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Article the with Abbreviations and Acronyms In general, if an acronym like NASA or NATO is pronounced as a word rather than

as a series of letters like SMK TM, you do not need an article when the acronym is used as a noun. EXAMPLE Statement Statement The NASA scientist was honoured at last NASA launched the first rocket into nights dinner. space many years ago. Explanation Explanation The article the is used before NASA in the statement The article the is not used before NASA because it is used as an adjective and not a noun. as it functions as a noun here. PRACTICE 1 Fill in the blanks with the or . 1 What we need is an HTML writer. The HTML writer will know what to do. 2 As we enter the 21st century, some experts are suggesting NATO has outlived its usefulness. 3 The FBI agents are working round the clock to solve the case. 4 SEA consists of 10 countries around our region. 5 The panda bears were handed over to the WWF volunteers two weeks ago. 6 The students are feverishly preparing for the MUET examination. 7 UNICEF is sending food parcels to the stricken region of Darfur. 8 The FELDA scheme to help the farmers is a good move. Adverbs An adverb is a word that adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb. EXAMPLE silently (adverb) describes the verb move. 1 Please move silently. very (adverb) describes the adjective sad. 2 The story is very sad. quite (adverb) describes the adverb suddenly. 3 The car stopped quite suddenly. Adverbs usually tell us how, when, where, how often and to what degree. EXAMPLES 1 Crude oil prices rose sharply. Rose = verb Rose how? Sharply Sharply = adverb 2 The train will arrive soon. Arrive = verb Arrive when? Soon Soon = adverb 3 I parked my car here. Parked = verb Parked where? Here Here = adverb 4 It always rains in Putrajaya. Rains = verb Rains how often? Always

Always = adverb 5 The little girl is extremely naughty. Naughty = adjective Naughty to what degree? Extremely Extremely = adverb Comparison of Adverbs Adverbs have three degrees of comparison. 1 For adverbs ending with -ly, add more and most before them. Positive Comparative Superlative slowly more slowly most slowly friendly more friendly most friendly 2 Some adverbs, usually adverbs of one syllable, require -er and -est. Positive Comparative Superlative soon sooner soonest fast faster fastest 3 Some adverbs have the same forms of comparison as adjectives. Positive Comparative Superlative much more most well better best Adverb Phrases An adverb may be a single word, such as quickly, here or soon. However, adverbs can also be phrases, some made with prepositions, others made with infinitives. An adverb phrase describes the way an action is carried out. EXAMPLE Type Adverb Phrase Example Manner (how) with a hammer The carpenter hit the nail with a hammer. Place (where) next door The man who lives next door is a lawyer. Time (when) before the holidays We must finish our project before the holidays. Frequency (how often) every month Sammy buys two CDs every month. Purpose for his mother John bought the flowers for his mother PRACTICE 2 Underline the adverbs or adverb phrases in the following sentences. The first one is done for you. 1 It rained heavily yesterday. 2 I bought a bottle of glue to paste the posters. 3 Janice placed the dinner table next to the window. 4 The woman stared at me with an angry expression. 5 Do not sit beside the door. 6 All my classmates attend tuition classes every day. 7 We shall leave early to catch the bus. 8 A new species of elephant was found on Borneo Island lately. 9 My mother hardly ever uses the microwave. 10 I wear socks to keep my feet warm. 11 She has almost finished. 12 I hardly know that man whom you like. PRACTICE 3 Rewrite the following sentences in your exercise book. Use the words in italics to make adverbs.

Example: David is a slow but steady worker. David works slowly but steadily. 1 Be gentle in your speech and firm in your actions. Speak gently and act firmly. 2 Adam is a good dancer. Adam dances well. 3 The shocked little boy gave an incoherent reply. The little boy in shock replied incoherently. 4 Sam is a secret smoker. Sam smokes secretly. 5 It is probable that he will be our next Prime Minister. He will probably be our next Prime Minister. 6 Ramli is a skilful painter. Ramli paints skilfully 7 The childrens room was furnished in a simple manner. The childrens room was furnished simply. 8 The tiger gave a fierce roar and made a sudden spring at the hunter. The tiger roared fi ercely and sprang suddenly at the hunter. 9 Before storing fresh fish, you must clean it in a thorough manner. Before storing fresh fi sh, you must clean it thoroughly. 10 Marilyn and Siva are married. They are a happy couple. Marilyn and Siva are a happily married couple. Conjunctions Conjunctions join together elements of thought: words, phrases and sentences. EXAMPLE I ate the pizza and the pasta. Call the movers when you are ready. Coordinating Conjunctions and Correlative Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two elements that are of equal importance. Correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. Coordinating Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions and both and but not only but also or either or for neither nor so whether or yet just as so too Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate clause to a main clause. The idea in the main clause is the more important, while the idea in the subordinate clause (made subordinate by the subordinating conjunction) is less important. The subordinate clause provides a time, reason, condition, and other additional information for the main clause. Subordinating Conjunctions Time after before Subordinating Conjunctions Reason because since Subordinating Conjunctions Concession why although Subordinating Conjunctions Place where wherever Subordinating Conjunctions Condition if unless Subordinating Conjunctions Manner as if as though

since so that though when in order that even though whenever while while until as as as once Note that the use of commas can also indicate a subordinating clause.

until in case provided that assuming that even if

how

PRACTICE 4 Underline the correct answers. 1 You can come to the meeting (so that, as if, as long as) you dont say anything. 2 I am not leaving (while, until, so that) I get an apology from you. 3 The students can visit the Science Centre (but, or, for) the National Planetarium. 4 He, (and, as well as, or) you, is guilty. 5 Mary is rich, (and, yet, so) she is not contented. 6 I will do this (so that, even if, since) you desire it. 7 My pet dog always sleeps (wherever, if, while) he likes. 8 I returned home (until, unless, after) I had finished work. 9 You look (as if, so that, if) you have seen a ghost. 10 The winters here are very cold (so that, while, since) the summers are very hot. PRACTICE 5 Fill in each of the blanks with the correct conjunction. 1 Tony is willing to help, but he is busy at the moment. 2 Although/Though the job is interesting, it pays badly. 3 You can write the report whenever you want to as long as its ready by the end of the month. 4 I want Yoges to be in charge until I come back from my holiday. 5 You can submit your application today or the next day. 6 Im learning English so that I can get a better job. 7 We are saving every ringgit in order to pay for our Paris trip. 8 A healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet are important to every child. 9 Ann needed some money, so/therefore/thus she took a part-time job. 10 Theres so much rain lately! Maybe its because of El Nino, or maybe its just coincidence.4 Adjectives COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES Types of Adjectives Positive Degree (to describe nouns) Short (one or two tall syllables) heavy Long (two or more intelligent syllables) thoughtful Irregular words good bad ORDER OF ADJECTIVES Evaluation/Opinion

Comparative Degree (to compare 2 nouns) taller than heavier than more intelligent than less thoughtful than better than worse than

Superlative Degree (to compare 3 or more nouns) the tallest the heaviest the most intelligent the least thoughtful the best the worst

Appearance

Age

Colour

Origin

good old Size/measure ugly low new interesting antique Shape intelligent triangular young pretty ancient Condition fascinating broken 5-year-old Avoid using more than three or four adjectives before a noun. Formation of Adjectives Forms of Words Nouns

purple blue striped polka dot pink brown

Geographical Japanese Material cotton wooden ceramic

Verbs Adjectives

Forms of Words accident different 200 pages agree hate yellow sick

Adjectives Formed accidental difference 200-page agreeable hateful yellowish sickly

Adjective Phrase An adjective phrase is a group of words that: describes the subject of a sentence Example: The old man wearing a batik shirt is my grandfather. describes the object of a sentence Example: Mr. Tan admires girls with long hair. An adjective can be changed to an adjective phrase: Adjective Adjective Phrase The wooden chair is broken. The chair made of wood is broken. The blue-eyed boy is my godson The boy with blue eyes is my godson. .PRACTICE 6 Underline the correct degree of adjective. 1 Do you know the (smarter, smartest) student in that school? 2 This is the (sad, saddest) movie I have ever watched. 3 Malathi is (more honest, most honest) than her husband. 4 Mrs Goh is a (generous, more generous) lady. 5 Zulyana is (better, best) than Yen Nee at playing the piano but Jeremy is the (better, best). 6 En Azidy is the (less, least) popular singer although he is the (more, most) talented. 7 He is the (untidiest, most untidy) person I have ever met. 8 Nurins murderer is the (most dastardly, dastardliest) person ever! 9 We fear that global warming may affect developing economies (more, most) negatively than developed nations. 10 Fluctuations in temperature are (more, most) keenly felt by people with spinal cord injuries. PRACTICE 7 Choose the correct answer. 1 A beautiful, new, Japanese sports car was parked in front of Benjamins house. A Japanese, beautiful, new B beautiful, new, Japanese 2 A strong, little, young boy was chopping wood in the forest behind the field. A strong, little, young B little, strong, young 3 We put an ugly, tiny, artificial plant on your table. A ugly, tiny, artificial B artificial, tiny, ugly

4 My father bought a brand-new, high-definition, plasma TV. A high-definition, plasma, brand-new B brand-new, high-definition, plasma 5 Kar Yan offered me my favourite hot Milo in a small, chipped, ceramic mug. A ceramic, small, chipped B small, chipped, ceramic 6 He walked around brandishing a shiny long sharp knife. A shiny long sharp B sharp long shiny 7 I bought several antique square Chinese coins from the antique shop. A antique square Chinese B antique Chinese square 8 I went over and bought a golden elegant French clock. A French elegant golden B golden elegant French 9 There was a long impatient queue at the cashiers. A long impatient B impatient long 10 We opted for a small round porcelain bath for our modern bathroom. A small porcelain round B small round porcelain PRACTICE 8 Fill in the blanks with the correct adjectives. 1 SARS is a highly infectious disease. (infection) 2 The victim was a 9-year-old girl who was alone at home. (9 years old) 3 My brother has this annoying habit of banging his room door. (annoy) 4 The destructive power of the tsunami was beyond expectation. (destroy) 5 The courageous girl was praised by her teacher. (courage) 6 The bruise on my arm has turned slightly greenish. (green) 7 He was a kind doctor from Johor. (kind) 8 That was an amusing book that I read. (amuse) 9 The infuriated/infuriating woman stormed out of the building. (infuriate) 10 The scene was horrifying and we were horrified. (horrify) PRACTICE 9 Replace the adjective phrases in the following sentences with suitable adjectives. 1 Angeline presented me a spoon made of silver as a souvenir from New Zealand. Angeline presented me a silver spoon as a souvenir from New Zealand. 2 Beth bought a card with a lot of colours for my birthday. Beth bought a colourful card for my birthday. 3 Norzila is a newscaster of great fame in Malaysia. Norzila is a famous newscaster in Malaysia. 4 My sister is carrying a bag which is empty. My sister is carrying an empty bag. 5 The products of Malaysia are of commendable quality. The Malaysian products are of commendable quality. 6 The dog which is black is ferocious. The black dog is ferocious. 7 The train came before time and I was not there! The train was early and I was not there. 8 We do not accept common everyday English in formal writing. We do not accept colloquial English in formal writing. 9 This calculator is small and most handy, and did not cost much. This small handy calculator is cheap. 10 The food had no taste and it cost us a lot of money. The food was tasteless and expensive.

First, Second, and Third Conditionals Conditional Conditional Main clause Clause First

Uses (Nature)

Uses (Time)

If + present Will + possible Present tense infinitive/present Future If I have tense/imperative enough money, I will go to Paris. Second If + past tense Would + infinitive impossible Using the past tense to talk If I had enough I would go to Paris. about the present money, Would have + past Past (but it did not happen Third If + past participle unreal in the past) perfect tense I would have gone to To express If I had had Paris. criticism or enough money, regret For the second conditional were replaces was: e.g. If I were a rich man... Instead of if not, we can use unless. e.g. I will go for the conference tomorrow unless there is a meeting. Mixed conditional (for the present results of an unreal condition in the past) If + Past Perfect + would + infinitive e.g. If you had told me earlier, I would not be working here now. PRACTICE 10 Underline the correct answer. 1 If I had gone to Penang, I (would, would have) missed Christophers visit. 2 If my mother knows about this, we (would be, will be) in serious trouble. 3 If I (were, was) you, I would think twice before helping him. 4 I wouldnt have told you if I (had, have) known that you would feel upset. 5 If you had saved your money, you (could, could have) bought a new car. 6 If I won the lottery, I (would buy, would have bought) a bungalow. 7 If you win the competition, I (will throw, would throw) a party to celebrate. 8 If I had studied harder, I (would pass, would have passed) my History test. 9 If only I had known about this, I (would, would have) come earlier. 10 If you will wait a moment, (Ill / Id) see if the Headmaster is free. Prepositions A preposition is a word which relates a noun phrase to another word or phrase in a sentence. Types of Prepositions Type Examples of Prepositions Simple in, on, under, near, at, of, by, for, out, up, down, over, through, Prepositions against, to, from, with, till, off Compound Prepositions Phrasal Prepositions inside, outside, beside, between, among, amongst, amidst, across, around, underneath, behind, without, along, above, below because of, in addition to, instead of, in comparison to, in favour of, away from, in order to, along with, in front of, with reference to, in spite of, owing to, by virtue of

Prepositional Phrase A prepositional phrase = preposition + the object of preposition (noun or pronoun) + modifier of object The prepositional phrase relates the noun or pronoun to the rest of the sentence and adds more information for the reader about time, place, direction or manner. Example: The slender woman strolling along the corridor is a renowned author. A prepositional phrase can also be used with verbs and adjectives that come before the preposition. Example: Kelly is grateful to her adopted parents for treating her like their own daughter. verb prepositional phrase PRACTICE 11 Choose the correct answer. 1 The interviewee says that he lives with his grandmother in Kajang. A at B in C over D by 2 The old bungalows will be demolished in a few months time to make way for a new shopping centre. A at B on C by D in 3 Azimah sat by the window and waited anxiously for her brothers homecoming. A under, at B against, to C by, for D on, of 4 In spite of my mothers help, I could not complete the project by the stipulated deadline. A In consequence of, by B In favour of, at C In spite of, by D On behalf of, for 5 With reference to your earlier e-mail, I am forwarding you the required documents for your immediate attention. A By virtue of, to B Owing to, from C With reference to, for D By reason of, at PRACTICE 12 Underline the prepositional phrases. 1 The Unidentified Flying Object appeared above the big lake before it disappeared into space. 2 The red Proton Iswara parked under the coconut tree was stolen last night. 3 Kai An could hear his father snoring across the living room. 4 They have not met each other since the farewell party two years ago. 5 There is no doubt that the design of their new anniversary pendant is similar to ours. 6 The environmentalists were planting new trees along the green lungs last week. 7 The chef is proud of his new recipe, which the food connoisseur enjoyed tremendously. 8 As soon as it was hit, Titanic sank slowly beneath the turbulent waves. 9 Despite the loss of her luggage, she managed to have an enjoyable vacation. 10 Prior to examinations, candidates must allocate ample time to do their revision. Phrasal Verbs A phrasal verb is a combination of a basic verb and a preposition. When a basic verb and a preposition are put together and the meaning of the verb changes, we call that a phrasal verb. Here are examples: Watch = to look at something for a long time Out = the opposite of in Watch out = to be aware of what is happening Do you see how the meanings of Watch and Out are changed when they are put together? Heres another example: Pick = to choose Up = towards a higher position Pick up = to get someone or something from a location

PRACTICE 13 Fill in the blanks with the following verbs (believe, fill, get, look, put, switch, take, throw, turn, try) and the correct prepositions (away, down, for, in, off, on, out) that go with each of them. EXAMPLE My parents are out. So I have to look after my baby brother. 1 Quick! Get on the bus. Its ready to leave. 2 I dont know where my book is. I have to look for it. 3 Its dark inside. Can you switch on the light, please? 4 Fill in the form, please. 5 I need some new clothes. Why dont you try on the jeans? 6 Its warm inside. Take off your coat. 7 This pencil is really old. You can throw it away. 8 Its so loud here. Can you turn down the radio, please? 9 The firemen were able to put out the fire in Church Street. 10 Does your little brother believe in ghosts? Tenses In English, there are three basic tenses: present, past and future. Thus, verbs can be referred to in the present, past and future time. The tense of a verb shows the time of an action. Simple Forms Progressive Forms Perfect Forms Progressive Perfect Forms Describes Present An unchanging, repeated or recurring action A universal truth Example: The sun rises in the east. (Unchanging action) Every year, the school board elects new members. (Recurring action) Pb is the chemical symbol for lead. (Universal truth) Describes An ongoing action that is happening at the same time the statement is written Example: The doctor is examining the patient. Describes An action that happened at an indefinite time in the past An action that began in the past and continues in the present Example: The scientists have travelled to many countries in order to collect more significant data. (at an indefinite time) Women have voted in the countrys elections since 1957. (Continues in the present) An action that took place in Describes An action that began in the past, continues in the present and may continue into the future Example: En Abu has been diving since May.

Past

An action that started and

A past action which was

A past, ongoing

finished in the past Example: World War II ended in 1945. (Regular -ed form) Professor Ungku Aziz wrote the book. (Irregular form) Future An action that will occur in the future Example: The teacher will retire next month.

happening when another action occurred Example: The politician was explaining the new development project in the hall when protests began on the streets.

the past before another past action Example: By the time the soldiers arrived, the war had ended.

An ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the future Example: Dr. Arshad will be presenting partial findings on the ongoing research on truancy among students.

An action that will occur in the future before some other action Example: By the time the soldiers arrive, the combat group will have spent several weeks waiting.

action that was completed before some other past action Example: Mr Chee had been diving for 22 years A future, ongoing action that will occur before some specified future time Example: Mr Lim will have been diving by the end of next year

PRACTICE 14 Choose the correct answer. 1 Please go back and make sure that all the lights are switched off. A will be B are C had been 2 Dont you remember that we are going to the theatre tonight? A go B will be gone C are going 3 Could you tell Eric Jason something about the accident that happened this morning? A that happened B which was happened C which had happened 4 I believe I will receive a letter from her soon. A receive B had received C will receive 5 It has been raining every day so far this week. A rains B has been raining C raining 6 Your mother will have arrived when you finish your homework. A has arrived B arrived C will have arrived 7 Everything will have been done by the time you get there. A will have been done B had been done C was done 8 There goes the bell. A is going B goes C has gone 9 How many people have died of the disease? A is dying B dies C have died 10 May Bee will have written a letter to her brother by the end of this week.

A will have written B had written C has written 11 I waited until he had finished speaking before I made the suggestion. A has finished B had finished C would have finished 12 It will be a long time before I see you again. A has been B is being C will be SubjectVerb Agreement A singular subject requires a singular verb; a plural subject requires a plural verb. That is the simple principle behind subjectverb agreement. EXAMPLE (i) My father and mother know the headmaster well. (ii) Rivers, lakes and seas are important sources of water. Compound Subjects A compound subject takes a plural form of the verb, except when singular words are joined by either or or neither nor. If subjects are joined by either or or neither nor, the verb should agree with the subject before it. EXAMPLE (i) Either the teacher or the student is responsible for the accident. (ii) Either the teacher or the students are responsible for the accident. (iii) Neither the teacher nor the student is responsible for the accident. (iv) Neither the teacher nor the students are responsible for the accident. Fractions/Percentage The verb agrees with the preceding noun or clause. If the preceding noun is singular, the verb takes the singular form of the verb. (i) Two-thirds of my article is completed. (ii) Half of the crowd at the stadium has dispersed. (iii) About 60 per cent of my salary is in the bank. If the preceding noun is plural, then it takes the plural form of the verb. (i) One-third of the students have been selected for the seminar. (ii) About 40 per cent of the students are from Pahang. Time/Distance and Money When we express time, distance and money, we use the singular form of verbs. (i) Three years is not enough to complete this bridge. (ii) Five billion dollars was paid as compensation to the company. Other Subject-Verb Agreement Rules None can be either singular or plural. Example (i) None of it was my books. (Singular) (ii) None of the workers were late. (Plural) For one of those statements, the verb in the second part of the sentence is always plural. Example (i) My father is one of those who work hard. When the nouns represent one idea, or refer to the same person or thing, a singular verb is used. Example (i) Honour and glory is his desire. (ii) Bread and butter was our only choice of food. (iii) Time and tide waits for nobody.

PRACTICE 15 Underline the correct verb for each of the following sentences. 1 Either the physicians in this hospital or the chief administrator (is / are) going to have to make a decision. 2 None of the girls (is / are) married. 3 (Is / Are) my boss or my sisters in the union going to win this court case? 4 A high percentage of the people (was / were) voting for the new school to be built. 5 Three-quarters of the student body (is / are) against the tuition hike. 6 Some of the grain (appear / appears) to be contaminated. 7 Everyone selected to serve on this jury (have / has) to be willing to give up a lot of time. 8 None of the children (are / is) as sweet as Mary Ann. 9 Neither the doctors nor the nurse (is / are) responsible. 10 Either the manager or the waiters (are / is ) responsible. PRACTICE 16 Study the sentences below. Put a tick () for sentences with the correct use of subject-verb agreement and a cross () for the wrong use of subject-verb agreement. Then write the correct word at the side. Everyone have to return their books by today. () have has 1 The school is buying a new printing machine today. () 2 Either the boy or the girl are mistaken. () are is 3 He likes mathematics. ( ) 4 Fifty-five minutes are not enough to complete the task. () are is 5 Arguing and finger-pointing does not help us. ( ) 6 Neither he nor she are to be blamed. () are is 7 Two thousand ringgit was paid for the renovation. ( ) 8 One of the workers seem to be absent every week. () seem seems 9 Neither the principal nor the teacher is coming today. ( ) 10 Either the girls or your servant is going to the market. ( ) Concrete and Abstract Nouns Concrete Abstract Nouns Nouns You can experience this group of nouns with You cannot detect this group of nouns with your five senses see them, hear them, smell your five senses you cannot see, hear, them, taste them and feel them smell, taste or feel them Example: Example: house, book, frog, noodles and happiness, goodness, youth, teacher anger, convenience, loyalty According to T.M. Georges, a noun is usually abstract if it ends in one of these suffixes: -tion -ity -ness -ance / ence -ability -ism -ment -age -ship acy EXAMPLE Brownie, Janes Chihuahua, licked yellow vanilla ice cream off her chin. In the above example, we can identify the following concrete nouns: Concrete Nouns Explanation ice cream A sweet frozen food that we can eat, and feel our tongues growing numb from the cold.

We can see the colour. yellow We can taste the vanilla flavour. vanilla Conclusion: Any noun you can experience with at least one of your five senses is a concrete noun. Any noun you cannot experience with at least one of your five senses is an abstract noun. PRACTICE 17 Put the following nouns in the correct column. curiosity, airplane, relaxation, committed, treachery, the President, reliance, cat, teacher, bubble bath Concrete Nouns Abstract Nouns airplane, the President, cat, teacher, bubble bath curiosity, relaxation, committed, treachery, reliance PRACTICE 18 Underline each noun and label it concrete or abstract. 1 We went to Taman Berjaya Park (concrete) and got an idea (abstract) when we saw the fish (concrete) swimming in the pond (concrete). 2 Using a piece (concrete) of wood (concrete), they saw that Joshua (concrete) could lift the boys (concrete) sitting on the benches (concrete) in the park (concrete). 3 All we see is water (concrete), sand (concrete) and waves (concrete) because we live in Pulau Langkawi (concrete). 4 Communication (abstract) is a very important process (abstract) to all people (concrete) at all levels. 5 Mrs Pillai (concrete) was filled with joy (abstract) yesterday because justice (abstract) had been served by the magistrate (concrete). 6 My file (concrete) fell out of my knapsack (concrete) and landed somewhere on Jalan Kilat. (concrete). 7 The National Monument (concrete) displays the bravery (abstract) of our soldiers (concrete). 8 The ability (abstract) to talk is a very powerful advantage (abstract). Gerunds and To-Infinitives A gerund is formed by adding -ing to a verb and it functions as a noun. Gerund used as subject Swimming is a good form of exercise. Gerund used as direct object All my family members enjoy swimming. Gerund used as subject complement What I enjoy most is swimming with my dad. Gerund used as object of preposition I spend at least 30 minutes a week for swimming The to-infinitive consists of to + base form verb. the infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence. EXAMPLES Function To-infinitive Subject To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required. Object Everyone wanted to go. Subject complement His ambition is to fly. Adjective He lacked the strength to resist. Adverb We must use a language constantly to master it. PRACTICE 19 Underline the most appropriate answer in the brackets. 1 (Telling, To tell, Telling/To tell) your boyfriend was a mistake. 2 Have you talked to the dentist about (cleaning, to clean, cleaning/to clean) your teeth? 3 I am used to (seeing, to see, seeing/to see) her in a bad mood. 4 You need (studying, to study, studying/to study) harder this year in order to pass the MUET examination.

5 My mother prefers (reading, to read, reading/to read) science fiction books. 6 To see is (believing, to believe, believing/to believe). 7 (Fighting, to fight, fighting/to fight) for a losing cause made them depressed. 8 I dislike (going, to go, going/to go) to the movies by myself. 9 He won the game by (scoring, to score, scoring/to score) during the overtime period. 10 We started (eating, to eat, eating/to eat) dinner without you. Malaysian English Usage Malaysian English is widely spoken and generally acceptable when used among Malaysians. It is sometimes known as Non-standard English. However, it is normally not accepted in academic writing. In a more formal situation, such as in academic writing, it is advisable to use Standard English. The table below shows some non-standard use of vocabulary commonly used among Malaysians. Non-standard English Standard English My best friend, Gina, called me to lunch My best friend, Gina, invited me to lunch yesterday. yesterday. The immigration officer chopped my The immigration officer stamped my passport. passport. Can I follow you to the supermarket this Can I go with you to the supermarket this afternoon? afternoon? My father has gone outstation. He will be My father has gone out of town. He will back next week. be back next week. The van driver horned at me angrily. The van driver sounded his horn at me angrily. PRACTICE 20 Read the following statements and underline words or phrases in non-standard English (Malaysian English). Then write the Standard English equivalents. 1 The price of the pineapples is so cheap that we can buy a whole basket of them. low 2 Last time our village did not have electricity supply so we had to use kerosene lamps. In the past 3 Muthusamy was so boring that he left the seminar halfway through. bored 4 The victim of the accident was sent to the nearest hospital. taken 5 Mr Tan was angry with the students because they did not pass up their assignments. hand in 6 We will shift to our new house next month. move 7 The boys arrived at the house, opened their shoes and dashed into the house. took off 8 Hurry up, Kim! Open the television. It is time for the The Fast and Fury film. Switch on 9 Sallehuddin is much taller compared to his brother. than 10 Faridah is now attached to Maybank in Kuala Lumpur. working for Verb Phrase A verb composed of more than one word is called a verb phrase.

It is composed of main verbs and auxiliary verbs such as: am, is, are, were, being, been, do, did, does, shall, should, must, have, might EXAMPLE 1 You must drink water. In Example 1, must drink is a verb phrase consisting of the auxiliary verb must and the main verb drink. EXAMPLE 2 Your idea is considered. In Example 2, is considered is a verb phrase consisting of the auxiliary verb is and the main verb considered. PRACTICE 21 Identify the verb phrases in the following sentences. Underline the auxiliary verbs once and italicize the main verbs. Kalaivani is cheerful. Answer: is cheerful 1 Anne Michelle is mowing the lawn. 2 Crows were perched on the car. 3 Are all of the parents donating their time? 4 Since last week we have been looking for new jobs. 5 Neither candidate would listen to the reporters questions. 6 Do not take no for an answer. 7 The Simpsons will be leaving for Spain tomorrow. 8 Anne Jacintha, a Malaysian author, has written three novels about Mount Kinabalu. 9 May I see your ID card, please? 10 We are going to the circus today.