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Laguncularia racemosa: ----------------------- Mangroves survive in seawater with a salinity that would be lethal to most trees and shrubs.

Like celery or carrot sticks placed in salt water, the roots of most plants rapidly lose water if they are suddenly emersed in seawater. Halophytes (salt-loving plants) such as mangroves generally have a lower concentration of water molecules (lower water potential) in their root cel ls so they can take in water. They maintain lower water potentials in their root s by having higher internal salt concentrations than seawater and by losing wate r at the leaf surface. Since high internal salt concentrations can be lethal to plant cells, some species such as the black mangrove and white mangrove (Laguncu laria racemosa) can excrete excess salt through special glands in their leaf bla des and petioles. Red mangroves have root cell membranes which prevent the absor ption of excess salt. 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000 Ficus pumila ------------------------The creeping fig (Ficus pumila), a remarkable Asian vine that is commonly cultivated in southern California. There are two distinct type s of stem growth: Young, juvenile branches and older, mature branches. The juven ile branches (with smaller leaves) produce aerial roots that adhere to concrete, stucco, masonry and even glass windows. Without pruning, a single plant can env elop a four-story building. The aerial roots secrete a clear, gummy latex that w orks like rubber cement. This remarkable adhesive was first described in detail by Charles Darwin in his book The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants (1876) . Older, mature branches with larger leaves produce fleshy, flower-bearing sycon ia. In fact, this species has been crossed with the edible fig (F. carica) to pr oduce a hybrid vine (F. x pumila-carica) with edible syconia. Right: Close-up vi ew of the aerial roots (red arrow) that develop at the nodes on juvenile branche s. The roots secrete a gummy adhesive that adheres to concrete, masonry and glas s. This species is commonly planted in southern California to cover the monotano us concrete walls of buildings and freeways. 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000 Duckweed --------------Stopping the inflow of nutrients and the repetitive removal of the duckweed laye r will greatly reduce the growth of duckweeds. Since water fowl and most fish fe ed on the duckweeds, they can help control the exponential population growth of these plants. In addition, Lemnaceae have a positive effect in eutrophic water b ecause they remove ammonia which is toxic to fish in high concentrations. In general, Lemnaceae are very sensitive to herbicides. In fact, duckweeds are o ften used to test the toxicity of herbicides and to detect the presence of herbi cides in water. According to Professor Dr. E. Landolt (pages 161-170 in Veroff. Geobot. Inst. ETH, Stiftung Rubel 95 "The Family of Lemnaceae: A Monographic Stu dy" Vol. 2, 1987), heterocyclic compounds (e.g. 6-methylpurin), urea derivatives , and quaternary ammonium compounds (e.g. diquat and paraquat) are the most toxi c substances for Lemnaceae. Some algicides, including PH 40:62 are extremely tox ic to some species of Lemna. Some of these products are available from agricultu ral supply companies depending on federal, state or local regulations. They shou ld be used with extreme caution and under very careful supervision. It would be advisable to consult with your city or county weed/mosquito abatement department before attempting any large herbicidal control project. Biological control using ducks, fish, turtles and crustaceans (water shrimp, cra yfish, ostracods, freshwater prawns, daphnia, amphipods, etc.) may also help to control duckweed populations. There are a number of species of freshwater fish t

hat eat duckweeds to supplement their diets, including grass carp (Ctenopharyngo don idella), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio ), common mullet (Mugil cephalis), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and Tilapia (Sa rotherodon), including S. mossambicus, S. hornorum, and S. nilotica. Duckweeds a re also eaten by Pacu (Colossoma bidens), a freshwater fish native to the Amazon River. Some of these fish species may be available through aquafarm distributor s or local county and state agencies. One aquaculture company in southern Califo rnia was raising tilapia for local seafood restaurants. 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000