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Centrifugal Pumps

Positive displacement pumps

Low Huge Valves More maintenance The same flow rate at the same rotational speed regardless pressure value Safety valve is necessary No need fro priming

Rotational speed Size Maintenance Flow rate

High Small No valves Less maintenance Depend on Pressure and the rotational Speed

Pressure Operation

No need for safety valve Priming is necessary

Centrifugal Pumps

Advantages of centrifugal pumps

Cheap Simple design Quite operation Continuous flow without pulsation Low maintenance cost


Fluid Velocity Within A Volute Pump






Centrifugal pump components

1)Stationary elements :

Shaft Seal

2) Rotating elements :

Impellers Shaft

The Casing generally are two types:

I. Circular casing (for low head) II. Volute casing (for high head)

I. Volute casing
A volute is a curved funnel increasing in area that converting the kinetic energy from the liquid discharged from the impeller to a pressure energy.

II. Circular casing
have stationary diffusion vanes surrounding the impeller periphery that convert kinetic energy to pressure energy.

The Casing also can be divided into:

Solid casing : is one casting or fabricated


Split casing : consists of two or more parts

are fastened together.

Horizontally split or axially split casing.

Vertically split or radially split casing.



There are two basic kinds of shaft seals:

Compression packing. mechanical seals.

Pump manufacturers use various design techniques to
reduce the pressure of the product trying to escape such the addition of balance holes through the impeller to permit most of the pressure to escape into the suction side of the impeller.

Shaft seals
1. Packing

Mechanical seal

1) Based on major direction of flow

Axial flow

Radial flow

Mixed flow

2) Based on mechanical construction

Open impeller
Advantage: It is capable of handling suspended matter with a minimum of clogging. Disadvantage:

Central hub

Structural weakness if

the vanes are long, they must be strengthened by ribs or a partial shroud.


2) Based on mechanical construction

Semi-Open impeller
incorporates a single shroud at the back of the impeller.

shroud or back wall


2) Based on mechanical construction

Enclosed impeller
Advantage: This design prevents the liquid recirculation that occurs between an open or semi-open impeller as it incorporates side walls that totally enclose the impeller water ways from the suction eye

3) Based on Suction type

Single suction
Liquid inlet on one side.

Double suction
Liquid inlet to the impeller symmetrically from both sides.

Single Suction Impeller

Double Suction Impeller

Shaft sleeve



Impeller wear ring



Casing wear ring

Priming Chambers
1- Single Chamber tank :

2- Priming chamber
a charge of liquid sufficient to
prime the pump must be retained in the casing (Fig. A)

When the pump starts, the

rotating impeller creates a partial vacuum ; air from the suction piping is drawn into this vacuum and is entrained in the liquid drawn from the priming chamber (Fig. B), then the priming cycle starts. of the air from the suction piping has been expelled and replaced by pumpage and the prime has been established (Fig. C).

Fig. A

This cycle is repeated until all

Fig. B

Fig. C

When a liquid enters a pump, its velocity increases causing a reduction in pressure within the pumping unit. If this pressure falls too low, some of liquid will vaporize, forming bubbles entrained in the liquid. These bubbles collapse violently as they move to areas of higher pressure. The formation and sudden collapse of these bubbles is called Cavitation.

Problems Caused By Cavitation Erosion of impeller loss of pump efficiency and out-of-balance problems with the impeller vibration which lead to bearing and mechanical seal failures cavities will impede the flow of liquid through the impeller reduced capacity plus reduced and/or unstable developed head

How to avoid cavitation?

minimize the number of valves and bends in the suction line use eccentric reducers, not concentric ensure the straight side of the eccentric reducer is installed along the top of the suction line Suction length should be as short as possible Suction pipe should be at least the same diameter as the pump inlet connection use long radius bends increase the size of valves and pipe work do not allow air into the suction line

Reciprocating Pumps

Positive Displacement Pump

Positive displacement pumps



Piston plunger


Single rotor

Multiple rotors

Steam double acting


Simplex Multiplex




Single acting

Fluid operated Mechanically operated




Double acting


Positive pumps have the following advantages over negative displacement pumps:-

High-pressure capability up to 680 bar (10,000 psi) or


High volumetric efficiency. Small changes in efficiency throughout the design

pressure range.

Great flexibility of performance (can operate over a wide

range of pressure requirements and speed ranges).


External Gear Pumps

Internal Gear Pumps

Vane Pump

Lobe Pump










Diaphragm Pump



Diaphragm pump
These pumps are a special type of reciprocating pump that utilizes the action of a diaphragm moving.
Sometimes the diaphragm is used to power a reciprocating pump with air or natural gas When gas pressure is applied against either diaphragm it forces liquid out. When the gas is relieved the diaphragm flexes under the pressure in the suction line and allows liquid to enter.

The advantages of a diaphragm pump are that

- It can handle large amounts of suspended solids, - It is inexpensive to repair, - It can handle low flow rates inexpensively, - It can run periodically without any liquid.

However, diaphragm pumps require frequent

maintenance because - They are reciprocating pumps the diaphragm has a tendency to fatigue with time. - They generally cannot handle very high flow rates, or discharge pressures.

Diaphragm pump


Basic Concepts and Definition .

A compressor is a device that transfers energy to a gaseous
fluid for the purpose of raising the pressure of the fluid.

The inlet pressure level can be any value

from a deep vacuum to a high positive pressure.

The discharge pressure can range from

sub atmospheric levels

to high values in the tens of thousands of pounds per square inch

Basic Concepts and Definition (Cont.).

Device that develop less than 5.0 psig or that affect a

7% density increase from inlet to discharge ,are classified as fans or blowers.

Applications of compressed gas vary from consumer

products, such as the home refrigerators to complex petrochemical plant installations. large

Compressor Working Procedure :

1. Trap consecutive quantities of gas in some type of enclosure, and reduce the volume 2. Compress the gas by the mechanical action (without volume change) of rapidly rotating impellers or bladed rotors that impart velocity and pressure to the flowing gas 3. Entrain the gas in a high velocity jet of the same or another gas and convert the high velocity of the mixture into pressure in a diffuser


Intermittent flow

Continuous flow

Positive displacement

Reciprocating Rotary Radial flow Mixed flow Axial flow


Mechanical piston

Helical lobe Straight lobe Sliding vans

Review of Selection Possibilities

Compressor Type Approx. Max. BHP 20,000 860 100,000 8,000 60,000 Power KW Approx. Max. Psig 100,000 400 500 250 10,000

Reciprocating Vane Type Rotary Axial Flow Dynamic Helical Lobe Rotary Centrifugal Dynamic

15,000 640 74,600 6,000 45,000

The Application Range for Compressors


Pressure ratio

Multistage Reciprocating
20 Single stage Recip. Rotary compressors 2 102

Multistage Centrifugal

Multistage Axial

Single S Cen. 103 104 Flow rate (CFM) 105


Another Method Of Classification:

Number of stages, ( single, multi )
Drive method, ( motor, engine,etc.)

Method of cooling, (air, water, oil )

Lubrication , ( oil, oil free ) Package or custom built.

Compressor Type Selection

Important Factors To Be Considered In Selection:

Discharge pressure required. Capacity required. Power supply characteristics. Availability and cost of cooling water.

Important Factors To Be Considered In Selection ( Continued )

Space required for compressor, Compressor weight. Type and size of foundation required.

Type of control required.

Maintenance costs.

Consideration In selection Of Compressors (cont.)

Any air-cooled compressor for 80 psig ( 5 bar ) or higher pressure should have two or more stages of compression, unless it is very small. A two-stage unit for 100 to 200 psig will run 100 to 150F cooler than a single-stage unit, thus reducing deposit formation and the need for cleaning valves. Two-stage compression of air to 100 psig also saves 10 to 15% in power over single-stage compression.

Consideration In selection Of Compressors (cont.)

Floor Space
The opportunity for selection will be broadened if

the exact dimensions of the space available are

given to all manufacturers.

Consideration In selection Of Compressors (cont.)

Foundation Needs
Foundation requirements for rotating compression

machinery will almost always be less than for an

equivalent reciprocating compressor, unless one can

utilize the smaller moderate duty unit.

Consideration In selection Of Compressors (cont.)

Gas Characteristics
Gas composition and characteristics can have a decided influence on compressor type. A low gas inlet density, for example, will usually affect the centrifugal compressor to a greater degree than it will affect the positive displacement machine.

Consideration In selection Of Compressors (cont.)

The centrifugal compressor always receives first consideration if the driver must be a turbine.
The reciprocating compressor should probably always receive first consideration if the driver is to be an electric motor.

Types Of Compressors:
There are Three basic types :
Reciprocating Rotary screw Rotary centrifugal

Centrifugal Compressor
A centrifugal compressor acts on a gas by
means of blades on a rotating impeller .

The rotary motion of the gas results in an

outward velocity due to centrifugal forces

The tangential component of this outward

velocity is then transformed to pressure by means of a diffuser.

Centrifugal Compressor (Cont.)

Centrifugal Compressor

It is a widely used compressor and is probably second only to the reciprocating compressor in usage in the process industries.

Centrifugal Compressor (Cont.)


Centrifugal Compressor Control

Primary objective:

Capacity Control in response to process demand and can be divided into:

Capacity control related to process demand Capacity control related to surge protection

Other objective:
Leakage control system Lube oil control system

Capacity control related to process demand

Varying inlet pressure Varying inlet vane angle Varying speed

Varying Inlet Pressure

Varying Inlet Guide Vane

Varying Compressor Speed

Advantages of varying inlet guide vane
than varying inlet pressure:
Less power consumption since does not directly throttle flow

Varying the speed is most economic but

take care from speed change system and its initial coast

Control Related to Surge Protection

The purpose of an anti-surge control

system to protect the compressor and process from surge. It may be a separate system or it may be a part of capacity control system.

Centrifugal Compressor (Cont.)

state 1 normal operation

state 3 Further decrease of flow

state 2 Flow tends to be smaller

state 4 complete back flow


Anti-Surge System
Surge occurs when network resistance
become too high for the compressor to overcome To prevent surge is to decrease system resistance by opening an anti-surge valve to recycle or discharge a portion of total flow


Suction F Ps Ts DP




Anti surge valve



An axial compressor imparts momentum

to a gas by means of a cascade of airfoils.

The lift and drag coefficients of the

airfoils shape determine the compressor characteristics.



Axial compressors are large-volume compressors that are characterized by the axial direction of the flow passing through the machine, . Typically, the rotor consists of multiple rows of unshrouded blades. Before and after each rotor row is a stationary (stator) row. Pair of rotating and stationary blades rows defines a stage.


Compressors (Cont.)

Stage Stage Stage


The ejector can first be identified as having no moving parts . It is used primarily for that feature as it is not as efficient as most of the mechanical compressors. The ejector is operated directly by a motive gas or vapor source. Air and steam are probably the two most common types of motive gases.

Ejectors (Cont.)

The ejector uses a nozzle to accelerate the motive gas into the suction chamber where the gas to be compressed is admitted at right angles to the motive gas direction. In the suction chamber, the mixture moves into a diffuser where the high velocity gas is gradually decelerated and increased in pressure. The ejector is widely used as a vacuum pump, where it is staged when required to achieve deeper vacuum levels.

Rotary Screw Compressors

Rotary air compressors are positive displacement

The most common rotary air compressor is the single stage

helical or spiral lobe oil flooded screw air compressor.

These compressors consist of two rotors within a casing

where the rotors compress the air internally. There are no valves.

Double Helical Rotary Screw Compressor

P.R.C. 111





Rotary Screw Compressors( cont.)

They are available as :

Air cooled and water cooled

Oil flooded and oil free

Single stage and two stage

Rotary Screw Compressors( cont.)

They are the most widely applied industrial They are popular due to :
simple design ease of installation low routine maintenance long operation life compressors in the range from 30 kW to 400 kW

Rotary Screw Compressors( cont.)

These units are basically oil cooled with air or water cooled
oil coolers.

The oil seals the internal clearances.

Since the cooling takes place inside the compressor, the

working parts never experience extreme operating temperatures.

Rotary Screw Compressors( cont.)

The heart of the oil lubricated rotary screw compressor is
the compression module or air end

The air end consists of two (2) precision ground helical

rotors fitted inside the outer housing or stator.

Bearing sets are fitted to each rotor to absorb axial and

radial loads that develop during normal operation.

Figure RS-1.1 Oil Lubricated Rotary Screw P.R.C. Airend


Rotary Screw Compressors( cont.)

Lubricating oil is injected directly into the compression
This cooling of the compressed air allows air to be
chamber to seal the rotors and to cool the compressed air. compressed to as high as 200 psig (13.8 bar ) in a single stage configuration.
intake filter, drive motor, direct or v-belt drive system, oil separation system, Controls oil and after coolers.

The remainder of the compressor package consists of

Rotary Screw Compressor operation:

Atmospheric air is drawn into the intake air filter due to
the rotation of the rotors in the air end

Air enters the air end where it is mixed with lubricated


The air/oil mixture is compressed, exits the air end and

flows into the oil separator tank.

The oil separator tank acts as a reservoir for the oil,

allows for the primary separation of the air from the oil, and houses the air/oil separator element.

Figure RS-1.4 Oil Lubricated, Single Stage Rotary Screw Air Compressor Process Flow Schematic
P.R.C. 121



Rotary Screw Compressor operation (cont.):

The air/oil separator reduces the oil content of the air to

approximately 5ppm by weight

Compressed air then flows into the after cooler where the

temperature is reduced from approximately 93oC to about 5oC above the cooling medium temperature.

The cooled air then enters the moisture separator where the
condensed moisture is separated from the air.

Rotary Screw Compressors( cont.)

A noise silencing enclosure is frequently

specified when the compressor will be installed near the factory workforce.

Compressors can also be provided with

refrigerated air dryers and filters built into the package .

Rotary Screw Compressor operation (cont.):

Compressed air then exits the compressor and the

drain valve removes condensed moisture

Hot oil from the oil separator tank flows into the oilcooler through the temperature control valve.

Rotary Screw Compressor operation (cont.):

The temperature control valve is a mixing valve that

maintains lubricating oil temperature ( compressor operating temperature ) high enough to maintain the required oil viscosity.

Circulation of the oil is maintained by the pressure

differential between the oil separator tank and bearing, and air end injection points.

Reciprocating Compressors

Trunk vs. Cross head

Single acting Vs. Double acting

Air cooled Vs. Water cooled


Drive Method

Single Acting , Double acting compressors

Single-Acting Compressors
In the single-acting type, compression takes place at one end of the cylinder, which gives only one compression stroke for every crankshaft or flywheel revolution. In this single-acting compressor, the air is compressed during the upward stroke of the piston

Double-Acting Compressors

When the piston moves to the left, a partial vacuum is formed in the right end of the cylinder and air is drawn in through the right hand suction valve. At the same time, air is being compressed by the piston and forced out through the left hand discharge valve . Air compressed in upward and downward strockes.

is usually expressed as a percent of piston displacement volume by using the following formula:

Reciprocating Compressors Construction

Frame or crankcase
is a high-grade cast-iron; it is designed with suitable supports or ribbing to mount the compressor cylinders, crankshaft, and other running gear parts and hold them in accurate alignment under the stresses imposed during operation.

Crank shaft
converts rotary motion into reciprocating motion. The crankshaft is usually made from a steel forging and is supported by at least two main bearings. A typical crankshaft is counter-weighted, either integral with the shaft or separate from and bolted to it, in order to offset the effect of the unbalanced forces associated with a reciprocating compressor. crank shaft should be dynamically balanced if speed exceed 800 rpm

Main bearing
Main bearing function is to support crankshaft. The number of main bearings increases with the number of throws on the crankshaft that are required for the number of cylinders used. Main bearings may be horizontally split shells made of steel or cast iron, with a lining of babbitt. Some are made of aluminum without babbitt or of a steel/bronze/babbitt tri-metal construction. The shells may have a laminated shim placed between the halves to permit adjustment for wear.On some smaller compressors, anti-friction roller bearings are used.

Connecting rod
A connecting rod is fastened to the crank throws; this component uses a two-piece sleeve bearing. At the opposite end of the connecting rod and secured to it by a pin through a bushing is the crosshead. Connecting rod made from a low carbon steel forging. Oil under pressure is conducted from the crankpins to the crosshead pin. Similar to the main bearing, crankpin bearings are babbitt-lined steel or cast-iron shells. They may be shim-adjustable or shimless. In other designs, bearings are made from aluminum, bronze, or tri-metal construction

Crosshead pin bushings

Are bronze, aluminum or Babbitt-lined on steel/cast-iron backing.

are generally made of cast grey iron or nodular iron, but in some older designs cast steel is used. Shoes or slippers of cast iron with Babbitt overlay or shoes of aluminum are bolted to the crosshead.

A typical double-acting cylinder consists of a barrel, usually water-jacketed, with a front and rear head. In some designs the rear head is an integral part of the cylinder barrel; in others, it is a separate, bolted piece as shown. These heads are also water- cooled to remove heat of compression. Provision is made in the rear head for the pressure packing. Valves are installed around the barrel, but in some designs valves are installed in the heads. Cylinders may be doubleacting, that is, compressing on both sides of the piston, or single-acting, compressing at either the head or crank end, but not both. All cylinders can be modified to provide capacity control or to provide openings for clearance pockets and internal plug unloaders.

PISTONS (cont.)
Three piece, in which a ring carrier is added to permit band-type
rider rings to be installed directly into the piston grooves. Aluminum is used when weight reduction is required.

piston rod
The piston rod is threaded to the piston and transmits the reciprocating motion from the crosshead to the piston. The piston rod is normally constructed of alloy steel and must have a hardened and polished surface, particularly where it passes through the cylinder packing (double-acting cylinders). Rod loading must be kept within the limits set by the compressor vendor because overloading can cause excess run out of the rod resulting in premature packing wear. This in turn leads to leakage, reduced efficiency, and increased maintenance expense. Like other components in the modern reciprocating compressor, the piston rod is designed for specific applications such as : Operating pressures Gas composition Capacity Rotating speed

Piston Rod
contains a single piston.

Single Piston Rod. This is the most common type. It


A piston used in a non-lube cylinder is usually made 0.125" to 0.250" smaller in diameter than the cylinder bore, depending on the size. Location and number of rider bands are dictated by the design, diameter, length, and weight of the piston. Rider bands and piston rings are made from PTFE (Teflon) with various fillers such as glass, carbon, bronze, or high performance polymers.

Ported Plate Valves

Maximum Pressure Rating: 3000 psi differential/6000 psi discharge Service: Typical speeds up to 1800 RPM

Piston stroke position superimposed on PVdiagram

Packing are required wherever piston rods protrude through compressor cylinders and distance pieces. Vented, fullfloating, self-lubricating PTFE packing is standard and provides long-lasting operation with a minimum of gas leakage.

In other words, the higher the differential pressure and the longer the differential exists, the greater will be the volume of leakage

For cases vented, normal uses include preventing air leakage into the cylinder when suction pressure is below atmospheric pressures or maintaining zero leakage of a dangerous or expensive gas

Reasons for capacity control in Reciprocating compressors:-

Process requirements Vessels capacities Unloaded startup

Means of capacity control in reciprocating compressors:-

1.Recycle or Bypass
Accomplished by piping from the compressor discharge line through some type of control valve and going back to the compressor suction line. Advantages:

1. Simple 2. Infinitely controllable


1. Inefficiency 2. Actual design of the bypass line 3. It maybe necessary to include a cooler in the bypass line 4. In case of multistage compression, multiple bypass lines maybe needed.


For small degrees of fine capacity control

2. Suction Throttling
The technique is to reduce the suction pressure to the compressor by limiting or throttling the flow into the cylinder.

Disadvantages: 1. A fairly dramatic reduction in suction pressure to


give any sizable reduction in capacity. Additionally, as the suction pressure is reduced and the discharge pressure held constant, the compression ratio is increased. This causes higher discharge temperatures and higher rod loads.

3. Suction valve unloading

The technique here is to physically keep the cylinder from compressing gas by maintaining an open flow path between the cylinder bore and the cylinder suction chamber. Types of suction valve unloading:
Finger type unloader
No special valve design is required.

The potential for damaging the valve-sealing elements with the fingers

4-clearance pockets:
1. Fixed volume 2. Variable volume

Reciprocating Compressors Condition Monitoring

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

The results of the Dresser-Rand research show that eight component groups were
responsible for 94% of unscheduled shutdowns.

Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown:

The figure below show the results of the Dresser-Rand research

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

Studying Primary Causes of unscheduled shutdown

A- Valve Defects (36%)

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown:

The figure we just saw indicated that valve defects are obviously
responsible for

most of the unscheduled maintenance events

So it takes a lot of effort from designers and engineers to developed

methods and procedures to try to eliminate the defects of compressor valves (material and design)

The three most important methods used until recently are: 1. Measurement of the valve pocket temperature. 2. pV diagram analysis. 3. Vibration analysis.

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

A- Valve Defects Monitoring Methods

Valve pocket temperature

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown measurement of the valve pocket temperature.

The simplest and most costeffective method of valve condition monitoring

Valve Temperature

This method has the advantage of


being inexpensive and simple to install in almost all types of valves

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown measurement of the valve pocket temperature.

Measure the gas temperature in the valve pocket, that will indicate the valve pocket temperature.

Devices used
The gas temperature in the valve chamber can be measured with a temperature probe (Thermo couples or RTD)


Valve Cover

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown Measurement of the valve pocket temperature Result analysis
1- If there is an obvious increase in temperature at one valve, one can assume that there is damage (e.g., a leak) at this point as illustrated on the right
2- An examination of valve pocket temperatures does, in many instances, provide important information on the pressure-retaining capability or sealing condition of the valves

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

A- Valve Defects Monitoring Methods

pV diagram analysis

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown pV diagram analysis
Methodology 1- Measuring the dynamic pressure change inside a cylinder 2- Valve leakage causes characteristic changes in the time rate of change of pressure 3-The measured time rate of pressure change is converted into a pV diagram for which characteristic values are calculated at certain fixed points Threshold values such as valve losses, polytropic exponents, or crank angle at which suction pressure is reached are monitored 4- Deviation amplitudes and the geometry of relevant excursions on the diagram identify the defect location as either the suction or discharge valve Devices used 1- special pressure sensors with a frequency sensitivity of about 5 kHz are needed 2- These sensors are installed in a bore connecting directly into the cylinder; the composition of hydrocarbon gases may impose specific requirements on these pressure sensors

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown pV diagram analysis Result analysis
1- Examination of pV diagrams ranks among the most useful and important methods of determining overall valve condition 2-Recorded signals even contain clues as to the condition of specific sealing elements in the cylinder area 3- Cylinder pressure is a key condition indicator, as it reflects the real situation inside a cylinder

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

A- Valve Defects Monitoring Methods

Vibration analysis

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown vibration analysis. Methodology
2- Acceleration is the time rate of change of vibration velocity

1- measuring acceleration amplitudes at the compressor cylinders

3- Which, in turn, reflects valve movement and valve component displacement with respect to time 4-This provides information on the valve opening and closing processes, where large vibration peaks occur

Devices used
1- This mode of monitoring involves installing accelerometers on the cylinders, and
frequencies up to 30 kHz are of interest here 2- Sensor locations must be selected such that vibrations from as many valves as possible can be measured

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown vibration analysis. Result analysis 1- If there is an obvious vibration It identifies valve flutter, which often results in dramatic reductions in valve life as we see 2- Valve flutter frequently occurs in (rarely used) variable-speed situations or in reciprocating compressors whose stage pressure has been altered

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

Studying Primary Causes of unscheduled shutdown

B- Piston Rod Packing (17.8%)

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown

Piston Rod Packing.

The second most frequent reason for unscheduled shutdowns

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown Piston Rod Packing.

Two different approaches are commonly used to monitor packing wear: 1- measurement of leakage gas flow and temperature 2- pV diagram analysis

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

B- Piston Rod Packing Defects Monitoring Methods

Leakage gas flow and temperature Analysis

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown Piston Rod Packing.
1- Measurement of leakage gas flow and temperature

Gas leakage flow and temperature are possible indicators of packing wear. Monitoring is accomplished by installing either a temperature probe or a flow gauge in the leakage vent . Obviously, a measurable increase in leakage gas volume or temperature is caused by packing wear or lack of tightness

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

B- Piston Rod Packing Defects Monitoring Methods

p-V Diagram Analysis

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shut down Piston Rod Packing.
2- pV Diagram analysis pV diagram analysis serves to analyze the condition of the packing . Leakage increases cause discrete changes in the indicated pressures and the instantaneous timing of the attendant pressure excursions

Condition Monitoring of reciprocating compressors

Primary causes of unscheduled reciprocating compressor shutdown Piston Rod Packing.

Result analysis
The figure shows the pressure behavior on the crank-end side of the cylinder, one with tight packing and the other with leaking packing.

Example On condition monitoring system

Saudi Armco Ras Tanuro

Reciprocating Compressor Monitoring Summary

(Crosshead Vibration) Eddy Probe (Phase Reference)

Eddy Probe (Rod Drop)

Pressure Sensors

Accelerometer (Frame Vibration) Temperature Sensors