Você está na página 1de 2


Ethics = is the systematized body of knowledge of ultimate cause, principle & truth about the morality of human acts by means of human reason alone w/c tends to be acted upon. - guides the intellect in the requisition & application of the moral principles containing moral truths. - point out the way to right living; to follow the directions to mans ultimate destiny. 2. Health Ethics = science that deals with the study of the morality of human conduct in the practice of health and health care. (Alleviate sufferings, prevent sickness & promote health Do good avoid evil) 3. Bioethics = is a theological, ethical science and the systematic study of human conduct, in the areas of life sciences and health care. In so far as that conduct is examined from the view point of moral values and principles in order to draw conclusions about what is morally acceptable and not. - about comprehensive ethics of life. Scope: beginning, growth, ending of human life. Human Life : Human Person with intellect, will & freedom, responsibility, conscience. Bioethics regulates human conduct in the light of moral principle in relation to human life. - concerned about all the other affecting human life! (Prohibition of death penalty, terrorism, unjust war, etc.) beyond the scope of health care = exclusive concern of Health Ethics. Human conduct examined from the view point of moral values & principles Moral Values are universal truths which man holds to be good & important; they are the ethical principles which man struggles to attain and implement in his daily life. The Moral law specifically governs mans behavior. It prescribes norms of conduct for the good and happiness of man. To GOD *All human civil laws which are in accordance with the natural moral laws must be obeyed in order to ensure order and justice in the society. Revealed laws 10 Commandments of God *Bioethics dealing with conscience (= moral values and principles) implies: 1. Responsibility: Stewardship and Accountability a. I own the consequences of my decisions and actions b. I am responsible to others in my decisions and actions. 2. Awareness of a moral failure affects a light or delicate conscience. (Remorse of conscience). 3. Moral values have the character of indispensability. (No one can be excused from them) 4. Moral values have a relation to punishment and to reward. 5. Moral values have a character of transcendence (= Spiritual character which is beyond this present life; most important value/virtue/JesusCommandments:Charity) Bioethics is one specific field in Moral Theology that deals only with the health care, sciences and medicine. - the subject of the study = Human Person - the object is his moral conduct *What is the Human Person in the context of health care? =a being with radical capacity for embodying intelligence and freedom, whether that capacity is still undeveloped or has been frustrated and thus has inalienable rights that should be ethically respected including those rights which relate to health care. 2) Moral theology 3 sources: 1. Object 2(nature or ontological) 2. Intentions (end/teleological); 3. Circumstances 3) Anything that is immoral is also unethical. (immoral = sinful; unethical = wrong)

Absolute Moral Values

Behavioral (Personal) Cultural Values

Natural Moral Law GOD

Conscience: Conscience is a judgment of reason whereby the human person recognizes the moral quality of a concrete act that he is going to perform, is in the process of performing, or has already completed. The dignity of the human person implies and requires uprightness of moral conscience. Conscience enables one to assume responsibility for the acts performed. If man commits evil, the just judgment of conscience can remain within him as the witness to the universal truth of the good, at the same time as the evil of his particular choice. The verdict of the judgment of conscience remains a pledge of hope and mercy. In attesting to the fault committed, it calls to mind the forgiveness that must be asked, the good that must still be practiced, and the virtue that must be constantly cultivated with the grace of God: he education of the conscience is a lifelong task. From the earliest years, it awakens the child to the knowledge and practice of the interior law recognized by conscience. Prudent education teaches virtue; it prevents or cures fear, selfishness and pride, resentment arising from guilt, and feelings of complacency, born of human weakness and faults. The education of the conscience guarantees freedom and engenders peace of heart. *Tender/Delicate= turns a correct judgment * Erroneous conscience = false/error *Lax conscience = finds excuses for misconduct *Scrupulous = uses evil where there is none. (pride) *Certain conscience = dictates actions in clear terms w/o tear of error *No one is allowed to act with a doubtful conscience. wrong = take the benefit of the doubt and go ahead . Human act act that process from the deliberate free will of man. - with full knowledge - free = full consent of the will - intentional and voluntary act/product of decision Elements determining morality 1. the act itself = the object 2. The purpose = the intentions/ the end 3. Circumstances = factors distinct from the act and purpose itself. Circumstances Alter Cases