security Assistance Force ISE = Information Sharing Environment.361

Executive Order 12333, as amended, http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/eo/eo-12333-2008.pdf. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_address 360 http://icrac.net/2012/11/dod-directive-on-autonomy-in-weapon-systems/ 361 http://ise.gov/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM


o See: ITACG ; PM-ISE; ISCA = Integrated Sensor Coverage Area ISI = Pakistani Inter-Service Intelligence Agency.362 ISI Suggestion o This is another of my suggestions how to fix some problems, where what I describe is not yet happening. o One of the things going wrong, is the US military and CIA are paying

thugs to be informants regarding suspected enemies, and those thugs are more interested in the money than in truth. I should think that after a drone strike on purely innocent people, the ISI should be able to get with its US counter parts and find out which thug was responsible for that bad information, then have that person arrested and brought to trial for manslaughter. Even if unsuccessful, if it becomes known the ISI is following such an approach, it could put a chilling effect upon the thugs who are giving bad info to the USA for money.

ISP = Internet Service Provider. See: Privacy e-mail.

ISR = Information, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance. See 10 thoughts on Drone Future,363 #4 page3.
ISRIOCGIG = Intelligence, Reconnaissance and Surveillance Initial Operational Capability IT = Information Technology o See: GIGO; MIS. ITAR = International Traffic in Arms ITACG = Inter Agency Threat Assessment & Coordination Group364 o See: NCTC.

ITU = International Telecommunication Union, UN agency responsible for global information and communications technologies.365 o Dec 2009, ITU issued guidance on spectrum requirements for safe operation of unmanned aircraft in non-segregated or integrated airspace. ITU said that unmanned aircraft operations will require radio frequency (RF) spectrum for air traffic control (ATC), vehicle command and control, and sense and avoid capabilities.366

362

http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012)
363

http://aviationintel.com/2012/07/09/tylers-10-thoughts-on-the-future-of-dronewarfare/ Also: GAO Drones Military 10-508 t = 2010 March testimony.(21 pages)
364 365

http://www.nctc.gov/itacg/itacg_index.html https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/drones_nas.html downloaded as CRS Drones in NAS 2012 Sept. CRS = Congressional Research Service; FAS = Federation of American Scientists; NAS = US National Air Space.
366

International Telecommunication Union, ITU-R Radiocommunication Sector of ITU, Characteristics of Unmanned Aircraft Systems and Spectrum Requirements to Support Their Safe Operation in Non-Segregated Airspace, Report ITU-R M. 2171, December, 2009, Geneva, Switzerland.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Nov 2011, ITU published specific guidance on the technical feasibility and advantages and disadvantages of several candidate frequency bands for beyond line of sight communications, command, and control for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS).367 o It did not formally consider or propose regulatory methods for how these frequency bands might be allocated, which would be left up to individual regulatory authorities such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States. o See: ATC; FCC; FAA; RF; UAS.

I&WGIG = Indications and Warnings Global Information Grid

Terms J+ (3 Feb 01)



JAG = Judge Advocate General, in charge of US military justice. Also see: DoD; DoJ; IG. Janes368 = An encyclopedia of weapons proliferation trade between nations. JCAs = Joint Capability Areas. . See: page 5 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map369 TOC Chapter 2 Future Vision; and page 8 Appendix E on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. JCASS = Joint Convoy Active Safety System. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map370 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets.
JIATF-S = Joint Inter-Agency Task Force-South JIATF-SI&W = Joint Inter Agency Task Force South Indications and Warnings Jirga = a decision-making assembly of male elders, who use group

discussions to address community problems and resolve legal issues. 371 o It is a war crime, for US drones to attack such gatherings. It is the equivalent of bombing a civilian court house. o The Jirga is most important legal and social institution for the resolution of community conflicts in Pakistans FATA. o See: Anti-Drone Chip; Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station; FATA; FCR; Khassadar; Malik; War Crimes. JLENS = Joint Land Attack Elevated Netted Sensors. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map372 TOC Appendix A.2 on Unmanned Airship Systems (UAS).

367

International Telecommunication Union, ITU-R Radiocommunication Sector of ITU, Frequency Sharing Between Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Beyond Line of Sight Control and Non-Payload Communications Links and Other Existing and Planned Services in the Frequency Bands 13.25-13.40 GHz, 15.4-15.7 GHz, 22.5-22.55 GHz and 23.5523.60 GHz, Report ITU-RM. 2230, November, 2011, Geneva, Switzerland.
368

Janes: http://www.janes.com/products/janes/index.aspx http://www.ihs.com/info/df/e/jawa/index.aspx 369 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 370 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 371 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 372 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM JPDO = Joint Planning and Development Office,373 of the FAA, created under a legislative initiative to foster collaboration among government agencies, the private sector, and academia, on air transportation systems. o According to Townhall,374 in their Sep 2012 magazine, JPDO projected that by 2022, there will be at least 15,000 drones over US National Air Space (NAS.). o See: FAA; GAO; NAS.
JPL = Jet Propulsion Laboratory JROC = Joint Requirements Oversight Council JSOC = Joint Special Operations Command375 o Allegedly all US drone attacks are carried out by either CIA or JSOC, under guidance by the President of the USA.376 o See: CIA.

JTRS = Joint Tactical Radio Systems. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map377 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. JTTF = Joint Terrorism Task Force. o JTTF are led by FBI and other federal agencies. They often include state and local law enforcement participants. Their primary mission is to investigate terrorism threats. o See: Fusion Center. Judicial Killing = when a Judge and/or Jury order a defendant to be executed, after they exhaust all appeals allowed by law, after a proper trial has found that person guilty. See: Assassination; Extra Judicial Killing; Kill List; Targeted Killing.

Terms K+ (3 Feb 26) !


Kafkaesque378 = a brand of craziness, named after Franz Kafka,379 where sometimes truth seems more unbelievable than Science Fiction. o For example, there is the perpetual battle of US Presidential Administrations claiming that their secrets are more important than Congressional Oversight, or the US Court System.380 But those same secrets are often mentioned in statements by that same Administration. o For example, the US government takes a dim view of anyone using WikiLeaks, firing many government employees, if it is found they web

373 374

In Drone Notes, see section on US Gov GAO. http://townhall.com/ Townhall is a US conservative magazine. http://magazine.townhall.com/featured https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Townhall.com 375 https://www.propublica.org/article/everything-we-know-so-far-about-drone-strikes 376 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 377 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 378 http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Kafkaesque 379 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Kafka 380 http://www.americablog.com/2012/06/obama-admin-to-us-court-drone-kill.html

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM browsed there. However, see in footnotes a link to 150 government documents which cite Wikileaks.381 o For other insanities, see: Civilian; Gun Walking. Kamikazi drone = it flies into its target and explodes.382 Khassadar = Pakistan FATA government employees, supervised by Maliki, to perform role as local auxiliary police.383 o It is a war crime for US drones to be targeting such persons, claiming that any armed person is a defacto enemy of USA. o See: Anti-Drone Chip; Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station; FATA; FCR; Jirga; Malik; War Crime. Kidnap. See: Extradition; Rendition (Robot Rendition); Reciprocity; Sosa. Kill List = list of people who are to be killed, if and when military or military intelligence tracks them down.384 o Many news media are misleadingly referring to this as Obama Kill List, when in fact the concept was started under Bush Presidency, where each target was assigned a card in a deck of cards, reflecting how high the value of the target. Here is an illustration of what a Kill List Baseball Card looks like.385 o Many news media are also misleadingly referring to this as a Secret Kill List. It is not a secret when large sums of money are offered for anyone who identifies where the targets are located, and the news media are sharing lists of some of the targets on the list. o DoD General Counsel Jeh Johnson, in a Feb 2012 speech at Yale Law School, explained that targeting decisions are an Executive function not subject to Judicial review: 386 o See: Assassination; AUMF; Citizen of USA; Disposition Matrix; Self Defense. Killed in Drone Attack = Termination of life due to primary, secondary, or tertiary injuries by a drone strike. People who died afterwards in the hospitals, due to severe injuries caused by the attack, are also counted towards total killed. 387

381 382

http://cryptome.org/2012/10/wl-usg-pubs.htm http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jTPhInUoZJNu1kT604y1CV0xM0w?docId=CNG.b0b893fb04aee2445cb9d54b02462bd7.2f1 383 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 384 Kill List http://www.npr.org/2013/02/12/171719082/the-sticky-questions-surrounding-drones-and-kill-lists https://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/29/world/obamas-leadership-in-war-on-al-qaeda.html?pagewanted=all http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Keep-Calm/2012/0601/Good-Reads-a-few-tips-about-how-to-stay-offObama-s-kill-list 385 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2013/02/kill-list-baseball-cards-and-the-targeting-paper-trail/ 386 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 387 http://pakistanbodycount.org/definitions

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Terms L+ (2 Nov 28) !


LADAR = Laser Radar. See Drone Police. LAGR = Learning Applied to Ground Robotics Land Lines = Direct phone connection, as opposed to use of cell phone towers or satellites. See: Wire Tapping.

Latency = movement shown on a drone pilots video screen has over the years been seconds behind what the drone sees a delay caused by the time it takes to bounce a signal off a satellite in space. This problem, called latency, has long bedeviled drone pilots, making it difficult to hit a moving target. Sometimes the target hears the drone and can get to safety faster than the drone operator can do accurate shooting.388 This may explain some of the high proportion of collateral damage, and high cost of drone shooting, since wide dispersal bombs are needed to get at the escaping enemy, while manned combat could use a few bullets. Law of Armed Conflict - variously called the law of war, the law of armed conflict (LOAC), or by its Latin term jus in bello. See LOAC. Lawnmowers in the dark sky = what drones sound like, all night.389 LCO = Launch Control Officer. Example, a drone launched from a manned aircraft.390
LCS = Littoral Combat Ship LCSJIATF-SIOC = Littoral Combat Ship Joint Inter Agency Task Force South Initial Operational Capability LDUUV = Large Displacement Unmanned Undersea Vehicle LDUUVLCS = Large Displacement Unmanned Undersea Vehicle Littoral Combat Ship LEA = Law Enforcement Agency

Legal Black Hole In a war which may never end, where prisoners of war are not to be treated according to the Geneva Convention, but there are problems with treating them under civilian court system, the USA tries to prevent lawyers from seeing prisoners locked up and throw the key away. 391 Also see: Geneva Convention(s); Unlawful Combatant. Legal Nexus to USA = a traditional concept, which is evolving, that for a court
case to be brought in the USA, it needs to somehow involve the USA. o Humans reside in USA, who are bringing the court case, or it is being brought against them; o Corporation doing business in the USA; o Someone acted as an agent of the US government. o See: ATS; International Law Courts; Reciprocity; Sosa. LEO = Law Enforcement Organization. o See: GIGO.

388

LETTP = DHS Law Enforcement Terrorism Prevention Program. This funded Fusion Centers until 2008, when HSGP took over the task.

https://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/08/magazine/the-dronezone.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1&ref=magazine 389 http://maddowblog.msnbc.com/_news/2012/11/21/15343130-lawnmowers-in-the-dark 390 https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-andmonographs/a-12/the-oxcart-family.html 391 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/07/7995/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o See: DHS; Fusion Center; HSGP.
LIA = Logistics Innovation Agency License Plate Readers. See: ANPR; Drone Police. LIDAR = Light Detection and Ranging. See: Drone Police. Lieutenant. See: Army Combat Structure. LIONS = Legal Information Office Network System of USAO. o LIONS collects case info for Federal Criminal Offenses, but does not identify them with particular federal agency, Gun Walking Operations and Projects. o See: DoJ; Gun Walking; N-Force; USAO. LMCLDUUVJIATF-S = Lockheed Martin Corp Large Displacement Unmanned Undersea Vehicle Joint Inter Agency Task Force - South LMRS = Long-Term Mine Reconnaissance System LMRSLMCLCS = Long Term Mine Reconnaissance System Lockheed Martin Corp Littoral Combat Ship

LOAC+ (2 Dec 03)


LOAC = Laws of Armed Conflict.392 o They are part of International Law. o There is dispute in interpretation, whether the geographic region of armed conflict is based exclusively on where wars are raging, or whether it also includes where participants in conflicts are located.393 o Under these rules, it is legal to kill people (on both sides of the conflict) who are actively participating in the hostilities, or who perform a continuous
combat function as part of an armed group that is a party to the armed conflict. Note this does not include people who are allegedly planning future attacks, but have not yet committed any overt criminal or military act. o Measures must be taken to minimize harm to innocent civilians. Although there is no requirement that a targeted individual be offered an opportunity to surrender, any effort to surrender must be accepted.394

o They prohibit the use of some weapons, which are legal for a nation to use on its own people by various police forces. o They establish some standards of treatment for prisoners, and wounded. o U.S. State Department Legal Adviser, Harold Hongju Koh, in a March 2010 speech to American Society of International Law, disputed that drones violate the laws of armed conflict stating QUOTE: the rules that govern targeting do not turn on the type of weapon system used, and there is no prohibition under the laws of war on the use of technologically advanced weapons systems in armed conflict... so long as
392

Laws of Armed Conflict (LOAC) http://usmilitary.about.com/cs/wars/a/loac.htm https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 393 See Legal Geography of War in my Drone Scribd document. 394 This can be particularly difficult to implement when the attack is by a drone, operated by personnel on the other side of the planet.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM they are employed in conformity with applicable laws of war. UNQUOTE395 o See: AUMF; Civilian; Geneva Convention(s); Hague Conventions; International Law; Latency; Laws of Armed Conflict; Non-International Armed Conflict; Ordinary Peacetime Law Enforcement Rules; Self Defense. Legged Robot o See: Cheetah LWVs = Lightweight Vehicles. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map396 TOC Appendix C on Unmanned Maritime Systems (UMSs).

Terms M+ (2 Oct 27)


MACE = Mine Area Clearance Equipment. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map397 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). MAGO = Mexico Attorney Generals office, which investigates and prosecutes Mexican federal crimes, including all gun-related offenses. o ATF (allegedly) works with MAGO to obtain info used in gun tracing and for fire arms trafficking investigations. o See AGRM; ATF; CENAP. Major. See: Army Combat Structure. MALE = US Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) drones.398 Malik (Maliki plural) is a judge for Pakistans FATA Tribal Areas, a tribal liaison elder, selected by the government of Pakistan to resolve disputes brought by residents.399 o It is a war crime for US drones to be targeting such people, when they are holding court meetings, and perhaps also other occasions. o See: Anti-Drone Chip; Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station; FATA; FCR; Jirga; Khassadar; War Crime. Manchurian Chip is when computer hardware, built in one nation, comes with a back door, for hacking access, after that hardware has been installed in critical infrastructure in another nation. This threat to national security is discussed in Boats Missed chapter of Drone Issues. o See: back door.
MANPADS = Man-Portable Air-Defense Systems

395

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 396 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 397 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 398 http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/09/how-terrified-should-we-be-of-the-pentagonsplan-to-automize-drones/261944/ 399 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012)

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM MARCbot = Multifunction, Agile, Remote-Operated Robot. See page 7 of 2009II Dod Drone Road Map400 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). MAV = Micro Air Vehicle. See: page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map401 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS); and See page 8 of Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets.
MCM = Mine Counter Measure MCMMOSALMC = Mine Counter Measure Modular Open-Systems Approach Lockheed Martin Corp

MCO+ (2 Oct 06) !


MCO = ATFs Mexico City Office. o This office is headed by an ATF attache and staffed by assistant attaches who are agents. o When OIG visited March 2010, investigating Gun Runner, the staff also included an intelligence research specialist, an extra temporary agent, and several Mexican nationals employed by ATF. o As of June 2010 ATF has 13 staff assigned to MCO, 8 permanent and 5 temporary. 7 worked in US embassy in Mexico City. 3 worked in US consulate in Monterey. 2 worked in US consulate in Tijuana. 1 worked in US consulate in Juarez. o In FY 2010 Budget Authorization, ATF got funding for 8 more people, but as of Sep 2010 only 2 had been filled so far. o Under Gun Runner, ATF (supposedly) works with NAS in Mexico City to provide equipment on gun tracing and identification, and investigations. o See: ATF; FY; Gun Runner; Gun Walking; NAS.

400 401

MDARS = Mobile Detection, Assessment, and Response System. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map402 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). MDMR = Multi-Dimension403 Mobility Robot. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map404 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. Medals have traditionally been awarded people who have shown great heroism, or been wounded in the service of their nation, but the US may now be awarding a Distinguished Warfare Medal to drone pilots.405 Never before in the history of warfare have medals been awarded for success in killing lots of people, including innocents. They have been awarded for saving people, while accomplishing the mission. Mexican Foreign Ministry. See: GC Armas; State.

http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 402 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 403 Not to be confused with time travel, or other realities. 404 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 405 http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/in-the-loop/post/drone-pilots-to-getmedals/2012/07/09/gJQAF2PhYW_blog.html

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Mexican Military often supplements efforts of law enforcement entities, especially in areas with high levels of violent crime. See: MSSP. Mexican Navy. See: GC Armas. Mexico See: AGRM; ATF; ATF Scandals; Border; CBP; CBP Suggestions; CBP Suggestions; CENAPI; EPIC; eTrace 4.0; GC Armas; GC Armas Suggestions; Gun Runner; ICE; MAGO; MCO; Mexican Military; Mexico Organized Crime; Mitigation Suggestions; MSSP; NAS; Sosa; SWB; Violence on Mexico US Border. Mexico Organized Crime: o The Mexican government reported that organized crime and drug trafficking is responsible for: 30,000 deaths Dec 2006 to July 2010. 9,635 murders in 2009. o ATF told Congress in 2009 that about 90% of guns recovered in Mexico have been traced by ATF to USA sales, primarily in Texas, California, Arizona, and New Mexico. ATF told OIG the 90% figure was misleading. o See: ATF; CENAPI; Gun Runner Flaws; Gun Runner Impact; OIG.

Micro+ (2 Nov 28) !


MICRO DRONES = the next step down in smaller size, which I imagine may be an infinite process, as we get NANO DRONES then DNA DRONES. o As of July 2012, Drones are getting smaller and smarter, able to navigate and identify targets without GPS or human operators.406 o At launch time, human tells drone where we are now, and what the current target is. Military Terminology guidance from The New York Times.407 Mind Control can mean some technology which not only interferes with the working of our brains, but also manages what happens in our brain, like a puppeteer. It can also mean some technology where our thoughts control some artifact, or electronic device in our lives. o Technology has been developed which is hyped as being this, but is not really. For example gadget worn by a disabled person, can detect their eye movements, or other biological action controlled by their brain, and then based on those movements, take some action. This is not direct mind control.408 MIS = Management of Information Systems. o In many organizations (especially in government), the management of technology is dysfunctional, which may be why IT (information technologies) has become the more popular terminology nowadays.

406

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21528745.000-microdrones-the-new-face-of-cuttingedgewarfare.html 407 http://afterdeadline.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/27/usage-tips-military-edition/ 408 Mind Control http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2012/08/zhejiang-university-china-brain-controlled-quadcopter/ https://plus.google.com/u/0/101604758566835021293/posts/KcXbod96EH9

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o See: GIGO; IT; OSII Suggestions. Mission Creep = Often a new activity is authorized, in which most everyone can agree that this activity is good and wise. But over time, the operators of the activity dream up new ways to use their authority which can creep into areas where there is no such agreement that the results are good and wise. o In a CNN interview, President Obama called this a slippery slope where people can bend the rules, thinking that ends justify means. 409 MISB = Motions Imagery Standards Board.410 MISUS = Multi-Rover Integrated Science Understanding System

Mitigation+ (2 Nov 29)


Mitigation = the process of improving our defenses against predictable threats,


so they will do less damage than if we were unprepared. This is much more economical than trying to ensure never again. 411 Mitigation Suggestions: o See: Anti-Drone Chip; ATF Scandals; CAISUCA; CAT; CBP Suggestons; DSA; FIG-LEAF; GAO Suggestion; GC Armas Suggestions; Glitch (no fault error); MSLU; NDTC; N-Force; OSII Suggestions; PHVPH; SBS; TBA; Tracker Power; Wide Receiver Causes. CAISUCA = Cyber Audit Info Sec Upgrade Costing Advisors CAT = Cross Agency Tours DSA = Drone Security Agency FIG-LEAF = ATF computer network modernization MSLU = Mexico Security Liaison with US NDTC = National Document Tracking Center PHVPH = Phone Hack Virus Phone Home QISTUK = Quality Info Sharing Techniques to Update Agency Know How SBS = Satellite Border Surveillance TBA = Technology Briefing Agency o Within my write-ups of the various ATF Scandals, I share both flaws, and ideas on how many flaws could have been fixed. o Also see Non Drone Content chapter in beginning of this document. MLAT = Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty. See: Gun Walking. MITM = Man in the Middle, an electronic attack method used in cyber crime, cell phone interception, etc. See: IMSI. MOA = Military Operations Area
MOAA = Maritime Open Architecture Autonomy MOCU = Multi-Robot Operator Control Unit



409

http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/2012/09/06/obamas-five-rules-for-covert-drone-strikes/

410

http://www.gwg.nga.mil/misb/stdpubs.html

How to hack a drone at http://www.scribd.com/doc/93422788/Predator-Drone-Readout-2009 See my Drone Scribd chapter on Freedom of Speech in War Time 411 https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2012/09/stopping_terror.html

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Model+ (2 Oct 06) !



Model Aircraft = A remote controlled aircraft used by hobbyists, which is


manufactured and operated for the purposes of sport, recreation and/or competition. In the USA they are regulated by the FAA. Monitoring = Concept of keeping track of what is happening various places. Here is a directory of web sites monitored by the US government. 412 MoD = Ministry of Defense, in Britain MOOTW = Military Operations Other Than War.413
MOSA = Modular Open-Systems Approach MOSALMRSLDUUV = Modular Open-Systems Approach Long Term Mine Reconnaissance System Large Displacement Unmanned Undersea Vehicle

MP = Member of Parliament, in Britain.


MRAP = Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicles414 MRUUVS = Mission Reconfigurable Unmanned Undersea Vehicle System MS-BMCMLMRS = Milestone BMine Counter Measure Long Term Mine Reconnaissance System MSDF = Maritime Self Defense Force

MSLU+ (2 Sep 27)


MSLU = Mexico Security Liaison with USA o No such function exists yet, but I suggest there is a serious need for this, which would work as follows. o MSLU personnel would be stationed at major US law enforcement agency offices engaged in combating drug smuggling, weapons smuggling, and other cross border activities of interest to Mexican authorities. o These personnel would have weekly to monthly in-person visits, to smaller offices, to ask whats going on in your office, relevant to Mexico. They would seek name of operations, who in charge in USA, copy of latest briefing, agencies in Mexico which are allegedly working with you, on each of these projects. They would send those agencies a list of the operations identified, requesting copies of briefing and progress reports from the Mexican side of these projects and operations. This would identify what operations and projects have flawed coordination, which so far are all of them I have seen in the OIG reports. o Such a fix is clearly needed, because OIG investigations of ATF Scandals show a clear pattern that official reports are incomplete, run by administrators out of touch with reality on the ground, whose agents are oblivious to ATF organizational beaurocratic requirements. The

412 413

http://cryptome.org/2012/01/0001.pdf https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 414 http://aviationintel.com/2012/10/02/aviationintels-great-mrap-debate-conclusion-war-is-really-fkingexpensive/

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dysfunctional pattern reminds me of the project management from hell system which caused the BP oil spill disaster. o See: ATF Scandals; DSA; Gun Walking; Mitigation Suggestions; NDTC; TBA. MSSP = Mexico Secretariat of Public Security (Spanish version letters come out right) is the Mexican LEA to police and conduct investigations at a national level. o ATF says MSSP is being restructured. o See: ATF; LEA; MAGO; Mexican Military. MTCR = Missile Technology Control Regime415 is a voluntary consensus-driven association of 34 nations started in 1987 to limit the spread of technology of ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and drones, capable of transporting and delivering WMD payload. o See: Cruise Missiles; Nuclear Drone; WMD. MTEC = Missile Technology Export Control Group

MTRS = Man Transportable Robotic System. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map416 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). MULE = Multifunction Utility / Logistics Equipment Vehicle. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map417 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs).
MUM = Manned-Unmanned

MV-4B = Anti Personnel Mine Clearing System, Remote Control (I do not know how they came up with that acronym). See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map418 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). MX = Mexico.

Terms N+ (2 Oct 08)


NAB = Pakistans National Accountability Board o See: USAID. NAS 2 very different meanings NAS = US National Airspace System, referenced in many reports regarding where FAA regulates drones. Inside buildings are not regulated by the FAA. o See: FAA. NAS = Narcotics Affairs Section at some US embassies, such as in Mexico City, to provide counter-narcotics policy and strategy guidance to ambassadors, and provide various support for the local nation where the embassy is located. o See: BINLEA; GC Armas; State. NASA419 = US National Aeronautics and Space Administration. o NASA is one of several US government organizations flying drones in US
National Air Space (NAS).

o See: SBS.
415 416

See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 417 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 418 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 419 http://www.nasa.gov/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NASA

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM NASIC = US National Air and Space Intelligence Center NASOC = US National Air Security Operations Center. UAS missions for CBP are launched and recovered from National Air Security Operation Centers (NASOCs) in Sierra Vista, Arizona; Corpus Christi, Texas; Cocoa Beach, Florida; and Grand Forks, North Dakota.420 National Energy Technology Laboratory,421 in DOE, is one of several US
government organizations flying drones in US National Air Space (NAS).

National Laws: Different nations can have different laws. o Does head of state have immunity for actions taken when doing their job, or are alleged war crimes an exception? o What is covered by criminal law and what by civil? o Are certain actions even cyber crimes or violations of intellectual piracy? o Do attacks on religion violate freedom of speech? o Can suits be brought against companies which make/sell guns, drones, alcohol? o What UN treaties have they signed, ratified, and not recinded? North Korea has dropped out of the Nuclear non-proliferation treaty. o See: ICCPR; ICESCR; IHBR; International Law Courts; Reciprocity; UDHR. National Security and Investigation Center (Intelligence Agency) of Mexico o See: GC Armas. National Tracing Center (NTC) is an ATF operation to record the history of a crime gun. o Source = manufacturer or importer o Distribution chain = wholesale or retail outfits identified o First unlicensed422 purchaser o NTC is supposed to (per OSII) disseminate info to relevant FIG. o If someone outside ATF, such as another law enforcement agency, asks about a weapon, which is in the Suspect Guns Data Base (SGC), the NTC data is not released until the gun is apprehended. o See: ATF; Crime Gun; Fast & Furious ATF Organizational Chart; FFL; FIG; Gun Walking; OSII; Suspect Guns Data Base.

NATO+ (2 Oct 24)

420

NATO423 = North Atlantic Treaty Organization NCO = Non-Commissioned Officer

http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2012/OIG_12-85_May12.pdf

421
422

National Energy Technology Laboratory is in DOE (Department of Energy)

Unlicensed meaning unlicensed to buy or sell weapons in the USA, other than via legitimate gun collector hobby, the first ordinary gun owner. 423 NATO http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM NCTC = National Counter Terrorism Center424 is part of the office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). o NCTC replaced TTIC, according to 2004 Intelligence Reform Law. o See: DNI; Fusion Center; TTIC. NDIC = National Drug Intelligence Center Necessity One of the three standards of grounds for one nation to invade another, set by the Caroline Incident of 1837, until the rules got changed again due to 9/11.425 o Necessity includes: seriousness and how immediate the threat, which needs to be countered; and what peaceful alternatives are available. The meaning, of this term, varies with the context. o See: Caroline Incident; Immediacy; Proportionality; Self Defense; Sovereignty. NDTC = National Document Tracing Center. o No such entity exists, but I suggest we may need one to track scenarios like ATF Gun Walking and BP Oil Spill. What they have had in common are formal requests for documents or permissions for controversial actions, where any replies are in oblivion, then disaster ensued. o Just as warnings, of terrorist attacks in advance, are like needles of useful info in a Grand Canyon of needles of irrelevant clues, US Attorneys, who work with ATF, are buried in hundreds of cases, each with hundreds of pages. They are going blind seeing seemingly mountains of same type info lacking coherent organization. Theres a need for some summary presentations, statistics on whats involved, supporting evidence, list of tactics used to capture the evidence, reasons for the tactics, using text publishing tools which facilitate good cross-indexing hyper links. o See: ATF; DSA; Gun Walking; Mitigation Suggestions; MSLU; TBA. NEECN = National Export Enforcement Coordination Network Needle in Haystack426 from UPI427 is Anomaly Detection in universal data bases on IBM midrange platforms, using artificial intelligence. o The software teaches itself what is normal or anticipated via statistical analysis, then when something unusual occurs, it does an alert. Management can set thresholds for alerts. o In my opinion, this concept is needed on other kinds of computer platforms for all kinds of breaches and threats, including SCADA critical infrastructure and national security hacker activities. o See: AI; DBS; FIG-LEAF; OS; SCADA; UPI. NEI = Network Entity Identification428 monitors network traffic and extracts the source, destination, and port sets (conversations).

424 425

http://www.nctc.gov/ https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 426 http://www.unbeatenpath.com/software/needle/in-a-haystack.pdf 427 http://unbeatenpath.com/compass 428 https://www.controlsystemsroadmap.net/efforts/Pages/Intelligent-Cyber-Sensor.aspx

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Next Gen+ (2 Oct 06)


Next Gen = Next Generation Air Transport System, being developed by FAA, as authorized by US Congress in 2003.429 See: FAA. NFA = US National Firearms Act NFDC = FAA National Flight Center Data.430 NFDD = National Flight Data Digest N-Force is an automated case management system, which initially did not include Gun Runner Cases. o After 2006 ATF created a code in N-Force for Gun Runner cases, and directed personnel to start using that. o In my opinion, tracking systems need to have a miscellaneous category for any activity which is outside existing codes, so that nothing goes unreported, then management get statistical analysis of how much growth in miscellaneous, and assign new codes for new stuff, as soon as they see that growth. Perhaps there also needs to be support to transfer input from miscellaneous to the new coding. o See: ATF; Gun Runner; LIONS; N-Spect.
NGA = 2 different meanings NGA = National Geospatial Intelligence Agency NGA = National Governors Association

NGO = Non-Government Organization, typically a not-for-profit humanitarian charity organization. NHRI = National Human Rights Institutions431 NIAP = National Information Assurance Partnership o This is one of several organizations which have collaborated to establish common criteria for information technology systems evaluation for aircraft industries. o See: EUROCAE; FAA; NIST; NSA; RTCA.

NIC+ (2 Dec 14)



429

NIC = US National Intelligence Council,432 Is within ODNI. o See: DNI; ODNI NICS = US National Instant Criminal Background Check System 433 NIEM = National Information Exchange Model.

NIST = US National Institute of Standards and Technology o See NIAP.


NIWO = Navy Irregular Warfare Office NLP = Natural Language Processing

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/drones_nas.html downloaded as CRS Drones in NAS 2012 Sept. CRS = Congressional Research Service; FAS = Federation of American Scientists; NAS = US National Air Space.
430 431

https://nfdc.faa.gov/xwiki/bin/view/NFDC/WebHome http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/NgosNhris.aspx 432 http://gt2030.com/about/ 433 http://nsi.ncirc.gov/about_nsi.aspx

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NLU = Natural Language Understanding NMA = navigation message authentication NMEA = National Marine Electronics Association.

o After GPS data received and position calculated, the data is configured into NMEA standards, then serially transmitted at baud rate of 4800 bps, or more. o NMEA standards specify sending a series of data in a sentence. o The sentences are independent, where programs cannot expect in advance that the data will arrive in any anticipated sequence.434 o This impacts what programming languages and programming methods make most sense to use. o Also see GPS.
NMRS = Near-Term Mine Reconnaissance System

NOAA+ (2 Nov 29)


NOAA = US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. o NOAA is one of several US government organizations flying drones in US National Air Space (NAS), and nearby, off-shore, such as in the study of hurricanes. Non-International Armed Conflicts this refers to armed conflicts which are other than wars between states, which are called International Armed Conflicts.435 o See: International Law; LOAC; Self Defense. Non-Lethal Weapons436 o See: Drone Police. o In Drone Notes, see: Financial Alternatives chapter, in Statistics section; Police with Weaponized Drones, in Non-Lethal Kills; Where in USA section, with chapters on Police by City, County, and State, reported to be using drones.

434 435

http://www.scribd.com/doc/69421118/Drone-Mid-Year-Presentation-1 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 436 http://afgeneralcounsel.dodlive.mil/2012/11/14/the-impact-of-nonlethal-weapons/ In warfare, there is a trade-off between lethal and non-lethal attacks. The best solution varies. http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/11/nonlethal_weapons_and_the_law_of_war.h tml Non-Lethal weapons can kill and maim. While police may be authorized to use them with the intent of temporarily stunning, or restraining a suspect, they can cause great pain, permanent injury, even death. There is considerable evidence that some police departments mis-use them, to torture people, some of them innocent. Fritz Allhoff describes the paradox of nonlethal weapons: International law sometimes restricts military technologies that don't kill more than those that do. http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/11/nonlethal_weapons_and_the_law_of_war.h tml

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM NoPhoto = a device to spoof traffic light cameras.437 Depending on how other police technologies function, it may also work against speed cameras, drone and other general automated license plate monitoring systems. o If it makes it too bright for a camera to see, it may also
make it too bright for the driver behind to see once that strobe goes off, also drivers coming the other way vs. license plate in front, and if that's the case then this will indeed be illegal in most states. "White lights" -when your tail light lenses are busted and the bulbs are visible/bright - are illegal in many states because of the blinding effect and this would be quickly added to that category.438

o See: ANPR; Drone Police. NRA = National (USA) Rifle Association o See 2nd Amendment
NRL = Naval Research Laboratory


437 438

NRT = Near Real Time NSA = US National Security Agency, sometimes in humor called No Such Agency, since they have been one of the most secret of US intelligence agencies. They are generally believed to be primarily focused on signal intelligence (communications via radio, phones, and Internet). o See CIA; DIA; DNI; NIAP. NSC = US White Houses National Security Council, the US Presidents principal arm for coordinating national security and foreign policies among various US government agencies.439 NDCSN = National Security Cyber Specialists Network440 within
NSD.

NSD = National Security Division441 within DoJ. o See DoJ. NSDD = National Security Decision Directive (NSDD)442 o See: Deleted Weapons. N-Spect = ATF Inspection Database o See: ATF; eTrace; N-Force. NSI = Nationwide SAR (Suspicious Activity Reports) Initiative.443 o See: DHS; DoJ; Fusion Center; SAR. NSI-PMO = NSI Program Management Office o See: NSI. NTC - See: National (Gun) Tracing Center; NDTC.. NTSB = US National Transportation Safety Board. They investigate crashes in USA, including drone crashes.

http://www.wired.com/rawfile/2012/10/new-gadget-helps-foil-irksome-red-light-cameras https://plus.google.com/u/0/108007903544513887227/posts/QDox9GWG2fk 439 http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nsc 440 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/11/lisa-monaco-speech-on-cyber-a-little-late/ 441 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/11/lisa-monaco-speech-on-cyber-a-little-late/ 442 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/nsdd_7.html https://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-7.pdf Enhanced Radiation Weapons 443 http://nsi.ncirc.gov/about_nsi.aspx

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Nuclear drones = Drones, not with nuclear weaponry, but nuclear energy propulsion systems, a scary thought considering drones crash a lot more than piloted vehicles.444 o See: MTCR; WMD. NYSE = New York Stock Exchange NYU = New York University

Terms O+ (2 Dec 14)


OA = Open Architecture OAM = Office of Air and Marine within US CBP Customs and Border Protection445 o See: Border; CBP; CRS; DHS; IG. OAS = Organization of American States 446 o See: Human Rights Regions; IACHR.

OAU = Organization for African Unity. o See: Human Rights Regions. OAV = Organic Air Vehicle. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map447 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets.
OCDETF = Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force. o This is a DoJ program which seeks to combine resources and expertise of federal, state, and local LEAs to identify, disrupt, and dismantle organizations responsible for drug trafficking. o See: ATF; DEA; DoJ; FBI; ICE; IRS; LEA; USAO; USCG; USM. OCS = Operator Control System OCSMS-BMOSA = Milestone BModular Open-Systems Approach OCU = Operator Control Unit ODAG = Office of Deputy Attorney General.

ODIS = Omin-Directional Inspection System. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map448 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). ODNI = Office of the DNI. o See DNI. OEE = USA Office of Export Controls within BIS, to investigate suspected AECA violations of CCL. 449

444

Nuclear propulsion for Drones? https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/03/sandia_drone.html http://www.factoverfiction.com/article/7310 Fact over Fiction has retired, see News & Research. 445 In my collection of official documents, see DHS IG Audit CBP 85 2012 May, which is DHS IG Audit of CBP (mis) use of drones. More info in CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf 446 http://www.oas.org/

http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/b-32.html
447 448

http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 449 See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o See: AECA; BIS; CCL; DSS.
OEO = Office of Enforcement Operations Office of Foreign Assets Control of US Dept of Treasury. o See: GC Armas; Treasury. OGC = DHS Office of General Counsel.

o See: DHS; HIR; I+A; IIR.


OGO = Other Government Organization

OHCHR = UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights OIG = Office of Inspector General. o See: CAISUCA; GAO Suggestion; GC Armas Suggestions; Mitigation Suggestions. OIG Suggestions: o GAO has a report, to newly elected to each Congress, listing major issues unresolved from prior Congresses. o OIG should have a report, to candidates for leadership of US dept and agencies, with copy to relevant committees which approve these people, listing major issues unresolved by your predecessors. o See: GAO; US Congress. OIIL = Office of Intelligence and Investigative Liaison.450 o Within CBP, it provides regular info to the organization.. o See: CBP. OK = Oklahoma, such as OK City target of a domestic terrorist attack. OK also means all correct or I agree. 451 OLA = Office of Legislative Affairs. OLC = US Department of Justices Office of Legal Counsel.
ONR = Office of Naval Research ONRMCM = Office of Naval Research (Mine Counter Measure) OOTL = Out-of-the-loop

OOTW = Operations Other Than War.452 See:MOOTW. OPA = Office of Public Affairs.

Open Fields+ (2 Nov 01)

Open Fields are US legal-speak for the area outside a persons home and immediately surrounding property, which does not provide the setting associated with the protections of the 4th Amendment. th th o See: 4 Amendment; 4 Amendment Jurisprudence; Curtilage; DronePolice; Privacy-Home; Search Location; Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant. Open Source is technology open to anyone to use, as opposed to technology controlled as Intellectual Property of the creator, or someone, or some institution

450 451

https://publicintelligence.net/dhs-domestic-intelligence/ http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/503/what-does-ok-stand-for 452 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM that ownership has been sold to. Copyright, Patent does not exist, other than to declare the invention in the public domain. o Here is info about Open Source Drones.453 Operation Fast and Furious, see: ATF Scandals; Fast and Furious. Operation Wide Receiver, see: ATF Scandals; Wide Receiver.
OPTEVAL = Operational Test and Evaluation OPTEVALONRMS-B = Operational Test and Evaluation Office of Naval Research (Milestone B) Ordinary Peacetime Law Enforcement Rules There is a popular theory of the rules of war, such that when there is a region of the world, which is not currently experiencing active on-going hostilities, military laws of war do not apply, instead include international human rights law, and the domestic laws of that nation.454

o In this scenario, targeted killing would be illegal, and it would be legitimate for that nation to try for murder, the CIA agents, or others, who orchestrated such killing. o For an opposing theory, see Legal Geography of War chapter of
my Drone

Scribd document.

o See LOAC; Non-international Armed Conflicts; Targeted Killing. Organizational Glue: Understandings, Rules & policies, whether documented
or not, are the glue which gives a team group cohesion. o Too many regulations, too much paperwork, and the work gets all gummed up, unable to function effectively. o Too little glue, and the workers fly off in all directions, uncoordinated, and sometimes at cross purposes. o One duty of management is to find the right level of glue, not get into either extreme. o See: ATF Scandals; Finger Pointing; Glitch; OIG; Please the Boss. Oversight = a responsibility of people in charge of government and private companies, to know what is being done by the people who report to them, in sufficient detail to put a stop to any improper behavior. It is evident from my research efforts, that there have been serious lapses in the quality of oversight. o See: ATF Scandals; GAO; I+A; I/O; OIG. o See Drone Issues for an infinity of examples of broken oversight. o In Drone Notes, see Congress section for broken state of art of drone oversight. o See my Disaster Avoidance Research, such as Haiti aid, for a reality which is drowning in broken oversight.

OS+ (2 Oct 26)



453 454

OS = 2 related meanings OS = (Computer) Operating System

http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/ff_drones/ https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May.

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OS = Open Source o See Open Source 455 OSCE = Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. OSD = Office of the Secretary of Defense OSII = ATF HQ Office of Strategic Information and Intelligence. o OSII collects and analyzes information, produces intelligence products. o OSII interacts with National and International (real) Intelligence Agencies. o Sep 2008, to help Gun Runner project, OSI established a Field Intelligence Support team (FIST). o With Fast and Furious, their role appeared to be to digest mountains of detail from local office reports, into power point summary statistics for HQ, which wanted to know what was going on with many operations in each of 25 field office clusters, by devoting perhaps 5 minutes a week to each operation. o See: ATF; ATF Scandals; EPIC; Fast and Furious; Fast and Furious ATF Organization Chart; Gun Desk; Gun Runner; Gun Walking; PHVPH; VCAB OSII Suggestions: o It is apparent to me that ATF is operating in the Dark Ages of MIS. OSII should seek advice from major technology firms like IBM and Google on what now exists in the 21st century, and how best to upgrade their systems. o ATF agents appear outclassed by traffickers. OSII should inquire via DNI what team developed Stuxnet. Their expertise is needed to help bring trafficker tracing into the 21st century. o OSII provide relevant Congressional committees with statistics on whats going on, and directory of generated reports (in case Congress wants to look at some, on the occasion of relevant hearings). o See: ATF; CAISUCA; CAT; DNI; FIG-LEAF; MIS; Mitigation Suggestions; QISTUK; SBS; TBA; US Congress. OSINT = Open Source Intelligence456 OT&E = Operational, Test and Evaluation OxCart = a category of drones flown by CIA and USAF.457

Terms P+ (3 Mar 12) !


Pandoras Box, from Greek Mythology,458 contained all kinds of evil spewed over Planet Earth after being opened. The use of Drones for questionable killings, with zero accountability, is a similar concept, because once many nations copy US practices, we wont be able to return to the former innocent times. Paradigm Shift is a radical change in the prevailing theory of how things work,459 or are to be done, within some field of human activity, often inspired by

455 456

http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4296758,00.html https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/army_osint.html 457 https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-andmonographs/a-12/the-oxcart-family.html 458 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandora%27s_box 459 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigm_shift

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM a seminal event in human history, or one book, or philosopher, who later becomes known as the father (or mother) of modern . (Fill in the blank) topic. The previous father becomes known as the father of classical whatever. o For example: o John Maynard Keynes460 is the father of modern economics. o Adam Smith is the father of classical economics. o There are many other economic theorists, such as Henry George, 461 but the other philosophies, or ideologies, are effectively drowned out by 99% of the establishment believing the current fathers philosophy, with a fervor which is almost religious. Paranoia = Believing (perhaps unknown) people are out to get you, which may or may not be true. It is also a web site for an underground to share leaks: Par:AnoIA (Potentially Alarming Research: Anonymous Intelligence Agency).462 Passenger-Carrying Drones are beyond the imagination of US Congress rule making.463 However, NGOs have proposed using medical drones to transport injured people to hospitals, more economically than via manned helicopter, since drones are more flexible where they may land. PCLOB = Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board.464 o The PCLOB was created in response to a recommendation of the 9/11 Commission that there should be a board within the executive branch to oversee the commitment the government makes to defend our civil liberties. o It is meeting again, late 2012, after a five year lapse.465
PDDL = Planning Domain Definition Language

PDF = Portable Document Format. Many citations, where the link is to a PDF, say (PDF). I think it is polite to say when a link is to a PDF, as opposed to an ordinary web site, because some access is dependent on combination of PDF version, and software of the user, causing some access failure. o See: Google Desk Top.
PDQ = Pretty Damn Quick. PEO = Program Executive Office Pepper Spray466 o See: Drone Police.

460 461

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Maynard_Keynes http://www.progress.org/books/george.htm 462 http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2012/07/paranoia-anonymous/ 463 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/drones_nas.html downloaded as CRS Drones in NAS 2012 Sept. CRS = Congressional Research Service; FAS = Federation of American Scientists; NAS = US National Air Space. 464 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/10/pclob_meeting.html http://cryptome.org/2012/10/pclob102312.htm 465 https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/11/privacy-and-civil-liberties-oversight-board-meets-after-fiveyear-absence 466 Non-Lethal weapons can kill and maim. While police may be authorized to use them with the intent of temporarily stunning, or restraining a suspect, they can cause great pain, permanent injury, even death. There is considerable evidence that some police departments mis-use them, to torture people, some of them innocent.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o In Drone Notes, see: Financial Alternatives chapter, in Statistics section; Police with Weaponized Drones, in Non-Lethal Kills; Where in USA section, with chapters on Police by City, County, and State, reported to be using drones. Perpetual War = the notion that we fight a war, it never ends, there is never a resolution of the reasons we went to war in the first place, we never achieve a peace treaty with our adversaries. There are many different speculations how come a nation might get into such a quandary: 467 o Instead of boots on the ground to achieve supremacy in limited specified geography, we are fighting an infinity of tiny wars on steroids. We may win some of them, but then there are all those other places also to fight. o One side achieves its goals, but the people of that side have an enduring hatred of the evil actions which occurred in that war, so they want to fight another war to get even. E.g. Arabs calling for revenge for the Crusades, which their side won in the Middle Ages. o There is now peace again, but one side does not like the outcome, so they look for an opportunity to refight the war. Eg. Causes of War of 1812. o The military industrial complex wants the war to never end, because there is more profit from war than from peace. o The side, which is militarily stronger, is led by politicians who are not competent to win the war, and are more interested in micromanaging the military than in giving the military particular missions, then letting them do their job competently. E.g. How come the USA lost in Vietnam. o The war is distant from home shores, not covered by media, not discussed by the voters, other than to limit the money spent on it. PERSIUS = Persistent Elevated Reconnaissance Surveillance Intelligence Unmanned System. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map468 TOC Appendix A.2 on Unmanned Airship Systems (UAS). Personality Strikes. See: Signature Strikes. Perfidy is when military people impersonate unarmed civilians.469 Cyber perfidy is computer equivalent, where malware or hacking interferes with critical infrastructure. PFM = Mexican Policia Federal Ministerial. See: AFI. PGR = Mexican Attorney Generals Office. See: AFI; GC Armas. Phishing = We receive what looks like a link to a place we want to visit, but it is a fraud, directing us to trouble we did not want. See URI.

467

http://afgeneralcounsel.dodlive.mil/2012/11/08/drones-and-perpetual-war/ http://www.cnas.org/blogs/abumuqawama/2012/11/unlimiting-war-perpetual-war-historicalperspective.html 468 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 469 http://faculty.nps.edu/ncrowe/cyberperfidy.htm

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PHVPH+ (2 Sep 27)


PHVPH = Phone Hack Virus Phone Home: This technology existence at present is so far purely in the purview of hacker malware. I suggest it is a logical next step for law enforcement fighting traffickers, and other suspected enemies of the state. o A judges warrant, maybe thru FISA would give permission to transmit this to a suspects phone via the cell tower network. o Every time the suspect makes a call, the virus would ping the cell tower network with an extra phone home signal identifying: Date time stamp All phone #s in the call Locations (if known) for all the phone #s at time of call o PHVPH home phone would be billed for this ping, so that it does not show up on billing of suspect, to reduce risk of this extra load being detected by phone user. o The call would also transmit copy of virus to the other phones in the conversation, if possible (many land line phones do not have computer internet capability in those cases another FISA warrant would be needed for a conventional wire tap.) o After successful infection, cell receiving a copy of PHVPH would ping cell tower with confirmation of infection, so phone home site knows connection made to another phone in the suspects network. o The phone home # would be unique to an investigation. When investigation ends, phone home # would get disconnected. If virus tries to phone home, and home not there, virus self-destructs. A cell phone could have multiple copies of PHVPH, associated with different investigations. Each investigation is for XX days, unless renewal approved by judge. o Phone Home computer system would update data base with everything known so far about those phones, if registered to anyone, if involved in some other investigation. There would be a map, showing last know locations of phones, with PHVPH infections. This might help identify locations of suspected criminal network, in need of additional surveillance. Some locations would be innocent businesses. o See: FISA; Mitigation Suggestions; OSII; Spyware; Wire Tapping.

PIC+ (2 Nov 02) !


PIC = Pilot in Command. For manned flight, the FAA has a principle of PIC with at least one observer, helping the pilot, as being essential to safe flight. o The FAA applied this principle to unmanned flight. The PIC controls the drone or model aircraft, while the observer observes the aircraft in relation to its surroundings. This requires either line-of-sight from the ground, or the use of a chase aircraft, and implies that the observer should be within 1 mile laterally and 3,000 feet vertically, of the unmanned aircraft. The PIC and observer must be in direct communications at all times.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o See 2007 FAA UA Rules shared in my Drone Info Google Doc Drive collection.470 Most useful info is page 1 middle of 3rd column. PKK = Kurdistan Workers' Party in Turkey. Relevance here is drone killing villagers, who were mistaken for PKK militants. See December 2011 in Drone Key Dates Calendar, of Drone Notes. Plain View Doctrine: The US Supreme Court has warned in several cases: a mans home is, for most purposes, a place where he expects privacy, but objects, activities, or statements which he exposes to the plain view of outsiders are not protected because no intention to keep them to himself has been exhibited. Thus stuff, which can be seen through cracks in doors, through windows, smelled or heard outside the home, or posted on the Internet, is not protected.471 o See: 4th Amendment; 4th Amendment Jurisprudence; Drone Police; Privacy-Violations; Search Location; See Through Walls; Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant. Platoon. See: Army Combat Structure.

Please the Boss, is a phenomena found in most organizations.

Over a period of times interactions, the work force learns what behaviors are expected by the boss. These behaviors might not be documented anywhere, but they are part of the office training, whether conscious or unconscious. o I believe this phenomena explains why OIG did not believe many peoples stories in the ATF Scandal investigations, claiming that because what the people were saying was not in any ATF documentation, e-mails, etc. made their statements not credible. o See: ATF Scandals; Finger Pointing; Glitch; Group Think; OIG; Organizational Glue. PLUS = Persistent Littoral Undersea Surveillance PM-ISE = Program Manager for Information Sharing Environment o Created by 2004 Intelligence Reform Law and Presidential Executive Order 13356, this office is to help federal state and local agencies better share anti-terrorism intelligence information. o See: ISE; ITACG. PMU = phasor measurement unit

POE+ (2 Nov 01)


POE = Port of Entry. See: Border; CBP POR = Program of Record

Posse Comitatus Act bars the military from taking a police role on U.S. soil. Drone Activity seems a bit confusing, given that restriction.472 POW = Prisoner of War. See: CBP Suggestions. PowerBuoy = Ocean Surveillance Drone, can detect ships even in storms.473

470 471

https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4b-ZLWR0bmZLS3d5OVk/edit https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept. 472 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/05/usaf_drones.html

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM PR = Public Relations.

President of USA: This person is in charge of the Administrative branch of


US Government. o The President and his Cabinet, and heads of other government departments and agencies share a responsibility with Congress, to have management systems so people in charge know what is being done by people under their command. In my opinion, it is improper to blame the President, Congress, or heads of government departments or agencies, for the corrupt and flawed operations done on their watch, of which they may have known nothing, but it is proper to blame them for not having management systems which could have nipped these problems in the bud. o See: ATF Scandals; Attorney General; Branches of US Government; CIA; Departments of US Government; Gun Walking; JSOC; Mitigation Suggestions; NSC; Radar Screen; US Congress. o Also see Non-Drone Content section in the introduction to this glossary of terminology. PRIV = DHSs Privacy Office. o See: DHS; HIR; I+A; IIR.

Privacy+ (2 Oct 23) !

Privacy is not defined as a right under the US Constitution, but many


rights, relevant to the right to be left alone, if you have done nothing wrong, are included within the 1st 3rd 4th 5th and 14th amendments to the US constitution. At least 10 state constitutions do cite privacy as an explicit right, and courts in other states have declared privacy to be an implicit right implied by the Bill of Rights, and other amendments. o In addition to the constitution, there have been federal laws passed, adding privacy rights, such as: the Privacy Act; Electronic Communications Privacy Act; Fair Credit Reporting Act. Many states have passed similar laws. o See: 1st Amendment; 4th Amendment; 5th Amendment; 14th Amendment; Drone Police; Fusion Center.

Privacy - Bank Records


o In reaction to US Supreme Courts ruling in United States v. Miller, 425 U.S. 435 (1976), that the privacy of an individuals bank records were generally not protected by the 4th Amendment, Congress enacted the Right to Financial Privacy Act, P.L. 95-630, 92 Stat. 3697 (codified at 12 U.S.C. 3401-3422), creating a statutory protection for such records.474 o See: 4th Amendment; 4th Amendment Jurisprudence; Privacy Violations.

Privacy e-mail
473

http://finance.yahoo.com/news/ocean-power-technologies-u-department110000015.html;_ylt=A2KJNTtKPkZQoCwAKdD_wgt. 474 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o In transit to its destination, our e-mail goes through many intermediate Internet Service Providers (ISPs) who theoretically could capture copies beyond the need for successful transmission. Our ISP, and that of the recipient of the e-mail, could theoretically archive a record of who wrote whom what subject, content, attachments. At each link, or stage, there is a risk of data breach. When e-mail is used as part of business records, there can be requirements to archive them for some time frame. o Anything on a computer, taken across a border, can be inspected by authorities, including e-mail, cell phone text. o We send jokes to people, who forward them to lots other people, some of whom often are careless about removing e-mail addresses of those who got previous forwarding, creating gift packages of people e-mail addresses for the spammers. o There is some US legal protection here, thanks to Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, P.L. 99-508, 100 Stat. 1848 (codified at 18 U.S.C. 2701-2712), but reportedly the Patriot Act has taken some of that away. o See: 4th Amendment; Border; Wire Tapping;

Privacy Health Records


o Years ago, I worked for a company which managed the records of patients who had gone to doctors offices, or a hospital emergency room. One day, a data entry clerk informed me she was taking her break right now. No problem. I learned later she had taken two input forms with her to use as gossip with scores of co-workers. A man and a woman, with different names & addresses, had shown up at the hospital, with consecutive admission records, both suffering from severe poison ivy in the groin area. The data entry clerk was telling people We know what they were up to. At the time, this gossip was a gross violation of the patients privacy, but not illegal, nor in violation of any company policies. o If it happened today, it would be illegal, and cause the data entry company to suffer severe fines, thanks to USA legislation = Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996, P.L. 104-191, 110 Stat. 1936. o The challenge has been that many people are nosy about other peoples medical situations, whose data flows through many different institutional data bases, including medical service providers, those which pay health insurance, their respective computer staff or ASPs, potentially accessible by hundreds, if not thousands of people, without need to know all those details. o See: 4th Amendment; ASP; HIPAA.

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Privacy-Home+ (2 Sep 17) !

Privacy Home

o Traditionally, this is where the 4th Amendment has had the strongest protection.475 Until very recently, police were prohibited from entering a persons home without either a search warrant or very strong probable cause. o There was a recent case in the Indiana Supreme Court. There had been an incident, in Evansville Indiana. I live in that city, but the incident not near my residence. A husband and wife had been outside their home, having a loud argument. Neighbors called the police, fearing violence imminent. Before the police arrived, the pair went back indoors. After interviewing some witnesses, the police forced their way into the house, without any warrant, because they too were concerned about possible violence. The man tried to prevent them from entering, and got arrested for doing so. He appealed all the way to the Indiana Supreme Court, which ruled that it is wrong for anyone to demand to see a warrant, that the police may enter any residence without one, and may justifiably arrest anyone who tries to stop them. In this particular case, there had been no violence between husband and wife. There has been a lot of discussion of this in Indiana, and the Indiana legislature is considering adding rules to cover this scenario. o See: 4th Amendment; 4th Amendment Jurisprudence; EPIC; Plain View Doctrine; Privacy Violations; Search Location; See Through Walls; Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant.

Privacy Security for Computer Professionals Privacy Snail Mail

o Here is a guide to relevant US legislation.476 It is not complete, but then nothing is. o There is a US concept known as Common Carrier. In theory when we, in the USA, send stuff via snail mail to some family member, friend, another business enterprise etc., inside the USA, that content is protected under the 4 th amendment, unless the police have a search warrant or reasonable cause, that there is some imminent threat. If and when there is contraband found in snail mail, or parcels via commercial carriers like UPS Fed-X some truck company, we do not arrest the mail man. Common Carrier protects the carrier from liability. They trust the sender to obey the rules, and be honest in any declarations. o Apparently, Common Carrier protection has not been extended to electronic Internet communications or cell phone mobile traffic.

475 476

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept. http://www.unbeatenpath.com/compliance/ITComplianceStandards.pdf

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Privacy Violations+ (2 Sep 20)

Privacy Violations are an evolving threat, which we can best illustrate

with examples:477 o Persons in privacy of home, in their bedroom, bathroom, or back yard, or invitation-only gathering like a wedding or funeral, are invaded by gate crashers who photograph them, then splash those photos to be viewed by a large audience of strangers. We share pictures with friends, then those pictures are copied by strangers. o We communicate with other people, and business enterprises, through telephones, Internet, accounts with various enterprises like banks and public utility companies, ownership records and a drivers license. The entities, providing this infrastructure, have account records on us. Police might ask for copies of those records, without us being informed about the disclosure. o There is confidential info needed to open financial accounts, such as our social security #, bank account #, biometric info, passwords. This info is collected against our will by persons masquerading as ourselves, to do crimes in our name, for which we are then held accountable. o We have a computer, a phone, other device with confidential info, such as passwords, ability to identify our location, contact info with business associates, friends, and relatives. We turn off, or opt out of, this info being used by anyone other than ourselves, but unbeknownst to us, the hardware manufacturer, or software application, is doing things contrary to our settings, copying our private data, and distributing it to strangers without our express permission, or knowledge. o Our cell phone gets confiscated by the police, without giving us any receipt for what was taken, then the contents of the cell phone are destroyed. o The police arrest us, during which we offer no resistance whatsoever, but we get assaulted by the police, various ways, including allegedly nonlethal weapons. o False conclusions are drawn about us, based on incomplete data with errors. For example, a horrible criminal was found to have lived in a particular apartment complex in 2008. We were found to have lived there in 1998. We are now linked as being associated with that criminal, because a data base matching who lived with the criminal, is ignoring dates they lived at that address. o It is illegal for a person to peep in our windows, hide in our bushes, for the purpose of sexual interest in our bodies, but journalists do this at the homes of people in the news, to photograph them unexpectedly, then splash that in the tabloids. Police may monitor us to try to catch us in the act of some crime, but the US Supreme Court has ruled that gathering a big picture of all our movements is a no no.

477

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o There are military tools which can see through walls, the shapes of people bodies, male or female, young or old. These tools can be carried on drones, to locate where sodomy is going on inside residential buildings. The practice could be justified as a way to catch pedophiles. o See: EPIC; See Through Walls.

PRO+ (3 Jan 07) !


Project Deliverance o See: ATF Scandals; Deliverance Project; Gun Walking. Project Gun Runner: o See: ATF scandals; Gun Runner Project; Gun Walking. Proportionality One of the three standards of grounds for one nation to invade another, set by the Caroline Incident of 1837, until the rules got changed again due to 9/11.478 o Proportionality is associated with the amount of force needed to achieve the desired ends, and risk of collateral damage. The meaning, of this term, varies with the context. o Proportionality prohibits attacks which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated.479 o See: Civilian; Immediacy; Necessity; Self Defense; Sovereignty; Targeted Killing. PSV = post-shipment verification o See: AECA; PTC = Positive Train Control

Terms Q+ (2 Oct 23)


QDR = US Quadrennial Defense Review480 QISTUK = Quality Info Sharing Techniques to Update Agency Know How o This does not yet exist. It is another of my mitigation suggestions to fight back against government epidemics if inept activities. o Classes would be developed, to teach the following concepts: Breaking Bad series from AMC, view from beginning to end. List 50 mistakes by law enforcement and justice dept portrayed in that series, and what your agency should be doing to avoid the same mistakes.481

478

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 479 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2013/01/gregory-mcneal-on-accidental-deaths-and-targeting/
480
481

GAO Drones Military 10-508 t = 2010 March testimony.(21 pages)

I saw in very recent IG reports on US government agency operations, that Breaking Bad is a good depiction of the state of art of contemporary federal law enforcement competence

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Citizen use of video and audio recording by cell phones and other devices. Where is this legal, illegal, under what regulations? Relevant court rulings. Classified Secrecy and Whistle Blowing how to legally report problems, when they involve confidential matters. Congress Oversight what they need to know to do their job properly, and how government employees, and the general public, can do their civic duty to help achieve this reality. Constitutional protections, and how they should be interpreted in the modern age technology. Criminal behavior never prosecuted because statute of limitations had expired, thanks to law enforcement and judicial authorities slow to act, such as Cyber Bullying; Gun Walking; Pedophiles in Academic and Medical Institutions. If you suspect such behavior, who to report it to, to get swift action. Cyber Threats a review of the many different kinds of dangers, how they are evolving in severity and frequency. How computer users can protect themselves. Cost of implementing those cyber solutions. Drones can be used for what? Which of these actions require judges warrant? Which are prohibited in USA, or particular states, by what laws, agencies? Export restrictions exist for what kinds of serious weapons and technology? IG report only needs to tell us that a particular kind of institution is naked to cyber or other attacks. It does not need to give the general public (which includes me too hacker wannabees and enemies of the state world wide) a laundry list of targets and what they are vulnerable to. Include a class in how to draft audit reports which clearly describe the dangers, for policy makers and voters, without putting ammunition into the hands of dangerous people. International cooperation minimum action needed a version of this class, by agency. Lessons from disasters. Government operations which went very badly, and what we can learn from them, to not make the same mistakes. List what narrow exceptions exist for public safety. When is it legitimate to put the general public at risk of mass casualties? Is it ever appropriate to authorize this at the local level, as was apparently done with: ATF scandals; Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station; UK Hillsborough Incident? Missions and Methods used who needs to be in the loop?

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Non-Lethal weapons can be lethal, and how come? What training and procedures are needed, to reduce death rate from police use of non-lethal weapons? Privacy legislation in recent years, and latest court rulings of relevance to police activities which impinge on general public privacy. Technology advances, which have relevance to productive and economic implementation of government agency goals. Cost of using that Technology. A system would be established, where academic and other institutions nationwide would be authorized to teach these classes, offer tests, where people who think they already know the material could get certificate of passing a class, they did not need to take. Course materials would also be available for free, or very low cost, such as downloadable via Internet. The classes to be audited by relevant professionals, so that bad teachers, bad teaching materials, and bad schools, can be identified, and shut down, with warnings sent former graduates, identifying what material was no good, where recertification of those people is now needed. Persons receiving good grades in all the above subjects, would be issued QISTUK certification, good for ten years, after which it is renewable, only by taking class(es) in what has changed in last 10 years of above topics, and getting good grades there, or by taking a test to demonstrate know-how in the topics. Persons, with QISTUK certification, would be hired by OIG to tour 100% of federal offices, to review and observe 100% of their local current missions, on an annual basis, then issue report cards indicating how good a job they are doing, meeting QISTUK standards. A = Doing a good job meeting all requirements, with staff competent in these topics. F = Totally inept operation which should be ended PDQ (Pretty Damn Quick). These report cards, with explanations how the grades were figured out, would be delivered to: those operations; their chain of command; relevant OIG HQ; and Congress oversight committees. See: 1st Amendment; 4th Amendment Jurisprudence; AMC; ATF Scandals; ATC; CAISUCA; Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station; Fast and Furious Flaws; Fusion center; Gun Runner Flaws; Gun Walking; IBM Education Card; IG; Mitigation Suggestions; OIG; OSII Suggestions; privacy; Sosa; Southwest Border Initiative; Wide Receiver Flaws.

Terms R+ (2 Nov 04)


R2-D2 (I do not know what the letters stand for, as in acronym naming):

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o From the Wookleepedia,482 QUOTE o An R2-series astromech droid manufactured by Industrial Automaton prior to 32 BBY. Resourceful and spunky, the droid developed an adventurous personality during his many decades of operation. Inside of his cylindrical frame were many arms, sensors, and other tools that could be extended to fulfill various needs, such as slicing computers, extinguishing fires, projecting holograms, repairing starships, and flying. o UNQUOTE o See C3PO RAAF = Roswell Army Air Field483 RAC = Resident Agent in Charge. See: SAC. RAF = Royal Air Force of Britain, UK. RAID 2 different meanings RAID = Rapid Aerostat Initial Deployment. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map484 TOC Appendix A.2 on Unmanned Airship Systems (UAS). RAID = a type of mirrored disk backup system, such that a hard disk can crash without losing anything or bringing down a computer network. RAIM = Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring Radar Screen(s): When I write that some concept did not seem to be on some organizational radar screen(s), I mean that competent people, with a good understanding of the overall situation, should have factored this consideration into their overall planning. o Their failure implies either: o They are not the right people for the job, and/or o Theres a serious management insufficiency of relevant resource support. o See: ATF Scandals; Fast and Furious Flaws; Fast and Furious HQ Fantasy Picture; Group Think; Gun Walking; Gun Walking Dysfunctional Pattern; QISTUK; Wide Receiver; Wide Receiver Causes; Wide Receiver Policy Violations; Unintended Consequences. RAPS = Robotic Aircraft for Public Safety485 Raw Intelligence = information about an event, which has not yet been subject to any analysis. RB = Reporting Bureau, of DHS I+A office, receives reports from Fusion Centers, redistributes them to relevant federal agencies. o IOs (Intelligence Officers) work for SLPO of DHS, while ROs (Reporting Officers) work for RB of DHS, creating a cleft in the chain of command, where RB responsible for quality of report, but not for quality of info gathering which goes into the report, or the personnel doing so. When an IO routinely supplied garbage, there was nothing the RB could do about that.

482 483

http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/R2-D2 This is where 1947 Roswell Incident occurred. See Scandals chapter of Drone Reports, for clues. 484 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 485 http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/10/robotic-aircraft-public-safety/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o See: DHS; Fusion Center; Fusion Center Recommendations; I+A; IIR; IO; SLPO; RO.

R/C+ (2 Oct 26)


R/Cs = Radio Controlled RCS = Real Time Control System R+D = Research and Development
RDT&E = Research, Development, Test and Evaluation

R+E = Research and Engineering RE3C3 = Robotic Extraction. Evacuation and En-route Combat Casualty Care. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map486 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. Reciprocity = the concept that if one nation can behave a certain way towards other nations, then other nations can behave the same way back again. 487 o Perhaps the ATF cannot be sued in US courts, under US law, for Gun Walking to Mexico, but can the US be sued in other nations, for ATF alleged violations of international law? If US loses, can others collect? Only if the US has more assets and money they can seize, than theirs that the US can seize. o If it had been legitimate in Sosa, for the US DEA to organize a Citizens Arrest, in Mexico, or someone wanted by America, then smuggle them to US courts for trial, then it is legitimate for other nations to kidnap any American government official, and smuggle them to other nations for trial. o If it is legitimate for US federal courts to have a law suit against Shell, a British-Dutch corporation, for their alleged violation of human rights in Nigeria, then it is legitimate for a German court to take legal action against US officials, for their alleged role in violation of human rights with drone strikes in Pakistan, or torture at Abu Graib in Iraq. o The fact is that other nations, all the time, are trying to bring such court cases, and the USA is fighting them. o See: ATF Scandals; ATS; DEA; Gun Walking; ICC; ICJ; International Law Courts; National Laws; Sosa. REAR = Rapidly Aerostat Initial Deployment. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map488 TOC Appendix A.2 on Unmanned Airship Systems (UAS). Regime Change489 is when one type of government, or collection of leaders, is replaced by another, by other than the local constitutional method, such as a revolution, civil war, coup, assassinations, or other military or covert action. o This terminology was first used in the 20th century, but the activity long predates that.

486 487

http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf Another interpretation https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/10/negative_reciprocity.html 488 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 489 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regime_change https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Covert_United_States_foreign_regime_change_actions https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overthrow_%28book%29

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM The first regime change by USA military, known to the general public, was against the monarchy of Hawaii, 490 orchestrated by US capitalist interests, without the foreknowledge of Washington DC. o Many regime changes are a great disappointment to the perpetrators and their descendants. Look at the pain inflicted upon East Germany by the Soviets after WW II. This might never have happened had Germany not perpetrated regime change during WW I, by introducing communist revolutionaries into Tsarist Russia. In fact the world today would be very different, if communism was still a discredited philosophy, never adopted by any government. The USA and Iran would be peaceful friends today, were it not for the CIA regime change putting the Shah of Iran into power, replacing a benevolent monarch, because BP did not like paying taxes to help Iranian infrastructure.

REMUS = Remote Environmental Monitoring Unit System

Rendition+ (2 Dec 01) !

Rendition is when someone, who is suspected of being an enemy, is captured,


then taken to some nation where they can be tortured for a year or so, in hopes of getting them to confess. When the torture victim is in fact innocent, they try to invent some story they think the torturers want to hear, to stop the torture. This may be where the story came from about WMD in Iraq. o Robot Rendition is when a Drone captures the person, using robot arms,491 and takes them to the place where they will be tortured. 492 o See: Right of not Self-Incrimination in 5th Amendment of US Constitution. Resiliency = stuff happens493 RF = Radio Frequency. o RF, used to communicate with aircraft (manned and unmanned) over the USA, are regulated by the FCC o See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map494 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. o Also see: FCC; ITU.
RFID = Radio Frequency Identification495

490 491

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overthrow_of_the_Hawai%27ian_Monarchy http://www.lasvegasweekly.com/photos/2012/aug/09/439185/ 492 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/08/mcneal-on-drones-that-can-capture-rather-than-kill/ http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregorymcneal/2012/08/11/a-drone-that-captures-rather-than-kills/ http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/08/robot-rendition-will-there-one-day-be-machines-that-capture-ratherthan-kill/ 493 https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2012/09/stopping_terror.html 494 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 495 See RFID mentioned in Drone Robots, within context of a school in Texas mandating that students have this, so that they can be tracked at all times, by school authorities, and by criminals seeking to kidnap

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RGB-R = Red, Green, Blue RHIB = Rigid-hulled inflatable boat RMS = Remote Mine hunting System RO = Reports Officer. The RB (Reporting Bureau of DHS I+A) started sending ROs to Fusion Centers in 2008. o IO (Intelligence Officer) and RO are limited by Presidential Executive Order496 to overt collection practices, including info acquisition from: Observation, government-to-government dialog, elicitation, and sharing of data openly acquired, where the info sources know

the info is being shared. o See: DHS; Fusion Center; I+A; IO; RB; SRO. Robo Cop497 = A robot which performs the functions of a police officer. Robo Fish498 = name for one kind of under water drone. Robo Signing See: Wide Receiver Causes.

Robot+ (2 Dec 02)


Robot Fish see footnote.499 They can go anywhere a real fish can go. Robot Governor Still being designed, to give drones ethics desired by DoD and the rules of war. It needs to be able to do the many things required of humans, on the battlefield, to distinguish between real enemies and innocent bystanders.500 o See: DoD; Geneva Convention; LOAC. o Also see Drone Robots, on implications of the development of killer drones without a human in the loop. Robotics = Engineering hardware which mimics or simulates actions which
humans previously or traditionally have done.501 Examples:

o Military machines clearing mines. o Robot which travels around floor in some peoples homes, picking up various garbage. o Robot which travels around swimming pool, keeping it clean. o Semi-automated factory machines.
ROE = Rules of Engagement ROI = Report of Investigation.

them. At least one student protested, school suspended the kid for refusing to wear the RFID, a court reversed the school. 496 Executive Order 12333, as amended, http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/eo/eo-12333-2008.pdf. 497 http://www.copblock.org/21628/your-move-creep-researchers-building-robocop-policeman/ 498 http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/scientists-working-on-developing-robotic-fishthat-could-be-used-as-naval-drones/2012/10/23/9cf834f0-1cea-11e2-8817-41b9a7aaabc7_story.html 499 http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2012/09/21/robot-tuna-joins-homeland-security-arsenal/ http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/scientists-working-on-developing-robotic-fishthat-could-be-used-as-naval-drones/2012/10/23/9cf834f0-1cea-11e2-8817-41b9a7aaabc7_story.html 500 http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/5223454-the-ethical-and-moral-concerns-of-autonomousrobotic-systems 501 http://www.scribd.com/doc/68465245/Mobile-Robotics

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM RONS = Remote Ordinance Neutralization System. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map502 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). ROV = Remotely Operated (Underwater) Vehicle503 RPA = Remote Piloted Aircraft
RPAS = Remotely Piloted Air Systems

RPV = Remote Piloted Vehicle RQ = Registration Required. Many web sites are not open to the anonymous public, but require some kind of registration before we can access all the info. Even when access is free, some people object to the kind of info we need to divulge about ourselves to access that info. RS232 is more a communications hardware standard than a computer standard, although it is used heavily, but not exclusively, as a way for computer hardware peripherals to intercommunicate with each other and their CPU, or network. o We can expect that experimental student and hobby drones probably use this to connect info between Drone communications controller and GUI data management. o If I was designing military drones, I would use computer standards other than those found generally in academia and hobbyists, to put an extra layer of security against hacking spoofing hijacking, etc. RSS = Rich Site Summary504 o See: FIG-LEAF.
RSO = Remote-Split Operations RSTA = Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition RT = Real Time. RTCA, formerly the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics, is a

private, not-for-profit corporation, which has worked with the FAA, to develop guidance on software considerations for airborne systems and equipment, to protect them against signal interference, and hacking.505 o See: EUROCAE; FAA.

Terms S+ (3 Feb 26) !


SA = Special Agent. S&A = Sense and Avoid. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map506 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. SAA = State Administrative Agency, is the organization at state level which receives HSGP funds from FEMA, then spends on whatever appropriate purpose, such as body armor, drones, fusion centers. o Prior to receiving funds, SAA would have made application to FEMA.

502 503

http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remotely_operated_underwater_vehicle 504 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSS


505

Federal Aviation Administration, Advisory Circular 20-115BRadio Technical Commission for Aeronautics, Inc. Document RTCA/DO-178B, January 11, 1993 Also discussed in Drone Notes section on US Gov GAO finds barriers for droning.
506

http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o After receiving funds, SAA makes semi-annual reports to FEMA to show progress of the grant money being used appropriately. o Biannual Strategy Implementation Reports (BSIRs) is what they are called. o See: BSIR; DHS; FEMA; HSGP. SAC = Special Airworthiness Certificate issued by FAA to a drone manufacturer. SAC = Special Agent in Charge, typically of an office or a team. SAR = several meanings SAR = Synthetic Aperture Radar measures reflections of emitted microwaves and can penetrate through rain, fog, smoke and dust, providing surveillance capabilities in poor weather and in maritime and desert environments which can augment or replace IR and millimeter wave sensors. SAR = Selected Acquisition Reports (of DoD).507 o See: ASP; DoD. SAR = Suspicious Activity Reports. o See: eGuardian; Fusion Center; NSI. Satellites Disposable: Launched by a jet into orbit, they would provide surveillance for wherever a battlefield now exists. 508 SAWS = Semi-autonomous weapon system o The International Committee for Robot Arms Control (IRAC)509 says the DoD defines SAWS, as QUOTE: o A weapon system that, once activated, is intended to only engage individual targets or specific target groups that have been selected by a human operator. The category includes systems that automatically acquire, track, identify and prioritize potential targets or cue humans to their presence, provided that human control is retained over the decision to select individual targets and specific target groups for engagement. It also includes weapons with terminal homing guidance, and fire and forget weapons where the target has been human-selected. o UNQUOTE o See: Autonomous Drone; AWS; DoD. o In Drone Robots, see SAWS, where I express misgivings about fire and forget implications. SBS = Satellite Border Surveillance o We apparently do not have this. It is one of my suggestions what is needed, assuming the government agencies are interested in doing their job, as opposed to spinning wheels to provide full employment

507

American Security Project uses such data in Drone Cost Analysis. http://americansecurityproject.org/issues/asymmetric-operations/the-strategic-effects-of-a-lethal-dronespolicy/ http://www.scribd.com/doc/102744195/The-Strategic-Context-of-LethalDrones?secret_password=2fk4qznpqupr7fraj21g 508 http://www.forbes.com/sites/alexknapp/2013/02/19/move-over-drones-here-come-disposable-satellites/ 509 http://icrac.net/2012/11/dod-directive-on-autonomy-in-weapon-systems/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM to government employees, government contractors, and the criminal underworld. o Have NASA or USAF launch a satellite to be positioned over the US SW border, in a 24 hour orbit (stay there 24x7) with ability to read FAA & military signals from planes & ships (who am I?). o Any not identified, or identified, but not on reported flight plan, to be intercepted by CBP ICE USCG, or Mexican authorities, depending on type of vehicle, where on border, and direction across border, for inspection. o See: Armas Cruzadas; CBP; DEA; ICE; Mitigation Solutions; USCG. SCADA = supervisory control and data acquisition.510 o This kind of equipment runs the nations pipelines, power distribution, traffic lights, 911, ATC, water supply, all sorts of infrastructure, was originally designed stand-alone, no need for any cyber security. o Then companies began interconnecting them with corporate networks, which are under constant bombardment by malware and hackers, without first adding some meaningful layer of protection. o A lot of technology is implemented with no security, then security needs considered s an afterthought. I call it applying a padlock to a Boy Scout tent, where security is no good unless it is designed from the ground up, of what is to be protected. o See: Needle in Haystack. SCG = Security Classification Guide.511 Scribd512 = an Internet site sharing documents uploaded by many people, available for download by other people. Here is what has been uploaded by Alister Wm Macintyre.513 SCIF = OSII Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility. o See: ATF Scandals; Gun Walking; OIG; OSII. SCUD = a type of missile developed by the Soviets during the Cold War. 514
SDR = Software for Distributed Robots

Sea Fox = a 4-foot-long, remote-controlled submarine capable of hunting for undersea mines and detonating them,515 made in Germany.516 SEAL = Sea Air and Land US Navy elite fighting teams.517

510 511

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCADA https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/07/fcgr_early_results.html 512 http://www.scribd.com/ 513 http://www.scribd.com/AlMac99 514 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scud 515 http://www.newser.com/story/150093/us-sends-underwater-drones-to-persian-gulf.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-12376140 516 http://triblive.com/usworld/world/2196532-73/iran-strait-navy-officials-oil-drones-mine-minesminesweeping-close 517 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Navy_SEALs

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Search Location+ (3 Feb 26)

Search Location, by Drone, has legal precedents.518


o Whether a drone targeted individual is at home, in his backyard, in the public square, or near a national border will play a large role in determining whether he is entitled to 4th Amendment privacy. Equally important is the sophistication of the technology used by law enforcement and the duration of the surveillance. o Existing case law implies that it would be unlawful to spy on a person, inside their home, without a search warrant, unless the spying was limited to simple technology which only shows what anyone can see from outside the home. o Manned and unmanned aircraft in air space, where legal to fly, over peoples private property, is probably the same as over public property. They may view anything, which is in plain sight, and do not need a search warrant to do so. o There is uncertainty in applicability of past court rulings, where people might be under a variety of surveillance for a prolonged time period, whether this is unreasonable under the 4 th Amendment. o See: 4th Amendment; 4th Amendment Jurisprudence; 4th Amendment Warrant; Border; Curtilage; Drone Police; Fly-Over; Open Fields; Plain View Doctrine; Privacy-Home; See through Walls; Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant; Vehicle Tracking; Wire Tapping. Secretariat of Public Security of Mexico. See: GC Armas. Security Mirror is when a person defines security based on what they know how to do, ignoring what other people may be able to do. This is one reason why we have an epidemic of cyber security breaches. There are other reasons. Security Theater is when it is more important to send a message that we are doing a good job with security, than to actually do a good job. Airport security is a prime example. Security Theater, Smoke, and Mirrors is when people propose solutions, which are disconnected from any sane reality, where the people and their proposals are more important than the end mission. o For example, many US states mandate security on school buses which are exactly the kind of systems which kill and maim children in crashes, as found by national safety testing, which have also found systems which work effectively, but are illegal in most US states. SEAMOS = Sea reconnaissance and location system.519 SeeMe: See Satellites Disposable.

518 519

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept. https://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/row/seamos.htm

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See Through Walls+ (2 Sep 16) !


See Through Walls is a developing technology which some civilians fear may be misused by law enforcement and justice system. o The US Supreme Court remarked in Kyllo v. United States, 533 U.S. 27, 37 (2001):520 o The ability to see through walls and other opaque barriers is a clear, and scientifically feasible, goal of law enforcement research and development. The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, a program within the United States Department of Justice, features on its Internet Website projects that include a Radar-Based Through-the-Wall Surveillance System, Handheld Ultrasound Through the Wall Surveillance, and a Radar Flashlight that will enable law officers to detect individuals through interior building walls. o This case involved the use of thermal imaging by government agents, without a warrant, to search the home of Danny Kyllo. The Court ruled that this constituted a search, and was improper to do so, without a warrant, under protection of the 4 th amendment, specifically obtaining info about the inside of a home that could not otherwise be obtained except by entering the home, through the use of technology not in general public use, is a search covered by the 4th Amendment. o See 4th Amendment; 4th Amendment Jurisprudence; Drone Police; Plain View Doctrine; Privacy-Home; Privacy-Violations; Search Location.
SET = Satellite Enterprise Transformation SIGINT = Signals Intelligence

Self Defense+ (2 Oct 27) !

Self Defense: It is generally recognized in ordinary civil law, that civilians have
a right of self defense. If you reasonably believe that someone seeks to kill you, or do bodily harm, like rape, and you cannot get away from them, and the threat against you is imminent, you are justified in using deadly force to protect yourself. Nations also have a similar principle, but it does not work the same way.521 The threat does not have to be imminent.

o Historically, nations had a sovereign right to frequently attack each other for all sorts of questionable reasons. In drafting the U.N. Charter, member states sought to reduce the incidence of war. Of over 200 nations in the world, there are a few which have not joined the UN, and are thus not bound by its treaty constraints.

520 521

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Nations were granted right of self-defense, until the UN Security Council has agreed on measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. o I interpret this to mean the USA is free to use drones anywhere in the world against alleged participants in terrorist threats, until the UN Security Council orders it to stop, but the US has veto power over any such command. Then after any such order is implemented, any new terrorist threat means drone retaliation is once again authorized. o I also interpret this to mean that Israel was justified in using military to block ships allegedly carrying humanitarian supplies, until they could prove they were not carrying any weapons to the enemies of Israel. o The way the UN charter is written, nations may only use self defense after an enemy attacks them, but US administration policy uses pre-emptive attacks on those the US believes threaten attacks, to try to prevent those alleged attacks from taking place. o Prior to 9/11, rules were based on the 1837 Caroline incident, where British troops, in Canada, attacked a private US ship while it was moored for the night on the New York side of the Niagara River, asserting that the ship was being used to provide supplies to insurrectionists against British rule in Canada. The results of the diplomatic squabble between US and Britain over this, established three conditions of necessity, proportionality, and immediacy (or imminence) as establishing the grounds for invoking the right to resort to force extraterritorially. 522 o Attorney General Eric Holder in a March 2012 speech at Northwestern University School of Law, stated that QUOTE:523 The US Constitution empowers the President to protect the nation from any imminent threat of violent attack and noted that international law recognizes the inherent right of national self-defense. He said that such authority is not limited to Afghanistan, citing the AUMF and domestic court decisions, but recognized that international legal principles constrain operations abroad. Lethal operations, by the US, are legal in other countries, he maintained, if the host nation provided its consent or a determination had been made that the nation is unable or unwilling to deal effectively with a threat to the United States. UNQUOTE

522

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 523 523 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May.

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o

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM


See: AUMF; Citizen of USA; Geneva Conventions; International Law; Sovereignty. Sergeant. See: Army Combat Structure.

SG+ (3 Mar 02) !


SGD = See: Suspect Guns Database. SID = Special Investigation Division of TPD (Tucson Police Dept. o See: Gun Walking. SIEDO = Mexican Specialized Unit for the Investigation of Organized Crime o See: Gun Walking. Signature Strikes = CIA or military sees a particular pattern of activity, which they associate with enemy activity, and authorize a strike on that basis, without knowing the identity of the persons, or whatever the true circumstances. 524 o These are also known as Personality Strikes.525 SIN = Standing Information Needs of DHS. o See: DHS. SIPRI = Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 526 SISMEC = Southwest Initiative for the Study of Middle Eastern Conflicts, housed in the School of Middle East and North African Studies at the University of Arizona, has compiled a drone database to track all U.S. drone attacks outside identified war zones. Sky Net = name of artificial intelligence used to control drones in war against humans, in Terminator movies,527 and now is also the official name of one of the types of drones used by US military.528
SLOC = Software Lines of Code SLPO = State and Local Program Office of DHS, acts as a service bureau to Fusion Centers, expediting security clearances for state and local law enforcement personnel, and training liaison officers.

o IOs (Intelligence Officers) work for SLPO of DHS, while ROs (Reporting Officers) work for RB of DHS, creating a cleft in the chain of command, where RB responsible for quality of report, but not for quality
524

http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2012/06/13/members-of-congress-call-on-obama-to-justify-drone-strikes/ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/14/opinion/how-drones-help-al-qaeda.html http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/10/kevin-jon-heller-on-the-legality-of-signature-strikes/ http://opiniojuris.org/2012/10/30/new-article-on-the-legality-of-signature-strikes/ https://www.propublica.org/article/drone-war-doctrine-we-know-nothing-about

"One Hell of a Killing Machine": Signature Strikes and International Law


https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2169089 which I have downloaded, see Drone Reports. 525 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012) 526 http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4296758,00.html 527 See chapter on Science Fiction, in Drone Notes. 528 http://static.usenix.org/event/woot11/tech/final_files/Reed.pdf

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM of info gathering which goes into the report, or the personnel doing so. When an IO routinely supplied garbage, there was nothing the RB could do about that.

o See: DHS; Fusion Center; I+A; IIR; IO; RB; RO.


SLTT = State, Local, Tribal, and Territorial. SMC = Space and Missile Systems Center SMCM = Surface Mine Counter measure SOA = Service Oriented Architecture SOR = Statement of Reasons529

Sosa+ (2 Oct 18) !

Sosa is a US Supreme Court ruling530 on ATS, with complex consequences


o I have heard legal scholars on C-Span, and other places, discussing this case, in which they seem to have very different interpretations of the precedents, and why the court ruled one way or the other. o A Mexican national, Alvarez Machain, had been indicted in the US for allegedly torturing and murdering a DEA officer in 1985, in his role as an alleged member of a Mexican drug cartel. o The US was unable to extradite Alvarez thru Mexican courts, so the US paid another Mexican national, Sosa, to kidnap Alvarez, and bring him to America to stand trial. o Alvarez appealed this as illegal, and the 9th circuit agreed, but the US Supreme Court reversed it, saying the trial could continue, but Alvarez had grounds for a civil suit for illegal kidnapping o When Alvarez was tried, he was found innocent, because of insufficient evidence. He then filed civil suits in the USA, against the USA and Sosa and Sosas confederates, under FTCA and ATS. o The government claimed that FTCA only applies to activities which occur inside the USA, while the kidnapping occurred in Mexico. o The government, and the Mexican nationals, claimed that ATS allowed US courts to hear claims against foreign nationals, but did not allow private individuals to bring those claims. o The federal district court rejected all those claims, saying Sosa was liable for the kidnapping, but DEA was exempted for orchestrating it. o The 9th District Court of Appeals let stand Sosa in trouble, but overturned DEA exempt, declaring the DEA was liable for authorizing an illegal citizens arrest in a foreign nation. o Some lessons from this story: When a government agency has evidence leading to the desire to arrest someone who is in another nation, you better get pretty good evidence, enough for a court to convict them, before you start down the road of trying to make a capture. Thanks to this inept operation, the tortured DEA agent never gets justice.

529 530

http://cryptome.org/dodi/sec-clear-denied.pdf https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sosa_v._Alvarez-Machain

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM If some US agency tries to recruit someone to do a citizens arrest of some person, outside the USA, for which the US wants for some alleged crime, that someone had better be aware that this request is illegal under US law, and the someone can be held liable for kidnapping. o See ATS; DEA; Extradition; FTCA; International Law Courts; Legal Nexus to USA; Reciprocity. Southwest Border Initiative by ATF seeks to reduce cross-border: Drug, human, and firearms trafficking; Cartels and Gangs; And the high level of associated violence, On both sides of the US Mexico border. o Dealing with this requires ATF to work with other federal state and local
entities, sharing intelligence, coordinating law enforcement, and building cases which can be prosecuted. ATF appears to be good at: none of the above. Cooperation with Mexican authorities also seems to be missing from their radar screens. o See: ATF; Gun Runner Project; QISTUK; Radar Screens.

Sovereignty = Each nation is responsible for what happens inside its borders.
Nations are supposed to refrain from doing anything violent inside the borders of other nations, unless they have the permission of the government there, they are at war with that nation, or conditions meet the Caroline Test. o Drone attacks by Nation-A inside Nation-B normally need the permission of Nation-B, in addition to meeting other legal constraints, discussed in the section on International Law of my Drone Scribd document. o Prior to UN Charter changing the rules, under which UN members are allowed to attack one another, intervention by force could be justified without consent on the territory of another state, which did not itself initiate an armed attack, on the basis that the invaded or injured state is unable or unwilling to remove the threat emanating from its territory.531 o I interpret this to justify a lot of actions by Israel upon adjacent territories from which there have been multiple attacks, except Israel is a member of the UN, and thus theoretically precluded from doing this against other member states of the UN, which Palestine is not yet a member of the UN club. o See: Caroline Incident of 1837; International Law; Self Defense.

SP+ (3 Feb 01) !



531

SP2S = Stealthy, Persistent, Perch and Stare. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map532 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets Spanish eTrace See: ATF; eTrace 4.0.

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 532 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf

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SPAWAR = Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command SPIN = Special Instruction 533 SPSS = Self-Propelled Semi-Submersible, typically used in drug smuggling Spyware found on computers and mobile phones, in fact anything which has computer functions, such as our automobiles and other transportation, can be to help companies market products to us, employers spy on employees, parents spy on children and their spouses, governments spy on the people.534 o See: PHVPH.

Squad. See: Army Combat Structure. Squadron. See: Army Combat Structure.
SRO = Senior Reporting Officer. o See: DHS; Fusion Center; I+A; RO. SSGN = Guided-Missile Submarine SSKSSGN = Diesel Submarine Guided-Missile Submarine SSN = Attack submarine SSNSSK = Fast Attack Submarine Diesel Submarine S+T multiple meaning uses

S+T = Science and Technology S+T = Science and Technology Directorate535 of DHS o See: DHS. START = Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism.536 Also see: Statistics. State = US Dept of State, in some government documents. o See: AECA; BINLEA; CBP Suggestions; CCL; Departments of US Government; DDTC; ISE; MTCR; NAS; PM-ISE; Wassenaar Arrangement. Stealth = Vehicles which are invisible, or almost invisible on standard detection systems, like radar, human visibility. We now have drones with stealth.537 Straw Purchaser is when a person purchases weapons, claiming for self, then almost immediately resells to someone else. This activity is not in violation of federal law. However, making false statements on gun purchase forms, that you are not doing that, is illegal. o See Gun Walking. Strike, Personality: when the drone strike is an assassination attempt aimed at a known person, although there have been cases of mistaken identity, killing someone believed to be the person the US wanted dead. 538

533 534

http://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=689011 http://www.wired.com/opinion/2012/10/from-spyware-to-mobile-malware/ http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/08/13/elusive-finspy-spyware-pops-up-in-10-countries/ https://www.fbi.gov/sandiego/press-releases/2012/smartphone-users-should-be-aware-of-malwaretargeting-mobile-devices-and-the-safety-measures-to-help-avoid-compromise 535 http://www.gizmag.com/homeland-security-predictions/24452/


536

http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data collections/

537 538

http://aviationintel.com/2012/09/28/lockheeds-various-ucav-concept-remains-intriguing/ https://www.propublica.org/article/everything-we-know-so-far-about-drone-strikes See in Drone Dates.

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153

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Also see: War Crimes. o There was a case of mistaken identity, where the person who got killed was running for Pakistani political office, and unconnected to who the US wanted killed. Also the whole staff of the election campaign personnel was with the person, killed also. In civilian law, if you kill someone, it does not matter what your intention was, what matters is you deliberately killed someone. Should it be any different in international law? Strike, Signature: See Signature Strike. o The identity of the target is not known, but pattern of behavior, leads what passes for intelligence to think the enemy is a militant, hostile to the US interests.539 o Also see TDIS. STUAS = Small Tactical Unmanned Aircraft Systems,540 See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map541 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).

SU+ (3 Jan 28)

SUAS = Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems542


SUBFORS&TSSN = Submarine Force Science and Technology Fast Attack Submarine SUBFORSUBFOR = Submarine Force Submarine Force

539 540

SUGV = Small Unmanned Ground Vehicle. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map543 TOC Appendix B on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). Suicide Bombing (also known as suicide attack, homicide bombing, or "kamikaze") is an attack intended to kill others and inflict widespread damage, in which the attacker expects or intends to die in the process. 544 o News reports about children, with bombs strapped to them, who were intercepted before the bombs went off, report that the children were told that they would not be hurt in the explosions, when in fact the bombs would have also killed them. Suicide Drone = a type of flying bomb.545 Suspect Guns Database (SGC) has info about guns, suspected of being illegally trafficked, but not recovered, and identity of relevant ATF investigation(s). Not accessible by police agencies outside the ATF. o See: ATF; Gun Walking; National tracing Center. Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant:

https://www.propublica.org/article/everything-we-know-so-far-about-drone-strikes http://security.blogs.cnn.com/2012/07/03/marines-betting-big-on-new-small-drone/ 541 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 542 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle http://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=696153 543 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 544 .Wikipedia and http://pakistanbodycount.org/definitions 545 http://www.innovationnewsdaily.com/550-suicide-drone-army-switchblade.html http://aviationintel.com/2012/10/01/meet-kais-devil-killer-the-reusable-uav-missile/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Whether a Warrant is needed or not depends on whether the court thinks the drone activity constitutes a search; the searched location, technology used, purposes of drone activity beyond mere law enforcement, and whether society would respect drone targets expectation of privacy in the place searched.546 o See: 4th Amendment Warrant; Border; Curtilage; Drone Police; FlyOver; Plain View Doctrine; Privacy-Home; Search Location; Vehicle Tracking.

SUT = System Under Test

SWAT = Special Weapons and Tactics Team547 used by law enforcement. SWB = South West Border region of the USA.548 See: Gun Walking. SWBI = SW Border Initiative. See: ATF; South West Border Initiative. SWORDS = Special Weapons Observation Reconnaissance Detection System.549 This is a semi-autonomous robot, first used in Iraq, roaming the battle-field with weapons like: M-16 rifle;.50-caliber machine gun; 40mm grenade launcher; or an antitank rocket launcher. It is a drone traveling along the ground, with a human controller at some distant remote location. Systemic550 = Something spread through out, all over. A systemic problem is failure by design, or lack of imagination on the radar screen of the people in charge. o See: Radar Screen.

Terms T+ (2 Dec 02) !


TACMAV = Tactical Mini Unmanned Air Vehicle. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map551 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). Taco Copter = Deliver Tacos to customers by drone helicopter.552 TAGS = Tactical Amphibious Ground Support System. See page 8 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map553 TOC Appendix D on Technology Enabler Data Sheets. Taliban Good or Bad. From Pakistan perspective, Good Taliban are those which do not attack Pakistan. Pakistan could care less if they attack Afghanistan.554 Talin Manual555 = International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare.

546 547

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SWAT 548 http://www.washingtontimes.com/blog/inside-politics/2013/jan/28/new-border-security-relies-drones/ 549 http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/5223454-the-ethical-and-moral-concerns-of-autonomousrobotic-systems 550 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemic 551 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 552 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yLVMha6fNgI&t=5m32s 553 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 554 http://tribune.com.pk/story/456795/delinking-drones-and-terrorism/ 555 Talin Manual http://www.ccdcoe.org/249.html http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/09/the-tallin-manual-authorized-version/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM TARDIS = Time and Relative Distance in Space, a Time Machine and Space Craft used by the British Science Fiction TV Character Doctor Who.556

Targeted Killing+ (3 Jan 24)


Targeted Killing557 is not defined under international law, but some implications558 are discussed in this UN report.559 Multiple reports evaluating international law implications of drones are in Drone Scribd. Typically nations which carry out such assassinations, and other killings, deny they are doing so, keep it secret. See examples in Drone Dates time line, of what happened when, and how we found out. o Here is info about a memorandum to US Congress on the topic.560 I have downloaded several relevant CRS reports,561 listed in Drone Reports directory. o Since 9/11, more than 95 per cent of more than 400 non-battlefield targeted killings562 by the USA have been conducted by drones (the remaining five per cent were Joint Special Operations Command raids, AC-130 gunships, and offshore sea- or air-launched cruise missiles).563 o DoD General Counsel Jeh Johnson, in a Feb 2012 speech at Yale Law School, explained that targeting decisions are an Executive function not subject to Judicial review: 564

556 557

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TARDIS Targeted Killing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Targeted_killing http://www.aclu.org/national-security/al-aulaqi-v-panetta http://www.aclu.org/national-security/obama-administration-files-midnight-brief-defending-secrecysurrounding-targeted https://www.aclu.org/secure/tell-top-lawyers-cia-and-pentagon-end-illegal-targetedkillings?ms=web_targeted_killings_ac http://www.mepc.org/journal/middle-east-policy-archives/drone-warfare-blowback-new-american-waywar?print http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/12/george-will-on-drones-assassination-and-targeted-killing/ 558 http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/george-will-drones-have-a-place-in-modernwarfare/2012/12/07/7a91c88a-409f-11e2-bca3-aadc9b7e29c5_story.html?tid=wp_ipad via http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/12/todays-headlines-and-commentary-325/ 559 See in official document collection: UN Drone Legalities 2010 May. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/14session/A.HRC.14.24.Add6.pdf 560 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html 561 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html which I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. Also https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf which I called: CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept. CRS = Congressional Research Service FAS = Federation of American Scientists 562 http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/10/30/the_long_third_war?page=full 563 http://opencanada.org/features/the-think-tank/essays/lethal-drones/ 564 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o U.S. State Department Legal Adviser, Harold Hongju Koh, in a March 2010 speech to American Society of International Law, explained that the USA is engaged in an armed conflict with alQaeda, the Taliban and associated forces. This gives the US justification to kill those people, either under the laws of armed conflict, in self defense, or both.565 o Attorney General Eric Holder in a March 2012 speech at Northwestern University School of Law, defended the legality of the lethal targeting program.566 He asserted that QUOTE:567 AUMF provides domestic authority and the existence of an armed conflict provides international legal authority to target enemy belligerents. Lethal operations, by the US, are legal in other countries, he maintained, if the host nation provided its consent or a determination had been made that the nation is unable or unwilling to deal effectively with a threat to the United States. UNQUOTE o Notre Dame law professor Mary Ellen O'Connell insists targeted killings are illegal under international law.568 "We wouldn't accept or want a world in which Russia or China or Iran is claiming authority to kill alleged enemies of the state based on secret evidence of the executive branch alone," O'Connell said. "And yet that's the authority we're asserting." I believe that is the world we are going to get, because the USA has created a precedent for other nations to copy. o See: Assassination; AUMF; Civilian; Citizens of USA; Co-Belligerents; CRS; Distinction; DoD; Geneva Convention; International Law; LOAC; Proportionality; Self Defense; Unlawful Combatant; . TARS = Tethered Aerostat Radar System. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map569 TOC Appendix A.2 on Unmanned Airship Systems (UAS).

Taser+ (3 Feb 01) !

565

"Taser" is a trademark of Taser International.570

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html which I downloaded, calling my copy:

CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 566 Full Transcript of Eric Holder speech: https://publicintelligence.net/attorney-general-eric-holderspeech-on-targeted-killing-of-u-s-citizens-full-transcript/ 567 https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/targeted_killing.html I downloaded, calling my copy: CRS Kill US Citizen Legalities 2012 May. 568 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/10/todays-headlines-and-commentary-286/ http://touch.latimes.com/#section/-1/article/p2p-72796888/ 569 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 570 Non-Lethal weapons can kill and maim. While police may be authorized to use them with the intent of temporarily stunning, or restraining a suspect, they can cause great pain, permanent injury, even death. There is considerable evidence that some police departments mis-use them, to torture people, some of them innocent.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o See: Drone Police. o In Drone Notes, see: Financial Alternatives chapter, in Statistics section; Police with Weaponized Drones, in Non-Lethal Kills; Where in USA section, with chapters on Police by City, County, and State, reported to be using drones. TaserDrone is like a flying police dog. It stuns the target person, then hovers over them, to keep them stunned.571 TBA = Technology Briefing Agency o No such agency exists, but I suggest that government has an emergency need for one. Its function would be as follows: o People within that agency would each specialize in different areas of science and technology, tracking advances in what can be done, and the legal implications. o They would tour other agencies to provide briefings on what we think you need to know, regarding how you can do your job better, with the new advances in science and technology, and their legal implications. o See: ATF Scandals; DSA; GAO; MSLU; NDTC; OIG; QISTUK; TBA. o Also see Non Drone Content chapter in beginning of this document. TBIJ = The Bureau of Investigative Journalism.572 Also see: Statistics. TCP = The Constitution Project573 TDIS = Terror Attack Disruption Strikes o The identity of the target is not known, but pattern of behavior, leads what passes for intelligence to think the enemy is a militant, hostile to the US interests.574 The US says TDIS is not the same as Signature Strikes, but is keeping secret exactly what the distinction is. o Also see: Signature Strike; Strike, Signature. T+E = developmental and operational test and evaluation techniques. Tear Gas575 o See: Drone Police.


571

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/30/taserdrone-hackers-attach-taser-dronehelicopter_n_1843999.html http://hackaday.com/2012/08/27/the-taserdrone-a-shocking-mod-for-the-ar-drone/ 572 Bureau of Investigative Journalism, based in London Britain. http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/category/projects/drones/ http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/category/projects/drone-data/ 573 www.constitutionproject.org They figure out how America can both protect against crime and terrorism, while at the same time not violate the privacy and civil liberties of the innocent general public. One of their study methods is via their Rule of Law Programs bipartisan Liberty and Security Committee. 574 https://www.propublica.org/article/everything-we-know-so-far-about-drone-strikes 575 Non-Lethal weapons can kill and maim. While police may be authorized to use them with the intent of temporarily stunning, or restraining a suspect, they can cause great pain, permanent injury, even death. There is considerable evidence that some police departments mis-use them, to torture people, some of them innocent. In one Occupy Wall Street demonstration, a US veteran was permanently injured when a police officer fired a tear gas canister, from a kind of grenade launcher, so it struck the vet in the head.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o In Drone Notes, see: Financial Alternatives chapter, in Statistics section; Police with Weaponized Drones, in Non-Lethal Kills; Where in USA section, with chapters on Police by City, County, and State, reported to be using drones. Terrorist organizations. Footnote link576 to US State Dept FAQ on how they get designated. TFR = Temporary Flight Restriction, issued by FAA to prohibit civilian aircraft from flying into areas where the military is active, or CBP has some drone activity. o See: CBP; FAA. Thermal Imaging: o See: Drone Police; Privacy-Home; See Through Walls. TIC = Trusted Internet Connections. TLAM = Tomahawk Land Attack Missile. See 10 thoughts on Drone Future,577 #8 pages 6-7. TOC = Table of Contents
TOW = Tube-launched, Optically-tracked, Wire Command Toys for Adult Males = Drones, according to an OIG audit of DHS drone use.578 o See: DHS; OIG. TPD = Tucson police Dept. See: Gun Walking; SID.

Tracker Power+ (2 Oct 27)


Tracker Power: ATF etc. need to consult with auto and other industries tot get
better quality trackers, not limited by short battery life. o Battery life is related to battery size, and how much power is needed for the job it is to do. If tracker can be placed where car heats up (sunlight, exhaust, etc.) can that heat be used to power the tracker? o I asked my auto dealer about getting an antenna to improve radio reception & was told a wire running around windshield is it. Cool, I had not known that. Can a tracker boost its range by tapping into the radio antenna, but broadcast on different frequency than radio listening pleasure? o See: ATF; Fast and Furious; Gun Walking. Treasury = US Dept of the Treasury. Often US gov documents refer to this Dept by just saying Treasury. o See: Departments of US Government; GC Armas.

Treaty I have heard people say that things are against international law because they think it is immoral. In my opinion, if there is no international law or treaty banning some activity, then it may be unethical, immoral, but not illegal.

576 577

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2012/07/194808.htm http://aviationintel.com/2012/07/09/tylers-10-thoughts-on-the-future-of-drone-warfare/ 578 http://www.cis.org/north/dhs-wastes-money-adult-toys-ie-drones-oig-reports

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Different courts in different nations are fighting over the issue of whether drone usage is in violation of international law, such as the Geneva Convention. Such an international law is only valid, when the violation of that law is by some nation which has actually signed the treaty. o See: Geneva Convention.

T-REX = Teleo-Reactive-Executive o T-Rex = A type of Dinosaur, which I thought was the most fierce, until I was re-educated by Jurassic Park. Troop. See: Army Combat Structure. TS = Transport Stream, as in stream of data to and from drones.579 TSA = Transportation Security Agency. This was a new agency, formed right after 9/11 2001, to take over duties formerly under the FAA, and sister-agencies dealing with ground and water transportation. TSA has not yet done a damn 580 thing, regarding security threats to the homeland via drones. o So far, TSA seems focused on human beings carrying dangerous cargo onto vehicles. Do we need a new agency to focus on homeland security from drones, and drone security from cyber attack? o See: DSA; FCC; FAA. TSC = Terrorist Screening Center, run by the FBI, to consolidate the federal governments many watch lists. This was created in mid 2003 under President Bush II. See: FBI; Fusion Center. TSPI = Time-Space-Position-Information TTIC = Terrorist Threat Integration Center.581 o Created in mid 2003 under President Bush II, this interagency effort was supposed to centralize information to help with counter terrorism. o NCTC replaced TTIC, according to 2004 Intelligence Reform Law. o See: Fusion Center; NCTC. TTPT&E = Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures Test and Evaluation TV = Television.

Terms U+ (2 Oct 13) !


UA = Unmanned Aircraft. An aircraft that is intended to navigate in the air without an on-board pilot. Also called Remote Piloted Aircraft and drones. UA Operations, in the USA, require: o Certificate of Authorization (CAO) from Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the organization which will be operating the UA; o Pilots license via FAA for person(s) who will be controlling the UA; and

579

How to hack a drone at http://www.scribd.com/doc/93422788/Predator-Drone-Readout-2009 See my

Drone Scribd chapter on Freedom of Speech in War Time.


580

https://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2012/09/drones_nas.html downloaded as CRS Drones in NAS 2012 Sept. CRS = Congressional Research Service; FAS = Federation of American Scientists; NAS = US National Air Space.
581

http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2004/april/threat_043004 Drone terminology, acronyms, etc. in folder: Studies / Drones

159

160

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Special Airworthiness Certificate (SAC) from the FAA for the UA itself, showing that it has passed relevant safety inspections. The SAC is usually issued via the drone manufacturer. UAPO = Unmanned Aircraft program Office. UAS = Unmanned Aircraft System, also Unmanned Airship System.582 It is an official designation of the US FAA, and typically consists of: o unmanned aircraft (UA) o control system, such as Ground Control Station (GCS) o control link, a specialized datalink o other related support equipment. o Also see Oct 2008 in Calendar in Drone Notes.. UAS ExCom is composed of Senior executives from 4 US federal departments and agencies: DHS DoD FAA NASA More may join later, such as: CBP; TSA. o UAS ExCom mission583 is to enable increased and ultimately routine access of federal UAS engaged in non-military aircraft operations into the US national airspace (NAS) to support these agencies operational, training, development, and research requirements. o See: CBP; DHS; DoD; FAA; GAO; NAS; NASA; TSA. UAS Flight Crewmember - A pilot, visual observer, payload operator or other person assigned duties for a UAS for the purpose of flight. UAV = Unmanned Aerial Vehicles584 UAVS (superseded by UAS) = Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle System. UCAS-D = Unmanned Combat Aircraft System Carrier Deployment. See page 6 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map585 TOC Appendix A on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).
UCAV = Unmanned Combat Aircraft Vehicle UCI = Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Command and Control Initiative

UCMJ = the Uniform Code of Military Justice (in USA).586 o Also see: JAG; LOAC. UDHR = Universal Declaration of Human Rights
o See: Human Rights Law; IHBR. UFAP = Unlawful Flight to Avoid Prosecution.

UFO = Unidentified Flying Object. In contemporary popular culture, they are identified with alien visitors to planet Earth from outer space. They could just as easily be time travelers from another dimension. Before our mechanistic

582 583

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-889T 584 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle 585 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 586 http://usmilitary.about.com/od/justicelawlegislation/l/blucmj.htm

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM civilization, an unexplained phenomenon was often given religious attribution. Often UFOs could be visions of top secret new craft being tested, 587 which we wont learn details about for many years. There are also misidentifications and illusions.

UG+ (2 Sep 22)


UGCV = Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle588 Ugly American used to be human and government behavior, but now is US drone usage, alienating people around the world.589
UGS = Unmanned Ground Systems

UGV = Unmanned Ground Vehicle590 They have been very successful detecting and/or neutralizing improvised explosive devices (IEDs). See Oct 2008 in Calendar.
UHF = Ultra-High Frequency UI = User Interface

UK = United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. UMS = Unmanned Maritime Systems. See page 7 of 2009-II Dod Drone Road Map591 TOC Appendix C; and page 13 Executive Summary. UMS = US Marshals Service.
UMV = Unmanned Maritime Vehicle UMVTTP = Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Unmanned Maritime Vehicle Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures UMVTTPT&E = Unmanned Maritime Vehicle Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures Test and Evaluation

UN+ (2 Oct 13) !


UN = United Nations. o See: ICAO. o See: Drone Nations research document. o See: Military Drones International in Drone Notes. UN Charter has been cited by many, when questioning legality of US drone strikes. According to Living Under Drones (in Pakistan),592

587

http://www.theblaze.com/stories/did-google-earth-spot-a-top-secret-damaged-drone-near-air-forceplant-42/ 588 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_ground_vehicle 589 http://www.smh.com.au/world/us-drone-program-unpopular-overseas-survey-20120614-20bio.html 590 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_ground_vehicle http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/07/the-pentagons-vision-pervasive-drones-on-land-airand-sea/259541/ 591 http://www.acq.osd.mil/psa/docs/UMSIntegratedRoadmap2009.pdf 592 http://livingunderdrones.org/ INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION CLINIC (STANFORD LAW SCHOOL) AND GLOBAL JUSTICE CLINIC (NYU SCHOOL OF LAW), LIVING UNDER DRONES: DEATH, INJURY, AND TRAUMA TO CIVILIANS FROM US DRONE PRACTICES IN PAKISTAN (September, 2012)

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o Article 2(4) of the U.N. Charter prohibits the threat or use of force by one state against another, which is a member state of the UN.593 o There are narrowly defined exceptions. o One exception is when the use of force is carried out with the consent of the host state,594 so for example, the President of Yemen has been quoted in the news media stating that he gave permission for the USA to use drones against insurgents, and terrorists in his nation. Info about Pakistan permission is confusing at best.595 There are many indications in both directions. Some people argue that the USA has coerced consent from Pakistan.596

593

The vast majority of nations of our world are members of the UN, but not 100%. Some international lawyers interpret the language in Article 2(4) to indicate a prohibition only of a subset of acts of forcethose that challenge the territorial integrity or political independence of the host state. CHRISTINE GRAY, INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE USE OF FORCE 24-25 (2008). This interpretation, though, has largely been rejected by the weight of international legal opinion, which views Article 2(4) as outlawing any trans-boundary use of military force. Sean D. Murphy, Terrorism and the Concept of Armed Attack in Article 51 of the U.N. Charter, 43 H ARV. INTL L.J. 41, 42 (2002). The United Kingdom articulated a version of this interpretation in the Corfu Channel case in the first matter adjudicated by the International Court of Justice (ICJ), arguing that its intrusion on Albanian territorial waters to recover evidence regarding the destruction of two British warships did not threaten Albanias territorial integrity or political independence, and, therefore, did not violate Article 2(4). The Corfu Channel Case (Alban. v. U.K.), 1949 I.C.J. 4, 194 (Apr. 9). The ICJ rejected this claim outright; while the language leaves open the possibility of a narrow rejection based on the particular facts, the ICJ has subsequently construed Article 2(4) as a blanket ban on armed intervention. Id.; Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicar. v. US), 1986 I.C.J 14, 202 (June 27);

Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Dem. Rep. of Congo v. Uganda), 2005 I.C.J. 168 (Dec. 19).
594

See, e.g., G.A. Res. 36/103, UN Doc A/RES/36/103 (Dec. 9, 1981) (further identifying the duty of a State to refrain from economic, political, or military activity in the territory of another State without its consent.); Special Rapporteur, Study on Targeted Killings, supra note 598, at 35; OSCAR SCHACHTER, INTERNATIONAL LAW IN THEORY AND PRACTICE 114 (1991); Ashley Deeks, Unwilling or Unable: Toward a Normative Framework for Extraterritorial Self-Defense, 51 V A. J. OF INTL LAW 483, 492 (2012);
B.

Eliav Lieblich, Intervention and Consent: Consensual Forcible Interventions in Internal Armed Conflicts as International Agreements, 29 B.U. INTL L.J. 337, 350 (2011) (Consent can be expressed in many forms, in different moments along the time continuum, and does not necessarily have to be explicit- as long as it is proven genuine.).

595

https://www.npr.org/2012/10/06/162395399/u-s-drones-navigate-murky-legal-path-in-pakistan http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/09/implied-consent-in-drone-strikes-congressional-briefings-dormrooms-and-property-disputes/ 596 http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/10/eric-posner-on-consent-in-pakistan-and-the-fecklessness-of-the-un-charter/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o A second exception is when the use of force is in self-defense in response to an armed attack or an imminent threat, and where the host state is unwilling or unable to take appropriate action. There is no doubt that the US is fighting an asymmetrical war with co-belligerents, located all over the world, where there is great uncertainty about how imminent the next plot might be. One problem is in mis-identifying the enemy, to the point that large numbers of innocent civilians are targeted by US drone strikes. However, in normal warfare, it is not unusual for 10-15 civilians to get killed for every one enemy military soldier. It appears like this ratio is much lower in how the USA is using drones. There is a lot of controversy over the US allegation that Pakistan is unwilling or unable to take appropriate action, given that Pakistan and the USA disagree upon what is appropriate action.597 o A third exception applies to collective security, where several nations may use force, if they have approval from the UN Security Council.598 o See: Co-belligerents; ICJ; IHBR.

Unintended Consequences+ (2 Oct 12)

Unintended Consequences, is an excuse often used by legislators, when


some law, that they passed, has effects that they get criticized about, and they say that they did not intend for the law to have that effect. o In other words, they are admitting that they were not qualified to do their job, because if they were qualified, and did understand the subject matter for which they were drafting new laws, the consequences of their rule making would have been on their radar screens. o See: Radar Screen; US Congress. Unlawful Combatant is a person, defined by USA, as being outside the protections of the Geneva Convention, because they are engaged in military conflict, without being in a uniform which states recognize. This designation has been used by the USA to excuse torture, since if the person fell into one of the categories defined by international law, then torture would be banned. o This can include: o Civilians throwing rocks at authority; o Innocent Bystanders, who rush to the aid of people injured in a drone attack;

597

http://www.lawfareblog.com/2012/10/stop-presses-even-eric-posner-says-drone-strikes-in-pakistan-areillegal/
598

Special Rapporteur, Study on Targeted Killings, supra note 598, at 45. Collective security under Chapter VII of the UN Chapter, is inapplicable, since the US drone program in Pakistan lacks UN authorization.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o First responders arriving at a location whose victims need rescue, after a US drone strike. o Military age persons (which is any age in some places) just hanging around doing nothing suspicious; o Off-duty police officers, out of uniform when they react to a perceived crime. o On-duty armed police officers, whose uniform is not recognized by the USA. o Also see: Civilian; Geneva Convention; Targeted Killing; War Crime. Unmanned Aircraft Pilot - A person exercising control over an unmanned aircraft during flight.
UOR = Urgent Operational Requirement

UPI+ (2 Oct 08)

UPI 2 different meanings UPI = Off-Road Autonomy (I do not know why not ORA) UPI = Unbeaten Path International599 software solutions. o See: FIG-LEAF; Needle in Haystack

UPR = UN Universal Periodic Review o The UN HRC (Human Rights Council) conducts an UPR (Universal Periodic Review)600 of Human Rights of all 193 UN Member States, on a four-year cycle. 48 nations are reviewed each year during three sessions of the HRCs Working Group on the UPR, with 16 States reviewed at each session. o That nations use of drones, in violation of human rights, performing war crimes, might be referenced in future reports. o See: HRC; War Crime.. URI = Uniform Resource Identifier, not to be confused with URL, which stuffs web code into a handy string, which when clicked on, instructs the browser to unpack the payload and present it as a page. 601 This is a way for phishing to mess us up. URL = Uniform Resource Locator, character string used in internet addressing. 602 o See: Blogosphere RSS Radio Outline; Hyper-Link. US = United States of America o For some Pakistanis, USA = death from the sky603
USAF = United States Air Force, in DoD.

599

http://unbeatenpath.com/compass https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Universal_Periodic_Review http://www.upr-info.org/ http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/BasicFacts.aspx


600 601
602

http://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/09/03/phishing_without_hosts_peril/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniform_resource_locator 603 http://worldnews.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2012/06/26/12403677-for-many-pakistanis-usa-meansdrones?chromedomain=worldblog

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o

Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM


USAF is Is one of several US government organizations flying drones in US National Air Space (NAS). o See: SBS. USAID = US Agency for International Development, which is part of US State Dept, may be spying for the CIA in Pakistan FATA, according to an audit by Pakistans National Accountability Board (NAB) into alleged corruption in some USAID projects, by American NGOs. o See: CIA; FATA; NGO; State.

USAO+ (2 Oct 18) !


USAO = US Attorney Office o USAOs determine which federal cases to prosecute within their jurisdictions. Each USAO is led by a Presidentially appointed US Attorney, who serves as the Chief Federal Law Enforcement Officer for the Judicial District. o See: AUSA; EOUSA; LIONS. US Arms Control Act See: AECA. US Army See: CBP Suggestions.

USC = Unmanned Systems Caucus,604 or a group of politicians in Congress, who accept campaign contributions in exchange for promoting drone industry interests.605
USCG = US Coast Guard is part of US Dept of Homeland Security (DHS). o See: SBS. US Congress: This is the legislative body of USA

o Congress shares a responsibility with the President and Cabinet and heads of other departments of US government, to have management systems so the people in charge know what is being done by the people under their command. In my opinion, it is improper to blame the AG, President, or Congress, for corrupt and flawed operations on their watch, of which they may have known nothing, but it is proper to blame them for not having management systems which could have nipped these problems in the bud. o See: ATF Scandals; Attorney General; Branches of US Government; Departments of US Government; Gun Walking; Mitigation Suggestions; President of USA; QISTUK; Radar Screen; Unintended Consequences. o Also see Non-Drone Content section in the introduction to this glossary of terminology. o Also in my Drone Notes document, I have sections on: Legislation; and (alleged) Congressional Oversight of Drones. USD = Under-Secretary of Defense
USD(AT&L) = Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics

USDA = US Dept of Agriculture - see Departments of US Government US Forest Service606 of USDA, Is one of several US government organizations
flying drones in US National Air Space (NAS).

604 605

http://unmannedsystemscaucus.mckeon.house.gov/ http://www.kpbs.org/news/2012/jul/05/drone-makers-friends-washington/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM US Government Departments see Departments of US Government. USGS = US Geological Survey607 o USGS is one of several US Government organizations flying drones in US National Air Space (NAS). o See: CBP Suggestions. US Marine Corps, is one of several US government organizations flying
drones in US National Air Space (NAS).

USM = US Marshal Service. USN = US Navy, is one of several US government organizations flying drones in
US National Air Space (NAS).

USV = Unmanned Surface Vehicle608 UUV = Unmanned Underwater Vehicle


UUV = Unmanned Undersea Vehicle UUVUMV = Unmanned Undersea Vehicle Unmanned Maritime Vehicle UxV = Unmanned Vehicle

Terms V+ (2 Oct 15) !


VA = US Dept of Veterans Affairs. See: Departments of US Government. VCAB = Violent Crime Analysis Branch of ATF OSII is co-located with NTC. Here OSII intelligence analysts analyze and disseminate gun trace data and other intelligence to ATF field personnel.. o See: ATF; Fast & Furious ATF Organizational Chart; NTC; OSII. VCIT = Violent Crime Impact Team Vehicle Tracking: o The US Supreme Court has ruled that police may secretly attach a device to peoples vehicles, or other objects, to track movements on the public highways, and that this does not constitute a violation of the 4th Amendment. However, this tracking may not be conducted, without a warrant, once the vehicle enters private property.609 o In United States v. Knotts, the police tracked a vehicle only on public highways, so no search warrant was required. o In United States v. Karo, the police tracked a beepers movement both on public streets, and inside a private residence, without a warrant. The court ruled this search was unlawful, because the residence interior was not visible from outside the residence. o Four Justices, Alito, Ginsburg, Breyer, and Kagan, noted that for police to secretly monitor and catalog every single movement of an

606 607 608

US Forest Service is in USDA (Department of Agriculture)

http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/UAS/ http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/07/the-pentagons-vision-pervasive-drones-on-land-airand-sea/259541/ 609 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM individuals car for a very long period, would be a violation of reasonable expectations of privacy. o Justice Sotomayor noted that although following people for a short period of time conveys little information about them, tracking an individual for an extended period reflects a wealth of detail about her familial, political, professional, religious, and sexual associations. o See: 4th Amendment; ANPR; Drone Police; Privacy Violations; Search Location; Suspicionless Drone Search Warrant. VFR = Visual Flight Rules: Minimum visibility must be 3 miles. This applies to flying 1,000 feet above the clouds, 500 feet below the clouds, or a visibility line 2,000 feet in the clouds. If these minimums cannot be met, the pilot will have to use Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), as well.610

Violence on Mexico US Border 611 o The DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov report found many reasons for
changes in level of violence at and near the SWB, for which ATFs Gun Runner project was not exclusively responsible. o See: ATF; Border; Gun Runner; OIG; SWB.
VIRAT = Video and Image Retrieval and Analysis Tool Volpe Report by DoT in 2001, warned of risks to transportation and critical infrastructure via possible GPS spoofing attacks.612 o See: DoT; GPS; SCADA. VTUAV = Vertical Take Off Unmanned Aerial Vehicle613 V+V = Verification and Validation

Terms W+ (3 Feb 21) !



610 611

WAAS 2 meanings WAAS = Wide Area Airborne Surveillance.614 See 10 thoughts on Drone Future,615 #2 page 2. WAAS = geostationary wide-area augmentation system satellites

http://www.ehow.com/list_7448333_class-airspace-flight-rules.html http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder, since content other than Drones. Within 2012 Sep report, there was reference to Nov 2010 IG report on ATF Gun Runner: http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/e1101.pdf which I also downloaded, naming it: DoJ IG Audit ATF 2010 Nov. 612 Congress House Transcript Drones in USA Skies 2012 July Panel I testimony by Mr. Todd E. Humphreys, Ph.D Abstract Summary = http://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=719102 Full 865k Transcript = https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=719102 See Feb 2012 in Drone Dates for description of their GPS spoofing demonstration. 613 http://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=696056 614 http://aviationintel.com/2012/12/04/skynet-coming-to-a-city-near-you-wide-area-airborne-surveillancewill-be-a-game-changer-over-the-war-zone-and-the-home-front/ http://aviationintel.com/2013/02/21/f-35s-das-detects-tank-aaa-fire-shows-incredible-promise-across-awide-array-of-platforms/ 615 http://aviationintel.com/2012/07/09/tylers-10-thoughts-on-the-future-of-drone-warfare/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM War Crimes are serious violations of international law, under the Geneva and Hague conventions.616 o Drone strikes, which do follow-up attacks on first responders, funerals, etc. are labeled by many as war crimes.617 o Since funerals of militants are secret, and funerals of civilians are public, drone striking any public funeral is a war crime. o See: Datta Khel Nomada Bus Station; Double Tap attack; Geneva Convention; Hague Convention; International Law; Jirga; Khassadar; Malik. Wasp = a type of drone from AeroVironment (AV), the largest supplier of small drones to the U.S. military,.618 o Wasps are small but powerful drones. Each weighs less than a pound and has a wingspan of 28.5 inches. For daytime operations, the Wasp uses 2048 x 1536 side imagers with digital pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) capabilities. The Wasp is also equipped with a 320 x 240 thermal imager for nighttime operations. The Wasp includes live video downlink, self tracking, still photography and nighttime IR technology. 619 Wassenaar Arrangement controls export of dual-use technologies, some used commonly in drones.620 It is a voluntary consensus-driven association of 41 nations, formed in 1996, to limit the proliferation of certain conventional weapons, and sensitive technologies which are dual-use in both civilian and military applications. o See: MTCR. WFOV = Wide Fieldof-View

Wide Receiver+ (2 Sep 27)


Wide Receiver was an ATF gun walking operation via agents in ATFs Tucson office, which is part of ATFs Phoenix field division. The DoJ IG Audit ATF 2012 Sep.621 report detailing this operation, is 512 pages, when most drone reports are 20 to 50 pages, so here I share only a synopsis of what seems most critical to understanding the overall story, and what went wrong.

616

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_crime https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_war_crimes http://stratrisks.com/geostrat/9816 617 http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/2012/06/21/un-expert-labels-cia-tactic-exposed-by-bureau-awar-crime/ 618 http://www.avinc.com/downloads/Wasp_III.pdf 619 https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/01/texas-department-public-safety-cancels-its-drone-program 620 See GAO Drones by Nation 12-536 2012 July from http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/593131.pdf
621

http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/2012/s1209.pdf downloaded into my National Security folder, since this content is other than my Drones research. Within this report,
there is reference to an earlier 2010 Nov report on OIGs website at http://www.justice.gov/oig/reports/ATF/index.htm

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM o While this operation started during the Bush administration, details, on the gun walking, were kept secret from the White House and HQ of the agencies involved (ATF and DoJ) until: Trial lawyers, armed with all the facts, discussed with higher ups, how best to manage a cover up of the bad stuff; Brian Terry was killed by a gun from a later operation. o People who blame the President, or Attorney General for this operation, are people who do not know the facts. See Fast and Furious for similar operation during Obama administration. o Several flawed ATF operations shared many of the same leaders, using similar flawed strategies: Deliverance Project. Fast and Furious Operation Oct 2009 to Jan 2011 Gun Runner Project. Wide Receiver Operation March 2006 to Oct 2010 o The star witness FFL-CI refused to co-operate, in Wide Receiver court case, after he was harassed by another ATF division for record keeping issues unrelated to Operation Wide receiver, and a US Attorney instructed Tucson agents to withhold a monetary reward which he had been promised in another case. FFL = Federal Firearms (gun dealer) Licensee. CI = Confidential Informant. o This is what happens when you have a conflict of interest between: Regulating the gun dealer; Using the gun dealer as a confidential informant; Doing this in multiple concurrent operations; Lacking coordination between the different activities. o The Tucson Groups primary goal was to trace high-ranking cartel members involved in trafficking fire arms, associated with two Mexican crime families: Arellano Felix And Sinaloa. o They let the guns flow into Mexico, because they were seeking higher ups, and to map cartel facilities. The only mapping they accomplished was how the guns flowed from the gun dealers towards Mexican border. o The ATF office sounds like the DEA guys on AMCs Breaking Bad TV series. They were out-classed by cartel members, not nearly as good as the criminal A-team we see on AMC. I think IG should watch that show, to help them see the diversity of things which can go wrong, which they neglected to include in their audit checking. o See: AMC; Armas Cruzadas; ATF; CI; DEA; Deliverance Project; DoJ; Fast and Furious Operation; FFL; GPS; Gun Runner Project; Gun Walking; IG; Mitigation Suggestions; OIG; Radar Screens; See Through Walls; Straw Purchase; Wire Tapping; Wide Receiver Causes; Wide Receiver Exception Knew;

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM Wide Receiver Flaws; Wide Receiver Local Progress; Wide Receiver Policy Violations; Wide Receiver Post-Investigation.

Wide Receiver Causes+ (2 Sep 24)


There were many causes for this ATF Gun Walking operation to crash and burn. There was the HQ pattern of not repairing bad stuff found out from prior cases, leading to the same local people doing more and more operations with the same flaws. In private business, there are systems of auditing, to make sure lower echelon personnel are doing their jobs properly, have received proper training commensurate with their duties; there is no fraud waste or abuse; no embezzlement; no hacking; inventory is accurate, other records accurate; we are not in violation of any applicable regulations; we are not doing business with crooks; our people, and the people we do business with, have reasonable security protection. This concept does not appear to be on ATF or DoJ radar screens. Assistant US Attorneys were supposedly supervising this operation, but this was fragmented and ineffective. They supposedly knew, and approved, an operation facilitating a parade of weapons to drug cartels. When the case went to the trial lawyers, they protected their own USAO (US Attorney (local) office) people, laying blame on ATF agents, for what they had done under the orders of local USAO. Thus, in addition to ATF HQ not correcting the bad behavior of local ATF office personnel, DoJ HQ also did not correct bad behavior of local USAO. ATF had well developed systems for cooperating with Mexico, which were not used in this case, thanks to inexperienced field agents, and US Attorney in-charge, who insisted on doing things their way, which did not include knowing rules how to cooperate with Mexico. There is the truth about what is happening, and there is what goes in the official reports. There is very little correlation between the two. Even though the Tucson office was well familiar with them doing this in reports to higher ups, it did not occur to them that the Mexico office was doing the same thing to them. ATF Tucson was in over their heads, lacking the resources and training, to do a proper job. They did not have enough agents for the needed surveillance. They could not learn how to cope when the enemy was more skilled at surveillance-avoidance than they were at dealing with that.

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Their other case load interfered with this investigation, including only one agent with Spanish proficiency spread over many cases. Tucson agents lacked experience in this type of investigation, so it took them months to accomplish what experienced professionals might have got done in days. The guy in charge, came from an unrelated background, also ill-equipped to lead this kind of case. The people directly involved, both Tucson ATF office, and USAO, seemed to lack experience in this type of investigation, so they didnt recognize that it was going badly. Many witnesses to IG said: Im assigned to this other project, just helped out occasionally here because they needed someone to help with the paperwork. These witnesses had signed paperwork which went to judges, in support of various warrants such as electronic surveillance. This story sounds like the Mortgage Fraud Cases where people signed legal documents swearing they knew all the facts, at rate of thousands signed each day. In the Mortgage Fraud (banks cheating home owners), the banks hired robo signers who were lowly clerks claiming to be lawyers, who fully knew all the facts, according to what their signatures swore to. The robo signers knew nothing, they were just robots signing documents, they were hired to sign documents, nothing else. Same thing was happening with ATF paperwork to judges. Local ATF office personnel knew the facts, did not know how to do the legal mumbo jumbo paperwork. These other people knew how to do the legal paperwork, knew nothing about the case. It was a robo signing operation. See: ATF Scandals; DoJ; Gun Walking Dysfunctional Pattern; Radar Screens; USAO; HQ; Wide Receiver Exception Knew; Wide Receiver Flaws.

Wide Receiver Exception Knew+ (2 Sep 24)


There is a general pattern in these Gun Walking scandals: 1. Local offices do their thing, with lots of flawed strategies. 2. They paint wonderful picture in their reports, so HQ is oblivious to the flaws. 3. After investigation completed, all the info goes to DoJ trial lawyers, who discover all the bad stuff which happened. 4. The trial lawyers get with HQ to organize a cover-up of the bad stuff. 5. There is no HQ action to prevent local offices continuing to do the bad stuff in future investigations. Wide Receiver had an exception to the usual rule of no one outside the local offices knowing about the bad stuff, prior to the investigation ending, and the info going to the trial lawyers.

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM The inexperienced agent needed help from experienced personnel, busy with other cases, to file some legal paperwork. o June 13, 2006 these professionals said they thought it was morally reprehensible or objectionable for this operation to be facilitating the delivery of grenade launching equipment, and conversion to fully automatic machine guns, to the Arellano Felix Drug Cartel. o To resolve this policy difference of opinion by different ATF agents and legal personnel, a meeting was requested with higher authority, and held June 29, 2006. The Criminal Chief, for US Attorneys Office, passed the buck even higher. Theres evidence of it going up, only inference what decision (if any) came down. See: ATF Scandals; DoJ; Gun Walking Dysfunctional Pattern; HQ; Wide Receiver Post-Investigation.

Wide Receiver Flaws+ (2 Sep 24)


Some flaws I observed while reading the exciting story of what IG (Inspector General) found out, before I got to IG analysis of problems: The agents and lawyers are overwhelmed with hundreds of cases. Without some kind of document tracking system, they are totally lost when it comes to any kind of coherent follow-up. A beginner agent is assigned to run a new type of complex case, under the direction of a senior US attorney. Junior agent is not telling boss all details. Opportunities fall thru cracks. Straw purchaser vehicles making U-turns etc. losing surveillance by pursuit vehicles, was a constant repeating problem, which beginner agent unable to learn from. As I have learned from US Supreme Court decisions on GPS tracking, they needed a search warrant because the vehicles were leaving public highways to go on private property, such as residences of suspects. It is evident the novice agentin-charge was oblivious to this dimension. There were straw purchases with no attempt at surveillance, because of short notice, agent case load, and other reasons. In my opinion, the FFL-CI should have had permanent wire taps on all his phones at home, office, and gun shows, and been authorized to apply GPS tracking directly to vehicles he helped load up with the gun purchases. Wire taps were started over a year into the operation. Since conviction needs to document movement of guns from purchaser to second individual, surveillance needed to be better than occasionally drive by a suspects home, and hope to see something incriminating. Instead think: o Bugs outside the home with video zoom into the home; o Bugs with video planted inside the home; o Drone with See Through Walls capability; o All of which require a search warrant. See: ATF Scandals; CI; FFL; GPS; Gun Walking Dysfunctional Pattern; IG; Radar screens; Wide Receiver.

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Wide Receiver Local Progress+ (2 Sep 24)


Wide Receiver investigation was conducted in two installments between March 2006 and December 2007. President Obama was elected in 2008, and many reports of Gun Walking claim that this was started under his administration, as a scheme to try to increase gun control. It is obvious from Wide Receiver dates, and the personnel involved, that people claiming this, either do not have all the facts, or are being deliberately disingenuous. Of the 474 firearms involved, 64 were recovered. 410 never recovered. March 2006 to Aug 2009 the operation passed thru the hands of 4 prosecutors in the US Attorneys office. Clearly there was miscommunication or incomplete communication, between ATF agents, US prosecutors, and Mexican authorities, what the hell was going on during the ATF investigation. 622 See: ATF Scandals; Gun Walking Dysfunctional Pattern.

Wide Receiver Policy Violations+ (2 Sep 24)


Some of the flaws in this Gun Walking operation, were also against ATF rules. Using FFL as CI was a conflict of interest, both with ATF policy in general, and led to trouble for that FFL with another ATF division; sabotaging subsequent DoJ trial efforts. Under ATF policy at the time, Tucson was supposed to get higher authority approval, which IG never found. Tucson shared confidential info about the case with FFL-CI, which he stored on his home PC, at risk of lost or stolen. This info helped IG, because lots of official ATF and DoJ records were in fact lost. Tucson promised FFL-CI protection, but failed to deliver. While multiple personnel are shown to have expressed misgivings about the volume of weapons to the cartels, without getting the desired info, theres little evidence they did more than talk. The risk to public safety from this activity (hundreds of guns walked to Mexican cartels) did not seem to be on ATF Tucson radar screens. The decision to arrest and flip the minor (age 18) straw purchaser (age 21 is minimum to buy fire arms) was apparently made at ATF Phoenix field division level. See: ATF Scandals; CI; DoJ; FFL; Gun Walking Dysfunctional Pattern; IG; Radar Screens; Wide Receiver Flaws.

622

I will write up what I think needs to be done to fix this, and cross-reference where, with my Mitigation

Suggestions list.

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Wide Receiver Post-Investigation+ (2 Sep 24)


The ATF investigation ended December 2007. Then the case moved to the trial attorneys, who were personnel other than the US Attorney local office (USAO) which had supervised the ATF work. The suspects were indicted May+Oct 2010, and until the indictments led to arrests, they were allowed to continue their criminal activity. o ATF investigation, in this particular operation (there were others) concluded Dec 2007, then waited until Sep 2009 for DoJ to assign a trial attorney, who reviewed the case, then informed her superiors regarding ATF allowing guns to walk. This info walked up chain of command, as subsequently traced by OIG investigation to find out who knew what when vs. subsequent denials to Congress. o Suspects indicted May+Oct 2010 after a different prosecutor got assigned. Until the trial attorneys studied all the evidence, and reports, no one outside the local ATF and USAO had realized any of the bad stuff done by those two local offices, with exception noted above. The trial lawyers, in consultation with HQ, decided to do a cover-up. The notion, that it might be a good idea to fix bad behavior at local offices, was apparently not on their radar screens. o Once case in the hands of prosecutors who might take this to trial, they saw black eye implications for ATF and attempted PR damage control. 623 The OIG was particularly interested in who knew what when, because of Congressional inquiries, which were fed bogus info. Who helped prepare those bogus reports to Congress? Did they have access to the truth? Was their false info to Congress due to incompetence, bad management, or other reasons? o Heads up about this bad stuff went up chain of command as far as ATF Acting Deputy Director, and ATF Deputy Assistant Director of Field Operations West. There was also miscommunication, or incomplete communications, between US prosecutors and top ATF HQ officials, during PR damage control and preparation for prosecution, regarding how these serious errors in judgment occurred, who to blame (e.g. senior prosecutors who supervised junior ATF agent),624 whether same kinds of errors going on with other ATF operations. o Except for turnover of personnel involved in rubber-stamping the case, theres no hard evidence (only inferences) that higher authority knew what had been going on until 2009. See: ATF Scandals; Gun Walking Dysfunctional Pattern; HQ; OIG; PR; Wide Receiver Causes; Wide Receiver Exception Knew.

623

In my opinion, this approach is an error in judgment, because we see from ATF Scandals list that without any black eyes, these kinds of flawed operations continue again and again, without correction. 624 Just as ATF agents arranged data to make them look good in reports to higher ups, by taking credit, without attribution, for work done by other government agencies without ATF involvement, so did the US Attorneys construct reports for higher ups which neglected to identify problem areas in US Attorney conduct.

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Wire Tapping+ (2 Sep 27)

Wire Tapping = interception of electronic communications in transit over a


telephone land line, and/or other phone methods. This is illegal in the USA, except for police with a search warrant, and certain provisions of the Patriot Act.625 However, a lot of phone conversations are via cell phone towers, whose communications may not be protected by laws specific to land lines; and a lot of Internet communications are over high speed cable TV systems, and wifi, which may not have the same protections. o Relevant US laws include: Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, P.L. 90-351, 87 Stat. 197, 211 (codified at 18 U.S.C. 25102522). o See: 4th Amendment; FCC; IMSI Catcher; PHVPH. WMD = Weapons of Mass Destruction. o See CBRN; Chemical; CWC;; MTCR; Nuclear Drone. WPA = War Powers Act: Over USA history, there has been tension between President and Congress, which have how much say over military decisions. One of the current agreements is that in a crisis, the President may order immediate military action, but must keep Congress informed in a reasonable time period, then Congress may request that are troops back down from some Presidentially ordered action.626 WR = Wide Receiver. See: ATC Scandals; Wide Receiver. WTC = World Trade Towers, taken down in 9/11.

For more info (2 Sep 06)


For more info, see Drone Notes by Al Mac, uploaded to many of same places as these Drone Terms.

Al Mac Research split (2 Oct 09)


My drone documents are named with a version #, which I increment as I replace with re-writes. In parentheses after each chapter heading is date in format (Year Month Day) when I last updated the contents of that chapter. People with an earlier edition can see what has been updated since they last got a copy. Some chapter headings end in an exclamation point. These indicate either identification of a controversy, and-or links to what the facts may be. Some chapter headings have a number # sign at the end. These indicate chapters with specifics on counts of people killed.
625 626

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf download = CRS Drone Fourth Amend 2012 Sept

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/w/war_powers_act_of_1973/index.html?inline =nyt-classifier

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Other symbols may be added later. This helps correlation of conflicting info sources, in my further research. Formerly, all my notes on Drones were in one document, which was growing excessively large. I have now split them into the following:

Drone Dates = Time Line Calendar of Dates of What Happened in Drone usage
History, and When we found out, thanks to publication of Key documents. 627

Drone Issues = A summary of what the controversial problems appear to be, reasons
we need to figure out what is happening, then participate in the political debate over what should be happening. Some of the things people believe about drones, they may be mistaken, those concerns belong in the directory, and need to be investigated, clarified, will be in my other drone documents.

Drone Log = Al Mac tracking overall collection of Al Mac Drone documents,


primarily for personal convenience this info will be least interesting part of the collection, for other people.

Drone Nations = A list of nations where drones are operating, being manufactured,
purchased, hacked, crashing, being used by military, not necessarily of same nation. With each nation listed, I have footnotes with links to examples of how drones are being used in that nation, the sophistication of the drones, and more info. We see many articles claiming drones are in 40 or 50 nations. The last relevant GAO report, which I saw on this, says that 50 nations are manufacturing drones, with over 900 different models total, and many of them exporting to other nations in the world. Drone Nations is a directory of nations with drones, with multiple links cited on what each nation is doing with drones, and my effort to correlate mismatches between different sources. In time, I expect this list to grow.

84 nations have their own drones, some manufactured domestically, some imported. 11 nations do not have their own drones, but are the targets of military drone action. 2 nations do not have their own drones, but other nations base their military drones there,
and we found out about them due to drone crashes there (one of my sources is a directory of 100 drone crashes where). Thats 84-97 nations with drones, depending on how you want to count them. Theres several nations (like Iran and Israel) which both make drones, export drones commercially, and use drones to attack one another.

627

Drone Reports is a directory of major sources of info, which I have located so far, downloaded some.

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When Iran did a hack down of a US drone a while back, many people thought it was a fluke, but in Oct 2012: an Iran-built drone flew over Israel, which was not able to hack it down, so they shot it down. This shows that Iran has become a leader in cyber wars.

Drone Notes = my main overall document, which later may be split again.
Here you can find: o Links to where I get this info, including official sources;628 o Hundreds of USA locations, where drones are in use; o Legal complications; Political Complications; o Statistics on numbers of innocent bystanders killed, and numbers of enemy targets; o Technology advances, changing nature of Drone Capabilities; o Other topics.

Drone Scribd = I created a Drone Info collection on Scribd, which lists many

educational, interesting, and stimulating Scribd articles and documents on Drones.629 Then I started reviewing them. Where I found, what seemed to me to be errors of fact, distortions, or incomplete pictures, I cite sources to complete the story, to help authors, of the other efforts, address gaps in their presentations. So in addition to my summary observations on many Scribd info sources about Drones, I also try to provide a road map to other sources I have found, relevant to the picture(s) painted by these Scribd reports. Also see Drone Notes, which contained this same kind of research material, before I started the Drone Scribd focus.

Drone Terms = Glossary of Terminology, Acronyms, Concepts etc. which have come
up in my drone research. I have also encountered some parallel tales of alleged official misconduct, which have led to some non-drone content. By end of Sep 2012, it had grown to 750 acronyms, terms, and concepts defined, relevant to my Drone research so far. For more details, see Al Mac Shared Research section, at end of Drone Notes document, and what is in Drone Log.

Drone Research Sharing Sites (2 Oct 09)


Many places on the Internet, we must register with the site, to access info there, but some people are nervous about personal info which must sometimes be divulged to do so. In theory, with Google Drive Documents, where I have collection = Drone Info, with my Drone Dates + Issues + Log + Nations + Notes + Reports + Scribd + Terms,630 all you need is the url in my footnote link, to get at my Drone Info631
628 629

Now just footnote citations, since directory of sources has moved to Drone Reports. http://www.scribd.com/collections/3807680/Drone-Info at http://www.scribd.com/AlMac99 630 https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4b-ZLWR0bmZLS3d5OVk/edit 631 Google Drive Document Collection = Drone Info:

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Google collection, which also includes many official documents from government and other sources. If you are on Scribd, here you can locate what I have uploaded there so far.632 It includes a spectrum of research into many different topics, not just on Drones. If you are on Linked In, and connected to me: http://www.linkedin.com/in/almacintyre then you can access my Linked In Box Net shared document files. There, I have folders for many topics, including Drone Info. That folder contains my Drone Dates + Issues + Nations + Notes + Scribd + Terms. Within the Linked In Box Net Drone Info folder, I have Drone Sources sub-folder, with copies of various official documents from my collection. I have a growing collection of documents on drones downloaded from a multitude of official sources. I have not uploaded all the same ones to all the above collections, for various reasons. For some the copy-right permission to re-share them is murky. Some I have not yet studied, may adjust their naming after doing so, to make the content clearer. The Author of this research, Alister Wm Macintyre, welcomes other people to download copies of Als work, but warns that different cited sources have different attribution and copyright restrictions, so care should be followed downstream, in selecting where to reuse the material.

Contacting author (2 July 10)


When searching for me: Alister William Macintyre = my full name (Wm for middle initials) Al Macintyre = name I have used during most of my career Macwheel99 = e-mail handle (Mac-Wheel is a play on Surname) Macwheel98 = a few places where they messed up my access as Macwheel99, so I opened new account with this count down. AL MAC = sign-on name work place computers AlMac99 = user-id when joining places where function of user-id unclear to new users Here is how to get a hold of me via various social media. https://plus.google.com/u/0/108007903544513887227/about http://www.linkedin.com/in/almacintyre also on Facebook (may be leaving FB) http://emergencysociety.com/ http://haitirewired.wired.com/profile/AlisterWmMacintyre
https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4b-ZLWR0bmZLS3d5OVk/edit I also have a Google Drive Doc Collection = Disaster Avoidance, where I look into what the heck happened to cause various disasters, various proposals to be better prepared for better response, in many cases I do not yet have all the answers I desire. https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4bZMTA0YTM0YzktNTI0YS00NjVhLTg5NTItY2RiZjhiM2MzODkw/edit 632 http://www.scribd.com/AlMac99

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Drone terminology, acronyms, etc. in folder: Studies / Drones

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Drone terminology, acronyms, concepts 3/13/2013 11:41:35 PM

http://rebuildhaitibetter.ning.com/profile/AlisterWmMacintyre Haiti Research shared with / posted at http://www.haiti.prizm.org/ and http://groups.yahoo.com/group/HaitiDisasterRecoveryResearch/

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Drone terminology, acronyms, etc. in folder: Studies / Drones