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The traffic light, also known as traffic signal, stop light, traffic lamp, stop-and-go lights, robot or semaphore,

is a signaling device positioned at a road intersection, pedestrian crossing, or other location. Its purpose is to indicate, using a series of colors (Red - Amber - Green) specific movement to drive, ride or walk - - each assigned the right-of-way at a given moment, using a universal color code (and a precise sequence, for those that are color blind). A traffic signal is typically controlled by a controller inside a cabinet mounted on a concrete pad. Although some electromechanical controllers are still in use (New York City still has over 11,000), modern traffic controllers are solid state. The cabinet typically contains a power panel, to distribute electrical power in the cabinet; a detector interface panel, to connect to loop detectors and other detectors; detector amplifiers; the controller itself; a conflict monitor unit; flash transfer relays; a police panel, to allow the police to disable the signal; and other components. In the United States, controllers are standardized by the NEMA, which sets standards for connectors, operating limits, and intervals. The TS-1 standard was introduced in 1976 for the first generation of solid-state controllers. Traffic controllers use the concept of phases, which are directions of movement lumped together. For instance, a simple intersection may have two phases: North/South, and East/West. An 4-way intersection with independent control for each direction and each left-turn, will have eight phases. Controllers also use rings; each ring is an of independent timing sequences.

For example, with a dual-ring controller, opposing left-turn arrows may turn red independently, depending on the amount of traffic. Thus, a typical controller is an 8-phase, dual ring control. Solid state controllers are required to have an independent conflict monitor unit (CMU), which ensures fail-safe operation. The CMU monitors the outputs of the controller, and if a fault is detected, the CMU uses the flash transfer relays to put the intersection to FLASH, with all red lights flashing, rather than displaying a potentially hazardous combination of signals. The CMU is programmed with the allowable combinations of lights, and will detect if the controller gives conflicting directions a green signal, for instance

There is something exotic about the traffic lights that "know" you are there -- the instant you pull up, they change! How do they detect your presence?

Some lights don't have any sort of detectors. For example, in a large city, the traffic lights may simply operate on timers -- no matter what time of day it is, there is going to be a lot of traffic. In the suburbs and on country roads, however, detectors are common. They may detect when a car arrives at an intersection, when too many cars are stacked up at an intersection (to control the length of the light), or when cars have entered a turn lane (in order to activate the arrow light). There are all sorts of technologies for detecting cars -everything from lasers to rubber hoses filled with air! By far the most common technique is the inductive loop. An inductive loop is simply a coil of wire embedded in the road's surface. To install the loop, they lay the asphalt and then come back and cut a groove in the asphalt with a saw. The wire is placed in the groove and sealed with a rubbery compound. You can often see these big rectangular loops cut in the pavement because the compound is obvious. Inductive loops work by detecting a change of inductance. To understand the process, let's first look at what inductance is. The illustration on this page is helpful. What you see here is a battery, a light bulb, a coil of wire around a piece of iron (yellow), and a switch. The coil of wire is an inductor. If you have read How Electromagnets Work, you will also recognize that the inductor is an electromagnet. If you were to take the inductor out of this circuit, then what you have is a normal flashlight. You close the switch and the bulb lights up. With the inductor in the circuit as shown, the behavior is completely different. The light bulb is a resistor (the

resistance creates heat to make the filament in the bulb glow). The wire in the coil has much lower resistance (it's just wire), so what you would expect when you turn on the switch is for the bulb to glow very dimly. Most of the current should follow the low-resistance path through the loop. What happens instead is that when you close the switch, the bulb burns brightly and then gets dimmer. When you open the switch, the bulb burns very brightly and then quickly goes out. The reason for this strange behavior is the inductor. When current first starts flowing in the coil, the coil wants to build up a magnetic field. While the field is building, the coil inhibits the flow of current. Once the field is built, then current can flow normally through the wire. When the switch gets opened, the magnetic field around the coil keeps current flowing in the coil until the field collapses. This current keeps the bulb lit for a period of time even though the switch is open. The capacity of an inductor is controlled by two factors:

The number of coils The material that the coils are wrapped around (the core)

Putting iron in the core of an inductor gives it much more inductance than air or any other non-magnetic core would. There are devices that can measure the inductance of a coil, and the standard unit of measure is the henry. So... Let's say you take a coil of wire perhaps 5 feet in diameter, containing five or six loops of wire. You cut some grooves in a road and place the coil in the grooves. You attach an inductance meter to the coil and see what the inductance of the coil is. Now

you park a car over the coil and check the inductance again. The inductance will be much larger because of the large steel object positioned in the loop's magnetic field. The car parked over the coil is acting like the core of the inductor, and its presence changes the inductance of the coil. A traffic light sensor uses the loop in that same way. It constantly tests the inductance of the loop in the road, and when the inductance rises, it knows there is a car wait

ABSTRACT
AUTOMATED TRAFFIC SIGNAL CONTROLLER

his automated traffic signal controller can be made by suitably programming GAL device. Its main features are:- 1. The controller assumes equal traffic density on all the roads.2. In most automated traffic signals the free left-turn condition is provided throughout the entire signal period, which poses difficulties to the pedestrians in crossing the road, especially when the traffic density is high. This controller allows the pedestrians to safely cross the road during certain periods.3. The controller uses digital logic, which can be easily implemented by using logic gates.4.The controller is a generalized one and can be used for different roads with slight modifications.5. The control can also be exercised manually when desired.The time period for which green, yellow and red traffic signals remain on (and then repeat) for the straight moving traffic is divided into eight units of 8 Se

Contents
1. INTRODUCTION History Technology 2. THE PROJECT Functional Block Diagram Circuit Diagram PCB Layout Components Used The Situation The solution to the problem 3. THE WORKING The working of system 4. Description of Major Components 555 Timer-Bistable Multivibrator 7408 IC 7432 IC 7411 IC 7404 IC 74160 IC Resistors &Capacitors Light Emitting Diode 5. Advantages conds (or multiples thereof) each.

INTRODUCTION
Now a days due to ever increasing vehicles on the road,it require a efficient control on the four way junction of road. In order to find a solution to this problem the concept of an automatic traffic controller is conceived.Apart from providing efficient control of traffic, it also eliminate chance of human errors since it function automatically. The automatic traffic controller automatically switches on the four way junction for 15 seconds for direction control.The main circuit components used are 555-Timer and 4- bit binary synchronous counter (74160). The 555-Timer generates a clock signal for 15 seconds. This signal is used to clock counter circuit. Binary counter is converted to 3 bitcounter to achieve 8 possible cases. The traffic light control is done by different Boolean function of logic gate

HISTORY
On 10 December1868,the first traffic lights were installed outside theBritish Houses of ParliamentinLondon,by the railway engineerJ. P. Knight.They resembledrailway signalsof the time, withsemaphorearms and red and green gas lamps for night use.The gas lantern was turned with a lever at its base so that theappropriate light faced traffic. Unfortunately, it exploded on2 January1869,injuring the policeman who was operating it.The modernelectrictraffic light is an Americaninvention.As early as 1912 inSalt Lake City,Utah,policemanLester Wireinvented the first red-green electric traffic lights. On5 August1914,theAmerican Traffic Signal Companyinstalled a traffic signal system on the cornerof East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue inCleveland,Ohio.It had two colors, red and green, and abuzzer,based on the design of JamesHoge, to provide a warning for color changes. The design by JamesHoge allowed police and fire stations to control the signals in case of emergency. The first four-way, three-color traffic light was created bypolice officerWilliam PottsinDetroit, Michiganin 1920.In 1923, Garrett Morganpatented a traffic signal device. It was Morgan'sexperience while driving along the streets of Cleveland that led to hisinvention of a traffic signal device.Ashville, Ohioclaims to be thelocation of the oldest working traffic light in the United States, used atan intersection of public roads until 1982 when it was moved to alocal museum.The first interconnected traffic signal system was installed inSaltLake Cityin 1917, with six connected intersections controlledsimultaneously from a manual switch.Automaticcontrol of interconnected traffic lights was introduced March 1922 inHouston,Texas.The firstautomaticexperimental traffic lights

inEnglandwere deployed inWolverhamptonin 1927. A Ampelmnnchenpedestrian traffic signals have come to be seen as anostalgic sign for the formerGerman Democratic Republic. The color of the traffic lights representing stop and go are likelyderived from

those used to identify port (red) and starboard (green) inmaritime rules governingright of way,where the vessel on the leftmust stop for the one crossing on the right.

TECHNOLOGy: Optics and lighting:In the mid 1990s, cost-effective traffic light lamps usinglightemitting diodes(LEDs) were developed; prior to this date trafficlights were designed usingincandescentorhalogenlight bulbs. Unlike the incandescent-based lamps, which use a single

large bulb,the LED-based lamps consist of an array of LED elements, arrangedin various patterns. When viewed from a distance, the array appearsas a continuous light source.LED-based lamps (or 'lenses') have numerous advantages overincandescent lamps; among them are: Much greater energy efficiency (can be solar-powered). Much longer lifetime between replacement, measured in yearsrather than months. Part of the longer lifetime is due to thefact that some light is still displayed even if some of the LEDs inthe array are dead. Brighter illumination with better contrast against directsunlight, also called 'phantom light'. The ability to display multiple colors and patterns from thesame lamp. Individual LED elements can be enabled ordisabled, and different color LEDs can be mixed in the samelamp Much faster switching Instead of sudden burn-out like incandescentbased lights, LEDsstart to gradually dim when they wear out, warningtransportation maintenance departments well in advance as towhen to change the light. Occasionally, particularly in greenLED units, segments prone to failure will flicker rapidlybeforehand. The operational expenses of LED-based signals are far lower thanequivalent incandescent-based lights. As a result, most new trafficlight deployments in theUnited States,Canadaand elsewhere have been implemented using LED-based lamps; in addition many existingdeployments of incandescent traffic lights are being replaced. In 2006,Edmonton,Alberta,Canadacompleted a total refit to LED-based lamps in the city's over 12,000 intersections and all pedestriancrosswalks. Many of the more exotic traffic signals discussed on thispage would not be possible to construct without using LEDtechnology. However, color-changing LEDs are in their infancy andmay surpass the multi-color array technology.In some areas, LED-based signals have been fitted (or retrofitted)with

specialFresnel lenses(Programmed Visibility or 'PV' lenses)and/or diffusers to limit the line of sight to a single lane. These signalstypically have a "projector"-like visibility; and maintain anintentionally limited range of view. Because the LED lights don'tgenerate a significant amount of heat, heaters may be necessary inareas which receive snow, where snow can accumulate within the lensarea and limit the visibility of the indications.Another new LED technology is the use of CLS (Central LightSource) optics. These comprise around 7 high-output LEDs(sometimes 1 watt) at the rear of the lens, with a diffuser to even outand enlarge the light. This gives a uniform appearance, more liketraditional halogen or incandescent luminaries.Replacing halogen or incandescent reflector and bulb assembliesbehind the lens with an LED array can give the same effect. This alsohas its benefits: minimal disruption, minimal work, minimal cost andthe reduced need to replace the entire signal head (housing).

THE PROJECT

CIRCUIT

The working of the system: The corresponding circuit automatically controls the traffic signal during the day as well as nights.In this system there are one 555 timer and one 74160 synchronous 4 bit counter, which is controlling whole device.Along with there are some electronic equipments like 7404,7408, 7411 gate, capacitor, resistor, LED (yellow, green, red)etc.The time period for which green, yellow, and red traffic signals remain on (And then repeat) for the straight moving traffic is divided into eight units of 8 seconds (or multiples thereof) each

Fig. above shows the flow of traffic in all permissible directions during the eight time units of 8 seconds each. For the left- and right turning

traffic and pedestrians crossing from north to south, south to north, east to west ,and west to east, only green Table I shows the simultaneous states of the signals for all the traffic. Each row represents the status of a signal for 8 seconds.As can be observed from the table, the ratio of green, yellow,and red signals is 16:8:40 (=2:1:5) for the straight moving traffic. For the turning traffic the ratio of green and red signals is 8:56 (=1:7), while for pedestrians crossing the road the ratio of green and red signals is 16:48 (=2:6) In Table II (as well as Table I) X, Y, and Z are used as binary variables to depict the eight states of 8 seconds each. Letters A through H indicate the left and right halves of the roads in four directions as shown in Fig. 1. Two letters with a dash in between indicate the direction of permissible movement from a road. Straight direction is indicated by St, while left and right turns are indicated by Lt and Rt, respectively. The Boolean functions for all the signal conditions are shown in Table II. The left- and the rightturn signals for the traffic have the same state, i.e. both are red or green for the same duration, so their Boolean functions are identical and they should be connected to the same control output. The circuit diagram for realizing these Boolean functions is shown in circuit diagram. Timer 555 (IC1) is wired as an astable multivibrator to generate clock signal for the 4-bit counter 74160 (IC2).The time duration of IC1 can be adjusted by varying the value of resistor R1, resistor R2, or capacitor C2 of the clock circuit.The on time duration T is given by the following relationship: T = 0.693C2(R1+R2)IC2 is wired as a 3-bit binary counter by connecting its Q3 output to reset pin 1 via inverter N1. Binary outputs Q2, Q1, and Q0 form variables X, Y,

and Z,respectively. These outputs, along with their complimentary outputs X, Y, and Z, Respectively, are used as inputs to the rest of the logic circuit to realize various outputs satisfying Table I. You can simulate various traffic lights Using green, yellow, and red LEDs and feed the outputs of the circuit to respective LEDs via current-limiting resistors of 470 ohms each to check the working of the circuit. Here, for turning traffic and pedestrians crossing the road, only green signal is

made available. It means that for the remaining period these signals have to be treated as red in practice, the outputs of Fig. 2 should be

connected to operate high power bulbs.Further, if a particular signal condition (such as turning signal)is not applicable to a given road, the output of that signal condition should be connected to green signal of the next state. The traffic signals can also be controlled manually, if it desired.Any signal state can be established by entering the binary value corresponding to that particular state into the parallel input pins of the 3-bit counter. Similarly, the signal can be reset at any time by providing logic 0 at the reset pin (pin 1) of the counter using an external switch. A software program to verify the functioning of the circuit using a PC is given below. (Source code and executable file will be provided in the next months EFY-CD.).

G e n e r i c a r r a y l o g i c ( G A L Dev i c e s ) device.A similar device called a PEEL An innovation of the PAL was the generic array logic device, or GAL , invented by lattice semiconductor in 1985. This device has the same logical properties as the PAL but can be erased and reprogrammed. The GAL was an improvement on the PAL because one device was able to take the place of many PAL devices or could even have functionality not covered by the original range. The GAL is very useful in the prototyping stage of a design,when any bugs in the logic can be corrected by reprogramming. GALs are programmed and reprogrammed using a PAL programmer, or by using the in-circuit programming technique on supporting chips.Lattice GALs combine CMOS and electrically erasable (E^2) floating gate technology for a high-speed, low- power logic ( programmable electrically erasable logic ) was introduced by the International CMOS Technology (ICT) corporation.The GAL family includes fourteen distinct product architectures, with a variety of performance levels specified across commercial, industrial, and military (MIL- STD883) operating ranges, to meet the demands of any system logic design

These GAL products can be segmented into two broad categories: Base products Extension products Base Products - Aimed at providing superior design alternatives to bipolar PLDs, these five architectures replace over 98% of all bipolar PAL devices. The GAL16V8 and GAL20V8 replace forty-two different PALdevices. The GAL22V10, GAL20RA10, and GAL20XV10 round out the base products. These GAL devices meet and, in most cases, beat bipolar PAL performance specifications while consuming significantly lower power and offering higher quality and reliability via Lattices electrically reprogrammable E2CMOS technology. High- speed erase times (<100ms) allow the devices to be reprogrammed quickly and efficiently. Extension Products - These products build upon the Base GAL product features to provide enhanced functionality including innovative architectures (GAL18V10 GAL26CV12,

GAL6001/6002)64mAhigh output drive (GAL16VP8 & GAL20VP8), Zero power operation (GAL16V8Z/ZD & GAL20V8Z/ZD) and In- System Programmability

iTEGRaTED CIRCUITs (CHIPs) Integrated Circuits are usually called ICs or chips. They are complex circuits which have been etched onto tiny chips of semiconductor (silicon). The chip is packaged in a plastic holder with pins spaced on a 0.1" (2.54mm) grid which will fit the holes on strip board and breadboards. Very fine wires inside the package link the chip to the pins. Pin numbers The pins are numbered anti-clockwise around the IC (chip) starting near the notch or dot. The diagram shows the numbering for 8-pin and 14pin ICs, but the principle is the same for all sizes. IC holders (DIL sockets) ICs (chips) are easily damaged by heat when soldering and their short pins cannot be protected with a heat sink. Instead we use an IC holder, strictly called a DIL socket (DIL = Dual In-Line), which can be safely soldered onto the circuit board. The IC is pushed into the holder when all soldering is complete.IC holders are only needed when soldering so they are not used on breadboards.Commercially produced circuit boards often have ICs soldered directly to the board without an IC holder; usually this is done by a machine which is able to work very quickly. Please don't attempt to do this yourself because you are likely to destroy the IC and it will be difficult to remove without damage by de- soldering. Removing an IC from its holder If you need to remove an IC it can be gently prised out of the holder with a small flat-blade screwdriver. Carefully lever up each end by inserting the screwdriver blade between the IC and its holder and gently twisting the screwdriver. Take care to start lifting at both ends before you attempt to remove the IC,otherwise you will bend and possibly break the pins.

tH E 5 5 5 T I M E R

DEsCRIPTION :The 8-pin 555 timer must be one of the most useful chips ever made. This is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delay or oscillation .With just a few external components it can be used to many circuits, not all of them that involve timing! A single 555 timer can provide time delay ranging from microseconds to hours whereas counter time can have maximum timing range of days. The 555 can be used with a supply voltage (Vs) in the range 4.5 to 15V (18 V absolute) and can drive load up to 200 mA. Because of wide range of supply

Inputs of 555 Timer :Trigger input : - When <1/3 Vs (active low) this makes the output high (+Vs). It monitors the discharging of the timing capacitor in an astable circuit. It has a high input impedance>2M. Threshold input : -When > 2/3 Vs (active high) this makes the output low (0V)*.It monitors the charging of the timing capacitor in astable and monostable circuits. It has a high input impedance>10M. * Providing the trigger input is <1/3 Vs (the trigger inputs overrides the threshold input). Reset input : -When less than about 0.7 V (active low) this makes the output low (0V), overriding other inputs. When not required it should be connected o + Vs. It has an input impedance of about 10 K. Control input: -This can be used to adjust the threshold voltage which is set internally to be 2/3 Vs. Usually this function is not required and the control input is connected to 0v with a 0.01 f capacitor to eliminate noise. It can be left unconnected if noise is not a problem. The discharge pin: - It is not an input, but it is listed here for convenience. It is connected to 0Vwhen the timer output is high and is used to discharge the timing capacitor ion astable and

Output of 555 :- The 555 output (pin 3) can sink and source up to 200mA.This is more than most chips and it is sufficient to supply many output transducers directly, including LEDs (with a resistor in series), low current lamps, piezo transducers, loudspeakers (with a capacitor in series), relay coils (with diode protection)and some motors (with diode protection). The output voltage does not quite reach 0V and + Vs, especially if a large current is flowing.

ADVANTAGES: 1. Simple and efficient circuit 2. Working requirement is easily met.3. No instant and direct manual operation is needed.4. Consumes very small amount of power for operation.5. It also saves a considerable amount of power.6. A very practical and low cost device.7. It can make to work by using solar cell/wind cell for power requirements .