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University College Department Branch/Track Title of Thesis

: King Saud University : Food and Agricultural Science : Department of Agricultural Engineering : Food Process Engineering : Effect of Reactive Extrusion Process on Starch Hydrolysis for Production of Dextrin Nano Particles

Name of Researcher : Achmat Sarifudin Degree : Master

Date of Discussion : April 29th, 2012 Abstract :

ENGLISH ABSTRACT Effect of Reactive Extrusion Process on Starch Hydrolysis for Production of Dextrin Nano Particles

One of the most advanced developments on starch researches is preparation of starch nanoparticles derived from starch granules. The starch nanoparticles or nanocrystals has many potentials in food and non food applications. Recent researches attempted to use extrusion technology in starch nanoparticles preparation from lab scale to industrial scale. However, there are no reports found on using an extrusion process to dextrinize dry acidified corn starch for the preparation of starch nanoparticles. Thus, the main goal of this study was to produce dextrin nano particles using an extrusion process from dry acidified corn starch. In the first part of this study, the dextrinization process of dry acidified corn starch using twin-screw extruder was investigated. The effects of the extrusion operating conditions (five different levels of screw speed: 35, 45, 55, 65, and 70 rpm; and three levels of temperature: 125, 130, and 135 C) on the dextrose equivalent value (DE), the mean residence time (tm), the residence time distribution (RTD), and the specific mechanical energy (SME) were determined. Results of this study showed that the extrusion process can be used to produce dextrin. The DE of dextrin was increased by increasing the screw speed and temperature. The highest DE value (8.48) was obtained at screw speed of 65 rpm and temperature of 135 C. The tm range was 34.7-86.2 sec. The RTD was primarily affected by the screw speed and the flow pattern of the extrudates was close to plug flow. The extrusion process at low moisture content was a high energy consumption process, where the range of SME was 0.15-3.32 kW.h/kg. In the second part of this study, the effect of the extrusion operating conditions on some physicochemical properties of dextrin (pH, total soluble solid: TSS, water absorption index: WAI, water solubility index: WSI, water activity: a w, density: and total color difference: E) were investigated. The relationships between these properties and the DE were examined. Also in the second part of this study, the properties of the starch micro and nanoparticle including thermal, FT-IR spectra, particle size and morphological properties were analyzed. The trend of the investigated properties showed that as the screw speed and temperature were increased, the pH and WAI tended to drop while the TSS, WSI, and E inclined to rise. The ranges of the physicochemical properties were as follows: pH (2.38-2.61), TSS (2.13-5.47Brix), WAI (159-203%), WSI (20-51%), aw (0.21-0.30), (0.880-1.060 gm/cm3), and E (3.5-14.1). The pH, TSS and WSI showed strong relationships with DE indicated by high correlation coefficient values. Result of thermal analysis showed that the glass transition state of the dextrin were lower than the feed. Increasing the intensity of FT-IR spectra peak at band 1022 cm-1 indicated that during the extrusion process the ordered structure of starch was disrupted forming more amorphous structure of dextrin. Analysis of the morphological and particle size results confirmed that starch nanoparticle with size about 20 nm can obtained by the extrusion process. Keywords : dextrin, starch nanoparticle, extrusion, dextrose equivalent, dry acid hydrolysis.