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1.

What were the motives for settlement for your area and how did those impact the structure of government and relationship with the Mother Country? The original motive behind the discovery of Brazil was exploration. After the discovery of the region was confirmed, many different people began migrating there for the trade opportunities that began emerging from the sale of brazilwood. The Mother Country, Portugal, gave control of strips of land to different people who then passed the land down to their descendants. These appointed people were mainly focused on developing their region to further their own agendas. This system, also called the captaincy system, was originally put in place because of the lack of resources in the royal family. As wealth increased in Brazil, the crown became more interested in formulating a more structured governmental system. The desire to control the trade and numerous resources in Brazil led the crown to create a government that became more rigid with rules and regulations. Brazil and Portugal had a unique relationship in that the royal family actually moved court to Brazil in 1807 and ruled from Rio de Janeiro. 2. How did geography and demography impact the political and social structures that developed? Brazil was originally divided up into fifteen captaincies, only two of which prospered dealing sugar cane and the slave trade. The natives were the first slaves, but when European demand grew, imported slaves mostly from Africa became the primary working labor behind the Brazilian economy .However, due to the ultimate failure of the captaincies, the monarch decided to make the colonization a unified royal effort. The king thus installed a governor-general to rule the territory. The various governors of Brazils states came together to form a viceroyalty to rule from the top down. Each town in Brazil then formed its own city council consisting of high society members.

The geography of Brazil allowed for certain plants, such as brazilwood, to grow on the coast on the Eastern side of Brazil. Due to the trade that stemmed from this, the political divisions that were given out by the Portuguese crown were centered on the coast for the most part. The divisions lead to larger populations in these regions as more people began to immigrate into the colony. The divisions of land also developed into plantations where a large amount of power beneath the crown instituted government. In general, the land that was most opportune for trading led to larger populations that generally were led by a single patriarch who had total control over them.
3. How did the political structure established lead to discontent in the future? The oppressive political structure and social hierarchy created discontent in the native populations as well as those who were not in the upper levels of society. The captains-general of the Portuguese army ruled the new territory, with a captain-general or governor in each captaincy. While the captain-general did not have huge influence in each captaincy, he did have heavy military authority. The struggles within the government were increased by the various differing races. The reinois, or whites born in Portugal, held most of the power in the government. They saw Brazil simply as an extension of the Portuguese empire. However, the mazombos, or whites born in Portuguese-America, that were in the government disagreed with the renois; the mazombos viewed the territory not as extension of the Portuguese empire but simply as Brazil. They saw themselves as Brazilians and thus wanted laws and policies to benefit

Brazil, not Portugal. As for the native populations, they became more aggressive enslaved under white men and soon became very unproductive so that around 1550, the Portuguese began to import black slaves to use for the farming (Burns 120). This populace also began to revolt after some time partially due to the political structure that placed power in the hands of people who wanted to use their laborers to further their wealth. 4. To what extend did the socio-economic climate in your region lead to a wealth-gap? The first immigrants to Brazil were granted plots of land from the crown and from there they developed their own plantations. These plantations were run by the white Portuguese population and were worked by laborers from either the native population or black slave labor. The slave labor was bought with the hope that the slaves would at least last long enough to produce enough to repay the value that they had cost initially, sometime around 5 years. They worked without pay, and the native population was also another part of the population that did not see a great improvement in their living conditions. Because the Portuguese were the ones given the land, they saw that most of the profit made from sugar and trade remained in their pockets. However, it was primarily the renois, or whites born in Portugal who then came to Brazil, that reaped the benefits. They had only the interests of themselves and Portugal in mind. The mazombos, or whites born in Brazil, were more interested in helping out Brazil as a country. Because the renois held more power in government and thus the economy, they were the ones to see the profit while the mazombos did not. 5. How oppressive was mercantilism to the settlers in your region? For the most part, the colonists of Brazil were allowed to produce what they wanted to. The only real restrictions enforced on the colony were when the crown restricted trade to only the English after becoming allies with them. The Portuguese also restricted trade with the Dutch because of how the Dutch were smuggling items to and fro their colony. From 1750-1777, the Marquis de Pombal enacted different reforms that would allow the Portuguese to develop a social class that could trade and compete with the English. Trade monopolies were granted to different companies in different regions in the colony to ensure that the economy would become developed. The success of these reforms was that the trade between Portugal and Brazil increased, and the Brazilians increased their Portuguese imports to 30% (Burns 24). 6. What were the major labor systems that developed and how did they impact the structure of your society? Who was laboring? After Cabral lands on Brazil in 1500, the Portuguese set up trading posts and plantations instead of colonies due to the mother countrys lack of resources. By the early 1500s, the production of sugar emerged as the highest priority for the plantations in Brazil. Sugar mills dominated the industry in the north and northeast, where plantation owners showed no incentive to further diversify crops. As sugar production drastically increased, the Portuguese found themselves needing more and more workers. Slave hunters or bandeirantes were hired to raid native villages and take the captors to sugar mills to be sold as slaves. This practice resulted in warfare between native Brazilians and Portuguese colonists. Unfortunately for the plantation owners looking to increase their profit, these native Brazilian workers

proved to be untrained and highly susceptible to European diseases. Also, due to horrendous working conditions, separation from family members, and low morale, these workers had high escape and suicide rates. In 1550, Africans were brought to Brazil to work as laborers, seeing as most of the Brazilian population had been killed off or worked to death and the plantation owners were desperate for cheap laborers. The social hierarchy that emerged from these labor systems was that of white plantation owners and Portuguese bureaucrats at the top, poor whites, freed native slaves, and mulattoes (of African and European mixed breeds) in the middle, and slaves on the bottom. The Portuguese plantation colonies were the first model of a slave labor based European aristocracy. The setbacks of this method of industry were the brutal treatment of the Brazilian natives and the refusal of the Portuguese to allow freed native people to integrate into the European colonies until the late 1700s. 7. How were the indigenous populations (Native Americans) treated in your society and what impact did that have on future colonial development? At first, the Portuguese forced native Brazilians into slave labor. Meanwhile, European demand grew for Brazilian exports such as sugar cane, thus creating a need for more labor. Merchants who could not keep up with the booming sugar industry became slave hunters. Through the Atlantic slave trade, the Portuguese purchased African slaves, who became the main labor force in Brazil. The labor force of most sugar cane plantations in the Northeast consisted of slaves from central Africa. Runaway slaves, both African and native, organized themselves into settlements called quilombos. The poor treatment of both native slaves and imported African slaves contributed to the three-tier social hierarchy system, in which slaves were at the very bottom. According to a book by Keen and Haynes, referring to slavery,The social consequences of the system were entirely negative (127). Slaves were treated horribly and slave owners demonstrated their power in an extremely corrupt manner. Slaves were worked around the clock and given limited amounts of food and water. They were often severely beaten and it was not uncommon for female slaves to be forced into prostitution. Portuguese colonists began associating labor with slavery, so there were very few acceptable working positions in the Brazilian economy. This lead to whole towns filled with poor whites who could not compete with the slave-based economy. 8. To what extent did your region separate church and state and allow freedom of religion?

There was little, if any, freedom of religion because the Portuguese perceived the natives as souls in need of saving. This meant that the Church sent out missionaries to convert them to the Christian faith. Whole towns were converted into an approved structure with the usual two missionaries at the head of the reorganization. These structured villages, known as aldeias, were ruled by Portuguese religious leaders and even became major sources for native slave labor. The little freedom of religion that was evident in Brazil was the presence of the Jesuits who promoted equality or at the very least fair treatment of the less fortunate. The Jesuits actually defended the slaves and advocated for better treatment of slaves. Another reason for the lack of religious freedom was the connects that the Portuguese had with their religion and the interconnectivity of church and state.

9. To what extent did intellectual movements (Baroque, Enlightenment) influence the development of your region?

The Enlightenment period occurred after the development of Brazil as a colony. The Baroque period, however, caused a very rigid hierarchy to emerge in society. The Portuguese colonys society became very developed and staunch in its social structure. The different social classes maintained their distance from each other in that the populace remained in their social class and did not move outside of it. Inside the social levels, there were also patriarchal structured homes wherein everyone on the plantation or home was under the control of the patriarch. This system is known as patrimonialism.