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Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912)

2

Introduction to pipes

A pipe is a closed conduit through which a uid

ows. Pipes can be large (Siberian gas pipeline to

Europe). The water pipes suppling water in the

house. The hypodermic needle use by heroin junkies.

Pipes can be natural (veins and arteries) as well as

articial. Pipes can transport both liquid and gases.

Pipe systems consists of inlets, outlets, the pipe

itself, bends in the pipe, valves and pumps. Real

world eects (e.g. viscosity) tend to make the

Bernoulli equation more complicated to apply.

3

General characteristics of pipe ow

A closed conduit is called a pipe if it is round in

cross section. Includes water pipes, hydraulic

hoses. Circular cross section is able withstand

higher pressure dierentials without distortion.

A closed conduit is called a duct if it is square in

cross section, e.g. heating and air-conditioning

ducts. Lower pressure dierential across wall of

duct.

The water owing down the conduit completely

lls the conduit. Storm water drains, sewers.

If water does not ll the conduit , the ow is

called channel ow. Since channel is not lled,

no pressure dierential between ends of pipes.

Gravity is usually the driver for channel ows.

4

Laminar and turbulent ow

The nature of the streak-line formed by injecting the

dye depends on the uid velocity.

When the uid is moving slowest, get a

well-dened streak-line. This ow situation is

called laminar ow.

When the uid is moving faster, get an irregular

streak-line which blurs and spreads the dye out.

The streak-line also uctuates randomly with

time. This is called turbulent ow.

When the uid is moving at an intermediate

velocity, there are irregularities in the

streak-line, but the streak-line is still well

dened. This is called transitional ow.

5

Laminar and turbulent ow

Examine the x -component of the velocity, u

A

at a

point A .

The laminar ow has a constant u

A

which is

smallest.

The transitional ow has a mostly constant u

A

with the occasional uctuation.

The turbulent ow has a uctuating u

A

about

some mean value. The ow rate is largest.

6

The Reynolds number

Whether a ow will result in laminar or turbulent

ow is primarily determined by the Reynolds

number,

Re =

vD

v and viscosity is .

The ow is laminar for Re < 2000

The ow is transitional between

2000 < Re < 4000

The ow is turbulent for Re > 4000

Values depend on shape of pipe, roughness, shape of

pipe inlet. The limits are also soft numbers.

7

Laminar and turbulent ow

In laminar ow the streak-lines are straight lines.

The uid ows smoothly down the pipe.

Laminar Flow

In turbulent ow the streak-lines show wiggles and

vortices. The uid does not ow smoothly down the

pipe.

Turbulent Flow

8

Laminar ow, The entrance region

What happens when uid enters a pipe?

The uid adjacent to the wall sticks to the wall

due to friction eects. This is the no-slip

condition and occurs for all liquids.

This boundary layer grows until it reaches all

parts of the pipe.

Inside the inviscid core, viscosity eects are not

important.

The entrance region for laminar ow is given by

l

e

D

= 0.06Re . Past here the ow is fully

developed.

9

Laminar ow analysis

Assumptions, outside entrance region

du

dx

= 0 , and

steady ow. Horizontal ow.

Apply F = ma to a cylinder.

The cylinder becomes distorted as t t + t

The pressure is constant along the vertical

direction.

The pressure along horizontal direction does

change. p = p

2

p

1

< 0

There is a viscous shear stress acting along the

surface cylinder and = (r) . The shear stress

is a function of the radius of the cylinder.

10

Application of F = ma

p

1

r

2

(p

1

|p|)r

2

= 2rl

p

l

=

2

r

Neither p or l depend on r

So

r

is independent of r

Then = Cr where C is constant.

At center r = 0 , = C 0 = 0 . At wall let

=

w

, where

w

is the wall sheer stress.

=

2

w

r

D

11

Application of F = ma

=

2

w

r

D

If the viscosity was zero, there would be no shear

stress. The shear stress also causes the pressures to

drop along the pipe.

p =

2l

r

=

4l

w

D

A small shear stress can result in a large pressure

dierence is l/D 1 .

The shear stress is largest at the walls

(Note, so far the analysis is valid for both laminar

and turbulent ows.)

12

Laminar velocity prole

To determine the laminar velocity prole, assume we

have a Newtonian uid, so

=

du

dy

(minus sign to give > 0 for

du

dr

< 0 . (uid velocity

decreases from pipe centerline). End up with

dierential equation

du

dr

=

p

2l

r

u(r) =

p

2l

r

2

+ u(r = 0)

At wall u(r = D/2) = 0 , so can x u(r = 0) = v

c

and

u(r) =

pD

2

16l

_

1

_

2r

D

_

2

_

u(r) =

w

D

4

_

1

_

r

R

_

2

_

u(r) = v

c

_

1

_

r

R

_

2

_

13

Laminar velocity prole

u(r) = v

c

_

1

_

r

R

_

2

_

The ow rate is parabolic, with largest velocity in

middle of pipe and zero velocity at wall.

14

Laminar ow rate

Just need to integrate the laminar velocity prole

over the cross sectional area.

Divide cross section into thin annular strips

Q = 2r r u(r)

Q =

_

r=R

r=0

2ru(r) dr

= 2v

c

_

R

0

r

_

1

r

2

R

2

_

dr

Now this reduces to

Q =

R

2

v

c

2

=

D

4

p

128l

The mean velocity is obtained by dividing the net

ow rate by the cross sectional area

v =

Q

R

2

=

v

c

2

=

p D

2

32l

15

Pouiseuilles Law and Interpretation

The fundamental result

Q =

R

2

v

c

2

=

D

4

p

128l

is usually called Poiseuilles Law. Laminar ow in

pipes is sometimes termed Hagen-Poiseuilles ow.

Flow along a pipe is driven by a pressure dierence.

The viscosity acts to retard the passage of the uid

along the pipe through the no-slip condition at the

wall. The ow rate

Increases when p is increased

Decreases when is increased

Decreases when l is increased

Increases when D is increased

16

Pipes at an angle

For an inclined pipe, need to replace pressure drop by

the combined eect of the pressure drop and gravity.

p l sin

l

=

2

r

All results for horizontal pipe analysis apply

provided p p l sin substitution is made.

v =

(p l sin )D

2

32l

Q =

(p l sin )D

4

128l

17

Laminar ow example

Oil with a viscosity of = 0.40 Ns/m

2

and density

= 900 kg/m

3

ows along a 10.0 m pipe with

diameter D = 0.020 m .

(a) What pressure drop is needed to produce a ow

rate of Q = 2.0 10

5

m

3

/s along a horizontal

pipe

(b) What is the average uid velocity?

(c) Verify that the ow is laminar.

(a) Using Q =

D

4

p

128l

gives

p =

128lQ

D

4

=

128 0.40 10.0 2.0 10

5

3.14159 (0.020)

4

= 20, 000 Pa

18

Laminar ow example: continued

(b) The mean velocity is

v =

Q

R

2

=

2.0 10

5

3.14159 0.010

2

= 0.0637 m/s

(c) Evaluate Reynolds number to determine whether

ow is laminar

Re =

vD

=

900 0.0637 0.020

0.40

= 2.865

The ow is laminar since Re 2000 .

19

The friction factor

The friction factor is a parameter that will be useful

when dealing with turbulent ow. It is the ratio of

the pressure drop to the dynamic pressure

1

2

v

2

.

p

1

2

v

2

=

32lv/D

2

v

2

= 64

_

vD

_

l

D

=

64

Re

l

D

The factor

f =

64

Re

= 64

_

vD

_

is the Darcy friction factor (there is also a Fanning

friction factor f

Fanning

= f/4 ).

Knowledge of the friction factor means the pressure

drop in a pipe can be predicted.

p = f

1

2

v

2

l

D

20

Energy consideration

The existence of the pressure drop means we can get

an estimate of the head loss for the extended

Bernoulli equation.

p

1

+

1

v

2

1

2g

+ z

1

h

L

=

p

2

+

2

v

2

2

2g

+ z

2

1

and

2

are the kinetic energy coecients. For

fully developed ow along a uniform pipe

1

=

2

, a

uniform velocity prole has

1

= 1 and while

1

> 1

for non-uniform proles in real pipes. For laminar

ow, = 2 .

Consider the case of steady, laminar ow along a

uniform horizontal pipe (v

1

= v

2

; z

1

= z

2

) ,

p

1

p

2

=

p

= h

L

h

L

=

4l

w

D

=

fv

2

l

2D

=

fv

2

l

2Dg

21

Turbulent ow

Most ow situations involving pipes are actually in

the turbulent ow regime. Turbulence ow is one of

the most complex areas of physics/engineering.

Many aspects of turbulence defy mathematical

analysis. Will only cover basic aspects of turbulent

ow, and introduce the recipes that are used for

practical calculations.

Many of the concepts developed for laminar ow are

reheated with modications to deal with turbulent

ow.

22

Laminar to turbulent

For most ow situations there is a dimensionless

parameter that characterizes the transition from

laminar to turbulent ow. The relevant value of the

Reynolds number will depend on the geometry

For a smooth cylindrical pipe, turbulence occurs

for Re > 4000

For ow over a smooth at plate, turbulence

occurs for Re > 500, 000 (length scale is

distance from front edge of plate).

23

Laminar to turbulent

Initial situation is a tube, lled with water at rest. A

valve to header tank is gradually opened. Fluid

velocity at a specic point is plotted.

The random, irregular nature of the ow is the

distinguishing feature of turbulent ow.

Note, in inviscid ow, the Re since 0 .

Reasonable results obtained for ow since v can be

used.

24

Laminar to turbulent

The uid velocity in the stream at a point can be

regarded as the time average of the uid velocity.

So if v = v(x, y, z, t) is instantaneous uid velocity

at some point, then

v =

1

T

_

t

0

+T

t

0

v(x, y, z, t) dt

can be dened as the time average mean. The

averaging time T should larger than time for longest

uctuations.

25

The importance of turbulence

Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow

Just imagine some chemical impurity being emitted

from the bottom of the pipe. This chemical would

only diuse very, very slowly to the top of the pipe.

In a turbulent ow regime, the impurity would be

quickly carried to the top of the pipe. Turbulence is

very important for the mixing of dissolved

substances in uids. Why do you stir your tea or

coee after you place the milk in?

Turbulence ows also greatly promote heat transfer.

26

Turbulence Intensity

v =

1

T

_

t

0

+T

t

0

v(x, y, z, t) dt

(u')

2

> 0

(u')

2

u'

u' = 0

t

u

'

o

r

(

u

'

)

2

0

The turbulence intensity is dened

I

T

=

_

1

T

_

t

0

+T

t

0

(v v)

2

dt

v

Question, why dont we use a measure of turbulence

intensity based on

_

t

0

+T

t

0

(v v) dt ?

The onset of turbulent ow is not abrupt and the

extent of the irregularities can vary (e.g. I

T

> 0.1 in

rivers).

27

Turbulent shear stress

In laminar ow, molecules

in adjacent uid layers are

moving slightly slower or

faster in ow direction than

given layer. It is the mo-

mentum ux due to the ran-

dom motion of molecules

that gives rise to the shear

stress.

In turbulent ow, chunks

of the uid move across

the imaginary layer bound-

aries. They can be regarded

as being eddies of various

sizes. The momentum ux

and shear stresses are much

larger than for molecular

transport.

28

Turbulent Shear Stress

The apparent shear stress for turbulent ows are

much larger than for laminar ow. Some times it is

written as

turb

=

dv

dy

where is the eddy viscosity. However, is not a

simple property of a uid, it changes from one point

in a turbulent ow to another point, or from one ow

condition to another.

In general, their is no rst principles theory that

describes shear stresses for turbulent ow although

some qualitative information exists. Large scale

computer simulations often used for turbulence

modeling.

29

Qualitative shear stress

The ow is often broken into 3 regimes.

The viscous boundary layer is very small boundary

layer near the wall and is dominated by laminar

shear stress. In the the outer region, the ow is fully

turbulent and the velocity is closer to uniform. In

the overlap region, the ow is turbulent and the

velocity is changing quickly.

30

Turbulent velocity prole

In the viscous boundary layer, the velocity prole is

u

u

=

yu

u is the average velocity

u

is the kinematic viscosity

The quantity u

=

_

w

/ is not an actual velocity,

it just has the dimensions of velocity. This equation

indicates that velocity is proportional to the distance

from the wall in the laminar sub-layer near the wall

(0 yu

5 ).

In the overlap region the working formula

u

u

= 2.5 ln

_

yu

_

+ 6.0

31

Turbulent velocity prole

1.0

0.5

0

0 0.5 1.0

Turbulent

Laminar

n = 8

n = 6

n = 10

r

__

R

_

u

__

V

c

A commonly used parametrization of the velocity is

u

v

c

=

_

1

r

R

_

1/n

The number n is usually between 6 and 10 . Note

the velocity gradient

du

dr

is incorrect at r = 0 and

r = R . Kinetic energy coecient, 1.1 . Flow

prole closer to uniform.

32

Why turbulence is so hard

L F Richardson, 1920

Big whorls have little whorls that feed on their

velocity, and little whorls have lesser whorls and so

on to viscosity.

One problem is that vortices in the ow spawn more

vortices.

33

Boundary Layer

Streamlines deflected

considerably

Re = U /v = 0.1

U

Viscous effects

important

u < 0.99U

y

x

U

(a)

U

u < 0.99U

y

x

Viscous effects

important

Streamlines deflected

somewhat

Re = 10

Viscosity not

important

U

Viscosity not

important

Re = 10

7

(b)

U

(c)

Viscous effects

important

Boundary layer

y

Streamlines deflection

very slight

<<

Wake

region

U

x

When uids ow around an object the uid ow is

distorted in a boundary layer where viscous eects

are important.

34

Transition from laminar to turbulence

U U U U

Fluid

particle

Leading

edge

x = 0

Laminar boundary

layer

Turbulent boundary

layer

x

When uid passes a surface, a transition from

laminar to turbulent ow is possible. A small chunk

of uid will distort when it passes the the edge if the

plate and enters the laminar boundary layer.

Once the chunk of uid gets suciently far

downstream, it will become so distorted it will start

to rotate. The laminar boundary layer will become a

turbulent boundary layer for

Re =

ux

> 2 10

5

to 3 10

6

35

Separated Flow

U

U

U

(c)

(b)

(a)

D

D

Boundary layer

Separated region

Viscosity not

important

Re = 10

5

<<D

Boundary layer separation

Viscous effects

important

Wake

region

x

Separation bubble

Separation

location

Viscosity not

important

Re = 50

Viscous forces

important throughout

Re = UD/v = 0.1

x

x

Viscous

effects

important

Low speed ow tends to follow the contours of a

body.

At higher speeds the ow separate from the body.

The inertia of the uid particles overcome the uid

viscosity (which tends to keep all layers moving

together). Separation bubble can form while ow is

still laminar.

36

Separated Flow

U

U

U

(c)

(b)

(a)

D

D

Boundary layer

Separated region

Viscosity not

important

Re = 10

5

<<D

Boundary layer separation

Viscous effects

important

Wake

region

x

Separation bubble

Separation

location

Viscosity not

important

Re = 50

Viscous forces

important throughout

Re = UD/v = 0.1

x

x

Viscous

effects

important

At very high Reynolds numbers, the uids velocity

carries the uid particles downstream past the body.

One nds an extended wake region behind the object

where ow can often be turbulent.

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