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YASIN ABUGHOUSH 0796939361

Text A: Read the following texts and answer the questions below: An area of the law that is changing very quickly in the modern world is the law related to computer crime. Increasingly, criminals are using computers to help them commit new crimes like identity theft, and to make it easier to commit old crimes like theft or fraud. Technological criminals may get into computer systems to find out confidential information and use this to make money. Unfortunately, computer crimes are often more difficult to solve than traditional crimes because the criminals are invisible and their actions may be hard to prove. It can also be difficult to prosecute a computer criminal successfully because nothing is usually stolen or physically damaged. Hopefully, in future, computer experts will discover more effective ways of detecting such crimes. A particular factor in the growth of computer crimes has been the increase in the number of ordinary people who use internet websites to buy things, to book holidays or to access their bank accounts in order to transfer money or pay bills. This new type of business has attracted techno criminals who may order goods and services without paying, or break into the computer systems of business or financial organizations and either move money to their own accounts or send viruses which can seriously damage computers and the information they contain. These viruses can affect millions of people worldwide. Computers with internet connections can also be used more safely by criminals than face to face meetings or telephone conversations to pass on confidential information or to plan crimes. In addition to this, computers allow criminals access to millions of people worldwide whom they may persuade to pay for something worthless or to support a fake charity organization.

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1. According to the writer, there are two types of crime. Write them down. 2. Computer crimes have increased due to many factors. Write down one of them. 3. Quote a sentence which shows that new crimes are less dangerous than old ones. 4. Find a word in paragraph three which means 'to move from one place to another'. 5. What does the underlined pronoun "their" refer to? 6. According to the text, the internet offers new ways of business. Write down two of them. 7. The writer thinks that computer crimes are more difficult to solve than traditional Ones. Explain this statement, justifying your answer. B. Critical Thinking Modern technology is a double edged sword. Think of this statement and, in two sentences, write down your point of view. Text B: Read the following text and answer the questions below: The first paper was made from cloth nearly two thousand years ago in China. Although paper can be made from all kinds of materials such as cotton, fibers, grass or sugar cane, these days wood pulp is the material most commonly used to make new papers that is, paper which contain no old or recycled paper. The modern world uses so much paper that environmentalists have persuaded us that we should recycle old paper as well as making new papers. There is an increasing awareness in Jordan of the need to recycle both paper and other materials. Paper recycling containers can now be found in some parts of the country and some government agencies have begun paper recycling programs. Also, there is greater education in schools about the need to take care of our environment. Although we use wood pulp from trees to make new paper, it is not true that recycling paper saves trees. Trees are a

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commercially grown long term crop, so that when they are cut down, new ones are planted. Also, papermakers use the parts of trees that cannot be used in other industries such as building and furniture making. Nearly all new paper is made from wood grown in sustainable forests. Here are some of the facts related to producing recycled paper: A large proportion of household waste is paper or card board. About half of this is newspapers and magazines. For every tons of paper used for recycling we save 30.000 liters of water, 30004000 kwh of electricity and reduce air pollution. Recycled paper is less harmful to the environment than buying it in landfill sites. This is because paper that is buried in the ground rots and produces methane which is a powerful greenhouse gas. Despite our increasing dependence on information stored on computers, there will always be a demand for paper. In the interests of our environment, we have to make sure that we continue to recycle as much of it as possible 1- According to the text, paper can be made from almost all kinds of material. Write down three of them. 2- Jordan's awareness of the need to recycle paper has increased. Write down two procedures taken by Jordan to prove this statement. 3 Find a word in the text that means "decays." 4 - What does the underlined pronoun "they" refer to? 5- Quote a sentence which shows that recycled paper doesn't affect the environment. 6. Recycling paper has many advantages. Write down three of them? It's said that recycling paper doesnt save trees. Explain, justifying your answer.

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B: Critical Thinking Recycling paper and other materials can save our natural environment and the earth's climate. Think of this statement and, in two sentences, write down your point of view. Text C: Read the following text and answer the questions below: Desertification, which is the process in which productive land changes into desert, is an increasingly serious problem in over a hundred countries of the world. One billion people, out of a total world population of six billion, suffer from its effects. Desertification usually where occurs in dry areas there is no rain and where the climate is harsh. In these places, the top layer of soil is destroyed so that the land can no longer be used for growing crops or grazing animals. This means that people who depend on the land for food have to move to 'greener' areas in order to survive. A proportion of the population may survive by moving, but others may die because of shortages of food and water. Although natural changes in the climate often start the process, the activities of human beings are often the real cause of desertification. Because there are growing numbers of people to feed, farmers tend to over cultivate their land with the result that the soil becomes poor and unproductive. Other farmers overgraze their land and this permanently kills off grass and other plants. In addition to the effects of farming, deforestation the cutting down of trees also erodes the soil. Trees are usually cut down to make more agricultural land, but once there are no longer trees and plants on an area of land, there is nothing to stop the wind and rain from blowing or washing away the top layer of soil. The dust which this produces can travel long distances and affect the health of people living in cities thousands of kilometers away.

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But this is not the end of the story: desertification can create conditions which produce strong winds and dangerous wildfires and this leads to even greater pressure on the Earth's most precious resource, water. 1. According to paragraph two, desertification has two bad effects on human beings. Write them down. 2. Many factors may lead to desertification especially those related to farming. Write down two of them. 3. Quote a sentence which indicates that desertification is a global problem. 4. Find a word in paragraph three which means "to use land for growing crops" 5. What does the underlined pronoun "its" refer to? 6. Natural changes in the climate can lead to desertification. Write down two of them. 7. According to the text, the writer thinks that desertification leads to greater pressure on water. Explain this statement, justifying your answer. B. Critical Thinking Desertification is a challenge to human beings that we should find solutions to stop it. Think of this statement and, in two sentences, write down your point of view. Question Number Two A Choose the best answer from those given to complete the following :-

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case

habitat - confidential

- evacuated -

sustainable

1. The word . means secret and private. 2. Trees growing in .. forests are mainly used for making paper. 3. The judge in charge of the ...arrived at court carrying a black leather bag. 4. The place where an animal lives is called its .... red deteriorated - precious global -grazing b 1. Large areas of land are cut down for . animals. 2. Someone accused me of being lazy and I just saw . 3. When the economic situation .., many people emigrated. 4. Water is the most . resource on earth. mammal material extinction - erosion - thorns

1. Unlike birds and reptiles, . animals feed their young with milk. 2. Cutting down trees create conditions which lead to soil .. 3. Paper can be made from almost all kinds of .., such as cotton or grass. 4. Hunting and habitat loss are the main causes of the .. of the sand gazelle. giant global predator - remote - adapt d. 1. An animal that kills and eats other animals is called a . 2. Desertification is a .. issue for one sixth of the world's population. 3. In order to ..in hot seasons, sand gazelles dig shallow pits to lie on. 4. Biomes are like . greenhouses like the Humid Tropics. B - Choose the most correct item to fill in the blanks: 1. What do the three-part verbs mean in the following?
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It is impossible to keep up with the changes. 2. People living near the station put up with a lot of noise. .. Put up with enjoy tolerate,accept, endure... Keep up with Know the latest information about examine C Choose the correct word in brackets to fill in the blanks: 1. People ..... mainly for economic reasons. ( emigrate , emigrated , emigration ) 2. Farmers s are working hard to....... their lands. ( cultivate , cultivated , cultivation ) 3. Citizens shouldnt .. actions which violate the law. (commit, committed , commitment ) 4. Do criminals . the law by getting into computer system? ( violate , violence , violent ) 5. Desertification can create results on our environment. ( destroy, destruction, destructive ) 6. The economic. in the entire world is getting more embarrassing. ( situate , situated , situation ) 7. Air pollution is a to living creatures. ( disaster, disastrous , disastrously ) 8. He was accused of ... driving. ( danger, dangerous, dangerously ) 9. The ... of an area is the responsibility of people and government. ( develop, development , developmental ) 10. The cutting down of trees isnt ... nor acceptable. ( law , legal , legally ) 11. Chareefah is . innocent. He cannot commit such a crime.
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( fortune , fortunate , fortunately ) 12. Hayat is fortunately . He cannot commit such a crime. ( innocence, innocent, innocently ) 13. The racer was so.. . He won the race. (fortune , fortunate , fortunately) 14. Farmers . grow soya beans to be exported to Europe. ( increase, increasing, increasingly) 15. The police broke into the house .. ( violence , violent , violently ) Question Number Three: A Correct the verb between brackets: 1. Adam.. from work last year.. (retire) 2. Samar. to the doctor two days ago. (go) 3. Adam retired last year. He for the same company all his life. (work) 4. Ali went to the doctor this morning. He .... ill during the night. (feel) 5. Mohmmad has.. in Amman for 20 years. (be, live) 6. Saba has.living in Amman for 20 years. (be) 7. Saba has been.. in Amman for 20 years. ( live) 8. Samar has ..... in Amman for 20 year but now he lives in Zarqa. ( live) B-Choose the suitable item from those given in brackets. 1. farmers cut down trees, the soil erodes. (In order, Because, With the result to) 2. Trees are cut down the soil becomes dry and dusty. (with the result that, lead to, the cause of) 3. Oil companies buy more land . find more oil. (to, in order, so that) 4. Oil companies buy more land . they can find more oil. (to, in order, so that) 5. Are you aware ..the consequences of your acts? (in, with, of) 6. Are you satisfied . the results of the report? (in, with, for)
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7. He lives in a big house and drives a grand car. He . very poor. (can't be, might be, must be) 8. Ali has drunk two liters of water. He .. very thirsty. (can't have been, should have been, must have been) 9. In the sentence," he might be the manager", the speaker is Sure that he is the manager, Sure that he isnt the manager Not sure if he is the manager 10. The workers of the company . . by the manager. (appointed, was appointed, were appointed) 11. I have been visiting Europe . 2010. (for, since, yet) 12. I have been visiting Europe . Three months. (for, since, when) 13. I have known Salem he was ten. (for, since, yet) Question Number Four: A -Rewrite . 1. The government encouraged the farmers of the Jordan Valley to grow wheat. The farmers of the Jordan Valley........ 2. The council has called him for a meeting. He 3. Hunters are hunting the sand Gazelle for its skin. The sand Gazelle ..... 4. What a pity Ali is too short. I wish Ali . 5. Smi doesnt have a driving license. We wish Sami . 6. I cannot learn a second language. I wish I 7. People smoke in public places. We wish people 8. Drivers dont drive carefully. We wish 9. Farmers cut down trees so that they can grow more soya beans.
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Farmers cut down trees in order . 10. Loggers cut down trees in order to sell their wood. Loggers cut down trees so that ..... 11. I'm sure it is an interesting place to visit. It must ..... 12. I'm certain Sami was eating in the kitchen. Sami .. 13. Sami doesnt speak English. I am certain. Sami can't .... 14. Sami didnt have a very good accent. I am certain. Sami .... 15. Samar has two farms at Ajloun. I am not sure. Samar might .. 16. Samar had two farms at Ajloun. It is possible. Samar .. B -Study the following sentences and answer the question below each: 1. A: I think farmers are the main cause of desertification. B: I am afraid you are wrong. Which sentence indicates an opinion? 2. A: I think farmers are the main cause of desertification. B: That's right. Which sentence indicates agreement? 3. A. I think farmers are the main cause of desertification. B. I am afraid you are wrong. Which sentence indicates disagreement? 4. A. I bought a washing machine but it doesnt start. B. If I were you, I would ask for replacement. Which sentence indicates advice? Question Number Five: A. EDITING: The following text has three mistakes. Correct the mistakes. a environementalists (1) believe that pollution affects many precius (2) resources that we should
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recycle all materiels (3) ,such as paper and also get rid of rubbish. 1. ... 2. .... 3. .. b the (1) best way to preserve our environment is to burry rubi hallow by digging deep pits in stead of shalallow ones. 1. .. 2. . 3. . B. GUIDED WRITING:

Read the information in the tables below and write two sentences about each. Use the appropriate linking words such as: and, alsoetc 1 Ways to reduce traffic jam use public transport share journeys with others. Walk or cycle 2. Reasons of desertification Farmers over cultivate their land to make more agricultural land ranchers overgraze their animals. Loggers cut down trees to sell the valuable wood 3.Glass recycled in tones

C. FREE WRITING: Write about 80 words on ONE of the following: 1 Write an email to your friend telling him// her a strange event in your life. . 2 Write a letter to your friend describing an interesting place you visited.
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Your name is Nihad. Your address is P.O.Box (1646) AmmanJordan.

3. Write a report on the advantages and disadvantages of computers at home. 4. Write an essay on pollution.

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