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Precautions to take when working on high voltage, are summarized in five mandatory standards and is generally known by the

"five golden rules". GOLDEN RULE 1 Open with visible cut all sources of tension with switches and breakers to ensure the impossibility of its untimely closure.

2 Interlock or blockage, if possible, cutting devices and signaling in the control of these.

3 Recognition of the absence of tension.

4 Earthing and short of all possible sources of tension.

5 Place the appropriate safety signs, defining the work area

Safety standards low retention Since the causes of hazards and therefore also the avoidance measures may be very different, there are several types of security specified, p. for example., depending on the causes of potential hazards.

An electrically driven machine must be designed, constructed and equipped so as to prevent or to avoid all the dangers arising from electricity. The most common electrical hazard is electric shock. Electric current can cause irreversible effects on the nervous and muscular system and thermal effects. Moreover, overloads, arcing and static discharge can cause fires. The machinery must be equipped so as to prevent contact with power conductors or conductive parts are usually live. The manufacturer must also avoid the dangers arising from indirect contact with a mass or conductive part which may be live Overload: occurs when a circuit carrying a current greater than the nominal with no insulation fault. Produce excessive heating of the conductors causing a deterioration of the insulation and shorten its duration. Shorts: are caused by accidental connection between live conductors, resulting in a high intensity and destroying the track, unable to withstand such high currents.

Overvoltages occur when the voltage in a circuit is higher than the nominal. Usually lasts a short time, but the damage to the electrical load is considerable. The most common cause is the lightning of the rays on the electrical system or its surroundings. External surges internal overvoltages External surges: originate from lightning. Can be of several types: direct download on the line (voltage driven) Discharge on an object near the line (voltage induced) Direct download on the ground that can enhance the potential of several thousand volts land as a result of the current flowing by the ground (ground potential increase) External surges have access to computers through: The low voltage electrical networks data lines (telephone, computer or TV) The high frequency receiving elements (antennas) Drivers ground Internal surge: are caused by variations in load on a network, maneuvers off of a switch, termination of a ground fault, power failure, a load transformer. Factors involved in the electrical hazard Factors related to risk of electric shock. Current intensity contact time of the current path through the body of the human body impedance current and frequency type Factors related to risk of electrical fire. Amperage supply voltage electrical insulation Types of electrical accidents electrical accidents occur by electric shock by contact with live parts people, so that an electric current passes through the body of the injured person and depending on the value that can be taken more or less dangerous. Fault voltage: the voltage appearing due to insulation failure between two masses, mass and conductive element or between ground and earth ground voltage: the voltage appearing between a ground installation and a point at zero potential when the facility goes through a fault current contact voltage: the voltage appearing between simultaneously accessible parts, when a fault isolation Direct contacts Contacts of humans or animals with active parts of the materials and equipment. May occur following direct contacts: Between two phases between phase and neutral lines between a phase and protective conductor between one phase and ground mass between one phase and a mass ungrounded.

Contacts indirect contact with human or animal parts that have been under stress as a result of an insulation fault. It can produce the following indirect contact: Contact between live mass and ground contact between the soil mass under tension without grounding and ground contact between live mass ungrounded and other body under stress making land Risks in the use of electrical installations Prevention Protection. Prevention is becoming more frequent delivery instructions for use of the electrical system to inform users about security measures that should take. Preventive measure in the use of the electrical installation of a workplace. Once a month check the operation of the circuit breaker by pressing the test button. Hands are dry when using electrical appliances. When using any electrical appliance you should avoid going barefoot or with wet feet. You must disconnect electrical equipment after use. Do not unplug any appliance by the cord, but the plug. Do not use any appliance with damaged insulation. Teams that need grounding must be connected to power outlets that feature. Do not connect devices more powerful than that for which we have calculated the electrical installation. Avoid using power strips. Protection All wiring must be protected so that users and the installation itself without risk. In the case of a domestic electrical installation are devices that make up the scorecard. The grounding installation. Isolation of all drivers, borneas joints and connection equipment. Risks in low voltage electrical work Live working Carrying out maintenance and repair of faults without cutting power preventing disruption to users. The work in places where communication is difficult to be implemented being present at least two workers trained in first aid. All workers performing work with stress. All workers performing work with voltage must meet the following standards: Put on insulating objects (carpet, sidewalk, etc..) Wear a helmet, insulated gloves and insulated tools. Wear safety glasses when there is risk of eye injury Use dry clothes without carrying parts and gives such a way that covers arms and legs. Isolate, whenever possible, the conductors or conductive parts which are bare and in tension near the place of work, by sleeves, fabrics insulating caps, etc.. Workers will not conductive

objects such as bracelets, watches or metal zippers The work area should be signposted or adequately delineated, there is always the possibility that other employees or outsiders from entering the area. Works without tension to remove the tension by following these steps: Disconnect. Prevent any feedback. Verify the absence of tension. Ground and short circuit. Protect from elements close in tension. The process of replacing the tension: Removal of the additional protections and the marking which indicates the limits of the working area. Withdrawal of the earthing and short-circuited Deblocking and / or withdrawal of the cutting devices signaling. The closing of the circuits to reset voltage.

Electricity is now a staple in our lives. Energy is clean, comfortable and easy to use, both at home and work. It is precisely this familiarity with which we approach it frequently causes of forget the precautions to maintain a minimum level of adequate security. This guide discusses the procedure to follow for all who live with the Electricity at Work. Safe work requires coordinated action by the employer and workers. There are many factors involved in the proper design of jobs, and generally you can approach a safe working environment. Other situations, either by the use of inherently dangerous materials or by a physical impossibility to isolate the hazard, the worker has to come into close contact with hazardous situations. The general principle states that if preventive action is not possible to eliminate or minimize risk sufficiently, we have to use collective protection, and ultimately only justified resort to collective protection. However, it should be noted that its importance for the prevention of occupational risks is crucial, as is intended to protect workers against risks that otherwise would be in direct contact The daily activity of workers is inextricably linked to the use of different teams. From craft activities to the highest technological sophistication human work is supported by the use of machines, tools and other supplies.

Adequacy of their choice, their state of preservation and maintenance depends achieve the degree of security required for the relationship between workers and work teams to be successful SAFETY STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF RISK FROM LOW VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL INJURIES PRODUCED BY ELECTRICITY ARE USUALLY DUE A.

DIRECT CONTACTS Contact system parts usually in tension. INDIRECT CONTACTS Contact with metal parts or elements accidentally placed under tension.

ARC BURNS Produced by the union of two points at different potential through a low electrical resistance element. GENERAL SAFETY "Do not handle electrical equipment if you are trained and authorized to do so." All wiring or defective work equipment shall notify his superior, for repair. Only authorized and qualified personnel may operate electrical equipment, control panels are, start-up of motors, transformers, general machines, computers, etc In case of failure or malfunction of electrical equipment: put out of service, disconnect from the mains (unplug), signaling the failure and report the incidence to be repaired through established channels. "Follow the signs and check electrical equipment before use" All work equipment with voltage exceeding 24 V, which lacks features double insulation and be grounded and protected by an RCD (or protected by any of the supported systems for the instruction of the Low Voltage Electro technical Regulation MIE BT 021) "Do not disconnect the cable pulling equipment."

You should always disconnect the connector plug grabbing and pulling "Do not connect cables without approved Plugs" "Preventing the passage of people and equipment on extension cords or electrical wires" This enables the deterioration and weakening of the lead wire insulation, as well as trips and falls "Do not use power tools with hands or feet wet" "Power tools that are damp or wet, they must never be used" "Do not waste electricity jokes" "Do not use water to extinguish fires where there may be voltage" "In no case should bypass the protections: circuit breakers, magneto thermal" "The facilities are used and maintained properly: - Should be checked annually the value of Earth resistance at the time in which the soil is drier. RULES FOR HANDLING STAFF ELECTRICAL: Any worker handling a low voltage electrical installation should have specific training and have been approved. Before starting work, inform the persons affected by the installation to repair. In complex installations, you must have the documentation to them (drawings, diagrams, ) If you modify a facility must update documentation indicating the date of completion. Whenever possible, perform work without tension electric type. Tension only be undertaken with the elementary operations (differential drive, automatic, etc.) And work in facilities with security tensions.

The line work may be performed only under a procedure to ensure that the skilled worker cannot accidentally contact any other element than their own potential. Do not perform work outdoors in adverse weather conditions (rain, snow, storms, wind, etc.) When you start work, workers must be free from rings, bracelets, watches and other metal objects. On completion of repairs: Be left in place the protections which may have been removed and will not reset the service of electrical installation until there is complete assurance that there is no one working on it and there is no danger. Workers also the common personal protective equipment, gloves should be worn Class 00, stools / carpet insulation, verifying the absence of tension, certified tools, signaling equipment and face shield. It should be noted that at the time of removing one of the measures initially adopted to perform the work without tension in safety, will be considered in the voltage of the installation concerned. In low voltage installations, has had as main objective to provide professionals in the electricity sector a useful enough tool to carry out their work without risks to them, as for the other professionals who interact in their work . The starting point in terms of these professionals, how they work, what activities do, what practices are common. It is true that there is a specific regulation on electrical hazards and in particular on the operations, elements ..., low voltage, such as the Low Voltage Electrotechnical Regulation, the Technical Instructions upon it and the rest of the existing legislation on electricity and prevention of occupational hazards. However, there has been the focus of this guide in its development hondar and breakdown, as it has been thought that this is a widely disseminated and developed documentation. What has been attempted from these lines, best practices and habits to perform work on electrical installations which professionals can implement easily and useful in order to not suffer any injury or illness on the occasion development of their work

The electricity, the main type of energy used in the workplace, has a number of advantages over others, for several reasons: Does not generate waste in the receiving location. Need Setup Project endorsed by the Professional Association. Installation is performed by Authorized Installer. It is necessary for the maintenance staff. The fact that you cannot determine its presence to the senses, and you do not see, nor hear, nor smell, coupled with that is present in almost all daily activities can generate confidence to the point of neglecting their possible risks. The risks to which workers are subject field of electricity can be derived strictly from the electrical contacts and that because of their work are exposed. Workers in this sector are usually well-trained professionals and that, therefore, know the risks they are exposed. Anyway, below are listed the most relevant risks to which these professionals are subjected. BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICITY. Definition of electricity. Electricity is one of the ways in which energy is that taking into account the principle that energy is neither created nor destroyed, only transformed, and using other energy sources such as thermal, hydro, wind, nuclear, etc. .. ., found in nature, is transformed into electrical energy. This transformation is done in large plants, known as power plants and transported through wires to the processing and distribution centers, and from there to provide it to different users. There are certain places such as farms, small factories, ships, ... where such provision does not go by different problems, and you can get electricity for the transformation of solar energy or small generators. Basic parameters.

Intensity: Is the amount of current passing through an electrical conductor, and is measured in amperes (A). You could say that is the root cause of the injuries caused to the passage of current through the body during shock. It can be distinguished: Threshold of perception Is the intensity value which would cause a person who was in contact with a driver feel a slight tingling. It is around 1 mA Current limit: maximum intensity at which a person is able to release a driver. Alternating current stands at 10 mA.

Resistance: Is the property to have the bodies to oppose the passage of electric current and is measured in Ohms. Poor conductors substances (plastic, wood ...) oppose much resistance to current flow, whereas substances good conductors (metals) very little opposition. Voltage: Is the potential difference between two points in an electrical circuit, and which promotes a greater or lesser extent, the flow of current through that circuit. It is cause by a driver circuit, closed, circulating a given current. The electric current is rated current Low Voltage and High Voltage power. Low voltage is considered one whose effective value is less than or equal to 1,000 volts alternating current and 1,500 volts continuously. Factors influencing the electrical effect. a) Current - voltage - resistance. The three fundamental quantities of electricity are related by Ohm's Law: The intensity of the electric current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance of the conductor. This means that for a Given voltage, the greater the resistance of the conductor to current flow, the lower

the intensity or quantity of electricity passed through this conductor. b) Frequency. Is another factor that influences the flow in the consequences of the electrical contacts. Corresponds to the number of cycles or times that the current changes direction and is measured in Hertz (Hz). Accordingly, we distinguish two types of current: AC: is having the most facilities and equipment. It can cause spasms, twitching, ventricular fibrillation ... It is classified; Low Frequency and High Frequency. Current: not as dangerous as the alternating current. It takes more time and intensity, to match the effects of alternating current. Its most common effect is the warming of the body and the more severe the electrolysis of blood. c) Contact time. The duration of the shock is an important factor influencing the electrical effect, ventricular fibrillation for possible burns and internal and external origin. d) current path through the body. The consequences of the passage of electric current depends on this path by the human body, ie bodies which it passes. The tours are the most serious affecting vital organs such as the chest and head, of which the main points is that which has input / output between the head and feet. Effects of electric current in the human body. The human body is conductive of electrical current, so that the intensity that it circulates is a consequence of the applied voltage and the resistance offered to the passage of current. The human body's resistance is not high and depends on various circumstances, both internal and external sources which may include:

The contact surface. Moisture from the skin. The contact pressure. The type of footwear. Soil moisture.

The effects of current passing through the human body will therefore depend on: The intensity of the current. The duration of electric shock. The area of the body covered. These effects can be classified into three types: Direct physiological effects. Indirect physiological effects.

Side effects. a) direct physiological effects They deal with the immediate consequences of electric shock. The severity of these effects depends on the intensity of the current and its manifestations range from tingling sensations to severe asthma or heart rhythm disturbances. b) indirect physiological effects. These are disorders that occur after the shock and alter the functioning of the heart or other vital organs, producing internal and external burns and other disorders

(auditory, ocular, nervous, renal) and can be fatal. c) Side effects. Are due to involuntary acts of individuals affected by the shock, and also depend on the environment or conditions where work is performed, such as falls from heights and at the same level, knocks against objects, design objects, fires , explosions. TYPES OF ELECTRICAL CONTACTS. Electrical accidents occur when the person comes into contact with electric current. This contact may be of three types: direct electrical contact, electrical contact and indirect contact arcing.

Direct electrical contact. Direct electrical contact is one which occurs with the active parts of the installation. This involves the passage of significant amounts of current, which exacerbates the impact of the crash. Indirect electrical contact. Indirect electrical contact is produced with mass accidentally placed in tension, meaning the whole mass of active parts of a device or installation which, in normal conditions, are isolated from the active parts. The main feature is that an indirect contact only part of the fault current flowing through the human body, the rest of the current flowing through the grounding conductor to the masses. The worse the masses contact with the ground, the greater the passage of current by the person in which contact occurs. Electrical contact arc. Electrical contact is the arc that occurs when approaching a body part to an active segment of an installation, without touching it and if it exceeds a safe distance, leading to an electric arc between the working and the body.

This same effect (electrical contact arc) may occur when attempting to close or open a charge circuit. The most common injuries in this type of contact is external burns. PREVENTION WORK FOR ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS. Basic measures. The main safety standards that a professional field of electricity must comply and avoid under any circumstances, to reduce or minimize risks that may be exposed are: 1 ) equipped with appropriate clothing and shoes for work performed. Work clothes should be fireproof, with the ends of the sleeves elastic cuffs with covered buttons and zippers, pockets without the possibility of coupling Footwear should be insulated, reinforced toe and slip. For conservation should be followed manufacturer's instructions. All clothing, equipment, labor, tools ..., will have CE marking. 2 ) Before starting the work day, workers desposeern of any garment or ornament metal such as watches, chains, bracelets, earrings, sunglasses, headbands, rings ... to prevent them from coming into contact, accidentally, with electric current and originarle injury. If any of these elements, necessary for holding the hair or glasses, are replaced by other non-conducting material, such as horn-rimmed glasses, textile cords. 3 ) Each tool will be used ONLY and ONLY for its intended purpose and not for other activities. Each worker will have its own set of tools, which will keep in perfect condition. When workers detected the tools are are worn through use, or otherwise, must notify the company or manager of this to provide others that meet the safety requirements. The tools for electrical work should not be used in other tasks or cuts, for contact with substances such as greases, solvents ... they lose the properties for which they have been designed.

Reports. The information measures are used to warn workers of the risks involved when working on electrical installations. Some of which may be employed are: WORK WITHOUT POWER. Internal Rules: Each company will design instructions for carrying out electrical work and for general operations. Once developed, will be announced to the workers individually before starting work on electrical installations. Periodically remind the group of workers. Instruction: The company formed specifically to workers who are exposed to electrical hazards in the proper use of the recipients, machinery, teams ... and the meaning of the symbols and existing signage. Signaling: following the guidelines established in the standards inside the company, will be marked; Obligations, use personal protective equipment, cutting power before starting work, keep a safe distance, read the instruction manual ... Prohibitions, not working with electricity. Warning: risk of electrical contact, thrown objects ... Identification and detection: check and detect voltages in electrical installations before acting on them. ELECTRICAL OPERATIONS. To start operations in an electrical installation is necessary to know exactly what it is. From a technical point of view "electrical installation" is defined as: The set of materials, equipment and labor receptors found in the workplace through which is generated, converted, transformed, or distributed electrical energy is used If we analyze the different steps of how an electrical installation, maintenance and preservation, you can see the different risks that may be exposed to professionals

in the field of electricity, some of which are common to all operations being out. Then the sequence develops work done on electrical equipment, in its entirety and lists the risks that are generated, and later make a list of risks and preventive or protective measures to be taken to eliminate or minimize them. ELECTRICAL DESIGN: This is the main step to avoid further exposure to unnecessary risks. In the design and drafting of an electrical installation shall include the general and specific rules for the prevention of occupational hazards, as well as legislation and standards relating to electrical installations. SITE INSPECTION: When you run a new electrical installation, the first step is to inspect the site where it will be done in order to get an idea of the various tasks to be developed. The main risks in this operation are: Falls on the same level. Falls from heights. Fall of object. Management traffic accidents. PLANNING TASKS: This section deals with the scheduling of work to do, that is, determine what materials, equipment, tools ... and even workers are needed to perform the electrical installation. PIPELINES: After determining what type of wiring are going Alizar and features that will, one starts with the marking or tagging of cleared through which empotrarn and / or fix the pipes.

Its main risks are: Falls on the same level.

Falls from heights. Falling objects manipulation. Direct or indirect electrical contact with tools, auxiliary machinery and portable lighting. Di thermal comfort. WIRING INSTALLATION: They shall pass and leave the drivers already in their pipeline. In this case the risks are: Those reported in the previous section. Overwork, Cuts and bruises. CONNECTIONS: At this point we proceed to conexionar different junction boxes, electrical devices, protection boards, control and measurement, lighting and other electrical load which will form part of the wiring. The main risks arising from this point are the same as in the previous section (wiring installation). SETTING UP: This last stage is where the professional to verify the functionality of the installation and its receptors, are performed electric power measurements and the different parameters is checked installation. This period of the installation is very dangerous, so that only properly trained personnel should be performed for it, since many of the operations must be performed in tension and receptor function, while the remaining tasks of the previous phases can and must do without electricity at the facility. The main risks in this last phase are: Those reported in previous sections. Electrical contact discharge of capacitors or batteries. Direct electrical contact at the facility.

Electrical contact arc. Entrapments in machinery and work equipment. Fires and explosions. Maintenance and upkeep of the electrical installation. Any electrical installation must have once made, with a "maintenance program". It's main objective is to verify that all parts and system components are in perfect condition. It is very important during periodic maintenance inspections will verify the correct operation of safety features such as earthing, circuit breakers, etc ..., so that users are not exposed to any risk. Within the "maintenance program" should include, among others, the following tasks: Check condition of wiring and wiring insulation. Check if drivers have adequate protection connection to switchboards, if the recipient gets her ground, measure the resistance of the ground, etc.. Checking voltages and power consumption. Detection of static and leakage current. Check the appropriate circuit breaker tripping, time and intensity. The inspection and maintenance operations, carried out to verify the proper state of an electrical installation, are similar to the implementation of the installation. Thus, the workers, who perform these tasks will have the same training as those who perform the installation. The risks in this work are: Those identified for installation (electrical contact direct, indirect, falls at the same and different level, knocks, cuts, fires, trapping ...) Derivatives work in confined spaces. Insect bites.

Repair, alteration or replacement of the electrical installation. When the "Maintenance Schedule" of an electrical installation is properly designed and carried out repairs to be carried out will be minimal. In many cases does not exist within the company a maintenance program, or is not designed taking into account the characteristics of the facility and its real usage. However, at any time can detect abnormalities, fractures that result in equipment damage and failures of the electrical system, which must be repaired. In these operations, workers will have the risks listed in the previous paragraphs, plus others such as: Exposure to pollutants and harmful substances (arising from waste). Risk of entrapment because the facilities or parts of them are in operation. Contact surfaces to extreme temperatures. Electrical contact or accumulated waste streams. Fires and explosions. RISK OF ELECTRICAL WORK AND MEASURES. All preventive and protective measures that are included in this section are in green. Electrical contact (direct, indirect and arc). The primary standard for work on electrical installations is to act with the system out of service, and only where necessary we will work with the installation tension. Sometimes, however, professionals must work in tension, either because the task itself requires it or because they need machines, tools or portable lighting (powered by electricity), to do their jobs. Thus they are exposed to electrical hazards either direct, indirect or arc.

Direct electrical contacts. Some of these protection systems are defined in the ITC - BT - 24 of Low Voltage Electrotechnical Regulation (titles in italics). To protect workers from electrical contacts to take the following measures: Use of low voltages of security. Are the stresses obtained by "security sources" (transformers, generators, batteries, etc..) So that reduce the possibility of transferring the circuit voltages of use. The circuit used is not grounded or electrical connection to higher voltage circuits. When used in wet, or submerged conductor, the transformer will remain out of the boxes. Their values are 24 V in damp and wet locations and 50 V in dry locations. This is the most secure, but there are few receivers that can operate at these voltages. Withdrawal from the active parts of the installation (Protection by placing out of reach distance). Be achieved by separating the active parts of the facility at such a distance from where people usually are, or circulating, it is impossible to inadvertent contact with hands or objects by manipulating drivers when they are used near the facility (volume of accessibility for people). When the space in which people normally stay and travel is limited by a barrier which has a lower degree of protection IP2X or IPXXB, accessible volume starts from this obstacle. This measure does not guarantee complete protection and its application is limited in practice to the electrical service accessible only to authorized personnel. Interposition of barriers (protection by barriers or enclosures and Protection by obstacles). This measure tries to prevent accidental contact with live parts of electrical

installation. The obstacles are securely attached and be resistant to mechanical stress common to its function. The active parts must be situated inside the enclosures or behind barriers having a minimum degree of protection. If you require larger openings for repair parts or the proper functioning of equipment, proper precautions shall be taken to prevent persons from touching live parts and ensure that people are aware of the fact that the active parts should not be touched voluntarily . The upper surfaces of horizontal barriers or enclosures that are easily accessible, must meet a minimum degree of protection IP4X or IPXXD. The law states the coding system referred to above IP, followed by a first number indicating the degree of protection of the enclosure of electrical equipment against ingress of solid foreign objects on the computer and / or the degree of protection of individuals against access to dangerous parts, a second number that expresses the degree of equipment protection against ingress of water with harmful effects. These two figures can be followed by two letters optional additional information on the protection of the equipment or people. A third figure indicate the degree of envelope protection of equipment against mechanical damage. Removing barriers or covers only be done with one of the following conditions: Use of a key or a tool. Existence of an automatic locking system or similar to stop power to all active parties, opening the cover. Existence of a second barrier inside the computer. Class A systems (liabilities). This measure is to take provisions to eliminate the risk itself, making the contacts are not dangerous or preventing simultaneous contacts between the masses and conductor elements, among which may appear dangerous potential difference Double insulation: Is the use of materials that have protective insulation or reinforced insulation

between its parts and their masses accessible. Basa safety in that, by constructive characteristics, the probability that the masses are accessible in voltage is very low. The materials for the connection of their masses accessible to ground and its isolation with respect to ground is very high (the test voltage is 4000 V). Are recognized by the symbol It applies to small receivers, such as appliances, boxes and electrical panels, business machines, power tools ... Inaccessibility simultaneous live parts and masses. This protection system is to ensure security for the impossibility of establishing a circuit fault to be a simultaneous inaccessibility in normal working conditions, including masses and masses conductive element or two. Separation circuit. This protection system keeps separate the utilization circuit and power source through a transformer isolated from ground keeping all drivers. It tries to maintain a floating network so that, before a first insulation fault, contact with the ground is not dangerous because the possible fault circuit is open and therefore there is no flow of fault current. If you subsequently receive a second defect, act or magneto thermal fuses for short circuit. When a transformer to feed more than one recipient, they must be linked together. When used in wet, or submerged conductor, the transformer will remain out of the boxes. Bonding. This protection system is to unite all bodies of the facility to protect each other by a conductor of negligible resistance to prevent them from appearing at any time dangerous potential differences between them.

Grounding of the masses and cutting devices for fault current. Differentials: Outline TT. (TT schemes. Features and specifications of protective devices). The appearance of a first insulation fault causes the masses to protect: A fault current which approaches through the earth. A fault voltage between the land masses, which may affect people who play these masses. This voltage can be dangerous in most cases if there is a cutting device which limits its duration. Spreads are some automatic cutting devices sensitive to the fault current (ID) and insensitive to the intensity of normal operation of the apparatus. This means that only disconnect the installation when the circuits controlling a fault current flows such that: The current values of IAN are 8 mA, 15 mA, 30 mA, 300 mA, 500 mA, 1 A, 2 A, 5 A. They are called high-sensitivity differential if Ian <30 mA. Based on the different types and lines of consumption (lighting and power) of a general installation and to prevent it relatively easily be out of service to a possible leakage current in the mass of the team, such facility is subdivided in different overall lines, each protected with corresponding differential adequate sensitivity, remaining main supply input in turn protected by a lower sensitivity differential. Grounding of the masses and cutting device fault voltage. TT (TT schemes. Characteristics and requirements for protection devices). In this case, the protection is achieved by means of a voltage relay which is intended to prevent the persistence of a too high contact stress in that region of the installation which is not part of the active circuit. This device causes power outage in all live conductors at dangerous voltages appear. It works for a default voltage of 50 V peak in dry, or 24 V in wet.

The disconnection of the conductors occurs in less than 5 seconds, according to the ITC - BT - 24 applications of this system are in use. Posted neutral masses and cutoff devices for fault current. TN. (Scheme TN, characteristics and requirements of the protection devices). Consists of joining the masses of the installation so that the neutral francs insulation defects become short circuits between phase and neutral, causing the rapid operation of the cutting devices and maintaining the fault voltage at voltage values below the safety . The first defect free, protection must act within 5 seconds. All installation shall be supplied by a transformer not shared by other users and not to feed other circuits outside the same TN. The bonding is mandatory, the protective conductor to all important metal masses, structures, pipes, etc ... The system is incompatible on the same network with TT or IT. Is an adequate system to protect any facility subject to the availability of transforming itself and not overly amount that triggers the first fault. Isolated neutral ground. IT system. (Scheme IT. Features and specifications of protective devices). Being isolated from the neutral ground practically, the appearance of a defect in the first installation causes a small fault current that can generate dangerous fault voltages. If the first defect has not been corrected and a second fault appears simultaneously, a short circuit caused by the intervention of cutting devices and automatic disconnection of the circuits concerned. A control device automatically should be noted appearance of the first defect in the installation. All installation shall be supplied by a transformer not shared by other users. It is mandatory the bonding conductor for the protection of important metal masses, structures, pipes, etc ... All switches will cut installation unipolar. The neutral conductor should be considered as an asset for all purposes.

The system is incompatible on the same network with TT or TN system is adequate to protect any facility subject to the availability of its own transformer and has the advantage that it does not stop the process at the first fault. Upon completion of the work and to replace electrical current is carried in the opposite direction from the third point. Open with visible cut all sources of voltage-switches So that the cut would have to be visible circuits which are not under load, in which no arcing occurs. In these do not extinguish the arc is needed that would use other non-visible break switches. Latching or locking devices The latch or lock is the set of operations for the maneuver of a cutting device, keeping it in a certain position. This measure is to avoid a technical failure, human or any unforeseen circumstance. The types of locks are: Physical blockage: an insulating member is placed between the parts of the cutting device to be physically impossible to block for the union of their contacts. Mechanical lock: It immobilizes the cutting gear control locks, padlocks, with the particularity of closing or opening by two or three keys simultaneously drive. These keys are distributed among the officials who should not agree to release the said cutting gear control. Lockout: Prevents operation of the apparatus by opening the drive circuit. Pneumatic locking: It acts on the circuit power emptying the finned air that drives the switch command. Floors: Non-slip, stable and fixed. In the event that could choose not to already be imposed on the design of work center take other measurements. Storage:

Tools, work equipment, machinery, material and waste products in places designed for that purpose, such as shelves, local ... The working tools of small dimensions can be worn by the worker in chuck bags, belts right ... Cleaning: It will clean the workplace at intervals according to the type of activity. Include cleaning work areas, common areas, corridors and around machinery, work equipment, facilities, etc. sure that the ground or pavement is clean of oil, grease and other substances. Cleaning products not in themselves constitute a new risk for being slippery. Ordering: Professionals in the electricity sector (along with other maintenance workers and installation) ordered kept his job and leave the floor free of tools, cables, etc.. used to perform their work. Lighting: If the level of natural lighting is not necessary to perform the job, will be used artificial light sources. Holes and openings: Means shall be used Sliders collective protection as horizontal or vertical networks, etc ..., and preferably safety rails. The characteristics required railings are: Rigid and resistant material (150Kg / m. Linear) Be installed at minimum height of 90 cm from the floor. Be completed with skirting boards, equally rigid and resistant, a minimum width of 15 cm. The gap between the baseboard and the railing will be protected by a horizontal bar or ribbon through a width of 15 to 20 cm. Workers who are channeling the wiring, should avoid making sudden movements traction on scaffolds, ladders ..., to avoid loss of balance. Workers will not carry objects in their hands when they go up a ladder, scaffold ...

transporting tools to use belts or bags holder.

Overexertion: This risk may arise when handling heavy loads or effort is made higher than normal. An example of exertion at work on electrical installations is when drivers are being installed in the piping, it is a task in which a worker pulls a guide-wire passes, which are coupled to the cables and other worker is located at the opposite end to guide and assist installation. If there is a good team rapport, the first worker makes an effort much higher than tolerated. Many works on electrical installations are carried out in the open, such as installation of street lighting, lines of low voltage distribution, etc. and the ambient temperature can vary from a few hours to one another or depending on the season Meteorological they are. It also has to do work in places where the temperature is altered by the action of different existing equipment such as boiler rooms, cold rooms, grain dryers, ovens, ceramic ... Suitable tools for electrical installation of low retention Use tools only for what they are designed and specified by the manufacturer. Choose tools with ergonomic handles. Discard tools that have deteriorated grips. Schedule activities to avoid performing the same task throughout the working day. Collate periods during work breaks. Avoid forced movements. Important protections Protection from electrical hazard protection should be seen as integral, since it is not intended to protect a specific part of the body, but the electrical protection

should be understood as one that should be used to prevent the electrical current flowing through the human body reaches values that are harmful to him. Therefore, the materials are chosen and arranged so that the leakage current measured through the protective cover test conditions under which use similar strains that may occur is as low as possible and always less than maximum conventional permissible value correlated with the tolerance threshold. The types of PPE to be used exclusively in work or electrical voltage installations which are or may be under stress, will, like its protective cover, a mark indicating, in particular, the type of protection and / or tension corresponding use. Head protection. They use the helmet, is a garment designed to protect essentially the top of the head against falling objects, cuts, splashes, electrical contacts. In the case of professionals in the electricity sector will be taken as a condition that is insulated. A part of the CE marking, number of European Standard (EN 397), the manufacturer or brand name ... it must have a mark indicating their protection against electrical contact. Helmets designed to protect against electrical contacts and other risks, should have the following characteristics: Made of thermoplastic materials. Be free of vents. The rivets and other metal parts must not possible hovering around the outside of the frame.

Maintenance of gloves: Gloves for protection against electrical contacts will only be used to avoid that risk. Gloves for protection against cuts, abrasions ... only be used to avoid that risk. Choose gloves given the sensitivity to touch and ability to grasp and the need for

higher protection. Gloves can not be baggy, but perfectly adapted to the hand. Use gloves with absorbent lining to eliminate perspiration and prevent chafing caused by the seams. Dispose of gloves that are broken, dilated. For fire protection shall be used under other fire-resistant dielectric gloves. Protective footwear in the case of work in low-voltage electrical installations should be made of insulating material, slip and reinforced toe. Choose footwear that has padding in the ankle area, tongue filled and antimicrobial therapy. Choose shoes versus boots, as they provide greater support for the foot, do not allow kinks, reducing the risk of injury. Discard those that are in poor condition and use; sole worn, broken or torn, deformation of the upper, broken toe. Clean it regularly. If they dry because they are wet, they should not be placed near a heat source to avoid sudden temperature changes and the consequent deterioration of the shoe. Protective clothing Work clothes to protect against electrical contacts shall meet the following minimum requirements: The clothing will use insulation (cotton or cotton blend - polyester). The fabric is lightweight, flexible, non-synthetic, allowing easy cleaning and disinfection and adequate conditions of temperature and humidity of the workplace. Adjusted well to the worker's body, without prejudice to its convenience and ease of movement.

Long sleeves fit comfortably through terminations of elastic tissue. Long sleeves that can be rolled up, will always inwardly so that they are smooth on the outside. Be eliminated or reduced as much as possible additional elements, such as pockets, cuffs, buttons, upturned parts, cords, etc ..., to prevent dirt and the danger of snagging. Buttons, zippers and other metal parts and / or conductive work clothes that can not be removed tissue will be covered with insulation. Be avoided metal buckles, leather belts. Face shield and / or eyes. This type of PPE is designed to prevent injuries resulting projection of solids, liquids, exposure to harmful radiation ..., not being of general interest to the study of low voltage electrical installations. Protection of the hearing. PPE are designed to protect the ear from excessive noise levels. They are classified into plugs, ear muffs and helmets anti-noise, there being several types in each of them. Be used by workers to be any activity on electrical installations (eg engine room) where noise levels exceed permissible levels. Protection against falls from height. It is rare to work on live electrical installations used against falls from height. Anyway: Should keep gripping and support the body and a system which can be connected to a reliable anchorage point. Choose harness anti fall. The seat belt fails to protect against falls from height and its effects, since it does not ensure correct posture of the worker, once occurs braking. Another protection against electrical hazards.

Often the individual protection against electrical hazard consisting incorporated Garments worn over one's body (gloves, shoes, helmet) should be complemented by the use of other equipment necessary to perform certain tasks or maneuvers such as benches and mats insulation .

TRAINING OF WORKERS. In accordance with Articles 18 and 19 of the law on the prevention of occupational hazards, the employer shall ensure that workers and representatives of the workers receive training and information Suitable for electrical hazards and on the preventive and protective measures need to be taken under this Royal Decree (Article 5 of Royal Decree 614/2001 of 8 June on minimum requirements for health protection and safety of workers against electrical hazards). Training and specific information about the risk of electrical contact, those workers who use computers and / or electrical installations and workers whose activity, not electrical, takes place in proximity to electrical installations with accessible parts in tension. In DR 2001 on electrical hazards and technical guidance INSHT that develops, it becomes an authorized employee classification between qualified and team leader. From good practice, it is believed that a person is assigned an electrical installation work must have a theoretical - practical (at least intermediate level or higher vocational training in the field of electricity) as well as a specific training the risks to which it is exposed in the course of their work and in the preventive and protective measures to be taken to avoid injury, accidents, occupational diseases are common. The knowledge of health and safety with which these professionals must have to start in their education, through knowledge and skills in the curriculum will be given to risk prevention as important as other subjects Later, when an industry professional of electricity between a part of a company, it is responsible for providing training and information on occupational risks, preventive measures ... such as that provided to other employees and, in addition, these workers will be trained in preventive practices in carrying out various tasks, then be assigned to a skilled worker (see later paragraph) to accompany you for a

specified period of time, which will oversee the tasks that are carried out with the measures appropriate prevention and protection. Finally conduct their work as authorized workers, skilled workers. The training and information on health and safety for working on electrical installations must be remembering continually updated, renovndoos, so the workers to carry out any activity, consider the internal rules of the company in this area, signaling, the code of good practice. Also, be reviewed periodically by the team leaders, whether or not workers are trained to perform certain tasks in electrical installations. Authorized worker: a worker who has been authorized by the employer for certain work with electrical hazards, based on their ability to make them correctly. Skilled worker: authorized employee who has expertise in electrical installations, because of their accredited training, professional or university, or certified experience of two or more years. Head of Work: person designated by the employer to assume effective responsibility for the work.

FIRST AID FOR ELECTRICAL WORK. Rescue Low Voltage electrocuted. 1 ) Interruption current: before touching the victim, disconnect the power supply. In case of extreme situation, it may serve a hit from any tool wooden handle on the power lines, while the lifeguard asylum. 2 ) Withdrawal of rugged circuit: whether to remove the victim without being able to cut the power, the rescuer must be isolated and used in the maneuver sticks, ropes or other non-conductive materials. Peel off the injured driver, making traction on either distance through insulation poles, sticks or twigs, ropes, belts, straps or ropes. For this, the rescuer must be isolated from soil footwear nonconductive insulating stool, wooden crates ...) and protect your hands (insulated gloves, dry clothes.)

When removing the victim other care will be taken: Avoid further contact with electrical wires, conductive floor ... Upon cessation of contact with electric current, the injured may fall, so you must try to lessen the blow. Des engarrotar tetanizados fingers using non-conductive media and being the rescuer and the injured well insulated; interposed between fingers and a soft nonconductive wires. 3 ) Turn off the fire: if there was fire in the clothes will prevent the hilly run, and stifle the flames with blankets, sand or other noncombustible material. 4 ) Do not use water because electrocution could play even the lifeguard. 5 ) Overview: Check vital signs and initiate CPR if necessary. Taking into account that in the case of electrocution do not serve the classic signs to determine a person's death, emphasis on resuscitation, even in the rough that carried several minutes without a pulse, respiration, cyanosis and mydriatic pupils, and that often the patient can recover without neurological sequelae. 6 ) Addressing the burns and the areas of input and output of electric shock. It is advisable not apply ointments or creams or "potions". Apply water and cover with gauze and clean cloths. Harboring the patient. If conscious, give water bicarbonate (a soup spoon in liter) to prevent acidosis of burns. 7 ) Transfer to hospital: at rest, lying down, guarded and well protected. Although injuries are minimal, seek expert assistance as they may appear late lesions.