Activities Rei July 1976 to June 1977 Vol.

2 Detailed Report July 1977

(NASA-TM-74942) SOLAB POWER SATELLITE. I CONCEPT EVALUATION. ACTIVITIES REPORT. VOLUME 2: DETAILED REPORT Progress Report. Jill. 1976 - Jun. 1977 (NASA) 1166 p A99/MF A01 CSCL 10A G3/44

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SOLAR POWER SATELLITE CONCEPT EVALUATION

ACTIVITIES REPORT JULY 1976 to JUNE 1977

VOLUME I - SUMMARY VOLUME II - DETAILED REPORT

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas 77058

SOLAR POWER SATELLITE CONCEPT EVALUATION REPORT OF ACTIVITIES JULY 3976 to JUNE 1977 VOLUME II - DETAILED REPORT

I. INTRODUCTION II. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS III. PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

A. B. C. D.

U. S. Projected Energy Demand SPS Implementation Impact on Projected Energy Demand U. S. Rectenna Siting Considerations Electrical Power Demands for Western Hemisphere/World

IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION

A. Satellite System Definition B. Solar Energy Collection System (SECS) 1. Energy Conversion a. Energy Conversion System Comparison b. Solar Cell Technology Status c. Solar Array Design Analysis 2. High-Voltage/Space Plasma Interaction 3. Structural Considerations C. Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) 1. Microwave System Analysis a. Antenna Illumination Functions b. System Size Trade-offs c. Cluster Concept Evaluation d. Antenna Pointing Parameters 2. Microwave System Design Concepts a. Microwave Generators b. Phase Control

—3-.—Structure-Considerations 4. Thermal Analysis of Klystrons and Amplitrons . Microwave Reception and Conversion System (MRCSJ 1. Rectenna Power Collection 2. Grid Interface 3. Structural Support and Ground Preparation APPENDIX - Rectenna, Power Collection Requirements
V. SPACE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEM

A. System Definition Study Construction Results B. Orbital Construction Support Equipment (OCSE) C. Automated Space Fabrication
VI. SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

A. SPS Transportation System Definition Study B. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (HLLV) 1. Booster Engine Concept Evaluation 2. Launch Vehicle Design Analysis 3. Modified Single State-to-Orbit Concept 4. Launch Vehicle Cost Analysis 5. Design Considerations 6. Western U. S. Launch Sites for the HLLV C. Orbit Transfer Systems 1. Orbital Propellant Handling for OTV 2. Personnel Orbit Transfer Vehicle Definition 3. COTVG Reference Configuration Trade Analysis 4. COTV LEO Construction D. Orbital Transfer Mission Analysis E. Propellant Costs F. SPS Transportation Scenario Synthesis APPENDIX A - Preliminary Design Analysis of a SPS Heavy Lift Launch System APPENDIX B - Western U. S. Launch Sites for the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle
VII. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

A. Microwave Transmission Reception 1. Cumulative Side Lobe Effects 2. Ionosphere Tests a. Heating b. Communications

3, Microwave Radiation Biological Effects 4. Rectenna Heating B. In-Space Operations 1. Radiation a. Environmental Description p. Biological Considerations to Establish Shielding ' Criteria 2. Energetic Particle Precipitation 3. Space Collision Probabilities
VIII. MANUFACTURING, NATURAL RESOURCES, TRANSPORTATION AND ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS

A. Natural Resources 1. Rectenna Aluminum Materials Usage 2. Gallium Resource Supply B. Surface Transportation Requirements 1. Continental U. S. 2. Equatorial Launch Considerations C. Energy Payback D. System Energy Balance APPENDIX - Output from Energy Payback and Resource Analysis Program for SPS

ix. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT PLAN
A. NASA/ERDA SPS Concept Development and Evaluation 1977-1980 Program Plan B. Technology Advancement Plan 1980-1987 1. Technology Advancement Requirements 2. Ground Activities 3. Flight Activities a. Flight Experiments b. Flight Projects c. Scaling Considerations 4. Space Transportation £. Related Activities X._ PROGRAM COST A. Cost Sensitivity Studies

B. Methodology Documentation C. Comparative Cost Analysis D. Systems Cost Analysis APPENDIX A - Cost Computer Program Sample Output APPENDIX B - Cost Computer Program Listing
XI. COMPARISONS WITH ALTERNATE SYSTEMS

Sutfmary Study Approach Electrical Energy Requirements Projected Demand Source Mix Projections Alternative Power System Technologies 1. Conventional Systems 2. Advanced Systems F. Comparative Analysis' 6. Related Contractual Study

A. B. C. D. E.

I. INTRODUCTION

Larry E. Bell Systems Evaluation Off.

Increasing requirements for energy in the United States and the world continue to deplete the fossil fuels at an alarming rate. Projections of the U. S. requirements show an increase in consumption of major proportions (figure 1-1). The conscious efforts by consuming nations to initiate energy policies will slow the rate of increase in consumption, but these efforts do not provide a permanent solution. The energy plan proposed in April 1977 by President Carter 'is a vital measure for the near term, emphasizing conservation and heavier dependence on coal. For long-term solutions, emphases must be placed on "renewable" or "nondepletable" energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and ocean thermal. The most promising candidate as a nondepletable energy source appears to be solar power, because of its technical maturity, environmental attractiveness, and abundant availability. Two types of solar power systems to be considered are ground-based and space solar power satellites (SPS). The use of ground-based solar power has the inherent disadvantage of reduced solar radiation (insolation) by the atmosphere, clouds, haze, and nightfall. The use of solar power satellites circumvents this limitation by providing constant power, 24 hours a day, on a near-continous basis. The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center report entitled "Initial Technical, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power Concepts" (JSC11568) released in 1976 established the technical feasibility of an SPS program to provide a significant portion of the future electrical demand, starting as early as 1995. Several scenarios of SPS implementation rates were developed, and one (scenario B) was selected as a basis for more detailed evaluation in the period of time documented in this report. Scenario B proposes'an installed capacity of 1120 GW by the year 2025, or about 30 percent of the Federal Power Commission extrapolated projection. The power output on the ground of each SPS is 10 GW, transmitted via two 5-GW microwave subsystems, resulting in a total of 112 satellites in orbit, jhe construction rate varies from one per year initially (1995) to seven per year during the last 3 years of the 30-year period. The technical feasibility and economic viability of the SPS concept were found to be sufficiently promising to deserve more detailed evaluations. This report, which concerns effort from June 1976 to June 1977, presents cpmparative data among various design approaches to thermal engine and photovoltaic SPS concepts, to provide criteria for selecting the most promising systems for more detailed definition. The major areas of the SPS system to be examined include solar cells, microwave power transmission, transportation, structure, rectenna, energy payback, resources, and environmental issues.

1-1

The objectives of the SPS activities during this study period were to concentrate on those areas that are major cost factors or of greatest technical uncertainty. These studies include the following: 1. Satellite systems definition: evaluation and selection of preliminary systems definition. 2. Solar cell cost and mass: assessment of the state-of-the-art and projections for cost and mass. 3. Microwave power transmission system: analysis and evaluation of design concepts. 4. Transportation system: definition and costing. 5. Space construction and maintenance: evaluation of structural configurations and the associated manufacturing and assembly concepts. 6. Environmental factors: establishment of space radiation criteria and biological considerations. 7. Natural resources and energy consideration. 8. Program planning and development: description of key ground tests experiments, early flight projects, and technology advancement. 9. Program costs: costing methodology and systems cost analysis. This document (volume II) represents the results of this year's efforts by the various technical disciplines in support of the SPS effort. The summarization and conclusions of the effort are presented in Volume I.

1-2

POWER GENERATION CAPACITY PROJECTIONS 6000 . Source: ERDA 76-141 (discussion draft) Draft Final Report (Revision A)

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II. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The summary and conclusions of this yearls effort are contained in Volume I of this report. This Volume (Volume II) contains the individual contributions by the JSC Solar Power Satellite (SPS) study team members. The scenario B defined in the 1976 JSC report on "Initial Technical, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power Concepts" was utilized as the basis for study.

II-l

III. PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

UNA*. U. S. PROJECTED ENERGY DEMAND

T, E. Redding Systems Evaluation Off.

JSC's previous in-house SPS study (ref. 1) included a projection of the nation's electrical energy requirements through the year 2025. This projection (shown in figure III-A-1) was based on a Federal Power Commission (FPC) projection through 1990 with an extrapolation by JSC to the year 2025. Numerous other organizations have made projections of electrical energy consumption as indicated in figure III-A-2. For reference purposes, the previously used FPC projection is also shown in figure III-A-2 along with projections by the Department of Interior (ref. 2). "Electrical World" magazine (ref. 3), Shell Oil Company (ref.4), the Electric Power Research Institute (ref. 5) and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDAJ (ref. 6). The FPC projection is a pre-1973 oil embargo projection that assumed an historical growth (about 6 percent) rate. As a result it is somewhat higher than the other projections, which include the effects of various levels of conservation. A recent ERDA projection of installed capacity requirements is shown in figure III-A-3. The high demand growth case is similar to the corresponding capacity requirements of the FPC energy demand projection. The assumptions for this.ERDA projection are as follows: a. b. c. d. 7 percent growth rate to 1985. 6.4 percent growth rate from 1985 to 2000. 3.3 percent growth rate from 2000 to 2025. Continuing shift by users from other forms of energy to electricity.

The low demand growth case is based on the following assumptions: a. 3.7 percent growth to 2000. b. 2.4 percent growth from 2000 to 2025. c. Significant conservation efforts and no increased degree of electrification. As indicated in figure III-A-3, a greater than factor of two difference exists in the projected capacity requirements in the year 2025, depending on the growth rate assumed.

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III-A-4

III-B. SPS IMPLEMENTATION IMPACT ON PROJECTED ENERGY DEMAND

T. E. Redding

Systems Evaluation Off. In JSC's initial SPS study, the SPS implementation rates (shown in figure III-A-1) were developed for study purposes. The three scenarios developed were constructed to provide the following percentage of new capacity requirements. Scenario A - 25 percent by 2015 Scenario B - 50 percent by 2010 Scenario C - 100 percent by 2005 Scenario B was utilized as an illustrative example to determine program requirements and to perform economic analysis. This scenario results in SPS providing about 30 percent of the projected electrical energy demand in 2025 (FPC projection). Sized at 10 Gw per SPS, a total of 112 satellites would be required in 2025. In view of the lower demand projections previously discussed, a reassessment of SPS implementation rates was made. The reassessment was based on the ERDA installed capacity projections shown in figure III-A-3. The low demand growth case reaches a capacity of about 1800 Gw and an energy demand of 8.7 X lO^2 kwh in 2025. An average SPS installation rate of one 10 Gw unit per year beginning in 1995 would result in an SPS capacity of 300 Gw in 2025 or about 17 percent of the total. At an average plant factor of 0.92, SPS would provide about 28 percent of the electrical energy (kwh) demand in this case. A total of 30 satellites would be required. The high demand growth case reaches 4700 Gw capacity in 2025. The corresponding electrical energy output is 22 X 10'2 kwh. In this case, an average SPS installation cate of three 10 Gw 12 units per year for 30 years would yield 90 satellites producing 7.25 X 10 kwh (33 percent) with a capacity of 900 Gw (19 percent) in the year 2025. Based on the above cursory evaluation, it appears that average SPS installation rates of one to three units per year would result in providing significant quantities of electrical capacity and energy in the year 2025. These rates are significantly lower than the peak rate of seven units per year used in the reference scenario B case.

III-B-1

III-C. UNITED STATES RECTENNA SITING CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION

Systems Evaluation Off.

V, Shields

The most important factor for considering locations of rectenna in the U.S. 1s?population density. Energy demands across the U.S. generally reflect population. Highly populated regions have high energy demands, and Americans are becoming concentrated in localized regions. At the turn of the century, 60 percent of our population lived on farms and in small villages with low population densities. Migration trends to metropolitan areas have been altered such that 71 percent of the population lived in Metropolis by 1970. This number is expected to increase to 85 percent by the year 2000. It appears that metropolitan growth is a basic-characteristic of the social and economic transformation of American culture. We have transcended from an agrarian, to an industrial, and now to a service-oriented economy. The lifestyles resulting in the-mass move to metropolis will be reflected in increased demands for electricity. This report examines the areas expected to have the largest population densities in the U.S., and looks at possible rectenna locations for the ultimate distribution of electrical energy from a solar satellite power system. POPULATION In the year 2000, the metropolitan population is expected to be concentrated in twenty-five major areas in the U.S. These twenty -five areas are given in figure III-C-1 and represent 85 percent of the total U.S. population in that time frame. These figures are based on a twochild family projection and were prepared for the U.S. Commission on Population Growth in 1972 by Jerome P. Pickard. If our national population distributes itself according to these projections, 54 percent of all Americans will be living in the two largest urban regions. The metropolitan belt stretching along the Atlantic seabord and westward past Chicago would contain 41 percent of our population. Another 13 percent would be in the California region lying between San Francisco and San Diego. The proposed strategy is to consider locating the first rectenna systems in these areas. Specific sites will be determined from geographical and economic consideration associated with land acquisition. Guidelines for establishing the number of rectenna that are feasible is given in Section IV-D-2 of this document.
U^S. ENERGY/POPULATION RELATIONSHIPS

Of the total energy per capita used in this country today, about 30 percent is in the form of electricjty. This percentage is expected to increase to approximately sixty by the year 2025,creating a tremendous burden on the existing utility grid structure. Table IIf-C-l~ gives projected population/energy relationships and provides the projected population by regional grid out to the year 2000. Figure III-C-2 shows a map of the U.S. with the regional councils (grids) identified. III-C-1

Urban Regions: Year 2000

M«tiopolltan Beit I * Atlantic Seabord I t> Lower Great Lakes c*Morma Region • ' 'ot.da Peninsula • Cuil Coast "• I»\\ Central Texas— Red River • iouih.rn Piedmont North Georgia—South East Tennessee • "uiel Sound • '»>n Cities Region Colorado Piedmont ^'•ni Louis ' ''•"opohtan Arizona

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Based on 2-child family projection Source Jerome P Pickard, "US. Metropolitan Growth an Expansion, 1970-2000, with Population Projections" (preparei for the Commission, 1972).

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III-D. ELECTRICAL POWER DEMANDS FOR WESTERN HEMISPHERE/WORLD

J. Rippey

Systems Evaluation Off. The assessment of the future energy requirements of other countries is desirable in the consideration of a major advanced energy system such as the Solar Powered Satellite (SPS). For this preliminary study, several representative major-developed and lesser-developed countries (LDC's) are investigated on the basis of a statistical analysis to determine a projection of electrical energy consumption into the SPS operational time frame. Long-range projections of energy requirements for any country is an exceptionally venturesome task. Experts who are only looking at estimates for the United States alone generally provide numerous scenarios beyond a few year's time and projections beyond a decade*s time are considered highly speculative. Yet, those experts have utilized the most extensive statistical records of any country in the world. With such hazards in mind, this exercise will attempt to provide a general indication of energy requirements 1n the Western Hemisphere and the World. This analysis involves the use of population and electrical energy consumption statistical data and historical trends. The United States, Canada, Mexico, and Brazil were chosen as being indicators of Western Hemisphere energy consumption. 1. Population and Population Rates of Change Figure III-D-1, from reference 7, presents a projection of the world's population growth to the year 2000 assuming constant fertility levels. The figure shows that it took all the recorded time to year 1830 for the world to reach its first billion population. As sanitation improvements spread and scientific medicine developed, the world reached its second billion in only a hundred years about 1930. With rapid advances in medicine, including the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics, the third billion was reached in just 30 years 1960. The fourth billion was reached in half-the-time, 15 years 1975. By the year 2000, it 1s projected to take about 3 years to add a billion people. The United Nations is actively involved in accumulating population statistics and trends. They are also providing information and services for countries to control their birth rates. Figure III-D-2 illustrates numerous scenarios of world population projections based on various fertility rates. It shows that if a level of fertility required to replace the parental generation....that is, a Net Reproduction Rate of Unity (NRR=1), implying an average of 2.1 to 2.5 children per couple; depending on mortality conditions was reached in the reasonably near future, population would continue to grow for many decades until Zero Population Growth (ZPG) came about. Several scenarios of fertility rate decline for Mexico are shown in figure III-D-3 to show the population growth potential of lesserdeveloped major country 1n this hemisphere. III-D-1

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In order to obtain energy consumption requirements Into the next century, estimates on population growth are needed. The following assumptions are made to obtain a population estimate; a. Presently the growth rate of the world's population is about 2 percent per year. Brazil Is currently experiencing about 3.2 percent Increase and Mexico 3.5 percent. According to ref. 8, the NRR for Brazil was 2.3 and for Mexico 2.5 1n 1970. Due to the momentum of these Increases, for this analysis both countries are expected to reach NRR » 1.0 about year 2003 with ZPG by year 2060. This 1s one of the scenarios shown In figure III-D-3 for Mexico. b. Recent U. S. Census Bureau releases show that our population growth rate 1s declining, citing a 1.1 percent growth rate 1n 1970, 0.8 percent In 1975 and 0.7 percent 1n 1976. These figures Include Immigration quotas which correspond to an annual Increment of about 0.2 percent. Canada's growth rate 1s currently about 1.1 percent according to ref. 8. Both countries had a NRR = 1 . 1 1n 1970 and, for this analysis, are assumed to reach NRR = 1.0 within the decade, c. Latin America and the world's population growth rates are dictated primarily by the developing countries and, therefore, projections follow closely their rate trends. Historically, however, most long-range demographic projections have erred on the low side. Reference 9 suggests that the U.N. "low variant" predictions should be used into the next century because "a drastic rise in the death rate will either slow or terminate the population explosion, unless efforts to avoid such a tragic eventuality are immediately mounted." Reference 9 Indicates that such efforts are underway. Since 1965, programs to slow down rates of population growth in over 80 percent of the under-developed and developing countries have been initiated. Therefore, for this study, the U.N. "low variant" projection 1s used. Utilizing the fore-mentioned assumptions fertility rates, figure III-D-4 has been constructed levels for each of the candidate countries and areas The historical data shown on the figure from 1950 to tracted from ref. 10. and the corresponding to show the population to the year 2050. the present was ex-

The figure shows that by year 2035, Mexico will have reached the population level experienced by the United States in 1950 (152 million) and Brazil, at the same time, will have surpassed the United States as the most populous country in the western hemisphere with a population over 270 million. Both of these events will occur earlier if the "low variant" projections prove to be over-optimistic. 2. Electrical Energy per Capita Consumption An assessment of a nation's energy consumption and future energy requirements frequently is the result of extensive record keeping on a great

III-D-5

WORLD POPULATION PROJECTION IN COMPARISON WITH SEVERAL DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING REGIONS ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENTS Figure III-D-4 III-D-6

many energy sources, A simpler Indicator of the overall energy picture is the consumption of electrical energy. This 1s because there generally are fewer energy sources used for electrical energy generation and there are better records available on its production. For these reasons, this study deals only with electrical energy although correlation with the overall energy picture 1s evident. Figure III-D-5 graphically illustrates the per capita Electrical Energy Consumption Statistics and Projections from 1950 to 2020 for the selected countries. The statistical data was selected from references 11 and 12. The straight line projections for all of the study areas were derived by determining the rate of change in per capita electrical consumption for the 1970 to 1975 period and applying the same rate in 5 year increments from 1980 to 2020. The 1970 to 1975 period Includes the first effects of the oil embargo and fuel price escalations and serves as a very simple indicator of future energy consumption patterns. Of the countries illustrated, 1t 1s apparent that the United States felt the effects of the high fuel prices the most, U.N. data shows in recent years (1973 & 1974), Brazil annually imported over 73 percent of its primary energy, Mexico about 11 percent, and the United States about 17 percent. Because of our extensive Industrial base, the rapid increases in energy costs obviously produces a more noticeable effect on our industrial growth rate. Although Canada was also effected by the higher fuel costs, their per capital electrical energy consumption indicates no noticeable effect. Investigation of their energy self-sufficiency shows that they were able to export energy during the entire 1970 to 1975 period, thus helping to continue their preembargo per capita energy growth rate. Another notable trend in figure III-D-5 is the similarity of the United States and the world's energy consumption per capita. Apparently most of the developed nations felt the major effects of rapid fuel cost increases. Certainly the United States, with less than 6 percent of the world's population, but currently utilizing about 30 percent of the world's consumed energy, is the major factor in this parallel. The simple fixed rate method used in the electrical energy projections excludes the effects of major variables such as significant changes in population rates and major energy resource discoveries. The effects of dwindling energy supplies is not reflected here other than in the large cost increase during the early 1970's and the resulting rate projections. Utilizing the population projections from figure III-D-4 and the per capita electrical energy consumption values shown in figure III-D-6, table III-D-1 was constructed to show the sharp Increases of energy needs from 1960 to year 2020. In the 60 year period, the world's electrical energy consumption is shown to increase by a factor of 26 over the 1960 level. The United States' consumption will multiply almost 13 times, Brazil 75 times, and Mexico 117 times. Early into the 20th century, both Mexico and Brazil will require energy levels currently consumed in the United States. It should be realized that the following table 1s based on constant rate increases of electrical energy consumption indicated by

III-D-7

, ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION i PER CAPITA, 1950-2020

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energy availability of recent years. Assuming the gap between energy supply and demand will continue to narrow, increased competition for the available energy will become more pronounced,
TABLE III-D-1 1960

World U.S.A. Canada Brazil Mexico

2301 844 114 23 11

(1975) 6236 1982 273 69 43

1980 8199 2444 365 104 67

2000 22701 5296 1149 474 325

2020 61021 10875 3316 1721 1266

TOTAL Electrical Energy Consumption from 1960 to 2020 in KWH X 109

III-D-9

1 1 PREFERENCES

1. Initial Technical, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power Concepts, NASA Johnson Space Center, Report JSC-11568, August 31, 1976. 2. United States Energy Through the Year 2000, Bureau of Mining, U. S. Department of the Interior, December, 1975, 3. Electrical World Magazine, December 15, 1976, pages 58-62. 4. The National Energy Outlook 1980-1990, Shell Oil Company, September 1976. 5. Role of Fossil Fuels for Electricity Production, draft report Electric Power Research Institute, February 2, 1977. 6. Comparing New Technologies for the Electric Utilities, draft report (revision A) ERDA 76-141 (discussion draft), Energy Research and Development Administration, December 9, 1976. 7. The Population Explosion — A Present Danger, by the Office of Population Affairs, United States State Department. 8. The Two-child Family and Population Growth: An International View, U. S. Department of Commerce/Bureau of the Census, September 1971. 9. Population, Resources, Environment by Ehrlich & Ehrlich, Stanford University, 1972. 10. Statistical Yearbooks for 1965 & 1975, United Nations. 11. .__ World Almanac & Book of Facts 1977, Newspaper Enterprise Association, The 12. World Energy Supplies 1950-1974, United Nations, 1976.

III-D-10

IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION

Clarke Covington Spacecraft Design Division

This section presents the results of the in-house and contracted efforts which together make up the SPS system definition and concept evaluation study for the power station (including the rectenna). The contracted part of the study was funded with $500K in FY76 funds allocated for SPS system definition as defined in Section IX-A of this report. The contracted studies and where their results are summarized are as follows: • SPS System Definition - $375K (Section IV-A) 0 Phase Control System Hardware Simulation - $40K (Section IV-C-2-b) • Klystron Evaluation - $15K (Section IV-C-2-a) • Solar Cell Evaluation - $20K (Section IV-B-l-b) t Rectenna Structural Design - $10K (Section IV-D-3) In addition, the following two studies were also funded which derived data useful in the development of design criteria for the SPS system: • GEO Radiation Environment Analysis - $10K (Section VII-B-1-a) 0 Energetic Particle Precipitation - $15K (Section VII-B-2) Most of the results included in this section are primarily a collection of individual studies related to specific areas of special interest rather than an "across-the-board" analysis of the total satellite system as was last year's system definition study.
A. SATELLITE SYSTEMS DEFINITION

Most of the SPS system definition work in this period was done in the first part of a two-part study contracted to Boeing ("SPS System Definition Study", NAS 9-15196). Part I of the study began November 22, 1976 and ended May 1, 1977, and had as its objectives the development of comparative data to aid NASA in the evaluation of two basic questions which remained after the 1975-76 JSC in-house study report. These two major questions were: 1) What is the overall most effective means of accomplishing solar energy-to-electrical energy conversion on an SPS in geosynchronous orbit? IV-A-1

2) At what location (or locations) in space should the various phases of SPS construction and assembly be done? As a point of departure, two reference configurations were established at the beginning of the study. These were the JSC planar truss photovoltaic system described 1n the August 31, 1976 JSC study report (JSC-11568), and the Boeing Brayton thermal engine system developed in a 1976 study for MSFC (NAS 8-31628). Energy Conversion Question A range of energy conversion candidates was considered which included the following: Photovoltaic • Single Crystal Silicon Gallium Arsenide • Advanced Thin Film Silicon Gallium Arsenide Cadmium Sulfide Copper-Indium Selenide Thermal Cycle • Brayton • Modified Brayton • Rankine • Thermionic A comparative evaluation was made of these candidates using a set of evaluation factors designed for relative assessment of each candidate. These evaluation factors, or "comparators", were: SPS performance Performance degradation SPS size SPS mass System complexity System maintainability IV-A-2

-

Construction requirements Transportation requirements Technology advancement requirements System cost differential factors Environmental effects differential factors Materials differential factors

The results of the energy conversion evaluation can be summarized as follows: (1) There are at least four viable energy conversion candidates: photovoltaic silicon, photovoltaic gallium arsenide, thermal Brayton cycle, and thermal Rankine cycle. (2) Thermal engines are more complex, but require less technology advancement. (3) Photovoltaics are simple in concept, but a continuous production process for solar cells must be developed or the concept is Impractical. (4) There are no large differences in DDT&E or production cost projections for energy conversion between the four viable candidates. Part II of the Boeing study will produce a complete SPS system definition with each element of the system defined to the same level. A goal of the study is to reduce the range of uncertainty in the weight and cost estimates to one-half the range developed in the 1976-77 JSC study. To do this, the number of energy conversion candidates must be reduced to those which show the promise of being most effective considering all factors, and then doing the more detailed system definition with those selected concepts. Boeing's recommendations concerning energy conversion, for the purposes of Part II of this study are as follows: (1) As a Part II study reference or "baseline", proceed with both the photovoltaic silicon system (with concentration ratio of one and annealable), and a thermal engine system using the Brayton cycle. (The Rankine cycle may, in time, supplant the Brayton cycle if recent significantly reduced weight estimates for Rankine turbine compressors for use In space can be substantiated.) (2) The photovoltaic Gallium Arsenide system concept should be carried into Part II of the study as an advanced technology option. IV-A-3

(3) The potential for a large mass reduction 1n the thermal engine system using the Potass1um-Rankine cycle should be further evaluated. (4) Thin-film photovoltaic systems should be discontinued in this study until a better data base is available. (5) The steam Rankine system and the thermionic system should be dropped because of their relatively high masses. The detailed results and supporting analyses of the energy conversion evaluation may be found in the Boeing final report of Part I, published in June 1977, and in Section IV-B of this report. Construction Location Question In the consideration of where the construction of an operational SPS should be accomplished, the primary choices are low earth orbit (LEO) below the earth's radiation belt, geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), or some combination of the two. The most significant difference between the two locations 1s that LEO construction allows a low-thrust transfer from LEO to the operational GEO location using a high-Isp electric propulsion system installed on the SPS and powered by the part of the operational electric generating capability of the SPS itself. Several factors favor GEO construction. Atmospheric drag effects are negligible and gravity gradient forces are much less severe. Construction can take place in near-continuous sunlight. The SPS design does not have to accommodate transfer loads or the installation of the transfer propulsion system. The risk of collision with other orbiting objects during construction and transfer is nearly eliminated. Although orbital transfer with chemical systems are less efficient, they are well known and much quicker than electric systems. On the other hand, LEO construction has the potential of considerably reducing the launch rate and overall transportation requirements, and could be about 25 percent lower in overall transportation costs. A summary of the evaluation factors for the construction location question and the associated relative merits of the two alternatives is shown in Table IV-A-1.

IV-A-4

EVALUATION FACTOR

PREFERRED CONSTRUCTION LOCATION
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DECISION DRIVER

a) TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS b) CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS c) SPS OVERALL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS d) SPS PERFORMANCE AND DEGRADATION POTENTIAL e) LAUNCH SITE DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS f) SYSTEM STARTUP REQUIREMENTS g) OPERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS h) COLLISION CONSIDERATIONS i) SYSTEM COST DIFFERENTIAL FACTORS j) ORBITAL TRANSFER COMPLEXITY FACTORS

LEO REQUIRES LESS FLIGHTS AND LESS ON ORBIT PROPELLANT TRANSFER 'LEO DRAG & DARK PERIODS VS. GEO RADIATION & DISTANCE LEO REQUIRES MODULARIZATION & OTHER SPECIALIZATION DEGRADATION DUE TO VAN ALLEN RADIATION CAN BE COMPENSATED FEWER LAUNCHES FOR LEO LEO STARTUP MORE COMPLEX LEO HAS MORE DISTINCT KINDS OF OPERATIONS ABOUT 15 COLLISIONS/SPS FOR LEO VS 2 FOR GEO LEO ACOUT 25% CHEAPER OVERALL TRANSPORTATION

NO SELECTION
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ELECTRIC PROPULSION (LEO) MORE COMPLEX

TABLE IV-A-1

The results of the construction location evaluation are that either LEO or GEO construction is a viable option, but there is no clear choice at this time. It is possible that both modes would be used, depending upon requirements other than technical. Boeing's recommendation for Part II of the study is to defer the decision until program requirements are more clear. For the construction facility analysis, the recommendation is to use a modular SPS construction concept which would be required for GEO construction and is a viable approach for GEO construction also. The detailed results and supporting analyses of the construction location evaluation may be found in the Boeing final report of Part I, published in June 1977. IV-A-5

IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION

Clarke Covington Spacecraft Design Division

B. SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTION SYSTEM (SECS) 1. Energy Conversion a. Energy Conversion System Comparison - Most of the past year's work in evaluating the relative merits of the various candidate energy conversion concepts was done in Part I of the SPS System Definition Study contracted to Boeing (NAS 9-15196). This study began by taking as points of departure the truss configuration with single-crystal silicon solar cells (CR=2) which was developed in the 1976 JSC in-house study, and the Brayton thermal cycle system developed by Boeing in a study for MSFC. These reference systems were used in comparative analyses of transportation and construction alternatives. The evolution of these analyses and the resulting configuration concepts are shown in figure IV-B-1. A comparative evaluation was made of the energy conversion candidates listed on page IV-A-2 by using the set of evaluation factors (also on page IV-A-2) derived for relative assessment of each candidate. A summary of the results of each evaluation factor is given in the following: SPS Performance - Initially it was believed that the thermal engine systems were much more efficient overall than the photovoltaics; however, the difference is not nearly as large as first thought. Efficiency of a system generally follows technology advancement, and the systems with more development tend to show up as more efficient. As it turns out, in the overall system performance evaluation, efficiency is not a major discriminator unless it is very low. Efficiency comparisons are shown in figure IV-B-2. Performance Degradation - Every candidate system is subject to radiation degradation, but to varying degrees. The thermal engine systems suffer the least, followed by the gallium arsenide and then silicon photovoltaic systems. The left side of figure IV-B-3 shows how the output of these candidate systems degrades with time, while the right side presents the degradation normalized to show what percentage of total satellite mass is affected by the degradation. For example, the thermal systems degrade because of the gradual loss of reflectivity in the thin film concentrators which account for only a small part of the total satellite mass. For all the recommended concepts, degradation was compensated for in some way for the system comparisons, whether by initially oversizing, periodic adding on more energy collector, by annealing or some other maintenance. This compensation can be represented by size, mass, and cost, which makes radiation degradation relatively unimportant as an independent evaluation factor.

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Satellite Size - As shown in figure IV-B-4, an annealable gallium arsenide system has the smallest area with the Brayton system ranking second. Silicon systems with no concentration (CR=1) are considerably smaller than those which have a concentration ratio of two (CR=2). The estimate for thin film photovoltaics is much more uncertain than the others because less data is available for these systems today. Total planform area does not seem to be as strong a discriminator as some others. Satellite Mass - Figure IV-B-5 shows a relative mass comparison with no margin included in the totals. The reference silicon (CR=2) system was sized for a beginning-of-life (B.O.L.) output of 10 GW total and, for reference, carried no penalty for maintaining a relatively constant output. This comparison clearly shows the tremendous potential advantage in having the capability to anneal radiation damage to restore initial conditions as opposed to periodically adding new energy collector to maintain B.O.L. power output. Initial tests were made of an annealing concept which uses an electron beam to heat the outer, damaged part of the solar cell momentarily with a directed energy pulse without any significant heat diffusing into the substrate. Initial estimates indicate that about six remotely-operated annealing machines, each about 2m square by 3m long, could keep the performance of a silicon photovoltaic system near 100 percent by continually traveling the surface of the solar array. The lightest concept was the gallium arsenide system. Both the steam Rankine and thermionic systems were so heavy that it is recommended that they be dropped from competition. System Complexity - Complexity is difficult to quantize. For instance, the thermal systems have about five times as many unique parts or subassemblies as the photovoltaic systems. However, the photovoltaics are made up of 1000 times as many total pieces. Since integration complexity of systems is usually a function of the number of unique parts, the thermal systems are considered more complex than the photovoltaic systems. The complexity comparison is represented pictorially in figure IV-B-6. Maintainability Factors - Every candidate system has potential maintainability problems, but, when the systems are categorized into either photovoltaic or thermal systems, concepts for solving the potential problems can be conceptualized. The photovoltaics are sensitive to individual cell failures in the strings of solar cells. This problem can be overcome by paralleling the strings and with diode shunting. This results in an equivalent maintenance load of about five to ten man-hours/hour for annealing or array addition to make up the loss. The thermal systems may be vulnerable to NaK system reliability problems, necessitating maintenance equivalent to about ten man-hours/hour for mechanical repairs and replacement. Other solutions could be an intensive technology advancement effort to increase the reliability, or an innovative redesign to eliminate NaK. IV-B-5

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Construction Requirements - Figure IV-B-7 illustrates relative constructability of candidate concepts at LEO and GEO, and is based on a number of factors developed in the construction analysis. The length of the bars is a weighted, relative measure of constructability with a longer bar indicating a better rating, such as a combination of smaller construction crew size. The photovoltaic systems are easier to construct because they are less mechanically complex. Here can be seen one of the reasons for the desirability of no-concentration photovoltaic systems over those with concentration. The construction process is considerably less complex. Transportation Requirements - Although there was no great difference in total launch mass between the best photovoltaic and thermal systems, the photovoltaics have a significant advantage in packaging density. Photovoltaic system components and materials can be packaged for launch to a density about 20 times that of the thermal systems. Some thermal engine components will barely fit into the reference launch vehicle payload dimensions. The average achievable packaging density was about 1300 Kg/m2 (81.16/ft3) for the photovoltaics and about 72 Kg/m2 (4.5 lb/ft3) for the thermal systems. Technology Advancement Requirements - Table IV-B-1 lists those technology advancement requirements considered most significant. The Brayton thermal cycle and the silicon photovoltaic systems appear to have the least development risk with the Brayton being the most advanced. A continuous solar blanket manufacturing process would be more important to overall system cost than an increase in solar cell efficiency. For instance, a 14 percent solar cell manufactured with a continuous production process would make a silicon system very attractive, whereas an 18 percent cell made with today's processes would not allow an economically competitive system. Environmental Effects Differential Factor - No serious environmental effects were found with any concept.The main factor is launch vehicle emissions which are not very significant and occur only in the launch year. Launch emissions are essentially proportional to SPS mass. A postulated accident with a fire on the launch pad presents some problem with gallium arsenide. There does not appear to be much of a toxicity problem, however, since analysis indicates that arsenic concentrations in any resulting smoke cloud would drop to allowable concentrations very quickly. Materials Differential Factors - Gallium is the only material with a potential availability problem. Assumptions for recovery of gallium from various sources influence availability conclusions. Gallium today is recovered from the waste products of aluminum production, and processes are known which could improve the recovery process by a factor of 4. Alcoa has stated that more gallium could be recovered if more money was IV-B-9

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IV-B-12

IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION B. SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTION SYSTEM Harold E. Benson

Systems Evaluation Off. 1. Energy Conversion b. Solar Cell Technology Status (Contracted Results) A brief study effort of approximately 3 months has been conducted with the A. D. Little Corporation regarding solar cells. The objective of the study was to assess various solar cell materials and manufacturing methods to identify options which show greatest promise of leading to the development of a cost-effective SPS design. Underlying this objective is a tie-in between the current ERDA National Photovoltaic Conversion Program and requirements needed for a successful SPS solar cell program. The prime goals of the ERDA solar cell program are to provide 500 megawatts of power per year, sell them at a price of less than $500 per peak kilowatt by 1986, and for the array efficiency to exceed 10 percent over an operating lifetime of at least 20 years. The primary focus is on reducing the cost of silicon solar cells by improving the manufacturing technology and by increasing production capacity. SPS Requirements: For the SPS to produce a 5000 Mw output at the receiving antenna on Earth, its solar energy conversion subsystem will have to generate about 9000 Mw to allow for solar conversion and microwave transmission system inefficiencies. A production scenario in which 112 SPS's would be placed in operation by 2025 would require the deployment of up to 7 SPS's per year. Thus, the objectives of the ERDA National Photovoltaic Conversion Program, although supportive of SPS development goals, do not address the following production requirements of large photovoltaic arrays for the SPS: o o o o o o Low mass, High efficiency, Long life in the space environment, Ease of assembly, Capability of being transported to synchronous orbit, and Materials availability.

These requirements imply a diverging development effort for the SPS photovoltaic arrays, whose focus would be on thin-film solar cells, but in addition to single-crystal silicon would also include the development of the following photovoltaic materials: o Amorphous silicon o Cadmium sulfide, and o Gallium arsenide. Therefore, the cost projections which are being obtained in the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array (LSSA) project being carried out by JPL for ERDA are only IV-B-13

partially applicable to the definition of the most cost-effective photovoltaic arrays for the solar energy conversion subsystem of the SPS. The directly transferable development efforts in the LSSA project pertain to the production of semiconductor-grade silicon which presently has a market price of about $65/kilogram. One of the objectives of the LSSA project is to develop processes for producing silicon which have been optimized for application to solar cells at high volume and low cost. The silicon production process which promises to meet the production goal of $10/kg is based on the reduction of SiCl4 by zinc in a fluidized-bed reactor. In addition, an objective of the LSSA project is to develop a number of methods potentially suitable for growing silicon crystals for solar cell manufactures; e.g., ribbon growth processes, such as edge-defined film fed growth; inverted Stepanov growth; laser zone ribbon growth; and web-dendritic growth. Among the ribbon growth processes the web-dendritic process appears to be very promising as a method of producing single-crystal silicon which could approach the mass and efficiency requirements of the SPS photovoltaic arrays. Sheet growth processes are also being investigated. Of these, the amorphous silicon method appears to be capable of producing thin-film solar cells with low mass. (The required silicon thickness is only about Cost Projection Methods^ Several methods can be used to project costs for silicon solar cells which have already reached an advanced development level and are gaining market acceptance: e.g., the design-to-cost concept, experience curve projection, and mature industry projection. Design-To-Cost Projection: In this approach, portions of the total cost are allocated to the various process elements so that each orocess element can be tested against its individual cost goal. This permits key cost barriers to be identified and evaluated to point the way to required technical innovations to achieve cost reductions. The allocation of the total cost of the individual process elements relies primarily on engineering judgement and is influenced by known factors. For single-crystal silicon solar cell efficiencies in the range of 15 percent to 18 percent, the following design-to-cost allocations appear reasonable: $/m Range
Silicon Single Crystal 25 to 35

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The cost per unit area is a function of solar cell efficiency and the solar flux, which also is related to the cost per watt. For example, a cost goal of 504 per watt of 15 percent efficiency (AMD) translates into $100/m2, 30<f per watt at 15 percent into $60/m2. An 18 percent efficient cell could be allocated $120/m2 to achieve a 50<t per watt cost goal and $72/m2 for a 304 IV-B-14

per watt cost goal. The costs for the substrate (1 mil Kaptron), cell Interconnects (copper ribbon) and cover glass (10 ujn glass resin) are allocated about $3/m2, indicating that the major costs are associated with the silicon solar cell production. Experience Curve Projection: Fig. IV-D-7A shows cost projections for silicon solar cell arrays based on the actual and projected experience with cost reductions as industry-accumulated volume grows. The experience curves relate the production volumes required to achieve projected costs. This approach is useful where marketing data for a number of years are available and where the growth of the market will not be strongly influenced by one application. The substantial impact on industry-accumulated volume represented by the SPS means that experience curve projections must be used with caution. Furthermore, the assumption that there is a steadily growing market and that industry has the opportunity to make capital investments which can be amortized over a reasonable time span introduces additional uncertainties. At best, experience-curve projections are applicable to single-crystal silicon, since solar cells based on amorphous silicon, cadmium sulfide and gallium arsenide have not yet reached the stage where market factors determine costs. Mature Industry Projection: The approach* which indicates how a mature industry relates materials output to costsi represent a historical view of cost reduction. Photovoltaic materials of the type being considered for SPS may differ in their value-added components if government, funding were to stimulate production of solar cells, as most likely would be the case in an SPS program development. The various projections indicate that likely cost ranges for singlecrystal silicon solar cells for the SPS photovbltaic arrays are:
50 - 70$/Watt by 1985 15 - 25^/Watt by 1995

Thin-Film Solar Cells: The attraction of thin-film solar cells, including amorphous silicon, cadmium sulfide, and gallium arsenide, is the potential for continuous mass production at a rapid production rate. Illustrative of the requirement to deploy 3 SPS's/year is an hourly production rate of 15,000 m2 of photovoltaic arrays, assuming a 15 percent solar cell efficiency. This implies that if there is an installed manufacturing capability to produce photovoltaic arrays of 2-meter widths, about 50 machines would be required, at a linear manufacturing rate of 4 cm/sec. This manufacturing rate could be approached by automated processes being considered for thin-film *Boeing SPS System Definition Study Presentation on May 6, 1977. IV-B-15

-production, including spray techniques, vacuum-deposition techniques, and discharge techniques. For example, should it be desired to achieve the required manufacturing rate using an edge-defined film-fed ribbon process with a growth rate of 7.5 cm/min., assuming a 7.5-centimeter-wide ribbon, about 43,000 simultaneous ribbons would have to be grown and integrated with the photovoltaic array production lines. \ Cost projections for thin-film solar cells are being developed, indicating the following cost goals: Amorphous Silicon Cadmium Sulfide 15-30<£ per watt 10-20<£ per watt

Gallium arsenide production processes are not yet well enough developed to permit reasonable goals to be established. A. D. Little Conclusions The ERDA National Photovoltaic Conversion Program, although furthering the photovoltaic materials and solar cell production technology, will not meet the development program objectives of the SPS. Valuable information and experimental data are being obtained which are useful for the SPS system and economic studies. However, the goals of the SPS development program are sufficiently different so that a dedicated photovoltaic development program will be required. Considerations based on materials availability indicate that solar'cells using silicon should be given the highest priority with cadmium representing a potential alternative material. Gallium arsenide solar cell applications may be limited because of gallium availability, unless low-cost processes to extract gallium from potential sources such as bauxite, flyash and oil residues are developed. Single-crystal silicon will continue to be the leading candidate for photovoltaic arrays for the SPS because of significant production experience and an extensive data base. A. D. Little Recommendations o Perform R&D on candidate solar cells for SPS to achieve: - Low mass-per-unit area, - High efficiency, - High radiation resistance, - Capability of being packaged for subsequent deployment and assembly in orbit, - Capability of integration with extended lightweight structures, and - Capability of approaching initial performance with suitable processing (e.g., annealing) after prolonged exposure to the space environment. IV-B-16

o Define and develop processes for space manufacture of solar cells. o Monitor on-going terrestrial cell material development programs, and select for in-depth evaluation and development those materials which are most promising for SPS. o Establish an on-going orbital test program for flight testing of candidate solar cells, photovoltaic arrays, and structure-array integration methods on shuttle/spacelab missions. o Establish an orbital program for flight testing of candidate photovoltaic arrays and assembly methods appropriate for the SPS.

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IV-B-18

James L. Cioni Propulsion and Power Division IV-B-l-b. Solar Cell Technology Status. (In-house Assessment)

Over the past year, since the publication of the first JSC report on SPS activities, close contact has been maintained with those active in the development of solar cell technology both inside and outside of NASA. Considerable progress has been reported in areas of particular importance to SPS activities. Much work of interest is being performed with terrestrial solar power as the driving force; however, in most cases a form of the technology has applicability to SPS. The following is a summary of some of the highlights of the past year's work. Single Crystal Silicon Cells—Work has been proceeding toward the fabrication of thin (50 micron) solar cells. The work, sponsored by JPL, involves the thinning of wafers sliced from large single crystals which start at conventional cell thickness and are subsequently etched to the 40 to 80 micron thickness. Though cells prepared in this manner will probably have little direct application for SPS, the high efficiency (11-12 percent) already achieved, and the low breakage loss from handling give credibility to the predicted utility of 50 micron thick cells in an SPS. Results from testing show lower degradation from radiation in the thin cells than from conventional cells. Figure IV-B-8 shows the relative power versus radiation dose level up to the levels predicted for an operational SPS. This factor could show weight savings in the use of thin solar cells beyond the basic mass per unit area difference even if the efficiency attained is below the 16-18 percent range. The impact of these recently reported results will be examined further over the coming year. Other activities aimed purely at improving solar cell efficiency have proceeded to the point where production cells can now be made available with efficiencies in the 14-15 percent range. In addition, progress has been made in the fabrication techniques for producing wraparound contact cells. Silicon Ribbon Growth—Two programs are being funded to develop processes for continuous growth of single crystal silicon ribbons. The EFG (edge defined film fed growth) is producing large area material; however, the present process is such that impurities and defects in the crystal are limiting the quality of the cells. Though the process may produce material of sufficient quality for terrestrial solar cells, it may be unable to produce cells of the quality necessary for SPS application. The other process, dendritic web growth, is making good progress and has produced prototype production hardware which has been successfully operated. This process has shown the capability of growing webs of uniform thickness in the 100 to 300 micron range through control of the rate at which the web is drawn from the melt. Past work on this process has shown the ability to produce high quality ribbons from which high quality solar cells can be made. The dendritic web growth process IV-B-19

% Power

inn

ULTRA-THIN£ELL (2 mil)

0—

o

,o

io

io

Peak Power Degradation vs. Electron Flusnce (1 MeV elecfrons)

Figure IV-B-8 IV-B-20

shows strong promise to produce high volume cells of a quality suitable for SPS use. It may be possible to combine the web process growing 100 micron thick blanks with the etch thinning process of Solarex to provide low cost thin single crystal silicon solar cells for SPS use. Noncrystalline Silicon Cells—The most dramatic improvement in solar cell technology over the past year has been in the field of noncrystalline silicon solar cells. Investigators in the U.S. and Europe have produced solar cells from polycrystalline material which exhibits AMI efficiencies in the 10-12 percent range. There are several characteristics about polycrystalline silicon solar cells which make them preferable to single crystalline cells. First, the manufacturing process is more nearly direct from molten silicon to a layer of material ready to have final processing into a solar cell and is thus inherently less costly to manufacture. Second, they can be readily manufactured in any convenient size and the thickness required is normally less than single crystalline. Third, polycrystalline cells show a high tolerance to impurities in the silicon. This is even shown in the "high" efficiency cells produced over the past year. Thus, the need for "hyperpure" silicon does not apply and the inexpensive metallurgical grade silicon is used. Early efforts to produce polycrystalline cells were limited to low efficiency due to the inability to deposit the silicon and achieve anything but small crystal grains (several microns in diameter); however, recent activities have been able to achieve large grain size (millimeters) with a high degree of order. Another development in silicon cells is the recent publication of results in which solar cells have been produced from amorphous silicon and have achieved efficiencies in the 5-6 percent range. The researchers feel that they will be able to ultimately produce amorphous silicon cells with efficiencies of 14 percent. All the positive attributes associated with polycrystalline silicon cells apply to amorphous silicon cells except that amorphous silicon cells should be cheaper to produce. Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells—Over the past few years an everexpanding number of organizations have begun investigations into producing high efficiency GaAs solar cells. In almost all cases the new groups have made rapid progress to catch up with those already in the field. Today several organizations are producing GaAs cells with efficiencies in excess of 15-16 percent with the highest reported being 19 percent. The activity at Hughes Research Laboratories is in many ways typical of the rapid progress being made. A major difference is that Hughes has concentrated its activities on cells sized typical of conventional silicon cells; i.e., 2 x 2 cm. Figure IV-B-9 isx a plot of the chronology of progress at Hughes and their near-term objective. The high efficiency devices being produced consist of very thin active layers (10 micron) on a GaAs substrate which is on the order of

IV-B-21

6731-1R1

zu 19 — 18 _ 17 —

1977 OBJEiCTIVE-^f-*— 19%
JAN 1977
^

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+ O«— 17.5% -

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NOV1976— fe^O — 16.8%

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DEC 1975— -£/{ )•«— 13%

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X
— —

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1975 1976
TIME *•

1977

.

Hughes Research Laboratories GaAlAs/GaAs solar cell efficiency.

Figure IV-B-9 IV-B-22

200 microns thick. To become an attractive candidate for SPS use, GaAs cells must use Gallium only in the thin active layer. Work is going on to find other suitable substrates on which to grow or lay active GaAs layers. Thus far no high efficiency devices have been produced by this method. Cadmium Sulfide Cells—Considerable activity is seen in the development of cadmium sulfide solar cells. The emphasis of this work is nearly exclusively for terrestrial use. Recent advances in this country and in Europe have enabled the fabrication of cells approaching 8 percent efficiency. Cadmium sulfide and others in the family of similar thin film devices are extremely interesting to consider for use in an SPS since by their nature they are lightweight, low cost devices. However, unless such a device can be fabricated with efficiencies in region of 11-14 percent, the assembly and transportation costs will offset these advantages.

IV-B-23

IV-B-l-c. Solar Array Design Analysis. The solar array work which was performed since the publication of JSC's first annual report on in-house SPS study activities has been significantly different in character than the first year's work. The solar array work in the first year concentrated on establishing a reference configuration which would provide a basis for whole system assessment from a variety of points of view; i.e., .construction, transportation, economics, etc. In so doing, all elements involved in the JSC activity developed methods of analysis within their own area of interest. The first year laid a foundation which revealed many of the areas of sensitivity for SPS feasibility assessment. Major among these sensitive areas is the solar array which is the single largest mass and cost driver. Therefore, in this second year, solar array analyses have emphasized the study of areas in which either cost and/or blanket mass might be reduced. As can be seen from the discussion of solar cell technology, many significant advances have been made in the past year. Two major areas of investigation were pursued: (1) GaAs solar cells used in concentrated arrays (2X to 10X) and used in unconcentrated arrays, and (2) Thin film cells (e.g., polycrystalline silicon) with AMD efficiencies of 10 percent or greater. These concepts were then compared with the reference system from the previous year. In the course of making the comparison, additional factors arise which influence relative "pros and cons" of the system concepts. With GaAs the availability and price of Gallium becomes a question (see Gallium availability section, this volume) and when using high concentration, the rate at which concentrator material degrades relative to solar arrays is a major concern. Assessing the newly emerging "high" efficiency polycrystal silicon solar cell is hampered by the lack of data generated to date on temperature and radiation degradation coefficients. GaAs Systems—To investigate concentrated GaAs systems the Rockwell concept of linear parabolic troughs was used as a basis (see figure IV-B-10). Figures IV-B-11 and IV-B-12 show temperature and blanket performance characteristics used. The analysis shows a very large weight benefit based on BOL (beginning of life) performance. The unsupported mass of the GaAs blanket and concentrator would reduce the mass relative the JSC 1976 reference by approximately 60 percent, but the system projected area would increase by 60 percent. Table IV-B-3 shows the assumptions upon which these results are based. The potentially large weight savings would be partially offset by the additional structure needed due to the significantly larger area of the system. The support of the reflectors in the linear parabolic trough configuration will require more structure to hold the shape of the concentrator and achieve the assumed 80 percent efficiency. In addition, the more highly distributed area will result in significantly higher distribution mass. Therefore, with IV-B-24

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1

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IV-B-25

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TEMPERATURE

VS.
CONCENTRATION RATIO

.

NORMAL FILTER

I

g
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200

SELECTIVE FILTER

a.

100

1

2

' 3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1 0

CONCENTRATION RATIO

Figure IV-B-11 IV-B-26

',

RELATIVE BLANKET OUTPUT VS. CONCENTRATION RATIO

I <
CO

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Q-

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tx.

8
CONCENTRATION RATIO

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Figure IV-B-12 IV-B-27

ASSUMPTIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS - GALLIUM ARSENIDE SYSTEMS

Cell Efficiency Temperature Degradation Operating Temperature Concentrator Efficiency Concentrator Degradation Cell Thickness Cover Thickness Substrate Thickness Interconnect (Al) Radiation Degradation Blanket Mass Concentrator Mass

18-21% (AMO, 28°C - 20% nom) -0.25%/°C 10X con. unconcentrated 55UC 300°C "" 80% 40% (30 years 6SO) 25 microns 25 microns 25 microns 25 microns 15% (30 years GSO) 328 gm/r 20 gm/M*

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS

Beginning of Life
1 Ref) GaAs(10:l) 14.2 M2/Kw 0.75 Kg/Kw

GaAs(uncon.) 4.0 M2/Kw 1.31 Kg/Kw

Area (planform) Mass*
30 Year GSO Area (planform) Mass*

7.34 M2/Kw 2.02 Kg/Kw

11.84 M 2 /Kw 3.26 Kg/Kw

16.3 M2/Kw 0.86 Kg/Kw

5.01 M 2 /Kw 1.65 Kg/Kw

* Mass is blanket and concentrator only, no supporting structure.

Table IV-B-3 IV-B-28

the added structure and power distribution required due to the large area increase and the more stringent geometric precision of the reflectors, the whole of a 60 percent weight reduction would not be realized and would probably result in no more than a 30-40 percent reduction in mass. Table IV-B-3 contains the characteristics of the concentrated GaAs system. The degradation shown assumes uniform loss of reflectivity and makes no allowance for nonuniform illumination on the solar converter. Table IV-B-3 also contains performance characteristics of an unconcentrated GaAs system. The use of GaAs solar cells in an unconcentrated array was at first thought to be an inappropriate concept due to the cost and availability of Gallium. However, the concept which was assessed shows that significant weight and area reductions over the silicon reference. The results shown for both GaAs concepts are predicated on the use of a very thin GaAs solar cell with an active GaAlAs layer of 10 microns or less (see GaAs discussion, Solar Cell Section). The effect of this assumption is to significantly reduce amounts of Gallium necessary to build a large number of operational SPS's. Data which is currently available on degradation of GaAs solar cells suggests that the basic energy conversion element of the GaAs system will degrade no more than 15 percent over the 30-year life of an SPS. In fact, in the concentrated concept where the operational temperatures are between 200 and 300°C, a certain degree of damage annealing would occur continually which would reduce the expected degradation of the GaAs solar cells well below the 15 percent level. However, in the concentrated system the performance hinges on the characteristics of the reflector material. From the limited data which is available it appears that the reflective material will degrade by 40-50 percent over the 30-year lifetime of the system. The data further suggests that 20-30 percent degradation will be experienced during the first year or two of system operation. The conclusions to be drawn from the preceding discussion are that under the assumed conditions, an unconcentrated GaAs array would allow the SPS array to be smaller, lighter, and over the 30-year operational lifetime of the system could be less expensive than the silicon array represented by the JSC reference system. The use of concentration up to 10X would enable a substantial weight savings. The much smaller area of active GaAs solar cells would result in less pressure from the Ga cost and availability issues. However, if the assumptions on reflector degradation are correct, the large investment (time and complexity) in the 10X concentration is hardly warranted since its efficacy wanes so rapidly. Nonconcentrated Single Crystal Silicon—Following the publication of the JSC SPS first annual report, further investigation of degradation effects were undertaken. It then showed that the concentrator IV-B-29

degradation over a short period of time was considerably greater than was to be expected from the solar blankets. A study was then begun to take a more careful look at the relative impact on system performance due to degradation in the space environment. No consideration was given in this activity, to the degradation which might be suffered in a slow trip through the Van Allen belt which would be experienced during orbital transfer operations. Table IV-B-4 shows a list of the initially assumed characteristics which were used in the comparison. The results showed that the unconcentrated system would have a total area requirement approximately 30 percent less than the concentrated array which used the same cell, cover, and substrate assemblies. The weight of the unconcentrated array was 26-32 percent greater due to its requiring approximately 46 percent more active solar array blanket than the concentrated version. This first comparison showed that there exists a possibility of less overall cost associated with the unconcentrated concept than with the concentrated version from the first JSC reference. The next step was to look into the reduction of system mass through lighter weight blanket. Table IV-B-4 also contains the characteristics of a "lightweight" blanket which has a mass per unit area of .35 kg/kw. The lighter weight evolves primarily from the use of a 50 micron cell but retains the 50 micron cover. When comparing this light-~ weight approach to the reference system the area relationships remain the same, but the unconcentrated system shows a weight advantage of 7 percent BOL and 12 percent 30 year. Thus, if the blanket cost can be kept the same as for the heavier version, a significant reduction in overall system cost will result. This cost reduction comes from (1) lower structure cost due to the significantly lower area to be built; (2) lower transportation cost due to the reduced mass; and (3) lower operational costs due to the less stringent orientation constraints which result from a planar array. Polycrystalline Silicon Systems—From the section of this report on solar cell status, it is readily seen that the recent advances in polycrystalline silicon and amorphous silicon devices offer hope for achieving not only low cost and lightweight solar arrays, but a potential of combining these desirable attributes with reasonably high efficiency. Based on these recently published results from U.S. and European researchers, an assessment was made of the impact these cell types could have on an SPS. For the purpose of this study it was assumed that the radiation degradation and temperature coefficient of the silicon devices would be the same as for single crystal silicon (though there is reason to believe they will be more tolerant to particulate radiation). Table IV-B-5 contains the characteristics assumed for cells and blankets. The results show that with a device with a specification efficiency of 12 percent, the satellite area would be 3-7 percent less than the reference but would cause an increase in blanket mass of from 4-9 percent. The major advantage to be accrued from a concept of polycrystalline silicon or any thin film device is the potential to achieve $100/kw costs; i.e., approximately 20-30 percent of the reference system cost for blankets and concentrators. Thus, if IV-B-30

CHARACTERISTICS SUMMARY - SINGLE CRYSTAL SILICON SYSTEMS JSC REFERENCE (2:1 con) LIGHTWEIGHT (unconcentrated)

Cell Efficiency Temperature Degradation Operating Temperature Concentrator Efficiency Concentrator Degradation Cell Thickness Cover Thickness Substrate Thickness Interconnect Radiation Degradation Blanket Mass Concentrator Mass

16% -0.45%/°C 100°C 80%

40%(30 year GSO) 100 micron 50 micron 50 micron 25 micron (Cu) 35% (30 wear GSO)
499 gm/lf 40 ^

same same 556C n/a n/a 50 micron 50 micron 25 micron 25 micron (A!) 17% (30 wear GSO) 350 gm/Mr n/a

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS BEGINNING OF LIFE

Area (pi anform)
Mass* 30 YEAR GSO
Area (planform) Mass*

7.34 M2/Kw 2.02 Kg/Kw

5.62 M2/Kw 1.97 Kg/Kw

11.84

MVKw

6.61 MVKw 2.31 Kg/Kw

3.26 Kg/Kw

* Mass is blanket and concentrator only, no supporting structure.

Table IV-B-4 IV-B-31

CHARACTERISTICS SUMMARY - POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON SYSTEM

Cell Efficiency Temperature Degradation Operating Temperature Cell Thickness Cover Thickness Substrate Thickness Interconnect Radiation Degradation Blanket Mass

12% (AMD, 28°C) -0.45%/ C 55 C 50 microns 50 microns 25 microns 25 microns (Al) 35% (30 years GSO) 310 gm/Mz

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS

BEGINNING OF LIFE Area (planform) Mass* 30 YEARS GSO Area (planform) Mass* 10.96 M2/Kw 3.40 Kg/Kw 7.12 M2/Kw 2.21 Kg/Kw

* Mass is blanket mass only, no supporting structure.

Table IV-B-5 IV-B-32

blanket/concentrator elements constitute 60 percent of the cost and weight of the whole SPS, a polycrystalline silicon design for an SPS would add less than 6 percent to the whole system weight, but would reduce the cost for the whole system by almost 50 percent. Efficiency and Degradation Effects—Beyond the single point concepts discussed in the previous sections, an evaluation was made of the impact (relative and absolute) of varying levels of efficiency achievement in the basic solar cells which are now considered major candidates. The information gives blanket mass and area for designs based on beginning of life conditions and 30-year conditions. Values were normalized against the JSC reference with a 2:1 concentration solar array. Figures IV-B-13 and IV-B-14 show the relative mass and area versus efficiency. The efficiency plotted is not the operating level but rather the specification efficiency at room temperature conditions. The degradation does not make allowance for a trip through the Van Allen belt which is associated with the self-powered LEO to GEO transfer mode of operation. It also makes no allowance for annealing the cells to reduce damage. Figures IV-B-15 and IV-B-16 are plots of the actual area and mass values used and are given per nominal kilowatt. Conclusions (Energy Conversion Concept Options)—From the preceding discussion the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) The use of concentrators with photovoltaic energy conversion introduces considerable additional complexity to an inherently simple system and the little data available at this time cast strong doubt on their long-term performance. Thus, before one can feel comfortable about concentrators fulfilling their primary role of reducing system cost and weight, a great deal of data needs to be generated not only on long-term performance but also on beginning of life conditions; (2) The potential of high efficiency coupled with low degradation over 30 years makes Gallium Arsenide photovoltaics a compelling option for consideration. If the problem of Gallium availability can be resolved, the performance benefits might offset the increased energy conversion costs which are to be expected from this type of system. This is an option which, at this time, must be refined; (3) The recent advances which have been achieved in polycrystalline silicon devices and the promise of a reasonably high efficiency amorphous silicon device, potentially change the whole balance of relative cost with an SPS system. The realization of low cost, lightweight devices of this type (or any thin film device) could be the key to the ultimate economic viability of an SPS program.

IV-B-33

BEGINNING OF LIFE
1.2

1.1

POLY Si
1.0

1:1

SINGLE CRYSTAL SI (JSC REFERENCE) 2:1 AREA & MASS

0.9

0.8

RELATIVE MASS & AREA VS. EFFICIENCY AREA

0.7

MASS
0.6

0.5

AREA

0.4

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

EFFICIENCY - (25°C)

Table IV-B-13 IV-B-34

AFTER 30 YR GSO
1.2

1.1

SINGLE CRYSTAL Si tJSC REFERENCE) 2:1 AREA & MASS POLY Si 1:1 MASS RELATIVE MASS & AREA VS. EFFICIENCY

1.0

0.9

0.8

AREA

0.7

0.6

0.5

MASS GaAs 1:1

0.4

AREA"'

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

EFFICIENCY - (25°C)

Table IV-B-14 IV-B-35

12

JSC REF. J30 YR)

AREA VS. EFFICIENCY

11

POLY Si (30 YR)
10

s
POLY Si (BOL)

I

8
JSC REF. CBOL)

GaAs (30 YR)

GaAs (BOL)

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

EFFICIENCY - (25°C)

Figure IV-B-15 IV-B-36

4.0

JSC REF. (30 YR)

MASS VS. EFFICIENCY

3.0

POLY
2.0

JSC REF. (BOL)

GaAs (30 YR) •»» GaAs (BOL)
1.0

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

EFFICIENCY - (25°C)

Figure IV-B-16 IV-B-37

IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION
B. SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTION SYSTEM

2. High Voltage/Space Plasma Interaction

R. C. Kennedy Control Systems Development Div.

Introduction Matter is generally considered to exist in,three states: solid, liquid, or gas. The specific state is"a function of the energy content and the state can be changed by the addition or removal of energy. If the energy addition is orders of magnitude above the level required for a change of the common states ionization occurs creating a substance composed of free electrons and free positive ions. When the number of charged particles is sufficient to establish the essential cnaracterization of the substance (which remains electrically neutral as a whole) a fourth state of matter - the "plasma" - is said to exist. For example, while plasmas are generally associated with gaseous states, a plasma state can be observed in a solid such as a semi-conductor since it is characterized through the motion of electrons and holes in the substance (Ref. 1). In space, proton bombardment from the sun strips electrons from neutral atoms creating the plasmasphere and which in turm creates the concerns relative to the operation of high voltage systems in this charged particle environment. The previous year's study activities recognized the two fundamental spacecraft/plasma interaction phenomena which could occur in geosynchronous orbit. Spacecraft charging, due to the so-called "magnetic substorms", is of concern to the SPS concept definition and is receiving considerable attention through a combined Department of Defense/NASA program. It is anticipated that solutions, or at least approaches to solutions, will be developed through this activity. The second, the interaction with the quiescent plasma, was not explored in any detail due to study priorities and in recognition of the (presumably) minimal severity of the problem at geostationary altitudes. However, with the advent of the concept of a low earth orbit (LEO) SPS test and demonstration article, the problem is greatly magnified because of the increased plasma density at the proposed operating altitudes (300-500 km). This section will not attempt to present uniquely original material nor is it intended to reiterate all the various data, theories, and speculations concerning the problem. Rather, an overview assessment will be made as to how -the interaction phenomenon may influence the formulation of the LEO test vehicle's power distribution and processing system. It should be recognized that this system represents a small, if not trivial, part of the overall problem when the solar arrays and RF

I'V-B-38

converter tubes are included as a part of the complete power system. However, many of the interaction effects, such as ion collection, insulator response, and arcing are common to the various power system elements. Toward this end the JSC Science and Application Directorate recently conducted a workshop which addressed the problem in general. It is anticipated that the published findings will treat the interaction phenomenon, as it impacts the solar arrays and RF converters, in some detail. Discussion The operational photovoltaic SPS will be electrically configured to operate at a nominal 20K VDC or 40K VDC for DC-RF conversion by amplitroms or klystrons respectively. From a power distribution point of view it is desirable to operate the LEO test article at the design voltage level for system weight efficiency. Using another approach, scaling work on a 1/15 scale structural similitude model recently completed by ES/Dr. R. Ried indicates that a 2700 VDC level (for the 40K VDC operational system) is preferred. While the voltage level requirements on the test configuration may vary an order of magnitude, the point to be recognized is that even the lowest level is more than an order of magnitude above what we have used in spaceabout 100 VDC. When a potential is applied between different parts of a spacecraft - the conductor and return busses in this instance - the charge particles in the ambient plasma are attracted to the part of the vehicle with the opposite polarity (Figure IV-B-17). This current loop through the spacecraft represents a power loss with the magnitude a function of the applied potential. Insulation of the metallic conductors to minimize the current circulation would seemingly offer a straightforward approach; however, Reference 2 reports some interesting experimental results on insulators tested in a plasma environment. The electric fields generated by virtue of the applied voltage serve to attract the charged plasma particles to the insulator surface thereby greatly increasing the voltage gradient across the insulator. If high enough, the gradient will exceed the rupture strength and accelerate the reaction. Standard tests conducted on wiring insulator shows Kapton to have a dielectric strength of about 5000 volts/mil for normal spacecraft production wiring. Notch sensitivity tests on selected samples show an 85% reduction in strength when notched to two-thirds the material thickness. Any breakdown or damage that permits electrons to stream through the insulator will result in further erosion and damage to the material in the localized vicinity of the rupture. An even more interesting phenomenon cited in the previous reference is the yet-to-be-explained dependency of the leakage current on the area of the insulation surrounding the hole. This phenomenon is referred to as a "funneling" effect wherein the insulator is conceived to play an active role in increasing the current flow orders of

IV-B-39

magnitude over what would otherwise be the expected. Experimental data indicate that a pinhole surrounded by a 100 cm2 area of Kapton would leak about 0.5 milliamps at a potential of +3000 volts in a plasma density of 2 x 101* electrons per cubic centimeter (Figure IV-B-18). Before drawing inferences from these data, the specific array voltage levels need to be examined. Predictions of large leakage power losses from high voltage arrays are discussed in references 3 and 4. One example is cited wherein an array in LEO with 10% exposure of conductor (bare interconnects) would leak more power than the array can generate at a +16 KV level. The key here is that the assumption of a positive potential (electron collection) may not be rigorous since the array voltage will float to maintain compatibility with the environment. For example, a 20 KV array in LEO could stabilize to -15 KV and +5 KV (Figure IV-B-19). This means that the current flow, if it occurs, will be primarily from collection of the more massive slow-moving positive ions and any leakage current would be expected to be significantly reduced. The solar array voltage biasing aspect is discussed briefly in reference 5, and experimental data in reference 2 bears out the reduced leakage current for negatively biased electrodes (Figure IV-B-20). Because of the presumed negative voltage bias across the array and the fact that the surface area of the power busses is small (even assuming flat-sheet conductors) compared to the array area, the relative power leakage from the distribution system will be of little significance even at high voltage levels. A more serious concern would be localized arcing to an adjacent part of the spacecraft at a different electrode potential. This possibility can be minimized by maintaining adequate separation between conductive paths and the use of additional insulation in areas with critical separation dimensions. Finally, if the program decision is made not to configure the LEO test vehicle as a high voltage system, the power processing and distribution system could be mechanized to include a DC-DC converter to boost the collection voltage from a few hundred volts to the voltage level required by the DC-RF converters. Reference 6 indicates that such devices can be built at about 1 Kg/KW (2.2 Ib/KW) for 100-watt converters. It is anticipated that converters up to 50 KW can be developed near this weight-to-power ratio and will operate at 95-97% efficiency. Summary Remarks The power processing and distribution system for the high voltage LEO test vehicle should not contribute significantly to power leakage to the ambient plasma. Arcing after damage to the insulator can occur and can be minimized through good design practices. Additional test and evaluation of candidate insulators is required and

IV-B-40

should include an assessment of susceptibility to mechanical damage due to micrometeorite impacts and other types of hazards. Quality control on insulator production should be examined in an attempt to minimize or eliminate manufacturing imperfections. If low voltage collectors are utilized a DC-DC converter can be developed for about 1 Kg/KW. It would be cost effective to standardize the voltage level (200-600 VDC) between the LEO test vehicle and the Space Station or Space Construction Base power system in order to maintain common power processing components and equipments. References 1. Bachynski, M. P., An Introduction to Plasma Phenomena; Research Laboratories, RCS Victor Company, Ltd. 2. NASA TM-X-71544; The Interaction of Spacecraft High Voltage Power Systems With the Space Plasma Environment; Domitz S. and Grier N.; 1974. 3. Oman , H,, Cost of Earth Power from Photovoltaic Power Satellite; Boeing Aerospace Company. 4. Kennerud, K. L.; High Voltage Solar Array Operation in the Ionosphere; The Boeing Company; Paper presented to the IEEE Photovoltaic'Specialists Conference, August 1970. 5. Final Report MDC G6715, Space Station Systems Analysis Study; McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, February 1977. Contract NAS 9-14958. 6. Harrigill, W. T. and N|yers, I. T.; Efficiency and Weight of Voltage Multiplier Type Ultra Lightweight DC-DC Converters; Paper presented to the Power Electronics Specialists Conference, January 1975.

IV-B-41

Photoemission Light

a) Current loop through spacecraft

T1e1V lines'^

— Insulated Electrodes

inhole

b) Charge buildup on undamaged insulator
FIGURE IV-B-17

c) Current flow through rupture

- PLASMA INTERACTION EFFECTS (REF. 1)

1.0

8KV

j.cm.

.8
(O

E

.6

t i. ^ t_>
OJ

.4
1KV

O

c\_

.2

50

100

150

200

Kapton Insulator Area, Sq. Cm. FIGURE IV-B-18 - INSULATOR FUNNELING EFFECT SURROUNDING PINHILE (REF. 2) IV-B-42

Array
20

Assumed potential

o Q-

Assumed Potential
-L -20

a) Constant Positive Voltage (Electron Collection)

b) Negative Bias Voltage (Low Collection)

FIGURE IV-B-19 - 20 KV ARRAY POTENTIAL MODELS (REF. 5)

10-5 lO'6

n=10 3 c/cm 3 0.05 era hole 330 cm Insulator area

CL

10-7

<c
0)

10-8

i .
<D O> (O

Negative
10-9

<u

10-1°
10,-H
-12

10

101

102 103 104 Electrode Potential, Volts
FIGURE IV-B-20 - EFFECT OF VOLTAGE BIAS ON LEAKAGE CURRENT (REF. 2) IV-B-43

IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION B. Solar Energy Collection System 3. Structural Considerations A Candidate Structural Member

T. J. Dunn Structures and Mechanics Div.

Introduction - Structural Requirements - Due to the impracticality of employing human labor for large scale construction in space, the fabrication of a gigantic structure must be amenable to automation of repetitive forming, placing, and attaching operations. If necessary, human labor might be used to join structural subassemblies with simple universal fittings but this is to be avoided if possible. The ratio of stiffness to material volume is much more important to the structural support of a solar power station than is the ratio of strength to material volume; therefore, both the material and the structural design should be selected to yield the least amount of mechanical and thermal distortion. And finally, the design should be selected by the total material and tooling weight as well as its packaged density. Design Concept and Fabrication Approach - Figure IV-B-21 shows a test model of a structural member which can be constructed from coils of rods. This isotropic cylinder, whose surface consists of an open gridwork of equilateral triangles, is efficient in reacting axial, torsion, bending, or shear loadings and is uniquely configured to take full advantage of the orthotropic stiffness of uniaxially reinforced composite rods. The structure consists of a set of longitudinal rods attached to two sets of overwrapped helical rods which are wound in opposing helical directions. The longitudinal rods can be placed outside, inside, or between the helical rods. Since the rods can be joined by welding, the only debris problem occurs if the ends have to be trimmed. Unusually high length to radius of gyration ratios have been calculated for this type of structure. Figure IV-B-22 shows a tooling concept which might be used to fabricate this structural member. The three sets of coiled rods are stored in freely rotating nested concentric containers which are attached to a powered tool consisting of three concentrically rotating rings which contain rod guides and feeding rollers. Automatic welding apparatus attached to the inner and outer rings weld the rods together as they emerge from the tool. Test Results - The concept verification model shown in Figure IV-B-21 was made of 2017 aluminum alloy round wire and weighed three-fourths of a pound per foot. It failed under a compressive load of thirty-two hundred pounds. Development Work Required - Material best suited for this structural concept is not available off-the-shelf because there has been no demand for it. Some development work will be necessary in the pultrusion process using graphite reinforced thermoplastic resin to obtain development quantities of rectangular rods of the desired sizes in unlimited lengths. It may be necessary to wind some of the graphite fibers to prevent the longitudinal fibers from separating under compressive loadings and to obtain a near zero coefficient of thermal expansion.

IV-B44

Joining techniques need to be developed to determine the fastest and most energy efficient method of welding the thermoplastic rods at their contiguous intersections. Ultrasonic, thermal, and electro-magnetic processes have been used on similar materials, but the best method for this application has not been established. An automatic fabrication tool must be developed to demonstrate this concept and to produce test articles that fully represent the final product.

IV-B- 45

Y OK PMI 18 POOR

THE

Figure IV-B-22

ISOGRID CYLINDER FABRICATOR

IV-B-47

IV, C.

MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM G. D. Arndt Avionics Systems Engineering Division 1. Microwave System Analysis Introduction The analysis tasks of the SPS microwave systems discussed in the 1976 JSC report "Initial Technical, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power Concepts - Volume II," were concerned mainly with system sizing and tradeoffs, definition of subsystem efficiencies, and development of performance requirements. As a result of those analyses, a 1 Km diameter, 5 GW antenna system was defined, employing a 10 dB, gaussian, taper illumination across the array surface. An error budget with 10° RMS phase error, + 1 dB amplitude variation across each surface, and 2% failure rate for the DC-RF power converter tubes (klystrons or amplitrons) was developed. The subsequent analysis tasks, as discussed in this second JSC report, investigate alternate options including (1) other antenna illumination functions, (2) smaller SPS system sizes (3) multiple transmit antenna (cluster concept) and (4) performance requirements for mechanical pointing of the transmit array. Based upon inhouse analyses and system studies by outside contractors it appears that the SPS microwave system can attain with greater certainty the required performance for efficient power transmission. a. Antenna Illumination Functions '

(1) Gaussian - The aperature distribution function across the transmit array should maximize the amount of RF power intercepted by the ground rectenna and minimize the sidelobe levels. The previous analysis (reference IV.CJ) had a truncated Gaussian taper of the form.
E

(r) ' e

where dB - is the amount of taper from the center to the edge of the array. r/r - is the normalized radial position across the circular transmit array. which is a good approximation for an optimum aperature distribution. Considering the thermal limitations in the transmit array and the estimated power density limitations due to ionospheric interactions, a 10 dB Gaussian 'taper was selected which has an 88% collection . efficiency at an rectenna radius of 5,125 meters. The power density

IV.C.I

2 at the center of the rectenna is 22 raw/cm for a 1 Km, 5 GW antenna system with the reference error parameters a = 10°, + 1 dB and 2% failure rate. This performance data, as shown in figures IV.C.I through IV.C.5 will be used to ascertain the relative performance of alternate antenna illumination functions.

Other illumination functions, specifically the cosine on a pedestal and the quadratic functions, operating in the presence of phase and amplitude errors and element failures, will now be examined. If the same error parameters, i.e., a = 10°, + 1 dB, and 2% failures, are applied to these illumination functions, their relative performance can be obtained from collection efficiency curves and antenna pattern data. These calculations are performed using a simulation program in which the electric field at each point on the ground is the sum of the individual radiation patterns from each of the 7,850 subarrays on the transmit antenna. The magnitude and phases of the electric fields at each point on the ground are evaluated and summed over a two dimensional region to determine the fractional power content relative to the total power transmitted. The percentage collection efficiency for the total antenna system will vary with collector area. For the SPS concept, only a portion of the main lobe will be collected; the sidelobe energy occupies a very large area at minimal density levels and is not economically feasible to collect. (2) Cosine on a Pedestal - The cosine on a pedestal illumination may be represented, for a circular aperature, by
E

(r)

=C S

°

where n - is the exponent weighting factor r/r - is the normalized radius o
P - is the pedestal height

T(t)J-

The collection efficiency curbes are shown in figure IV.C.I, for exponent weightings of 1/2, 1, and 2, pedestal heights of .5 and .8, and angles of 80° and 90°. For these calculations the 10m X 10m subarrays in the phased array have uniform phase and amplitude illumination across the transmitting surface. The errors in amplitude and phase are gaussian with mean square values of +ldb and 10°, respectively. The mean phase error is assumed zero. The data indicates higher efficiencies are achieved with larger exponent weightings (n = 2) and 6 = 90°. The next step in the analysis is to vary the pedestal height with n = 2 and 6 = 90° being held constant as shown in figure IV.C.2. The highest collection efficiency at a rectenna radius of 5125 meters is 87.95% for a pedestal height of .4. IV.C.2

Figure JV.C.l

-Collection Efficiency vs Various Cosine Tapers With Specified Parameters (O = 10° + 1 dB, 2%)

100

Conditions:
a = 10° + IdB, 2%

90

80

70
Collection Efficiency 60 At Rectenna Coll. ' E f f . at 10,250m diameter 1) cosine - cos w 90(r/r )| +.5 % = 85.59 | oJ 2) cos15 j^90(r/r o )| +.8 % = 84.45 % - 87.65 % = 86.37 % = 86.26 % = 87.85 % = 86.79 % = 97.76

50

3) cosl [90(r/r Q )]+.5 4) cos
X

[90(r/r o )|+.8

5) cos •*• j^80(r/r o )J+.5 6) cos 7) cos
2 2

[90(r/r o )]+ .5 [90(r/r o )]+.8

30
Reference lOdB Gaussian

20

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

Rectenna Radius (m) IV.C.3

Figure IV,C.2 - Collection Efficiency vs Various Cosine Tapers With Specified Parameters (a = 10°, + ids, 2%)

10

90

80

70

% Collection Efficiency At 60 Rectenna
Coll. Eff. at 10,250m diameter

50

30

reference lOdb Gaussian

% = 87.76

20

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

Rectenna Radius (m) IV.C.4

The malnlobe and sidelobes of the antenna patterns at the rectenna are shown in figure IV. C.3 for the cosine function with a pedestal height of .4. The results Indicate an improvement (a reduction) of 1.2 mw/cm at boresight for the cosine function when compared to the lOdb Gaussian taper function. There is also a considerable improvement in the sidelobe levels (a factor of 8 reduction) for the cosine function. Thus for the cosine distribution, the optimum parameters are

E

(r)

+ .4

(3)

It is Interesting to note tha't the power density at the edge of the transmit array is approximately one-tenth (1/10) of the maximum density at the center of the array - which is also true for the lOdb Gaussian taper function chosen as the reference. The maximum power density at the center of the transmit array is calculated to be 27.61Kw/m2, which is higher than the present maximum limit of 2lKw/m2 as determined by thermal limitations (3) Quadratic - The quadratic on a pedestal illumination function is given by: I /_/_\^

n

V)

The collection efficiency curves as a function of exponent weighting and pedestal height are shown in figure IV.C.4. The highest operating efficiency at the reference radius of 5125 meters is obtained with n = 2. Expanding the results to include varying the pedestal height as shown In figure IV.C.5, a maximum efficiency of 88.23% occurs for

V) •
The corresponding maximum power density at rectenna boresight is shown in figure IV.C.3 for this quadratic illumination function with a pedestal height of .4. An improvement of 1.0 mw/cnr (a reduction) is possible for the quadratic function when compared to the lOdb Gaussian taper used as the reference. The sidelobe levels for the quadratic illumination are lower than those for the gaussian taper by a factor of 6.3. As was'seen to be true for both the Gaussian and the cosine functions, the quadratic illumination has the best performance when the power density at the edge of the transmit array is approximately one-tenth ( / 0 of the maximum density at the center of the array. The maximum 11) power density at the transmit antenna is 25.15 kw/m2. which is better IV.C.5

Figure IV.C.3

-Power Density at Rectenna for Gaussian, Cosine, and Quadratic Tapers

Conditions: = 12.25 C = 10°, + quadrat POWER DENSITY
raw/ci .m

1 3 cosine () (I) Gaussia

.OQ1
20
Rectenna Radius (Km) IV.C.6

Figure IV.C.4 -% Collection Efficiency vs Various Quadratic Tapers With Parameters (a = 10°, + IdB, 2%)

Conditions: a = l(»o,±ldB, 2% A = 12.25 cm
100

90

80
Coll. E f f . at 10,250m dia. 1) quadratic [ 1- /r/r \ °* [l-fr/r }
% = 85.19

70

% Collection Efficiency 60 (at rectenna)

2) quadratic

+ .8 % = 84.12
+.5
+ .8 + .5

3) quadratic [l-(r/rQ) 4) quadratic fl-(r/ro)

% = 87.40
= 86.15

50

5) quadratic [l-(r/r )2 b ' O" ~ r 212
6) quadratic fl-pr/r } I

= 88.07 = 86.95 = 87.76

+.8

reference lOdB Gaussian

40

30

20 •

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

Rectenna Radius (m) IV.C.7

. T.. _ . .
I '

Figure IV,C.4 -Collection Efficiency vs Various Quadratic < Topers' with Specified Parameters ('a - 1 ° + idB, 2%) ' 0,

100

90

80

70

% Collection Efficienc
RO

Coll. Eff. at 10,250m dia.

50
1) quadratic [l- (r/r ] 2J
f\

+0 +.3

= 80.36 = 88.06

40

2) quadratic fl-(r/r^2]
21
2

3) quadratic fl-(r/r ) J +.4 % = 88.23
4) quadratic [l-(r/r J J,

+.6 % = 87.75

30
reference lOdB

= 87.76

20 .

1
1000 2000 • 3000" 4000 5000 6000 7000

Rectenna Radius (m)
I * '
~~

IV.C.8

(lower) by 2.5 kw/m than that for the cosine function, but still exceeds the maximum set by thermal limitations. Summary of Optimum Illumination Functions - The_ operating characteristics of each of the three Iliumnation functions, i.e., Gaussian, cosine, and quadratic, optimized to achieve maximum collection efficiently within a rectenna radius of 5, 125 meters are summarized as follows: Amplitude Distribution E(r) Function % Collection Efficiency for 10, 250m Rectenna a = 10°, + Idb, 2% Max. Power Density at Rectenna (boresight) (mw/cm2)

Gaussian (lOdB taper) Cosine Quadratic

-1.15[r/ro]

87.76

22.0

.4

87.95 88.23

20.8 21.0

First Sidelobe Level Referenced to Main Beam -24.7db -30.9db -28.7db

Maximum Power Density at Transmit Array (Kw/m2) 20.88
27.61 25.15

When considering the two constraints for maximum power density in the transmit array and at the rectenna, the lOdb Gaussian taper has the best overall performance of the three optimized illumination functions. If the power tubes become more efficient and thereby reduce the thermal limitations In the transmit array, the quadratic illumination should be considered. At this time, however, the Gaussian taper is the most viable candidate. IV.C.9

IV.C.l.b System Size Tradeoffs - The initial sizing for the Satellite Power Station was a 1 Kw transmit array with 5 GW of DC power out of the rectenna. This sizing was based upon: (1) achieving the maximum output power (2) a thermal limitation of 21 KW/m2 in the transmit array and (3) a peak power density limit of 23 mW/cm2 in the ionosphere. There are however some advantages in having a smaller system size. Commercial utility companies can probably handle 1 GW increments easier than 5 GW} the implementation cost of a 1 GW system is lower; and the sidelobe radiation levels near the rectenna are lower. Disadvantages of smaller systems"include lower end-to-end microwave transmission efficiency and an increase in the overall cost of electricity (mills/KWH). The downlink operating frequency is another tradeoff consideration. The SPS reference system operates at 2.45 GHz, which is at the center of a 100 MHz band reserved for government and non-government industrial, medical, and scientific (IMS) use. This band has the advantage that all communication services operating within the 2450 + 50 MHz limits must accept any interference from other users. There is another IMS band at 5.8 GHz which should be considered. One way to reduce the terrestial land usage requirements for the SPS rectenna is to increase the operating frequency while maintaining the same antenna size. This reduction in rectenna size must, however, be traded-off against the large temporary degradation in transmission efficiency under extremely adverse weather conditions at the higher frequency. The purpose of this section is to determine the end-to-end microwave transmission efficiency for smaller SPS systems operating at different frequencies. The variable parameters include: Ground DC power output ( 1 - 5 GW) Transmit antenna diameter (.5 - 2 Km) Rectenna diameter (3.8 - 12 Km) Rectenna RD-DC conversion efficiency (77 - 90%) Transmit frequency (2450 MHz, 5800 MHz) The nominal microwave transmission efficiency, from the rotary joint in the satellite to the DC/AC power interface at the output of the rectenna, is shown in figure IV.C.6. This end-to-end efficiency, for f = 2450 MHz, may be written Microwave Eff = .794 \ Eff .. coll X Eff "I conv (6)

For the reference system given in the initial JSC report where Eff ,, = .88 and Eff = .90, the microwave link efficiency is 62. coll conv (reference IV.C.I.)- This efficiency will be used as a reference for comparing smaller SPS systems.

IV.C.10.

Figure IV.C.6

-Nominal Efficiencies for the Microwave System ( 4 0 MHz) 25

ROTARY JOINT TRANSMIT ANTENNA POWER DISTRIBUTION
Eff = .98

* DC-RF CONVERSION

Eff = .87 Eff = .96

4
TRANSMITTING ANTENNA

x:
<r
AVERAGE ATMOSPHERE

^

Waveguide - .98 Feed loss Mech. Misalign .98

Eff

- .98

* RECTENNA ENERGY COLLECTIO N (INCLUDES 10° PHASE ERROR » 1 dB AMPLITUDE ERROR, & 2 FAILURE RATE) * RF-DC CONVERSION

i

r

I

1E U. con vl il

f ff 1
Eff = .99

r
J DC POWER INTERFACE

-

J

COLLECTED DC POWER OUTPUT

IV.C.ll

The RF-DC conversion efficiency, Eff , depends upon the input power conv level to the rectifying diodes connected to the half-wave dipole elements in the rectenna. During the past year excellent progress has been made at the Lewis Research Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Raytheon Company in developing higher efficiency diodes, particularly at lower power levels. This RF-DC conversion efficiency, consisting of the collection efficiency of the individual dipole elements times the diode rectifying efficiency, is shown in figure IV.C. -7 as a function of incident power density. This data assumes a 3 percentage point improvement in the next decade over the present achievable conversion efficiency. This rectenna configuration has multiple dipole elements feeding a single rectifying diode at low density levels. The operating frequency for this efficiency curve is 2450 MHz. In equation (6) the rectenna collection efficiency, Eff ... is a function of incident power density and incremental rectenna area while the conversion efficiency, Eff conv, varies only with power 3 * * density. The end-to-end microwave transmission efficiency may be rewritten
TW Nn (rx - rx-1 -,) D(x)
Eff

conv T, D

Microwave Eff = .794
P

(7)

TRANS

where PT,OA,.TC - the total power transmitted through the i atmosphere - the outer radius of rectenna x - the incremental rectenna radius P D(x) - the incident power density at a distance X from rectenna boresight . For a sample calculation of microwave efficiency, the power density patterns for the main lobes of a 1 Km transmit array operating at f = 2450 MHz and f = 5800 MHz are shown in figure IV. C. -8. The total DC power out of the rectenna is varied from 5GW down to 1 GW. Integrating under these curves and then dividing by the total transmit power through the atmosphere, the rectenna collection efficiency is obtained. Collection efficiencies for various transmit array sizes operating at 2450 MHz as shown in figure IV. C. 9. Each of these antennas have a lOdb, guassian taper for the illumination function, with error parameters of a = 10°, + Idb, 2% failures. The microwave efficiency for each SPS system size may now be determined from the data in these last three figures and applied in equation ( ) 7. The degradations in end-to-end microwave efficiency for smaller SPS sizes are summarized in figures IV. C. 10 and IV. C. 11 for operating frequencies of 2450 MHz and 5800 MHz, respectively. The 62.88% reference efficiency is that performance expected for IKm, 5GW SPS

IV.C.12

Figure IV.C.7

-Total Rectenna Efficiency (Collection Eff X Conversion Eff) vs Incident Power Density

100

90

f = 2450 MHz

80

o Z
W H O H

w <
H O

70

H O H

60

.01

.05

.1

.5

1.

10

Incident Power Density (mw/cm ) IV.C.13

Figure IV.C.8 -Power Density at Rectenna for IKm Array f = 2450 MHz

10
O) 4-> <J O) CsL fO

J
U1
OJ

Conditio IKm Arra lOdB Gau si an Tape a = 10°, +ldB, 2%

c

O Q .

2

3 Rectenna Radius IV.C.14

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system operating with a constant 90% RD-DC conversion efficiency in the rectenna.
•\

The difference in performance between the 5 GW and the 1 GW systems as shown in figure IV.C.10 is due to a reduction in rectenna conversion efficiency at the reduced power density levels associated with the 1 GW system. Also, for transmit arrays with a diameter less than 1 Km, the power beam is dispersed over a wider area at the ground due to reductions in antenna gain. This dispersion reduces the amount of energy intercepted by the rectenna and further reduces the RF-DC conversion efficiency. The data indicates that smaller SPS powers are feasible, provided the antenna size is not reduced. That is, a 1 Km, 1 GW SPS system will have only a 4-5% (percentage points) reduction in microwave transmission efficiency as compared to a 5 GW system. The transmission efficiency for systems operating at 5800 MHz as given in figure IV.C.ll is interesting in that there is very little degradation in performance at the reduced power levels. The reason is that the power density levels at the rectenna are considerably higher for the 5800 MHz systems and hence, little degradation in RF-DC conversion efficiency occurs as the power is reduced. There is also a constant degradation'relative to the 62.88% reference efficiency due to lower efficiencies in several of the microwave subsystems operating at the higher 5800 MHz frequency. These degradations include a 5% reduction in DC-RF conversion efficiency in the microwave tubes (82%); a 1% reduction in the nominal atmospheric transmission (97%), and a 2% reduction in RF-DC conversion efficiency from the curve shown in figure IV.C.7. These transmission efficiencies for the 5800 MHz systems do not take into account the large degradations in atmospheric transmission during heavy rain storms. Since there could be as much as a 50% reduction in total transmitted power at 5800 MHz through a heavy rain, rectennas for these systems could have intermittent power reductions unless located in dry, southwest regions. There is significant reduction in rectenna size at the higher frequency as shown in figure IV.C.12. If rectenna costs and land usage requirements become major factors, then operating at 5800 MHz should be seriously considered. The sidelobe patterns in the near-vicinity of the rectenna are shown in figure IV.C.13 for several SPS antenna configurations and operating frequencies. The nominal 5 GW, 1 Km antenna with the 10 db gaussian illumination taper and operating at 2450 MHz is used as a reference (Curve 2). The smaller, 1 GW, 1 Km system has the power density reduced by a factor of 5 as given in curve 3. By going to a larger antenna size and increasing the taper, the sidelobe levels can be further reduced. By increasing the operating frequency to 5800 MHz as shown in curve (4), the first sidelobe level is down to.14mw/cm2, while the radius required to meet the USSR radiation level of .01 mw/cm^ is reduced to 9 Km.

IV.C.18

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LT»

X
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cc:

Figure IV.C.13

-Power Density at Rectenna For Various SPS Sizes and Frequencies

Power Density 5 At Rectenna (raw/cm^)
W, f = 245 ussian Tap

5GW, f= 5. ussian Tap

.05

.01

.005-

.001

Rectenna Radius (Km) IV.C.20

The results of the system sizing study indicate: 0 Reduced power levels have only small degradation in efficiency (- 4% loss between 5 GW and 1 GW). Antennas with less than 1 Km diameter @ 2450 MHz and .75 Km diameter @ 5800 MHz are not practical. Larger transmit antennas will reduce rectenna area and sidelobe levels. 2450 MHz and 5800 MHz frequencies have similar end-to-end transmission efficiencies for lower transmit powers. Primary advantage of 5800 MHz frequency is reduced rectenna land area (1/5) but must be traded off against adverse weather degradations.

0

0

0

0

IV.C.lc. Cluster Concept Evaluation - The concept of dividing a single, large SPS satellite into a number of smaller, physically separate subsatellite was evaluated. Under MSFC contract NAS 8-31842, The Aerospace Corporation, recently investigated a number of SPS cluster configurations (reference 2). These schemes included segmented microwave transmitting antennas, combined with various solar array configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to compare the rectenna collection efficiency of a single large microwave transmit antenna with that expected from a multiple of smaller antennas. In concept, these multiple antennas are physically separate, but phased together to transmit to one rectenna. One particular cluster configuration of interest is shown in figure IV.C.14. There are three 576-meter diameter antennas whose summed area is equivalent to that of a single 1 Km diameter antenna. The multiple antennas are separated a variable distance d. Each of the three antennas have a lOdb, gaussian taper, with error parameters a = 10°, + Idb, and 2% failures. The components of the field patterns from all three transmit antennas are vectorially summed at each point in the ground rectenna to get a composite pattern. The peaks and nulls for the sidelobes of the composite pattern are dependent upon the separation of the antennas. The percent collection efficiency as a function of rectenna radius is shown in figure IV.C.15 for the three-antenna cluster. At a radius of 5,125 meters the cluster collection efficiency is only 60% as compared to the 88% efficiency for the single antenna. Thus the cluster antenna concept has a poor microwave transmission efficiency in comparison to a single large antenna. This degradation in performance is due to high sidelobes and grating lobes for the segmented antenna. The amount of degradation depends upon the size and spacing of the multiple antennas. In summary the cluster concept is not recommended due to degradations in rectenna collection efficiency.

IV.C.21

Figure IV.C.1A

-"Cluster" Antenna Concept

SEPARATION D I S T A N C E d IS A V A R I A B L E

DOWNLINK POWER BEAM

/

/UPLINK PILOT BEAM FOR PHASING

GROUND RECTENNA

IV.C.22

Q° %.€>
o o o

o o o
vO

si
o >
o o o

60 H

o o o

O O

o oo

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IV.C.23

IV.C.l.d. Antenna Pointing Parameters - In the August 1976 JSC report the mechanical pointing tolerance for the microwave antenna was given as + 3 arc minutes, which resulted in a 2% loss in effective subarray gain. The corresponding subarray size was approximately 10 meters by 10 meters for this 2% loss. Each subarray can be thought of as a single antenna which must be mechanically pointed towards the rectenna to within 3 arc minutes of boresight. The fine pointing is then performed by electronic phasing of the subarray beam with all the individual subarray beams.
i

The mechanical "pointing, requirement has two components: (1) the steering or pointing of the entire~-l- 'Km "microwave antenna towards the rectenna, and (2) the- pointing' of .each subafray-.l->The steering of the 1 Km array is a function ,of the' attitude contrpl system of 'the antenna. The subarray pointing is performed', by 'initlal-ly aligning, -each ' subarray using; three screwiacks attached to the structure.C'<'r-Vi , „ " -, ' ' , ^ • -1 ' • l" - , ' " ' ' "' •-' - » - ""'- " " '" This study investigates the former pointing -requirement^ "iVe.-jv steeringt; of the entire 1 Km array, assuming the1 ' individual -subar rays' 'are perfectly aligned across a -flat plane. This' *ana-rysiSj,co'nsiders, qnly the' amplitude effects of boresight misalignment. A follow-on --study, will calculate •' the magnitude of grating lobes produced by misalignments and will also -' determine the pointing requirements for individual subarrays .
v t r r J f

The subarray antenna pattern is given by the equation:

= sin
TT L

sin 0

(8)

where 0 - is the angle of boresight L - is the length of the subarray The reduction in subarray gains as a function of angle misalignment (0) may be included in the transmit array/rectenna simulation program to compute collection efficiency. The results as shown in figure IV.C.16 and IV.C.17 indicate that antenna misalignments up to 7-arc minutes produce only a 1% degradation in collection efficiency. However a maximum misalignment of 15-arc minutes should not be exceeded •» the SPS system would probably be shut-down if attitude control errors exceed 15-arc minutes. The physical tilt at the edge of the total 1 Km array for a 7-arc minute 1 - 1.02 meters. boresight misalignment is L = (500) 7 (60) (57.3)

IV.C.24

^
1

I _-:j"..-!---:^-J:j_4_!
a
',""'
( ' ' '

,TT

FuppTtliftf "oF'Totai Array "Misalignment
' I t

'

i

i

16dB Gaussian taper • • -A * 12,25m ; •1 a » 1 ° , + IdB, ?% 0, Uniform phase iliumin&tion ""' " amplitude (gain) chariges"~onl"y^
90

80

70 Rectenna Collection Efficiency (%)

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IV.C.26

R. H. Dietz Tracking and Communications Development Division IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION C. Microwave Power Transmission System 2. Microwave System Design Concepts

As a result of the JSC in-house study effort last year, documented in JSC 11568, "Initial Technical, Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power Concepts, " dated August 31, 1976, it is recognized that the microwave system will require development in three major areas. These are the microwave generators (DC/RF converters), the phase control system, and the transmitting antenna array and subarrays. These three areas have continued to be investigated to the extent that in-house capabilities and contract funding would allow. In addition to coordinating with Lewis Research Center on the work they have contracted on the amplitron, JSC awarded a contract to Varian Associates, Inc., to determine and evaluate the optimum electrical characteristics of an existing 50 kilowatt Klystron operating at 2.45 GHz. Work also began on the design and analysis of the phase control system to be used on the microwave power transmission system. The Lincom Corp., was awarded a contract to evaluate phase control techniques, and develop a baseline system. In-house efforts continued on developing the transmitting antenna array and subarray conceptual designs. These three areas will be discussed in the following sections.

IV-C- 27

IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION C. MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (MPTS)

2. Microwave System Design Concepts

Louis Leooold Tracking & Communications Development Division

a. Microwave Generators - Initial feasibility studies for converting solar power in geosynchronous orbit into microwave power at 2.45 GHz for transmission to earth indicate that only amplitrons and klystrons achieve efficiencies in excess of 80 percent which are the required goals of the SPS program. Klystron Preliminary evaluation of a klystron amplifier at Varian Associates indicates that its overall efficiency with a depressed collector augmented can be as high as 85 percent if the power output is kept at 50 kW or higher. To do this, klystrons must use a beam-focusing field with the body-wound solenoid providing one possible solution. Actual emission tests predict a potential life of 20 to 40 years. However, many tests of a high-efficiency flight qualified klystron are required to determine the validity of reliable operation for 30 years. The advantages and disadvantages of a klystron continuous wave amplifier for the SPS are as follows:

Advantages
1. High gain amplifier a. Low RF drive b. Phase control at low RF level 2. High power output 3. Potential high efficiency (optimum in narrow bandwidth klystron) 4. Relatively low noise output (amplified shot noise) 5. Harmonics over 30 db down 6. Potential long life 7. Bakeable solenoid (tube bakeout with solenoid power) 8. Small efficiency change with temperature 9. Control and protective electrodes

IV-C-28

Disadvantages 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Requires solenoid and heater power Requires phase control (multiple tube use) May require tuner trimming control High beam voltage Requires depressed collector for highest efficiency Efficiency somewhat lower than crossed field devices

The estimated operating characteristics of the cw klystron for the SPS are as follows: Frequency, MHz Bandwidth (3 db), MHz Beam Voltage, kV Beam Current, A Power Output, kW Beam Efficiency, % Overall Efficiency, % Saturated Gain, db AM Noise, db PM Noise, db Heater Power, W Electromagnet Power, kW 2450 3 34-40 1.8-2.4 48-77 75-80 84-86 40-50 -130 -115 40 -1

Cooling

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The advantages of a klystron are its high gain of 40-50 db, allowing phase control at drive levels of one watt; very low noise, higher power per tube and bake-out in space with its own solenoid. The operating voltage of 35-40 kV, the tube size, the hot cathode and the requirement of a depressed collector to exceed 75 percent efficiency are some of its disadvantages. The estimated physical characteristics of a 20 kW klystron and a 50 kW klystron for use in space are as follows: Length Width (diameter) Voltage 20 kW Klystron 25 1/2" 12" 34 1/2 kV 50 kU Klystron 34" 12" 40 kV

'

IV-C- 29

Width Tube Only Width (tube & magnet) Weight Cooling

20 kW Klystron 58 Ibs. Radiator (.8 square meter)

50 kW Klystron 5" 12" 75 Ibs. Heat Pipes Radiation (1 meter diameter)

To establish the current state-of-the-art of cw high power klystrons, tests have been done to determine and evaluate the optimum electrical characteristics of a cw 50 kW power output klystron at 2.45 GHz. The tube known as the VKS-7773 cw amplifier is a high efficiency, 2450 MHz, wideband klystron originally designed for industrial heating applications and for terrestrial use. The characteristics which are being optimized are the tuning (narrow banding), the gain, and the efficiency before it is fully evaluated. Measurements will be made of the following parameters during optimum efficiency performance: (1) Electron Beam Voltage (2) Magnetic Field (3) Cavity Tuning (4) Variations in Load Impedance (5) RF Drive Level (6) Current (7) Temperature of cathode and anode during various cw power operations (8) Noise spectrum as a function of input current and as a function of transient conditions at start-up and shut-down (9) AM noise and PM noise in a narrow bandwidth (1-3 KHz) for frequency displacement from the carrier frequency (10) Gain and bandwidth Some further technologies will be evaluated in the development of a spaceborne microwave power converter. They are detailed as follows: (1) Minimum weight and operating power (2) Adaptability to radiation cooling augmented with heat pipes (3) Ultimate use of a multi-staged depressed collector to increase total efficiency (4) Bake-out processing of the tube in space with its own solenoid (5) Mechanical design compatible with launch vibrations IV-C-30

(6) Open envelope (7) Operating temperature in the space environment (8) Low emission density cathode to comply with the design objective of a 30-year lifetime (9) Provision for frequency stabilization (10) Design for phase stability and minimize the change in phase characteristics with variations of parameters (11) Design for GEO environment with radiative rejection of waste heat Automated Klystron Manufacture - An order for 100 or so high power klystrons today is a "large" order.Manufacturing techniques are not greatly different from those employed in a job shop where a great deal of individual personal attention is focused on the tubes by various individuals. Functional organizational arrangements are often employed to reduce manufacturing costs, but tube designs are not changed greatly from those stemming from development. An order of hundreds of thousands of tubes to be delivered at a high rate of 5000 per month, for example, assumes at the outset that emphasis has been placed on klystron design for such large-scale manufacture. Individual parts must be shaped for fabrication on automatic or nearautomatic machinery, such as automatic screw type machines. Stampings and coined parts must be used where feasible. Simplicity of design must be stressed in every area. Parts are fabricated through a variety of other techniques, each chosen for its large volume applicability. Extrusion, powdered metal fabrication, centrifugal casting, photo etching, electro deposition and similar methods may be mentioned. In assembly, self-stacking arrangements are used and/or simple fixtures maintain alignments. Automatic conveyor type furnaces are used for assembly brazing. Automatic machines are employed where welding is necessary. Automatic exhaust and bakeout systems are used. Perhaps these would be patterned after the rotary exhaust systems used today in some cases. If hot testing is necessary, automatic test systems will be devised. This may result in a completely new and different type of klystron factory, all facilities aiming at fabrication of the one device. The design of this unit represents a challenge as difficult, perhaps, as that of design of the klystron in the first place. IV-C-31

An estimated program for the development and test of a high efficiency SPS klystron is described as follows: Phase 1: 18 months Enhancement of present 75 percent basic klystron efficiency through computation, experiment, and modifications. Construction of several models demonstrating results. Phase 2: 18 months Computation and experiment leading to implementation of depressed collector. Introduction of work on lightweight focusing and on radiation cooling. Construction of several models demonstrating results. Phase 3: 18 months Continuation of work on collector depression, lightweight focusing, and radiation cooling. Continued study on possible further klystron basic efficiency improvement. Construction of several models demonstrating results. One or more of these to be tested in the space chamber. One to be flown in low earth orbit and tested in the space shuttle. Amplitron The estimated characteristics of an SPS amplitron are listed in table IV-C-1. Comparison of the SPS amplitron with the existing microwave oven magnetron is noted in figure IV-C-18. Construction of the amplitron and the magnetron are similar and the manufacturing techniques would have much in common. The changes required to convert the magnetron to the amplitron and the cost per kilowatt with high volume production are listed. A model of an amplitron interphasing with microwave waveguides and the waveguide transmitting through slots are shown in figure IV-C-19. The upper disk is the cathode radiator. The lower plate is the anode radiator for cooling purposes. The feed at the right of the amplitron accepts the input signal. The feed at the left of the amplitron conducts the amplified RF power output (6 1/4 kW) to the waveguide at the left. The waveguide and antenna shown in figure IV-C-19 are not necessarily the SPS configuration. Other types of antenna arrays are under study in addition to the slotted array.

IV-C-32

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IV-C-35

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IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION C. MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (MPTS)

2. Microwave System Design Concepts

j y Tracking & Communications Development Division

b. Phase Control System - The Phase Control System is presently under study by Dr. W. C. Lindsey of the LinCom Corporation for Johnson Space Center. The study was initiated in April 1977, and Phase 1 will be completed in 6 months. In the time since the contract was awarded, some significant findings have been provided which are summarized in this section. The SPS (solar power satellite) phase control problem basically breaks up into three areas: (1) the distribution of phase information to many distribution points in the system, (2) the phasing of the power amplifiers and (3) the antenna power beam steering. In order to properly steer or point the antenna power beam, precise phase relationships of all the antenna subarray groups must be known, and must be maintained so that the resultant overall antenna power beam wavefront is pointed only toward the rectenna with minimal overflow beyond the rectenna surface. Using pilot beam phase conjugation, the pilot tone received signal at the center of the array system is used as a phase reference for comparison, at each subarray group, with the pilot beam phase received at that subarray group. Three methods of distributing a constant reference phase to the many distribution channel/points in the array antenna system are under consideration: the master slave phase control method, the hierarchial master slave phase control method, and the total mutual synchronous method. Each of these approaches to distribution of the reference phase required for conjugation of the pilot signal at each subarray group is somewhat dependent on the geometrical layout of the system phase control components. Two geometric arrangements which provide the needed symmetry have been identified and are shown in figures IV-C-20 and IV-C-21, respectively. These figures show sketches of a rectangular layout assuming 10 X 20 meter subarrays and a square layout assuming 14 X 14 meter subarrays. The dashed lines indicate interconnection of oscillators for phase distribution, and the dots indicate phase distribution (oscillator) points throughout the system. For both the square and rectangular configurations, a total of 4096 subarrays would be required with a total of 1365 oscillators or phase distribution points. The concept behind the master slave system is described as follows: the master oscillator, located at the center of the antenna, phase locks to the pilot beam sent from the earth-based transmitter located at or near the receiveing rectenna. This phase is then IV-C-36

FIGURE IV-C-20 - SPS RECTANGULAR LAYOUT PHASE CONTROL

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distributed to the first level of slave oscillators by way of the master slave synchronization. There are four (22X1) such oscillators. All of them are symmetrically situated with respect to the master. These four oscillators In turn send the phase to the second level of slaves. This goes on until the ftfth level of slaves is reached. There are 1024 (2^5} such oscillators. These oscillators are called terminal oscillators, for obvious reasons, and each of the terminal oscillators feeds four 10 X 20 meter subarrays in the rectangular configuration or four 14 X 14 meter subarrays in the square configuration. The symmetry of the slaves around their immediate master is key to the control of line delays. If this symmetry could be strictly enforced, then, the phases at the terminal oscillators would all be the same. The hierarchial master slave approach has a similar configuration to that of the foregoing system with the prime difference being that, at each level, the slave oscillators are phase-locked. Symmetry is still required to take care of the delays. This method is better suited for compensating delay variation due to non-uniform antenna temperature gradients, but it should be pointed out that none of these methods offers a complete solution to the temperature delays. This method also offers improved oscillator stability, i.e., less phase drifting due to the final level of mutual coupling. The mutual synchronous system concept breaks up into two different classes depending upon processing of the signals. One of them is called the Equational Timing System and the other Returnable Timing System. Both of these compensate for the delay effects without invoking any kind of strict symmetry relation between the slaves, but do require symmetry between the master and the receiving oscillators. The main advantage of these two schemes is in providing compensation for tranmission line delay. Also,the uneven temperature gradients do not pose as great a problem. The major disadvantage that this system has is the large number of connections requiring a large number of cables, thus adding significant weight. The area of power amplifier phase control is also under investigation and, again, can generally be considered in the master slave or mutual synchronous class of synchronization categories. The final stages will incorporate phase conjugation of the pilot signal at each subarray for pointing the power beam. All of these phase distribution/control areas are still in the early investigative phases, and a preliminary recomnended approach will not be arrived at until mid-July 1977. Another area affecting the final power beam-forming system involves the effects of frequency separation between the pilot and

IV-C-39

power beam signals. Th.is area is presently under study, and recommendations are expected in mid-July, also. The basic effect of a frequency difference between the pilot and power beam is to squint or point the beam off at an angle Incident to the arriving pilot beam. This effect may be compensated for by locating the pilot transmitter at the proper location relative to the earth-based rectenna. Also, use of different pilot frequencies may provide an effective method of phase control system isolation from one SPS to another. These effects have not yet been analyzed in detail and are part of the ongoing study.

IV-C-40

IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION

C. Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) 3. Structural Considerations

Frederick J. Stebbins Structures and Mechanics Div.

JSC in-house activity since the publication of the August 31, 1976, report has been concentrated on an MPTS structural concept more amenable to construction than that originally proposed. The new concept is a hexagonal planar truss composed of repeating tetrahedrons. (Thus, the concept is called the tetratruss.) Contract effort was used to develop two "building block" deployable elements which may be used in a myriad of combinations for Shuttle sortie missions in support of SPS development. This contract (NAS9-14914) with The Boeing Aerospace Company culminated in an oral presentation at JSC on April 27, 1977, The Boeing Aerospace Company reported an application of the two "building block" elements to the JSC MPTS tetratruss concept. The concept of two-tier or "double bed" construction was first used by the Grumman Aerospace Corporation in the development of a one-kilometer microwave antenna employing 18-meter-square subarrays in an earlier study. One tier serves as primary structure and a second tier offers subarray support on relatively close spacing. The secondary structure (second tier) is an adapter bridging the relatively coarse spaced primary structural joints to the subarrays. The tetratruss is a two-tier structure. A 10-meter-square subarray was modified to 10.746 meters by 9.306 meters (see Reference 1). This offers the same transmission surface area (100m2) and matches an equilateral grid of the node points on the secondary planar truss (see figure IV-C-22). The secondary planar truss could be a deployable structure as reported in the NAS 9-14914 contract (Reference 2). Every other apex of the hexagonal secondary truss structure is supported by a primary node point (see Figure IV-C-23). The primary structure is composed of 660 members joined at 166 joints. Each of the 660 members is 130-284 meters in length. Sixty-one planar trusses compose the second tier structure. Each secondary planar truss and each subarray are supported at three points in a determinate manner. A determinate support allows a structure to be pointed without introducing internal stresses. Three options exist for mechanical pointing of the MPTS antenna. The options are: (1) a completely passive structure, (2) active control of 61 planar trusses, and (3) active control of 7854 subarrays. The determination of the viable option will be made pending control system analysis and engineering analysis of flatness and stiffness parameters. An FY-77 contractual effort has been initiated to investigate the achievable flatness in the MPTS tetratruss antenna. Detailed review of manufacturing and fabrication variables will be made to determine if the initial flatness of the second tier structure of the tetratruss will meet the microwave

IV-C-41

transmission requirements. A further objective is to determine if active figure control is required. A NASTRAN model of the tetratruss (see Figure IV-C-24) was prepared inhouse and sufficient runs were made for a parametric study of the tetratruss dynamic characteristics. A graphite material was assumed with Young's moduli of 137895x106 N/m* (20x106 psi) and 68948x1Ob N/m? (10? psl). A density of 1661 kg/m^ was used for all runs. Secondary structural mass and primary structural joint mass were assumed to be included in the 8,125,000 kg of nonstructural mass. The 8,125,000 kg mass was distributed in a manner that reflected the Guassian distribution of microwave power transmission. Three cross-sectional areas, two values for Young's modulus, and two mass conditions were used in a parametric study of the NASTRAN model of the tetratruss. Figure IV-C-25 depicts the influence of mass on the structure for two values of Young's modulus. The cross-sectional area of each of the 660 members was held constant at .001 meters?. The relatively large nonstructural mass lowers the first natural frequency less than one order of magnitude over the frequency for tare mass only. The frequency varies as the square root of the ratio of Young's moduli. Figure IV-C-26 illustrates the influence of the ratio of structural mass to total mass. The cross-sectional area of each of the 660 truss members was alternately set at .0001, .001, and .01 meters?. Practical upper limits are apparent in seeking higher natural frequencies thru additional structural mass. The message is clear that the natural frequency of the MPTS structure may not be significantly altered from a relatively narrow one order of magnitude band. Figure IV-C-27 shows the well-ordered characteristic of the tetratruss dynamic response. NASTRAN plots of the first 5 modes beyond the rigid body modes are shown in Figures IV-C-28 through IV-C-32. The deformed shape has been superimposed on the undeformed structure. The first two modes are anticlastic while the third mode exhibits polar symmetry. The NASTRAN structural response data herein presented offers a point of departure for the stability and attitude control engineer. References 1. "Initial Technical, Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power Concepts," Volume II-Detailed Report-JSC 11568, August 31, 1976 2. "Large Space Erectable Structure," Building Block Structures Study, Final Report - NAS 9-14914, April 1977, The Boeing Aerospace Company

IV-C -42

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IV-C-52

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IV-C-53

IV. SATELLITE POWER STATION ~~~~~~^~~~~~~~~^~~~~~~~~~~~~~ C. Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) 4. Thermal Analysis of Klystrons and Amplitrons

Structures & Mechanics Division D c Harris ' '

Large quantities of waste heat are generated due to inefficiencies of the microwave generators, either klystrons or amplitrons. This waste heat must be dissipated to space using thermal radiators in order to maintain microwave generator temperatures at acceptable levels. A preliminary parametric analysis was conducted to establish radiator weight requirements for various levels of microwave generator output power and efficiency. In this analysis, pyrolytic graphite was used as the radiator material because of its low ratio of density to thermal conductivity. A comparison of klystron radiator weight requirements was made for passive radiators and heat pipe radiators for the configuration shown in figure IV-C-33, rather than the circular radiator configuration shown in figure IV-C-34, which has been used in previous klystron thermal evaluations. For the klystron, it was assumed that half of the waste heat is dissipated in the klystron tube, with the remaining half dissipated in the collector. The radiator base temperature used to establish size and weight was 573°K for the klystron tube and 973°K for the collector. The results of the klystron parametric analysis are shown in figures IV-C-35. Figure IV-C-35 shows klystron tube passive radiator weight as a function of klystron output power and efficiency, and klystron tube radiator weight requirements for comparable configuration and waste heat dissipation using heat pipe radiators. Figure IV-C-36 presents a comparison of amplitron radiator weight requirements with required klystron radiator weights for comparable output power, using passive radiators in both cases. The passive radiator weight requirements for amplitrons are those calculated by the Raytheon Company for their microwave power transmission system studies. Amplitron and klystron efficiency used for this comparison was 85 percent. The amplitron configuration used in the Raytheon analysis is shown in figure IV-C-37. As can be seen from figure IV-C-35, the potential weight saving that can be realized using heat pipe radiators is quite significant except in the case of low-power, high-efficiency klystrons. With the 50 KW, 85 percent efficiency klystron, the radiator weight for a passive configuration is about 15 times that of the heat pipe radiator. However, the total radiator area required is comparable. The 2 power densities using this size and efficiency klystron are 32 KW/m for the heat pipe radiator and 26 KW/m2 for the passive radiator. The comparison of passive radiator weights depicted in figure IVC-36 shows a significant weight difference between the amplitron and klystron radiators. However, it should be pointed out that this is a preliminary assessment of the klystron radiator requirements. The weights shown for the klystron may be larger because of structural stiffness requirements. Additionally, the klystron weights do not include the weight necessary for structural attachments, which will IV-C-54

further increase the total weight. However, the results of this analysis indicate that the weight of a rectangular radiator will be less than that of a circular radiator at the same temperature. For example, the 50 KW, 85 percent efficiency klystron requires passive radiator weight of 1.0 Kg/KW with the rectangular configuration and 1.6 Kg/KW with the circular configuration. The amplitron radiator weight shown can probably be reduced by using heat pipe radiators, at least for amplitrons with an output of 10 KW or higher. A further effort is planned to assess klystron radiator weights more accurately and to determine if heat pipe radiators for amplitrons would be advantageous over passive radiators. A more detailed assessment of heat pipe requirements is also planned, including a review of heat pipe materials and fluids. Although this analysis has shown significant potential weight savings using heat pipe radiators, it should be noted that there are many potential problems with heat pipes which have not been addressed. Among these are potential re-start problems following eclipse periods and the lifetime of 30 years which would be required of the heat pipes. Therefore, much evaluation of the use of heat pipes in this application is required prior to incorporating the heat pipe radiator in the design.

IV-C-55

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IV-C- 58

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Amplitron radiator configuration.

IV-C-59

IV. POWER STATION IV-D. MICROWAVE RECEPTION AND CONVERSION SYSTEM

The study of the mlcrowaie reception and conversion system (rectenna) has been divided Into three areas: 1,) Rectenna Power Collection 2.) Grid Interface, and 3.) Structural Support and Ground Preparation. A summary of the activities to-date are presented in the following subsections.
IV-D-1. Rectenna Power Collection INTRODUCTION k. G. Monford Systems Evaluation Bff.

The Rectenna Power Collection of the Component "Rectenna" tbethat portion of the Microwave Power Transmission System, located on the earth, which collects microwave energy and converts it into power. This system may be subdivided into three areas: 1.) Microwave Conversion Systems 2.) Sixty Hertz Components 3.) Wiring. This section deals with current activity in this area as it effects rectenna size and costs. PURPOSE The purpose of this effort is to Investigate variations of rectenna size and design; to quickly determine the cost impact of these variations and possible critical material reduction. A computer routine for Rectenna Power Collection (RPC) was written to aid in this analysis because of the complexity involved in hand computations with the large number of variables involved. The "Cost of Power from Satellites" (COPS), program was modified slightly to utilize the output data from the RPC routine for costing analysis. Specific goals of this initial effort were: a short term investigation of the overall cost impact of changing rectenfia area and incident power per row. APPROACH Briefly, the RPC program calculates the amount of power incident on a row by row basis and the total incident power for a given specific system design. Then, for the same design, the COPS program computes the cost of electricity in $/KW based on incident power and average values for efficiency in three general area os the rectenna: 1.) collection 2.) conversion 3.) interface. So, by using these two routines, general cost trends for rectenna variations may be established. The values used for efficiencies were generally established from dipole and diode parameters, series and parallel interconnection losses, inverter and transformer efficiencies and distribution losses. They were not subjected to a rigorous computational effort to define exact relationships or exact average values as this leve? of detail was not initially required.

IV-D-1

The RFC program analyzes the rectenna area as though it was in a plane perpendicular to the incident microwave beam. The projected ground area is eliptical in shape, however, the electrical groundplane "face" of each row is normal to the incident beam and arranged so that there is no "shaded area" overlap from one row to the next. Because of this, the incident energy is analyzed on a row-by-row basis as though the rectenna was a continous circular surface normal to the beam. Inputs into the program include the truncated radius of the microwave beam, the beam taper constant, peak energy density, size of elemental area, and the number of rows. The microwave beam has peak intensity at the rectenna center and tapers exponentially to a minimum value near the edge. In a plane perpendicular to the beam, the power level at a given distance from the beam center may be expressed mathematically in terms of the peak intensity, and a constant, derived from desired beam taper.
PROGRAM DETAILS

The program first computes the distance from beam center to the centroid of the first elemental area (defined as row width times element length). The average power intensity for the unit area is then computed using this distance as the basis. The average intensity times the element size provides the power incident on that unit area. This process is repeated for all elements in a row, then results are summed. Elements with centroids exceeding the truncated beam radius are dropped. Power incident results are printed on a per-row basis, and for the whole rectenna. For on-going evaluations, the rectenna has been divided into 1,000 rows, with an element length of 10 meters, a peak intensity of 23 mw/crrr and a 10 db beam taper. The routine actually computes incident power of only one quarter of the beam because of the symmetrical nature of the rectenna. The expression used for computing the power incident on the j'th element in the i'th row is: 2

P!J = P0(x) (yje'^lj)
where P x y K r. J * = = = = = peak intensity element width row width (.125) beam taper constant centroid of elemental area
RESULTS

Figure IV-D-1 presents the incident power results of successive program runs. In these cases, the rectenna radius was changed, but all other parameters were fixed. The incident power is actually the portion of the beam which could be collected by a 100 percent efficient rectenna of a given radius. Figure IV-D-2 is a plot of the current-per-row output IV-D-2

for a single case. The radius of this desian case is 5 KM and for onehalf the rectenna there are 500 rows, so the current-per-row for a rectenna of ellptical shape could be found from this same chart by counting the row number from rectenna centroid and using this as the distance (scale factor times one hundred). Percent total power incident versus percent total area where the 5 KM radius case is 100 percent is plotted in figure IV-D-3. It is interesting to note that a twenty percent area increase is required to capture only four percent more power for the design case. Figure IV-D-4 presents results of several runs of the COPS routine; it shows the result on the overall SPS power cost in Mills/KWH for various rectenna areas (expressed in percent total area). The design case appears to be at the knee of the curve, where power produced cost is the least. This cunze knee will shift as a functional rectenna cost and efficiency of operation. As the cost goes up and the actual efficiency of various components goes down -- a function of distance from the center, the optimum cost knee should move towards 90 percent of the present design case. It should be noted that rectenna costs do not affect the overall SPS costs a great deal until the area is greatly reduced or until the rectenna efficiency drops off1 significantly. A rectenna with only 60 percent total area still receives 84 percent of the total possible power (96% at design case area). CONCLUSION The Rectenna Power Collection Program may be used to support SPS costing efforts and to assist in rectenna design. This program should be refined to include all elements which effect the operating efficiency of the rectenna. The program could then be used to generate power produced by the rectenna (as delivered to the grid), conductor weights and refined cost evaluation.

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IV-D-2 Grid Interface INTRODUCTION

V, Shields Systems Evaluation Off.

The ground system/grid interface report published in the "Greenbook" identified methods of collecting power at the rectenna and converting it into electrical energy for transmission to the electrical utility grids. Since that time, we have addressed the issues and problems associated with defining a compatible interface between the rectenna and the infra-structure of the utility grid system. In order to achieve a workable interface, the dominant parameters affecting the rectenna/utility grid were identified and evaluated. Stating the groundrule: "The rectenna/ utility interface does not change the reliability of electrical service to its customers;" the following parameters are considered to be the primary technical factors for operating 5.0 GW rectenna systems with the grids. o The daily and seasonal demand profiles of the grid. o The throttling range of the generating machines on the grid, o Eclipses of the solar collectors by the earth at the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. o Eclipses of the solar collectors by other SPS's at the vernal and the autumnal equinoxes. Effect of Daily and Seasonal Demand of Utility Grid Under normal conditions, the consumer demand for electrical power varies over a wide range on a daily, as well as a seasonal, basis. On a daily basis, the peak demand for a weekday is twice the minimum for a typical regional grid (see fig. IV-D-5). In addition, the daily peak may vary by a factor of two from minimum seasonal demand to maximum (see fig. IV-D-6). Therefore, the annual demand spread may be from 25 percent of maximum to maximum annual demand. These factors affect the type, size, and number of machines used to meet the varying grid loads. Depending on size and throttle range, grid machines are selected to serve base load, intermediate load, and peaking load roles. Generally, the larger machines serve base load requirements. The smaller machines are used for peaking and the intermediate size falling somewhere in between. Structures of Installed Generating Capacity of U. S. The vast majority (over 99 percent) of the installed generation capacity in the continental United States is interconnected in a maize of discrete transmission and distribution networks, referred to as regional grids. There are nine of these regions which collectively makeup the "National Electric Reliability Council (NERC)." This body was founded in 1968 with the stated purpose of augmenting the reliability and adeaquacy of bulk power in the electric utility systems of North America. In order to meet the stated purpose, the Council is primarily concerned wi th: IV-D-8

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The grid operators or power companies actually own and operate the equipment. In its July 1976 annual report, the NERC presented its projection of load growth, new capacity requirements, etc., through the year 1985. These data and others have been used to show the U.S. generating capacity for 1985 and the year 2025, for the purpose of evaluating the grids for compatibility with solar power satellite rectenna systems in the 2000-2025 time frame. These projections are given in Table IV-D-1. Utilization of Rectenna Systems on Utility Grids Initial studies of the SPS indicate that the rectenna be sized near 5.0 GW output for optimum economic return. Using that assumption, this study is aimed at determining the impact modular power sources of that size have on the operation of the regional grids. Due to its size (5.0 GW) the rectenna would serve as a base load generator. The method of operation would be to collect the DC power along busses within the rectenna, convert it to AC through thyristor or SCR inverters using grid power to fire the inverter elements, thus achieving and maintaining synchronous operation with the grid. In the case of the SPS, the rectenna would be shutdown daily for short periods of time near 12:00 a.m., for 45-days around each equinox. This is brought about due to an eclipse of the SPS collector with the earth at the vernal and autumnal equinoxes for a geosynchronous orbit. Also, 1f Scenario "B" of the Greenbook were carried out, with 112 satellites in geosynchronous orbit in the year 2025, the solar collectors of each satellite would eclipse each other on a daily basis at 6:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. for a 45-day period around each equinox. Outages of this types are unknown in the existing grid operating structure, requiring new methods of power management. The variables that primarily affect the total number of rectenna that may operate on a single grid are: o Installed capacity. o Conventional machinery. o Rectenna systems. o Reserve margin requirements, o Peak demand, o Throttle range of conventional machines. IV-D-11 r:

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The installed capacity represents the rated output (KW) of the combined generators connected on the grid. Generally, grid capacity equals to the annual peak demand plus 20 percent, denoted as reserve capacity. From figure IV-D-5, baseload units make-up about 50 percent of grid capacity with the remainder consisting of intermediate load and peaking machines. Usually, baseload machines are large and more efficient than other generators and the grid operator's strategy is to use them as much as possible. This results in a high load factor for this equipment, normally in excess of 0.7. If SPS rectenna systems replaced existing base-load machines on the utility grids, their load-factor could exceed 90 percent. However, due to the discontinuity of the SPS output around the equinoxes, the management of power on the grid must be changed. In one case, the outage occurs around mid-night for a 45-day period around each equinox. An outage at this time of day has a minimum impact on grid power management. The reason being, when this outage occurs the grid demand is only about 50 percent of its peak demand. For the period of the outage (fifteen minutes maximum), the demand could be handled by other capacity on the grid. It should be pointed out that the throttling characteristics of the other machines is an important consideration. Just prior to the outage, the rotating equipment will be lightly loaded until a transfer of load from the rectenna system to this equipment can be made. The design of some systems, for economic reasons have very narrow throttling ranges. For example, a nuclear plant may have a range of 90 percent of full-load to full-load, where as a fossil-fired plant may have a range of 30 percent of full-load to full-load. When considering the throttling range of the grid, the throttling characteristic of the combined rotating machines must be determined. This is based on the percentage mix of fossil-fired, nuclear, and hydro-electric powered generators on the grid. Once the grid throttle range, installed capacity, and reserve margin requirement are determined, the following equiation may be used to determine the maximum number of rectenna possible on each regional grid.

no .of rectenna = IC(1-RM)(1-TR 5 GW Rectenna
1C - installed capacity RM - reserve margin TR - throttle position

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For the example shown in Table IV-D-2, the reserve margin was given as 10 percent, and the minimum throttle rage of 64.2%, based on the nuclear, fossil-fired, hydro generation mix projected for the year 2025.

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For the case given 1n scenario B, 112 satellites are in geosynchronous orbit, eclipsing each other at 6;00 a.m. and 6;00 p.m. Utilizing the same technique the number of possible rectenna is reduced because the outage occurs near the daily demand peak, thus reducing the throttling range of the grid. The idea of spreading rectenna power over several grid networks minimizes the effects of losing power at any site. Also, since it is possible to distribute the rectenna power in the form of DC, the direction of flow of power to the grids maybe controlled, with the AC stability of the network being virtually unaffected. If indeed, widespread use of DC blocks of power come into use as^a means of interconnecting regional grids, then by the year 2025 we should observe a relative small variation in the hourly demand for electricity on a national scale. Such a power management scheme would virtually eliminate the effects of SPS outages based on the assumptions given in scenario B of the JSC-11568.

IV-D-15

IV-D-3 Structural Support and Ground Preparation

H. Roberts Systems Evaluation Off.

The support structure for the rectenna concept defined in sections IV-D-1 and IV-D-2 has been investigated through study contract No. NAS9-15280 with Bovay Engineers, Inc. The objective of the study was to study various approaches to the structural design/arrangement of the rectenna and investigate relative merits of the approaches. Each approach to the structural design/arrangement was limited to a design level consistant with determining gross material quantities and projected costs. Included in the designs were considerations of geometry, loadings, cost, maintenance, and materials of construction. The contractor was given study requirements which were to be used as design criteria: (1) The rectenna is to be located 31° latitude which dictates that the 10 kM diameter microwave beam has a 54° angle with the horizontal and the projected ground area covered is eliptical in shape with a major axis of 12.36 kM and minor axis of 10 kM. Also, cost effects will be determined for location at 40° latitude. The rectenna must intercept all of the 10 kM diameter beam. (2) For the initial investigation and analysis, the terrain will be assumed to be flat. However, the effects on costs will be investigated for rolling terrain. (3) Ground surface area covered by the rectenna is required to be usable for other purposes such as crop production. (4) The groundplane will have a pattern of diamondshaped openings 1 cm by 2 cm and must be electrically conductive. If found to be advantageous, the groundplane may be utilized as part of the structure. (5) The groundplane and the structure must be designed to provide maintainability of the receiving elements. (6) The primary structure must be insulated to 2000 volts, both from the ground and the groundplane. One of the first tasks in the study was to determine and analyze the environmental loads which would size the structure. After searching through the Uniform Building Code and the Southern Building Code, it was determined that there is no direct guidance in the building codes for developing design loads for a structure similar to the rectenna. However, the principles used in the codes were used to rationalize realistic loadings. Thus, a live load of 12 PSF (pounds per square foot), wind loads from 20 PSF at ground level to 30 PSF at 50 feet elevation, and snow loads of 5 PSF were selected for design and analysis. It was concluded that the wind load could be used as the design load without combining with the live and snow loads. Other loading effects such as seismic and thermal loads were also considered. The contractor evaluated the 11 structural systems shown in figure IV-D-7. Systems 1 through 6 and 11 have the groundplane segmented into rows with the surface perpendicular to the incoming microwave beam. Systems 1 through 4 and 11 have one edge of each segment on or near the ground, while systems 5 and 6 are elevated to provide clearance below the structure. Systems 7 through 9 are elevated to provide clearance for vehicles or machinery to operate below the structure. Systems 7 and 8 IV-D-16

SYSTEM M0.1O

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Figure IV-D-7 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

B

have the groundplane perpendicular to the microwave beam, but the width of each segment is small compared to the other systems. System 9 has wide segments, but still provides the greater clearance. System 10 is a series of towers with the groundplane segmented as shown in figure IV-D-7. Each of the systems will have concrete footings poured in place to distribute the loads into the soil and to resist any uplift forces which will occur. Several materials, including aluminum, steel, concrete, plastics and wood were investigated for their applicability. It was concluded that either galvanized or weathering steel would be the most advantageous material considering all the requirements. Each system will require a portion of the structure to be made from aluminum for power conduction. Estimates of the materials quantities and costs were made for each system. A summary of these is shown in Tables IV-D-3 and IV-D-4. Also, an estimate was made on the cost of site preparation and is shown in Table IV-D-5. The results of the study show that within a limited space between columns, little cost difference exists between the different configurations. As the usability of the land increases (larger column spacing), the structural cost increases significantly. The geographical location of the rectenna site will have a major impact on both construction and structural costs. At 40° latitude the cost increase would be between 20 percent and 45 percent for the different configurations due to the increased loads at the latitude. The effect on cost for rolling terrain depends on many factors including the magnitude of the elevationvariations. The net cost effect can be between zero and 24 percent. The cost reported in JSC-11568 was $0.60/ft with a range from $0.48/ft* to $2.35/ft2. The contractor concludes that several areas of further study are needed to refine the numbers they have estimated. These recommendations can be reviewed in the contractors final report.

IV-D-18

TABLE IV-D-3: SYSTEM MATERIALS SYSTEM # ALUMINUM8 (KG X 10 ) STEEL (KG X 109)

QUANTITIES CONCRETE (KG X 109)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
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1.46 1.50 1.58 1.79 1.49 1.62 1.89 2.82 1.78

1.29 *(1.72) 1.29 *(1.72) 1.91 2.31 1.43 1.91 1.03 1.50 1.16 1.20 1.26

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IV-D-19

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TABLE IV-D-5: SITE PREPARATION COSTS
Location and Site Condition Semi - Desert Area; Western States Land - Generally flat, sandy; little or no rock Gulf Coast or Midwest States; Medium tree cover; Clay or Loam type soil; basically flat area, Rainfall 25" or more per year Mountainous Location; Rock & Timber; Moderate rain and snow Cost/ Ac re* $1,500 Cost/ ft2
$.03

$2,700

$.06

$4,000

$.09

*COSTS INCLUDE:

- Clearing and Grubbing: Heavy to light (depending on area) - Grading and Drainage - Roads: Perimeter and 3 cross roads; 50 miles 24 ft. wide asphalt. - Culverts: 24" diameter C.M.P. - Culverts: 60" diameter C.M.P. - Bridges: 30 ft x 70 ft or 2100 ft2 - Service Roads: 70 miles, 20' wide, gravel surface - Service Roads: Drainage Low water type crossing - Fence around perimeter: 8 ft high, chain link. - Seeding & Fertilizing
NOTE: Cost does not include utilitites, site survey, operations and

maintenance facilities.

IV-D-21

W. L. 6111 Systems Evaluation Off.

APPENDIX Section IV. RECTENNA. POWER COLLECTION REQUIREMENTS INTRODUCTION The collection of microwave energy and conversion to electrical power and the conditioning of this electrical power to a form suitable for connection into an electrical power distribution system is addressed in this appendix. This power collection system has much in common with the conversion of sunlight to electrical power by solar cells and the conditioning of power for transmission to the microwave antenna system. Both systems involve combining a very large number of low voltage, lower power sources to provide a single or at best, a few high voltage, high power outputs. They differ in that the solar cells have nearly uniform characteristics, while the microwave conversion involves combining conversion devices with continuously varying input characteristics. The solar cell collection system is optimized for weight associated with interconnecting conductors, while the rectenna land area and structural requirements may be more dominant than the mass of conductors. Rectenna Systems Flow The rectenna systems flow and efficiency is described in the figure
£« i r&^'fj*
p__

below.

fV)
/'-': .^'J' // if -'./-.-

D /o /. s

c / ^_7-.r *

f rl

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IV-APP-1

As the distance from the center of the array Increases, the efficiency of the chain decreases, while the equipment to collect this power Increases. At some distance the collection of power 1s no longer economically feasible. To establish this cutoff point, some cost per Kw will have to be established for the rectenna, together with the cost increase per Kw output for the balance of the SPS system. Microwave Beam Considerations The intensity of microwave radiation in the plane at right angles to the direction of propagation of the microwave beam is given by:
o ) is the intensity in Mw/Cm at the center of the beam r is the distance from the center of the beam in kilometers _2 k is a proportionality constant in kilometers , depending upon the taper from center to edge of the beam

£(r)

is the intensity at distance r from the center of the beam
I*p2

The integration overall area of the rectenna gives the power collected:
P - 7T go (1-e R )

Where R is the radius of the microwave beam at the outside edge of the rectenna. P = Power collected in Mw The voltage output and power conversion efficiency from individual diode varies with the incident intensity. Equal blocks of power from various segments of the antenna at fixed currents and voltages will be collected. An example of collection and power management of low voltage sources are designs based on solar cells in space. Skylab I. was the largest solar array flown to date, and its arrays provided from 6 to 10 Kw. It would appear reasonable that larger amounts of power could be handled by a rectenna on the ground, and for initial studies, 500 Kw per panel, with an output of 1000 V DC might be a reasonable set of input data. For a 5 Gw rectenna, this would result 1n about 10^ power blocks. Each power block would, on the average, occupy 0.1 percent of the total recetnna area. Land Area Considerations Since the microwave receivers are mounted above a ground 'plane which is normal to the incident beam each power block will be mounted on columns so IV-APP-2

as to be normal to the beam and not Interfere with Its adjacent neighbors. Four angles determine the orientation of the ground plane, the land area requirements and the structural support requirements. The first angle 1s determined by the latitude of the rectenna Installation, assuming that the satellite 1s In an equatorial plane, as seen 1n Figure IV-APP-1. The area of a flat horizontal plane required to Intercept the Incoming microwave beam 1s:
= Agp

SAT TEX're

&"= Latitude FIGURE IV-APP-1 WheresAm = The area of the microwave beam at right angles to the direction of travel
Aga

Latitude W- G Ground area

The second angle 1s established as follows: In the north, south direction, the land area 1n any practical case will not be absolutely horizontal, so that the radius 1n the north, south direction 1s Increased or decreased depending on Us angle with respect to the horizontal, as shown 1n Figure IV-APP-2.

IV-APP-3

FIGURE IV-APP-2 The ground area requirement then becomes:
Aga

l = Cos (

Where $-| = Angle of line between end points of beam in N-S direction and the horizontal A similar treatment must be made in the east-west direction, resulting in the third angle

FIGURE IV-App-3 7]Then Aga6 = Cos (i) 2

Am Cos

Cos

The satellite may not be located directly over the meridian as shown in fig. 4, resulting in the fourth angle Satellite
a (fj ii.

FIGURE IV-APP-4 IV-APP-4

The satellite may not remain directly over same point on the ground, and this motion will result in some power transmission loss depending upon the angles with respect to center of the rectenna. Finally, the amount of structural support will depend upon the end points 1n a rectenna row as seen 1n Figures IV-APP-2 and IV-APP-3. Power Collection The Rectenna Element: The rectenna element which 1s used to convert microwave energy Into DC power is considered to have a cell area of 53 cm* at 2.45 GHZ. The power incident on the rectenna element:

P(r) = f(r) Ac = 53 ?(r)
Where: P(r) = Power received by diode at distance r from the center of the incoming beam in mw 2 £(r) = Incident intensity at radius r in mw/cm 2 Ac = Cell area occupied by a rectenna element in cm Then: P(r) = 53 ^r) = 53 £oe"
Kr

2
= P(0)e

kr2

The rectification of this incident power involves a number of losses, as shown in Figure IV-APP-5.

FIGURE IV-APP-5

IV-APP-5

Note that depolarization and other microwave transmission losses are considered to have already occurred and are taken care of in the incident power term. The overall conversion efficiency assumed in earlier studies is shown in Figure IV-APP-6. For purposes of preliminary studies, the conversion efficiency is reasonably described by the equation: V - CP1nc" Where: TJC = Conversion efficiency C = Constant F*inc=
Incl

'dent microwave power mw

n = Constant The constants C and n are easily obtained from log-log plot of PC vs. P. Then: PC = nc
P. = Po6 inc

P.nc
-kr

The last expression is exactly the same form as the expression for the incident beam; hence, conversion losses appear as an increase in the incident beam taper. Subarray Power Collection Considerations The output of a rectenna element as a function of its position in the rectenna has been described. This power is now collected in parallel and series in a subarray unit a given amount of the power at a given DC level is achieved. The voltage and current outputs from a rectenna element are determined as follows:

>

FIGURE IV-APP-6

IV-APP-6

Let the forward voltage drop of the diode be a constant V0 . Then:

(

Having established the current and voltage from each rectenna element, the next question to be considered is how to collect in series and parallel. Connecting the current from a number of rectenna elements in parallel is shown in figure IV-APP-7.

FIGURE IV-APP-7 The equivalent DC circuit is shown in figure IV-APP-8

The output current should be set at a value sufficiently high to burn clear a shorted diode. It is assumed that r^ja is a constant and that no can be obtained from values previously published for Shottsky diodes by IV-APP-7

Ratheon. The I2R losses experienced in collecting in parallel are:

Where: ptf>t* produce I -^ P

is the power lost in the string of diodes paralled to

P

is the resistance of one rectenna element filter section. /v

<c

* —^ - ^—r7
^-/

A/—/

Where >7 sp is the efficiency factor for collection of the subarray parallel elements. Note that there is no additional wire used to collect in parallel, and that the length of this parallel string is /V

IV-APP-8

The next step 1s to collect 1n series up to the output voltage of the subsection.

Figure IV-APP-8

From figure IV-A_P-8

To minimize the overall I R loss due to connecting 1n series the value of Vb should be made as high as possible. However, high voltage across the standoff of the diodes and the ground plane is small, a breakdown to ground could occur, which will limit the value of Vb. The question of Corona discharge and leakage due to dust and moisture require further study.

IV-APP-9

The I R loss due to series connections as found as follows:

0 ~- -/•* ±50 1

and the overall collection efficiency for a subarray becomes:

)

It should be noted that A/-/2f represents additional wire for connections within the array. The area of the rectenna required to collect this power is /V/tfrfk or ^* *»

Protective devices (crow bars) will be required at the output from a subarray to protect from a load interruption which would produce high voltage breakdown of the diodes. Transmission from Subarray to Collection Point Considerations The output from the subarray is limited in the voltage which can be developed by the geometry of the rectenna element; however, high voltage should be used to minimize transmission losses from the subarray to the central collection point. At this point, the interaction of connecting many subarrays 1n parallel is not defined. It is assumed that Inversion 1s performed on the output of each subarray and that the Inverters can be paralleled. The output AC voltage should be made as high as possible. The exact design of the transmission line 1s considered beyond the scope of this Initial study, but will markedly affect the cost of rectenna construction. IV-APP-10

The power delivered to the inverter is:
Po = P< ?+ ?c fcr

The inverter efficiency is a constant Pac (The power to be delivered to the central collection point) = The final power collected is:
Prc ~ It is assumed that power is first laterally transmitted to the Y axis and then to the center of the rectenna along the X axis. The details of the transmission line not having been completely worked out the impedance and losses due to power factor will be ignored.

The value of Rt has two components: Rnj . - The resistance in the east, west direction of the transmission line from the Jth subarray in the center line of the rectenna. Rmj . - The resistance in the north , south direction from the center line above to the center of the rectenna. The subarrays are arranged along the ground plane of the rectenna. The N dimension in the east, west direction and the M dimension in the ^rth. south direction. The M dimension is limited in any rectenna row by H. the length of the ground plane. A typical arrangement is shown in Figure IV-APP-9.
-Jfts
2

+

"'<+'*<,',
ju~

f

xz^^v*^ s i

T Jvff

' .

/ &e><a

7 <+«*•*+

Co<.t*cT,0^-^/ /«>«^ JL_f
&*^r

i *2Z-

FIGURE IV-APP-9 IV-APP-11

Then the length of Rej on a section of several subarrays Is:

Where:

Nj 1s the number of rectenna elements in the Jth array J and since the power take-off is in the lower left corner of the array, the length is determined by the collection subarrays which have preceded it.

Since the rectenna must be split up into finite areas to take care of terrain, the length of the transmission line leaving the segmented portion of the rectenna will not necessarily lie in the horizontal plane so that the length of Rej- has two components, one on the array and one over the terrain and the length on the section of several subarrays described above. The total length of £ /vW' CosQ
r *?' f

With the constraint that Where:

& C 6 A & T M

/

/

C 7 F

" "*

V/W
FIGURE IV-APP-10

IV-APP-12

In the north, south direction there are two dimensions to be considered; the position on the ground plane and the location of the ground plane with respect to the rectenna center line as shown in figure 11.

Subject to the constraint that the value of the second term is always less than H. Assuming some value of resistance per unit length of transmission line the resistance of the transmission line from the j+HSubarray in the section is:
p.(

Next to find the efficiency of transmission the power delivered neglecting impedance effedts
Prc

^ &T/
Computer Program Outputs Along each row determine: (1) Total length of series connections vs./ direction in row. (2) Total number crow bars, inverters and step-up transformers vs. X radrjs (3) Total length of east.west transmission wire vs. X distance from center. (4) Tptal length of north, south transmission wire vs. Y distance from center line. (5) Total power vs. x at various y.

IV-APP-13

Input: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Unit costs for wire/unit length Weight of wire/unit length Unit costs for crow bar, inverter and transformer Weight breakdown on items in 3 above Cost per KW for balance of SSPS

Output: 1. Total dollar cost vs. power along X direction in each row (i.e. %$ vs. % power??) 2. Masses of material vs. power along X for each Y. Next a subroutine should be developed to determine the items described in the next section. In Figure IV-APP-11 is shown the accumulated dollar cost of capital equipment vs. the accumulated power output for various rows of the rectenna. The curves are arbitrary except that the general shape is correct. The slope of this curve Acost/^power is determined at each step and A cost/^ power^ C the calculation is terminated when efficiency due to cost. This process if repeated for each row. Then: The average collection efficiency P available = P.
*"

At this point determine PC/P^ for the row which istic limiting collection

ti.

IV-APP-14

•J
\

*
/GO

FIGURE IV-APP-11
IV-APP-14-A

Distribution Is 50 percent of capital cost of utilities. Future Work Collection for rectenna is an inverse distribution operation. Reliability must be established. The computer program described 1n the preceding section provides individual wires, but in practice, the transmission line might be tapered, as more subarrays are added to the line. The mass of conductor should be about the same for either case. There is a question of whether alternate paths to the central collection point should be provided. In the event that a-line fault should develop between the subarray and the central collection point, some provision must be made to isolate that section of line without interrupting the supply from that subarray. Any system which provides alternate paths between the subarray and the cetnral collection point will require more wiring, hence have a higher cost. The cost of this collection system, based upon extrapolation of Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book by Central Station Engineers of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, copyright 1950, East Pittsburgh, Pa., (figure 4, page 695), is about $100 per KVA in 1950 dollars, or around $300/ KVA and may be as high as $500/KVA in 1985 dollars. Note also that is voltage control is required in the solar collection system, so that the structure is not used for collection, a similar cost will be incurred 1n that system, but should be lower since the power output density 1s lower. Voltage drop limits need to be established; "The Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers." Permissible Voltage Drop, Section 16-88 states: "Permissible drop in voltage between the supply and substation and first transformer should not exceed 10 percent on transmission lines."

4 The scheme described in this report involves the paralleling of 10 subarrays, which on the average contain around 10$ diodes. The AC output from these subarrays must be in parallel if they are to be combined for transmission. The control system for controlling relationships and paraleling control has not been considered in this preliminary look at collection, but is the equivalent of paralleling 10^ generators. Collection and isolation at some intermediate power level around 50,000 Kw will probably be required. Here again, the question of the amount of interconnect redundancy vs. reliability requires further study along with operating voltage.
Grounding Considerations There are a number of grounding requirements inposed by the rectenna. a. The ground plane reflectors from each subatatlon of the rectenna must be adequately grounded during normal operation. IV-APP-15

b. The crow bar from each subarray must dissipate 500 Kw whenever the load is interrupted and during startup of the rectenna; 104 such sources will be operating if there exists a complete load interruption. c. Lightning grounds will be required for the ground plane and overhead transmission lines. d. Transfer neutrals must be grounded. e. Fences and other equipment in the vicinity of high voltage are normally grounded. The exact type of ground system will depend upon the electrical characteristics of the earth in the region it is installed. In moist ground, iron pipes may be sufficient, while in desert or rocky areas, a grid work' buried in the ground may be required. Specifications for power to be dissipated and allowable voltage drops and the changes in ground conductivity under protracted dumping of the output while the load is interrupted need further study. Microwave Reception Changes in the intensity of the incident microwave beam due to failures or errors in the antenna system atmospheric effects, together with equipment failures and load changes on the ground will produce transients in the rectenna collection system. This may show two types of effects, surges in peak voltages and frequency which are harmonics of the collection systems. Line protection and possible interference with microwave reception can result and need investigation. Corona discharge from overhead lines may also affect microwave reception and hence, needs further investigation. Alignment Considerations The periodic motion of the earth due to tidal action, and long term changes in the earth's surface will produce misalignments of the rectenna ground plane arrays with the incoming microwave beam. Temperature variations from day-to-night can be expected to produce similar effects. These effects can be expected to produce changes in reception efficiency. Provisions for periodic alignment of the rectenna subarrays and designs which take into account temperature changes are required to maximize rectenna conversion efficiency. Summary and Conclusion An outline of the calculations required to make a first approximation of the mass and cost of a rectenna collection system have been made. The effects en rectenna efficiency have been described and an approach to a cost IV-APP-16

trade-off between rectenna materials and efficiency has been outlined. The computer program will provide additional refinement to the estimate of rectenna efficiency and some Initial cost comparisons. The results of this initial modeling shows that there are a number of safety features and reliability considerationswhich will require incorporation into the rectenna design. Recommendations (1) It is recommended that detailed programming of the rectenna collection system be carried out as quickly as possible; some preliminary estimates are possible using hand calculations. The effects of the rectenna efficiency changes on the cost and performance of the balance of the SPS system need to be investigated parametrically for rectenna optimization studies. (2) The operating voltages, paralleling controls, redundancy isolation requirements, grounding requirements, and structural alignment need performance specifications and it is recommended that an RFP be issued to study these area when funds become available.

IV-APP-17

V. SPACE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEM A. SYSTEM DEFINITION STUDY CONSTRUCTION RESULTS

L. M. Jenkins Spacecraft Design Division The Boeing SPS Systems Study, Part I, included an analysis of the construction requirements and construction concepts for three SPS configurations - a thermal engine and photovoltalcs at concentration ratios of 1 and 2 (CR1 and CR2). Requirements for construction at LEO and GEO were analyzed and compared for each configuration. Since the objectives of Part I of the study concerned power conversion alternative evaluation and the development of data related to space construction location, this initial construction analysis was not directed toward developing absolute mass and cost numbers, but was oriented toward construction differences in satellite types and construction sites. Toward this end, the construction analysis developed the following data for each alternative energy conversion concept and construction location: definition of definition of definition of definition of definition of construction concepts type of facility to be used construction sequences time allocations for each major construction task functional requirements for the construction

machinery

- definition of requirements for the number of each type of construction machine and their operating rates - number of construction personnel required For simplification, the assumption was made that each satellite would be constructed in one year, machines were given a fixed operating rate, and the number of machines varied to meet the overall one year limit. Antenna construction was not analyzed since antennas were common to all alternatives, but time was allocated for attaching antennas to the array structure, and estimates were made for antenna construction crew size. As the various satellite types were analyzed, a set of underlying principles (objectives, goals, guidelines) evolved that were incorporated into all of the various construction concepts. The philosophy which evolved from the assembly of these principles could not always be satisfied, but they do represent an initial set of criteria for space construction which has some engineering or operational basis for existence. This "construction philosophy" is summarized in the following:

V-A- 1

CONCEPT

RATIONALE

Facilitized Construction - Do not have to build in extra strength (mass) into every satellite in order to support construction equipment. Construction operations can be decoupled. Decoupled Operations Construction operations should be independent as possible so that a slow down or stoppage in one operation has minimum impact on others. J^bricate major subassernbJJ_es_in_para.l.1 el_in_ separate facility locations so that maximum time can be allotted to each subassembly fabrication. Simplifies Simplifies Simplifies Simplifies facility. machine resupply logistics. personnel access. facility. removing completed satellite from

Major Subassemblies in 'Parallel

Work From One Side

Continuous Beams

Continuous beams, whether curved or straight, minimize the number of joints, and eliminates the need for some joint plug assemblies. Using tracks for construction machine is preferred to the use of "overhead crane" technique for getting the machines to the desired location: • machine located closer to work (long booms not required) • provides surface to attach temporary beam supports • allows independent activity of multiple number of machines (not constrained by number of overhead cranes) Placing beam machines on tracks such that the machine backs away from "extruded" beam is preferred over fixed beam machines: • continuous longitudinal beams can be made (no longitudinal butt joints required) • cross frames can be started as soon as longitudinal beam machines pass the joint area

Construction Machine Tracks

Moving Beam Machines

V-A-2

CONCEPT

RATIONALE

Support the Beams

- The beams must be supported as they are fabricated to eliminate undesired stress and unguided end positions.

Avoid Use of Free Flyers - Machines that free fly are not desired. The satellite components are too frangible to tolerate accidental collisions. Functional requirements for types of construction equipment, quantity and operating rate were defined and estimates made of the number of direct construction and supporting personnel (see figures V-A-1 and V-A-2). Figure V-A-3 compares sizes of facilities. In the Part I study, a preliminary constructability rating was derived for the six combinations of configuration and construction location. Figure V-A-4 graphically represents the relative values of this rating technique. The parameters used in the rating were given weighting factors to reflect their importance. For instance, assembly complexity was judged to be of the greatest importance. The photovoltaic, CR1, satellite is about 50 percent better from the constructability aspect than the thermal engine satellite. The photovoltaic CR2 satellite falls in between the other two in constructability rating. The truss configuration satellites were conceived as a way to simplify construction. Boeing has applied a similar approach to the thermal engine reflector support structure by changing from a parabolic support for the reflector facets to a cylindrical support. This improved construction operations, but increased the facet area requirement by four percent. Eliminating the reflectors in changing the photovoltaic to a CR1 improved the constructability by placing the solar cell blankets on a flat side of the truss structure. The rating technique indicates very little difference between the LEO and GEO construction location; therefore, constructability is not considered a strong discriminator in that trade. Collisions with objects in LEO is a concern during construction. Approximately thirty collisions are predicted during LEO construction and transit to GEO. For thirty years operation in GEO about 10 collisions are predicted. The probability of significant damage from a collision is considered to be very low. Of greater influence on the LEO/GEO decision is the requirement for berthing the large sections after transport from LEO. A concept for accomplishing the berthing is illustrated in figure V-A-5.

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Other conclusions from the construction analysis are that one year for construction appears reasonable in terms of machine operating rates, number of machines and crew size.

V-A-9

V. __^___^.^___^____^__——-^— SPACE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS B. ORBITAL CONSTRUCTION SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (OCSE) STUDY

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S. H. Nasslff Spacecraft Design Division One of the key areas identified in the "study task structure" of the JSC in-house study report (JSC-11568) for solar power systems in space was equipment required to support automated fabrication/assembly of large space structures. This equipment has been designated as orbital construction support equipment (OCSE). To further define the OCSE required in constructing large space systems, a study contract was awarded to the Martin Marietta Corporation Denver Division under NASA Contract NAS 9-15120. The contract span was for nine months (October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1977). The objective of the study was to produce a conceptual design and system definition of the OCSE required for orbital construction of large space systems, typified by various configurations of solar power satellite systems, and to derive supporting OCSE development and cost data. The primary emphasis for this study was directed toward OCSE needed for support of construction of a large solar power satellite (SPS) having an operational location in geosynchronous orbit, although the results are applicable to the construction of any large space system. Three SPS baseline configurations were given to the contractor for this study effort. These were the JSC photovoltaic column/cable, JSC photovoltaic truss, and the Boeing thermal cycle concepts. These concepts represent a typical spectrum of present SPS configurations and are shown in figure V-B-1. OCSE is defined as that equipment required to support automated fabrication/assembly equipment which will have to be assembled, postioned, set up, controlled, checked out, monitored, serviced, and maintained with specially trained personnel located at the space construction site. It also considers both man and machine in the construction role. The study was divided into three parts. Part I covered OCSE requirements, Part II was concept definition, and Part III'included OCSE evaluation and selection. Based on the construction tasks identified in the functional analysis of the three SPS concepts investigated, requirements were identified for performing the SPS construction tasks on each SPS element. These requirements are summarized in generic processes requirements and encompasses all functions required during SPS construction/assembly. The processes were defined as follows: transport, handle, align, fasten, adjust, monitor, and checkout.

V-B-1

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Requirements were identified for each process applicable to each SPS element, for every recognized task involved in the baseline construction methods. The degree of automated vs. direct control of SPS elements, in qualitative terms, is shown as frequency of occurrence vs. unit mass in figure V-B-2. Figures V-B-3 and V-B-4 show frequency of occurrence vs. transport distance and handling distance, respectively. Although there is a high degree of scatter evident in the data, due to the diversity of elements involved in SPS construction, the data tends to suggest which group of high frequency elements miqht be accommodated by automated systems and the group of less frequently occurring items be more directly controlled. An OCSE category tree was generated to ensure that an orderly approach was used in evaluating the applicability of different candidate concepts. This structured grouping, as shown in figure V-B-5, provided a quick visual reference of candidate similarities by systems characteristics such as operational utility, functional capability, and hardware utilization. The OCSE lists generated for each SPS configuration contain items which are common to all the configurations, or to two of the three configurations. The following summarizes the types of OCSE required in the three SPS configurations:
• Transporter, Free Flying

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Transporter, Structure Attached Manipulator, Mobile Base Manipulator, Fixed Base Long Boom, Attached Base Universal Docking Device Aligner (EVA, TV, Laser)
Fastener (EVA, Manipulator, Latch)

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• Modular Systems (GN&C/Comm/ACS) • EVA Hand Tools

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• Checkout System Figure V-B-6 shows some of the major concept alternatives as they apply to the OCSE inventory tree established earlier.
V-B-3

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KEY FOR NUMBERED EXAMPLES:

1 Reflector Facets (Boeing Thermal) 2 Subarrays, MPTS 3 Column Beams (Column/Cable) 4 SECS Support Trusses (Truss Type) 5 Rotary Joint Structure Beams (Truss Type) 6 Cable Reels (Column/Cable) 7 Concentrator Material (Column/Cable) 8 Extension Structure Beams (Column/Cable, Truss Type) 9 Solar Concentrator Support Structure (Boeing Thermal) 10 Busbar Harness (Boeing Thermal) NOTE: Several SPS elements exist with masses >10 kg and frequencies of occurrence <10.

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V-B-5

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A relatively large number of OCSE candidates were identified during the study. Many of the potential candidates were obviously "significant to the study and required further detailed evaluation, while others were less significant in both functional and design terms. Therefore, it was necessary to "filter out" less attractive solutions. The OCSE identified was screened and ranked using screening parameters such as task cycles, performance flexibility, performance redundancy, size, interfaces, stateof-the-art, SRT time phasing, potential obsolescence, etc. The screened candidates resulted in the following: • • t • t • t • • t • Manipulator, Fixed or Mobile Base, or Dual ^5 degrees of freedom Docking device for joining large systems Manned Cherry Picker, detached to booms on structure Base Core Module Fixed-base Boom, long/extendable, <C4 degrees of freedom Maintenance Repair Module Commodities Storage Module Personnel/Material Transporter, structure attached OCSE Storage Panels Personnel/Material Transporter, free flying EVA Module

More detailed results of this study are available in the final report for Contract NAS 9-15120, published by Martin Marietta in July 1977. A follow-on effort is planned for design of selected OCSE during FY77 and FY78. The next phase would include manufacturing of the OCSE with development testing conducted in facilities at JSC in FY79.

V-B-9

V. SPACE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS C. AUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION J. C. Jones

Spacecraft Design Division The solar power satellite (SPS) must be constructed in space; therefore, special automated construction equipment must be designed and developed. In-house and contractor studies have concluded that the primary structure of the SPS will be a truss arrangement with one or two sublevels or tiers of truss members (i.e., small truss members making up -larger-truss-members^-etc-^)-.—The-bas-ie--structural~mater-ia-l-,-re-lati-ve -tocurrent technology, will be composites of plastic resin (thermoplastic or thermosetting plastic) and reinforcing fibers (such as graphite). Required structural properties include low coefficient of thermal expansion and high modulus of elasticity. High tensile strength will be of lesser significance. A generally accepted construction concept is to use a "beam builder", an automated machine, to fabricate the first sublevel truss structural members from strip stock material that is stored on reels. Thus, all structural material can be transported to orbit as high density payload. An assembly jig would then be used to position a number of beam builders in the proper location, and support the beams as they are produced to allow joining of the beams to form the final SPS structure. The assembly jig would also provide for installation of all other components of the SPS, including solar blankets, etc. Construction would be automated to that level which is cost effective (i.e., automate unless a manual operation is lower in overall system cost), or to that point where automation is not technologically feasible. Besides the beam builder and assembly jig, construction equipment will include manipulators (or cranes, positioning mechanisms, etc.), beam joining mechanisms, subsystems installation mechanisms, etc. A detailed description of a space construction experiment to develop a beam builder and the processes and techniques associated with automated space construction can be found in Section IX-B-3-b.

V-C-1

VI. SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM A. SPS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM DEFINITION E. M. Crum

Future Programs Office The SPS Systems Definition Study (NAS 9-15196), was contracted to the Boeing Aerospace Company under the technical management of Mr. Clarke Covington of the Spacecraft Design Division. It was augmented shortly after initiation with additional tasks related to 'SPS transportation and transportation system operations and the contracted effort increased by approximately one-third. The 5 month Phase I effort was completed in May 1977, and Phase II is to be completed in December 1977. The objective for the transportation tasks added to the original study was to: a. Increase the scope and depth of understanding of the space transportation systems necessary to support an SPS program. b. Provide a set of transportation system requirements and reference transportation system element descriptions appropriate to the conduct of an SPS program as represented by JSC Scenario "B." c. Identify and define analyses and tests necessary to advance the confidence level in projected SPS transportation systems performance and cost sufficient to recommended initiation of an SPS technology advancement program. The ground rules and approach prescribed were: a. Use existing data base. b. Use existing OTS models and modify only as required to provide cost driver summary. c. Define transportation systems for the different satellite power generation and construction location options. d. Provide sufficient data on OTS options to determine weight, cost, and technical risk. A summary of the tasks which were specified to meet the study objectives is as follows: a. Define reference transportation system. b. Develop SPS transportation system requirements. c. Conduct collision analysis VI-A-1

d. Prepare OTV system definition. e. Prepare LV system definition. f. Prepare an integrated operations description. g. Perform a cost/risk assessment. h. Prepare an advanced technology development plan. i. Estimate exhaust product insertion into atmosphere. j. Analyze consumption of critical commodities. k. Prepare briefing data. 1. Prepare separate transportation system documentation. The results of this study activity are planned to support and complement a comprehensive SPS transportation system study to be contracted in late 1977 and which, in turn, will support the' preferred concepts selection milestone in October 1978. The preliminary results presented at the Phase I review on May 5, 1977, may be summarized as follows: a. Either a two stage ballistic or two stage winged HLLV can be developed to deploy the commercial network of SPS for a development cost of less than $10B, not including costs of the launch and recovery facilities. b. Theoretical first unit costs for either type of vehicle is about $1B. c. Costs per flight for either vehicle, providing about 400 tons payload in LEO, are slightly less than $8 million, or about $20/kg specific launch cost. d. The two stage cryogenic COTV remains the best of the presentlyknown candidates for GEO construction of the SPS, utilizing 830 tons of propellent per flight for delivery of 400 tons of payload from LEO to GEO. e. For LEO construction of the SPS, a ."self-powered" propulsion system was characterized based upon ion thrusters utilizing argon propellent. f. Increased understanding was attained of acceptable flight mechanics and attitude control concepts for the long-duration "selfpowered" LEO to GEO transfer, including management of the satellite attitude during occulted portions of the orbits. VI-A-2

g. LEO construction and electric "self-power" transit to 6EO provides total transportation costs of about $65Q/kW. compared to about $8QO/kK for GEO construction. Both numbers are based on SPS specific mass of 8.9 kg/kW and launch costs of approximately $20/kg. h. GEO construction requires nearly twice the daily launch rate as LEO construction (14 versus 7 for 4 SPS's per year) and is thus more sensitive to potential launch cost changes.

VI-A-3

VI.

SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM B. HEAVY LIFT LAUNCH VEHICLE

VI-B-1. Booster Engine Concept Selection M. Lausten Propulsion and Power Division a. Rationale The rationale and selection of the baseline booster engine included such factors as thrust level, engine cycle, and propellent combination. Some studies have indicated that maximum engine thrust to weight and performance is obtained with engines in the 500K to 1 mil Ibf thrust class. However, a high thrust engine (approx. 2 mil Ibf) was selected so as to minimize the number of engines required for the large vehicles being considered. It is felt that minimizing the number of engines should, based upon internal combustion and jet engine history, minimize overall vehicle operational complexity. A gas generator engine cycle was selected as having the greatest potential of satisfying the major desirable characteristics of a reusable booster engine. This includes high engine thrust to weight, simplicity, minimum cost (including development, unit, and operational), high chamber pressure capability, and scalability to very high thrust levels. In the selection of the propel 1 ants for the engine, factors such as cost, availability, toxicity, and corrosivity make liquid oxygen (LOX) the most logical oxidizer. Selection of the fuel is another matter. Liquid hydrogen (LH2), for example, possesses many desirable characteristics; high performance, excellent cooling capability, maximum performance at a high mixture ratio, non-corrosive, and non-toxic. However, studies have shown that its high cost and low density present major drawbacks for very large and highly reusable boosters. While RP-1 (CH]_94) has been used extensively as a booster engine fuel, it has some major drawbacks for a highly reusable booster. The thermal decomposition and subsequent coking of thrust chamber coolant channels has been shown to occur at coolant wall temperatures as low as 400°F. While the amount of coking at temperatures as high as 600 to 700°F appears to be acceptable for a reusable engine, these maximum wall temperatures limit the practical engine chamber pressure to something between 1500 and 2000 psia. This problem is accentuated by the fact that the typical LOX/RP-1 gas side carbon layer build-up that significantly reduces heat flux and wall temperatures at lower chamber pressures (e.g., H-l (700 psia) and F-l [980 psia] engines) does not maintain itself for chamber pressures above approximately 1500 psia. VI-B-1

In order to circumvent the problems associated with RP-1 cooling without acquiring the potential problems associated with using LOX as the chamber coolant, other potential fuels were considered. After a limited survey, propane (03^) was selected as having the potential to satisfy the major desirable characteristics of a reusable booster fuel while specifically overcoming the major drawbacks of RP-1 and LHo. In particular, propane does not experience any thermal decomposition below 860°F, thus potentially allowing maximum engine chamber pressjjres_on_the_order of 3000 psia. Propane possesses several other potentially desirable characteristics: (1) It is a gas at standard temperatures and pressures and postflight purges could be minimized as compared with RP-1 with its very low vapor pressure. (2) Heated propane could provide autogenous pressunzation (not possible with RP-1). (3) It has an unusually wide subcooling range (normal boiling point = -43.7°F and freezing point = -305.9°F). (4) Its freezing point is below the normal boiling point of LOX thus potentially eliminating the requirement for insulation on common bulkhead tankage. (5) The low freezing point of propane should eliminate injector design problems associated with LOX freezing of RP-1 in the injector manifolds and combustion chamber. b. Engine Characteristics A detailed regenerative cooling analysis was not conducted for LOX/propane. However, the results from RP-1 and methane (CH4) analyses indicate that a chamber pressure of approximately 3000 psia could be achieved within an acceptable maximum chamber wall temperature and coolant pressure drop. The prediction of actual maximum engine heat flux is very difficult at best. However, a simplified analysis was conducted to obtain relative heat flux data. The analysis showed that the heat flux for LOX/propane and LOX/RP-1 were essentially equal (propane 5% higher than RP-1) and that the heat flux for LOX/propane was 20 percent less than for LOX/LH2 for the same thrust and chamber pressure. The analysis also showed that the high thrust (large throat diameter) of the LOX/propane engine reduced its heat flux relative to the SSME . (Space Shuttle Main Engine, LOX/LH2, 3000 psia, and 470 KLBF thrust) by some 40 percent. In particular, the maximum chamber heat flux for the LOX/propane engine should be less than 50 percent of that experienced by the SSME. The LOX/propane engine cycle was assumed to consist of individually powered oxidizer and fuel pumps, thus permitting operation VI-B-2

at speeds corresponding to maximum efficiency without requiring life limiting and complex gearing. The pumps were assumed to be powered by two stage turbines operating at temperatures consistent with long life (1660°F). The turbin exhaust gases were assumed to be injected into the main 40:1 expansion ratio nozzle so as to maximize performance. The flows for the single stage main pumps were increased by 10 percent to account for hydraulic powering of low speed oxidizer and fuel boost pumps (e.g., SSME LOX pumps). The propane was assumed to be loaded at LOX temperatures (-297°F) so as to minimize propellant tank weight, to maximize regenerative cooling capability, and to minimize turbopump weight and power. The nominal engine mixture ratio was selected so as to maximize engine performance. However, being that the oxidizer is much cheaper than the fuel, engine performance at high mixture ratios was generated to support studies to determine vehicle operating characteristics corresponding to minimum overall cost. The major engine predicted characteristics at nominal operating conditions are summarized in Table VI-B-1.

VI-B-3

TABLE VI-B-1 LOX/PROPANE ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS ENGINE

Thrust, vacuum (mil Ibf) Thrust, sea level (mil Ibf) Specific impulse, vacuum (Ibf-sec/lbm) -Speci f i c-impul sey-sea—1 eve-1—(-1 bf-sec/-! bm) Mixture ratio (wo/wf) Flow rate, oxidizer (Ibm/sec) Flow rate, fuel (Ibm/sec) Nozzle expansion area ration (AE/AT Nozzle diameter (in) Power head diameter (in) Engine length (in) Weight, dry (K Ibm) Thrust/weight dry (Ibm)
MAIN CHAMBER

2.00 1.79 340.0 304^12.68 4284.0 1598.0 40.0:1 135.0 125.0 230.0 20.0 100.0 3000 3.07 97.5 50.0 20.8
3000 0.30 1660 5.0 71.4 46.3 29.62 17.04 4000 5000 81.8

Chamber pressure (psia) Mixture ratio (wo/wf) Combustion efficiency C* (PCT) Maximum heat flux (PCT of SSME) Throat diameter (in)
GAS GENERATOR

Chamber pressure (psia) Mixture ratio (wo/wf) Temperature (°R) Total flow rate (PCT of engine total) MAIN TURBOPUMPS Density, oxidizer (lbm/ft 3 ) Density, fuel (lbm/ft ) Flow rate, oxidizer (KGPM) Flow rate, fuel (KGPM) Pressure rise, oxidizer (psid) Pressure rise, fuel (psid) Horsepower, oxidizer (KHP)
3

Horsepower, fuel (KHP) VI-B-4

60.7

VI.

SPACE. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM B. HEAVY LIFT LAUNCH VEHICLE VI-B-2. J. Hondros Launch Vehicle Design Analysis - Engineering Analysis Division

The purpose of this section of the report is to present new results and data that are improved from the 1976 SPS documentation. The major differences in the designs are reduced weights for the winged 1-million pound payload systems. The major weight reductions were brought about by removal of air-breathing engine systems, much improved weight estimating techniques, and reduction of the 20% contingency to a 10% contingency. An evaluation of 16 conceptual configuration designs was conducted and documented as shown in Table VI-B-2. The matrix of configurations contains various combinations of payloads, payload density, winged and ballistic, composite materials, booster engines and second stage engine changes as well as variations in series and parallel burn of the stages. The design document numbers are identified on Table VI-B-2 and can be obtained on request. The gross results of this analysis are as follows: a. Payload density variations of 30 lbs/ft3 to 10 lbs/ft3 cost 210K in stage inerts, 1.4M pounds in propellant, and 120K dollars per flight. b. Design for a reusable or foldup interstage. A weight margin of 177,000 pounds is available for this task. The margin consists of a 44K nose, a 58K interstage and 75K lead ballast for aerodynamic trim. In excess of 45,000 tons of aluminum is saved for a 1500 flight profile. c. Series burn vehicles provide more performance per pound of gross weight. The performance is obtained by engine expansion ratio increases available for series burn. Series systems save 1.8M pounds of gross weight and about 730K dollars in propellant cost per flight. d. Tri-propellant booster engines give a reduction of almost 1M pounds in gross weight; however, they cost between TOOK and 270K dollars more in propellant cost per flight. e. Complex LOX/hydrogen vehicles have a 3.5M pound reduction in vehicle gross weight as compared to a LOX/propane system but, LOX/ hydrogen systems cost 2 million dollars per flight more in propel!ant cost. VI-B-5

f. A 20% weight reduction for composite materials application in the vehicle saves almost 2 million pounds in gross weight and about TOOK dollars per flight. This is an area considered for technology advancement with a weight and cost payoff. g. Payloads should be designed large. Large vehicles in the current study are more efficient per pound of payload delivered. h. A short cost analysis of propellants for delivery of a 1M ..po.und. payJ_oad__wjs_jrade^^n_J-OX/propane_ajid LOX/hydrogejn^booster systems. Assuming 2 cents/pound for LOX and 5^3 cents/pound T6r~propane7^hydrOgen~ must be delivered for 45 cents/pound. If propane costs escalate to 15 cents/pound, hydrogen must be delivered at 85 cents/pound. Current cost of hydrogen for Shuttle is $1.85/pound and probably will be prohibitive in cost unless some technology can reduce the product cost. The baseline JSC in-house study launch vehicle size and performance is presented in document EDIN EX 338-76, Appendix VI-APP-A.

VI-B-6

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VI.

SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM B. HEAVY LIFT LAUNCH VEHICLE

3. Modified Single Stage to Ortit Concept

Jack Funk Technology Dev. Office-MPAD

SUMMARY The modified single stage to orbit heavy lift launch vehicle configuration (MSSTO) was evaluated for 1 000 000 pounds of payload delivered to a 270 n.mi. circular orbit using two main propulsion engine types one fueled with hydrogen and the other fueled with propane. The system was evaluated for the engine combination which provided the lowest cost for launch expendables using $20, $1, 18<£, and 10.2£ per pound, respectively, for expendable tank, liquid hydrogen, propane, and liquid oxygen. The results indicate that the minimum expendable cost occurs with 25 percent of the lift-off thrust being fueled with hydrogen and 75 percent being fueled with propane. The expendable cost per 1 000 000 pound payload is about $6 000 000 or $6 per pound of payload. The MSSTO had a gross lift-off weight of 26 795 000 pounds. The lifting body orbiter measured 315 feet in length and 194 feet in width. The external hydrogen tank was one and one half times the dimensions of the Space Shuttle external propellent tank and measured 242.6 feet in length and 41.6 feet in diameter. A comparison between the sizes of the modified single stage to orbit and the two stage heavy lift launch vehicles is shown in figure VI-B-1.
1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The modified single stage to orbit heavy lift launch vehicle (figure VI-B2) consists of a reusable orbiter vehicle and expendable fuel tank. The orbiter vehicle includes all of the engines, subsystems, payload bay hydrocarbon fuel tank and oxidizer tank. The drop tank contains only the liquid hydrogen fuel and is carried to orbit where it is staged for disposal using the same technique developed for disposal of the Shuttle external tank. The single propellent drop tank is simpler than multi-propellent tanks and is designed for light weight and low cost. To aid in the light weight design, the launch trajectory is restricted to low dynamic pressures and accelerations. The nominal trajectory angle of attack is restricted to zero through the maximum dynamic pressure region. The modified single stage to orbit vehicle can deliver more payload to orbit for a given gross lift-off weight by expending the fuel tank than can a full VI-B-8

reusable SSTO. This technique for payload improvement was studied during the phase B Shuttle studies and resulted in significant payload gains over the fully reusable system. The expected advantages of the modified single stage to orbit launch vehicle over the two stage vehicle are: 1. Reduced development cost by elimination of the booster. ' 2. Reduced first unit cost by the purchases of one vehicle instead of

two.
3. Reduced facilities cost by elimination of the downrange landing site and transportation system required to return the booster to the launch site. 4. Simplified launch operations by elimination of the booster staging, downrange landing, booster transportation to launch site, and elimination of inflight start of the orbiter engines. 5. Launch site flexibility: because of the downrange landing requirement of the booster the choice of launch sites for the baseline system is very limited, whereas the MMSTO can be launched from almost any location by changing the main engine cutoff conditions for tank disposal. The major disadvantage of the MSSTO is the cost of the external hydrogen tank. The development of a low cost hydrogen tank is essential to low cost operation of the MSSTO.

VI-B-9

Figurem-B-1

- Comparison of modified single stage to orbit launch vehicle and two stage launch vehicle.
VT V A
I.

rI i p V

Payload Glow

1 000 000 Ib 26 789 000 Ib

T

242.6 ft

315.4ft

193.9 ft
77.5 ft

Figure2I-B- 2

-Modified heavy lift launch vehicle mixed mode.

vi-B-n

II

MODIFIED SINGLE STAGE TO ORBIT SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS

Propulsion - Main Rocket engines using oxygen as the oxidizer and both hydrogen and propane as fuels were considered for the main propulsion. The propane engine uses hydrogen as an engine coolant. The characteristics of these engines as supplied by the Power and Propulsion division are given in table VI-B-3. One third of the engines are gimbaled. The characteristics of the propellents are given in table VI-B-4. ~Tankage"and~Propenant~System The propel!ants for ascent are carried in a single tank system. The oxygen and propane tanks are integral to the entry vehicle and act as the primary airframe and load carry structure for launch and entry. The hydrogen fuel tank is mounted external to the entry vehicle and is staged for disposal at the end of the main engine burn. Orbit insertion is accomplished with the orbit maneuvering system (OMS). The oxygen tank and its entry heat protection are aerodynamically shaped to the lifting body configuration (reference 1) using the multilobe tank design from reference 2. The external hydrogen tank shape is scaled from the shuttle external tank profile and shuttle-tank aerodynamics are used in drag calculations for the launch trajectory. The expendable hydrogen tank is designed for low cost and light weight. The tank has a monocoque structure of 2219-T87 aluminum sheet. External hydrogen drop tank structural analysis performed during the phase B shuttle studies concluded that if the tank walls are designed for internal pressure, the tank is capable of sustaining all ascent load conditions without the requirement of additional stiffening. Also, the drop tank can be subject to handling from its extremities without damage through all stages of assembly if the tank is internally pressurized to 2 psi. A significant weight penalty results, however, if the tank is required to be handled unpressurized. It is expected that these results will hold true for the much larger drop tank of the modified single stage to orbit configuration. The ullage pressure required for engine start of 25 psia is at sea level where the ambient pressure is about 15 psia. At the time of maximum dynamic pressure the internal pressure should be down to 20 psia with an ambient pressure of about 3.5 psia. The critical design condition, therefore, is expected to be at 3.0 g with an ullage pressure of 20 psia and a 50% full tank. The pressure on the aft dome will be about 33 psia. To simplify the weight analysis, the structural weight was based on an average wall pressure of 25 psia with a factor of safety of 1.5 on the ultimate strength of 2219T87 aluminum at room temperature of 63000 PSI. The density of this material is 0.102 Ibs/in3.

VI-B-12

TABLE VI-B-3 MAIN PROPULSION SYSTEM ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS SSME PROPELLANTS ENGINE CYCLE COOLANT C-2/H2 STAGE COMBUSTION
H2

H2 COOLED PROPANE 02/C3 H8
GAS GEN.
H2

DUAL EXPANSION 02/H2
GAS GEN.
H2

SINGLE EXPANSION 02/H2
GAS GEN.
H2

CHAMBER PRESSURE MIXTURE'RATIO NOZZLE AREA RATIO THRUST VACUUM SPECIFIC IMPULSE VACUUM THRUST AREA RATIO ENGINE THRUST/WEIGHT*

3250
6
77.5 512K

6000
3.29
70

6000
7

6000
7
60

60/270 VARIABLE 437/463 .007061/ .02473
70.8

VARIABLE 357.4 .005674
100.0

VARIABLE
437

455.2 .01261 80.76

.007061
90.0

*VACUUM THRUST/DRY WEIGHT TABLE VI-B-'4 PROPELLANT CHARACTERISTICS
02 H2

C3H8

LIQUID DENSITY (Ib/ft3) STORAGE TEMPERATURE (deg F) COST ($/lb)

71.3
-297.0

4.42
-420.0

-45.0

.102

1.00

.180

VI-B-13,

An equation developed for the weight to volume ratio of a cylindrical tank with spherical domes is given below. W V Where: P d S K F „ . (3+6K)/S 2+3K

= rrd

is tank pressure is material density is~maten"al~sTrefrgth is tank length to diameter ratio is design safety factor

The tank pressure, material density and ultimate strength are given above. The tank length to diameter ratio is 3.82 and the factor of safety is 1.5. In addition, a 10% weight factor was added for sheet gage tolerance. The weight to volume ratio for the tank structure is
W 3+6*3 8? - = 1728*1.10*1.50*0.5*0.10*( ---) /63000 = 0.222 lb/ft3 V 2+3*3.82

The entire tank is covered with 0.75 inch thick polyurethane foam (2.0 PCF) with 0.125 inch added for coating errors. An additional 0.104 PCF was added for waterproofing and flame retardant. In the area of interference heating between the orbiter and tank and on the aft cone, 0.25 inch of 30 PCF ablator was added. The area of interference heating was estimated as 30% of the barrel surface. The orbiter-tank attachment structure weight was estimated as 8% of the tank weight and includes stiffening of the tank wall in the vicinity of the attach points. Sizing and loading of the propel!ant tanks is biased so that oxygen depletion occurs prior to hydrogen depletion. The 3 flow rate error is 1% for each engine. The total flow rate error is the root sum square of the flow rate errors of the operating engines. This is integrated along the trajectory to obtain the hydrogen bias. The main propulsion propellent system is pressurized by gaseous oxygen and hydrogen bled from the main engine. Pressurization for engine start is provided through vent lines from ground supply. The integral liquid oxygen tank weight was estimated using the multilobe propellant tank weight projections from reference 2. The value used is 0.52 Ibs/ft3. Thermal Protection System The aerodynamic shape for the entry vehicle is a scaled version of the lifting body entry vehicle of reference 1. The thermal protection system VI-B-14

given in reference 1 averaged 2.28 Ibs/ft2 of surface area. The thermal protection for the body of the baseline single stage to orbit vehicle of reference 2 averages 2.247 lbs/ft2. Both heat protection systems were similar in concept consisting of RSI mounted subpanels mounted on aluminum standoff rails. They differ primarily in the type of RSI titles and subpanel material used. The difference in weight, however, is only 1.5%. The heat protection system weight estimates are therefore based on the 2.28 lbs/ft2 value from reference 1. (The shuttle TPS averages 1.675 lbs/ft2.) The heat protection from reference 1 was sized for 1100 n.mi. crossrange on entry. The entry trajectory was shaped to minimize the TPS weight. Peak temperatures were estimated to be 2610 deg F on the nose cap, 1980 deg F on the body leading edge, 2080 deg F on the fin leading edge, and 2050 deg F on the lower surface. The TPS limits the structural temperature to 300 deg for aluminum structure and 600 deg F for titanium structure. The only nonreusable TPS is the flexible flame curtain used to seal the base area aound the gimbaled engines. Landing Gear The landing gear is an advanced design by Boeing Aerospace from reference 3. The tri-cycle gear weight savings have been accomplished in three main areas, lowered requirements, improved structural materials, and a simplified design. The activation system is designed for extension only with gravity and air loads aiding. Maximum advantage is taken of composite and 350 ksi steels. The weight estimate for this landing gear is 2'.8% of the landed weight. Tail Groups^ The tail groups consist of the fin, rudder, upper flap, lower flap and auxiliary control surfaces. The primary structure material is titanium. The weight of the tail group is estimated as 6.13% of the vehicle dry weight (reference 1). Thrust Structure The weight estimating relation for the thrust structure is W = 3.0 x 10-4 (pVAC)1.15 Weights from the above equation agree with the thrust structure weights for the Saturn SIVB stage, the shuttle orbiter, the Saturn SIC stage and calculation in reference 1. The above equation results in weights that are higher than the Titan III stage 1 and lower than the Saturn SII stage. The above equation is an excellent representation of the current technology in thrust structure design. The equation is used to estimate the thrust structure for the engines and for the payload mounting on top of the propellant tanks.

VI-B-15

Payload Compartment Structure The payload compartment is in the nose of the airframe, figure VI-B-1. The prime function of the payload compartment is to act as an aerodynamic shroud on launch which is recoverable. Launch loads from the payload are carried by a thrust structure mounted on top of the propane tank and not by the bay structure. The payload thrust structure weight is estimated according to the weight equation given in the section on thrust structure. The vacuum thrust in the above equation is replaced by the maximum launch acceleration times the payload weight. Package requirements for mounting the "payload on~tfTe~thFuTt~Ttructure~ are charged~tb payVoacH The payload bay structure weight was estimated as a linear function of bay volume using the average airframe structural weight of the lifting body design from reference 1 of 0.362 lbs/ft3. The payload bay volume was based on an average payload density of 10 Ibs/ft^. Orbit Maneuvering System The propellant for the orbit maneuvering system is liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The engine system and propellant weights estimates are based on performance and weight data for the RL-10 rocket engine. The propellent tank weights are estimated at 2.0 Ibs per cubic foot. The initial engine thrust to vehicle weight ratio for engine weight estimates is O.lg. The RL-10 engine thrust was 41.67 times the engine weight, and the specific impulse was 444.0 sec. The propel!ant requirements and tank volume were based on the delta V required to maneuver from main engine cutoff to 270 n.mi. circular orbit "and deorbit with a 10% fuel reserve. The propellant mixture ratio for OMS engine is 7:1. Reaction Control and Other Systems The reaction control, prime power, electrical, hydraulic, surface control, and avionics system weights were estimated as a percentage of the dry weight as follows. Reaction Control System Reaction Control Propellent Prime Power Electrical Hydraulic Surface Controls Avionics Growth Uncertainty The growth uncertainty is calculated at 10% of the dry weight. VI-B-16 1.5 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.1 6.13 1.4

Residual and Unusable Fluids The oxygen tank residuals are calculated as 0.219% of the liquid oxygen weight and the hydrogen tank residuals as 0.559% of the liquid hydrogen weight. These values were obtained from the shuttle external tank weight statement. The unusable fluid in the engine lines is 0.1% of the engine thrust. The unusable fluids at main engine cutoff (MECO) was calculated according to the number of engines operating at MECO. The remainder of the engine line fluids are dumped as the engines are shut down during launch and are included in the inflight losses. Reserve Fluids Ten percent of the QMS propel 1 ant is reserve. The RCS propellent is expected to exceed the nominal mission requirements. Based on shutle data, it is estimated that the RCS reserve propel 1 ant is about 50% of the total. These reserves are listed in the propel 1 ant budgets of their respective systems. Entry Vehicle and External Tank Geometry The aerodynamic entry vehicle is based on the lifting body configuration from the phase B shuttle studies, reference 1. The geometric characteristics of the configuration are given in table VI-B- 5. The external hydrogen tank is based on the shuttle external propel!ant tank configuration. The geometric characteristics of the external hydrogen tank are given in table VI-B-'6. Volume Allotments The volume allotments for the various systems are given in table VI-B- 7.

VI-B-17

TABLE VI-B-5 ORBITER GEOMETRY LENGTH (ft) SPAN (ft) HEIGHT (ft) - GEAR UP GEAR~DOWN PLAN FORM AREA (ft2) BASE AREA (ft2) WETTED AREA, INCLUDING BASE (ft2) MOLD LINE VOLUME (ft3) 149.6 * SF 92.0 * SF 36.8 * SF 49"."0~* ~SF 6846 * SF ** 2 1229 * SF ** 2 18944 * SF ** 2 97600 * SF ** 3

SF = Orbiter scale factor

VI-B-18

TABLE VI-B-6 TANK GEOMETRY LENGTH (ft) DIAMETER (ft) SURFACE AREA TOTAL (ft?) OGIVE (ft2) BARREL (ft2) AFT DOME (ft2) VOLUME TOTAL (ft3) CROSS SECTION, AREA (ft2) SFET = TANK SCALE FACTOR 157.09 26.96 10524. *SFET *SFET *SFET**2 *SFET**2 *SFET**2 *SFET**2 *SFET**3 *SFET**2

2091.
9475.

958.
78431. 570.86

THERMAL PROTECTION 3/4 inch poly-urethane foam (2 PCF) over entire tank; 0.125 inch thickness uncertainty; 0.104 PCF waterproofing and flame retardant; 1/4 inch 30 PCF ablation on 30% of barrel surface for orbiter tank interference and aft dome for base flame impingement.

VI-B-19

TABLE VI-B-7 ORBITER SYSTEMS VOLUME ALLOTMENTS

Fraction of total Air Frame Structure, Tank Walls and TPS Wheel Wells Equipment and ACS Prop Lines and Tank Support Thrust Structure Main Engines and OMS Engines Base Between Engines Lower Flap Fin Rudder and Aux Surfaces .09867 .01865 .01025 .01393 .04734 .06045 .04908 .01363 .04436 .04375 .48970 .11019 ' 1.0000

Flap Stowage
Internal Propel 1 ants & Payload

Unoccupied
Total

VI-B-20

Ill

AERODYNAMICS

Drag Characteristics

The drag coefficient as a function of Mach number is given in table VI-B-8 for the lifting body and the external tank. The forebody drag coefficient is given for the lifting body and this is combined with the power on base pressure to obtain the total drag. The drag coefficient for the external tank is power off total drag. It was assumed that there is no power on effect on the base of the external tank. The drag calculations are based on a reference platform area for the lifting body of 453.2 square meters (4878 feet squared) and is varied according to the square of the scale. The vehicle scale is determined by the LOX volume and the system volume requirements given in table VI-B-8. The lifting body scale factor is the cube root of the ratio of the total volume to the reference volume of 2738.2 cubic meters (96 700 cubic feet). In a similar manner the external hydrogen tank drag is based on the shuttle external tank shape scaled to contain the required volume of liquid hydrogen. The reference area for the external tank is 55.56 square meters (598 square feet) and the reference volume is 2220.9 cubic meters (78 431 cubic feet). The power on base force was calculated from the power on base pressure using the total area of the base of the lifting body minus the area of the engine bells. As engines were turned off, the force was reduced by the percentage of engines not operating. The power on based pressure data given in table VI-B-8 were calculated from the shuttle base force calculations Rockwell 'International Space Division report SD74-SH0206-2H.

VI-B-21

TABLE VI-B-8 LAUNCH VEHICLE DRAG CHARACTERISTICS

Lifting Body
M

External Tank

Lifting Body Power on Base Pressure
ALT(ft)

0.0
c O.0

AF .055
ncc. . UOD

C

CA
.409 •AfiQ Huy .430 .454 .475 .663 .774 .819 .850 .846 .808 .772 .707 .608 .500 .464 .464

PSI

0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 3.0 4.0 5.0 25.0

.056 .063 .080 .111 .134 .147 .155 .157 .153 .148 .140 .130 .122 .117 .117

9 7 15 20 27 35 45 55 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 500

c OUU

0 cnn 500 000 000 500 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

0 — .criQ ouo -.831 -1.154 -1.039 -.669 .046 .716 .970 1.016 .970 .808 .646 .462 .254 .185 .185 .185

VI-B-22

IV

REFERENCE MISSION

The sizing analysis and trade studies are based on delivery of a payload to a 270 n.mi. circular orbit and return to a launch site at 5.5 degrees latitude as indicated in figure VI-B-3. The 5.5 degrees latitude launch site was chosen to agree with the other launch vehicle studies. The lift-off thrust to weight ratio is 1.30. This value was chosen in order to keep the maximum dynamic pressure low. The maximum acceleration on launch is restricted to 25 g. The main engines are shut down sequentially as the vehicle exceeds the maximum acceleration. The propane engines were shut down first and then the hydrogen engines. A preliminary analysis indicated that 2.5 g value would provide more payload for a given gross lift-off weight than 3.0 g. The main engines cutoff is at an altitude of 364 508 feet, flightpath angle of 0.5 degrees, and a velocity of 25 665 feet per second. This results in a tank impact roughly 180 degrees down range from the launch site for a ballistic trajectory. The orbit maneuvering system is used to transfer from MECO to a 270 n.mi. circular orbit and for deorbit.

VI-B-23

o
0.

c o

O) ^*
CD

V

ANALYSIS

Trajectories and vehicle size were evaluated for combinations of LOX/LH2 and LOX/C3H8 engines. Twenty-one (21) engines all having equal vacuum thrust at lift-off were used in the analysis. These engines were then scaled in size to provide 1 000 000 pounds of payload. In the case of the dual expansion engine the vacuum thrust for the lower expansion ratio was the same as the vacuum thrust of the hydrocarbon engines. In addition, vehicle sizes were evaluated for a LOX/C3H8 engine with a thrust to engine weight of 150. There are considerable differences between the engine technology projections given in table VI-B-3 and those being projected by the Langley Research studies, reference 2. These data show the advantages of engine technology improvements which reduce weight. Cost of the major launch expendables were calculated based on $20 per pound for the expendable hydrogen tank, $1 per pound for hydrogen, $.102 per pound for LOX and $.18 per pound for propane. The results of the analysis are summarized in figures VI-B-4, 5, 6, and 7. In figVIJB4 the gross lift-off weight and dry weights are shown as functions of the number of hydrocarbon engines. For the heavier hydrocarbon engine, thrust to engine weight of 100, the minimum GLOW and minimum dry weight are for the all hydrogen vehicle. However, the minimum expendable cost, fig. VI-B4, occurs when 2/3 of the thrust is from the hydrocarbon engines, that is, 7 LOX/LH2 and 14 LOX/C3H8 engines. The lighter propane engine shows a minimum in both dry weight and cost. The minimum dry weight occurs with about 17 hydrogen fueled engines. The minimum cost of expendables is with 5 hydrogen fueled engines. The most economical system for expendables appears to be about 25% of the thrust from hydrogen and 75% from propane. The baseline system has 5 hydrogen fueled engines and 16 propane fueled engines.

VI-B-25

40 -o

30

*! ^ o

c
CD

20

_E Q

10

Single position nozzle Dual position nozzle Single position nozzle Light weight propane engine

I 0

I

I

5

10

15

20

25

Number of hydrocarbon engines

Figure3ZI-B-4.- Mixed mode parametric data.

l-B-26

15
Single position nozzle Dual position nozzle Single position nozzle and light weight propane engine

~o -a
M—

M

tn

10

o
sz o

in

in o

I 0 10

I 15

20

25

Number of hydrocarbon engines Figure EI-B-5.- Mixed mode expendables cost data.

VI-B-27

350

300

Length

250

c:
1 Q

200
Span

150

100

— —

Single position nozzle Dual position nozzle Light weight propane engine and SPI\I

50 0

l 8

12

16

20

Number of hydrocarbon engines

Figure3ZI-B-6.- Orbiter dimensions.

vi-B-28

300
Length (ft)

250
•— Single position nozzle — Dual position nozzle — Light weight propane engine and SPN

200

Weight (1000 Ib)
c o c
E Q Zo

150

100

50

Diameter (ft)

I 0 8 12
Number of hydrocarbon engines

I 16

20

Figure 33-B-7.- External hydrogen tank characteristics. VI-B-29

.VI

BASELINE SYSTEM

The baseline modified single stage to orbit heavy lift launch vehicle has a main propulsion system with 5 hydrogen fueled dual expansion ratio engines and 16 propane fueled fixed expansion ratio engines. The vacuum thrust of each engine is 1 806 000 pounds. The launch configuration is shown in figure VI-B-1. The orbiter and external hydrogen tank dimensions are summarized in table VI-B-9. The launch vehicle weight summary is given in table VI-B-10. The-externa-1-hydrogen- tank-weight-summary-is-given -in~table~V1=B--M-; The launch trajectory is given in table VI-B-12.

VI-B-30

TABLE VI-B-9 SUMMARY OF BASELINE MSSTO DIMENSIONS

ORBITER (Scale Factor 2.180) Length Span (ft) Height (ft) - Gear Up Gear Down Platform Area (ft2) "Base Area (ft2) Wetted Area Including Base Mold Line Volume (ft3) 329.9 193.9 77.5 103.3 30 421.3 5 451.3 84 180.8 914 243.0

EXTERNAL HYDROGEN TANK (Scale Factor 1.544) Length (ft) Diameter (ft) Volume (ft3) Ogive Surface (ft2) Barrel Surface (ft2) Dome Surface (ft2) 242.6 41.6 288 688.6 4 984.8 22 587.8 2 283.8

VI-B-31

TABLE VI-B-10 BASELINE MSSTO WEIGHT SUMMARY (POUNDS)

Tail Structure Heat Shield Landing and Auxiliary Systems Propulsion - Main Thrust Structure OjHDjjtej^ Oxygejl Tank^ Orbiter"Propane Tank " " Propulsion - OMS & RCS Electrical & Hydraulic Surface Controls Avionics Cargo Compartment Margin Orbiter Dry Weight External Hydrogen Tank Residual & Unusable Fluids Inflight Losses Flight Performance Reserve Propel!ant OMS Propel!ant RCS Payload Propane Fuel Oxygen GLOW

92 507 158 790 42 254 548 570 155 452 138 733 4~8 975 46 777 49 800 18 864 21 127 36 211 130 909 1 508 969 102 306 102 306 19 184 32 871 231 323 24 145 1 000 000 3 565 373 19 022 490 26 795 689

VI-B-32

TABLE VI-B-11 EXTERNAL HYDROGEN TANK WEIGHT SUMMARY (POUNDS) TANK STRUCTURE POLY-URETHANE FOAM INSULATION (0.75 in.) CORK ABLATOR ORBITER-TANK ATTACHMENT STRUCTURE PROPULSION SYSTEM CONTINGENCY 10% TOTAL 64 490 3 659 14 117 8 184 1 625 10 231 102 306

VI-B- 33

TABLE IV-B-12 ASCENT TRAJECTORY AND WEIGHT SUMMARY

t INPUT -Gai1-T.= 8'=' -13,-NEflI -0-, NEB I =5, N E C I = 1-6,SF-E=L. 8 056,-TWO = 3-4:END RLP FN TIME RLT TKP NE VEL 0 " DRMO TRNG W E I GcH T 1 f LBS ) (DQ(r, •'SCC s FT .. FT/SEC " L.EVFT <f DEC '• f DEC • f { R . i 2 .0 .0 0. 0. 0. 0. 90.0 90. 0 2670921 3 . 1 .7300 21 r -.0 49:-,. 10.0 -424. . 101 . 12. 90. 0 90. 0 2 q 7 7 H- 2 '=" 5 1 .. 3 21 .0 20 0 0. 2084. 219. 54. 88. 1 88. 1 24759378 . 1 ! 41621 .0 30. 0 0. 4931. 355. 130. 84. 7 84. 7 23744460 . 1 . 488 21 ""' ~* !~! .0 40. 0 0. 514. 7^ 3 79. 3 22729543 . 1 572 21 9214. .0 50.0 0. 15089. 705. 376! 72'! 3 72. 3 21714625 . 1 h 6 6 21 •3 ~\c, .0 0. 60.0 . 226.;.5. 506. 64. 4 64. 4 206° 9 708 1 . 770 21 .0 0. 70. 0 3 I* 1 6 . 1206! 56. 3 56. 3 19684790 . 1 . 8 8 321 603. .0 0. SO. 0 42660. 1531 . hQh 48.3 48. 3 18669873 -. .004 21 90. 0 5L!7 38. 1933. .0 0. 542. 41.0 41. 0 17654955 -t . 1 32 21 100. 0 67961 . 2417. 0. .0 34. 6 34. 6 1664 no 38 -. . 270 21 449. -i .0 0. 1 10. 0 02090 2984. 345. 29. 0 29. 0 15626120 -i 422 21 0. 120. 0 96s;o. .0 361 3. 251 . 24. 3 24. 3 14634838 . 465 20 ,_' .417 0. 123.0 101291. 19 .0 3.I.CS. *J *J I* 23.0 23.0 14 347419 C H R N d E TO INEP TIRL 123. 0 1 0 1 7 ? 1 . 5254. 68992. -i .i-,5 23.6 14:4741'=' 227. 2 . 417 19 16.5 ""» T "' 15 1 1 30. 0 111730 1 3 7 1 4 6 5 fi•> ^|QQ 1 ft 5 i3 3 17^ 2710I-.R 140. 0 126589. 6421 '. lib! 1 3. 3 21.6 12 86x359 -i .418 17 255947. 4. 1 -. 7Q 150. 0 141 350. 7121. 11.9 20.5 12077633 -, . 427 16 2195-.8. 5.4 S 175. 0 177238. S9C6. 6. 117713. 34 ! 9. 0 17.7 10322156 . 491 14 200. 0 210994. 10714. 8852120 >_! . 497 12 56517. 7.4 15. 7.0 15.5 2; LJ. ^ q ? LJ. 1 " 5 2 6 225. 0 7627108 *J . 424 10 6 . 5.4 13.8 24345. 7 . 7 L : ' 250. 0 269534! 14 370. A * . 259 y 9023. 8. 1 4. 1 12. 7 h -,:-:i ,4'=i6 275. 0 2".-' 3M 57. 16195. 2577. 6.8 i ! 3. 1 10. 3 5725856 jj 2ft3 -? 300. 0 31 3621. 18028. 820. 0. 2. 3 5.5 8. 1 4999096 2! 254 6 325. 0 330125. 19794. 4 6. 3 469. 0. 1.7 8. 2 4406205 '. 1 .718 7 4 350. 0 343348. 21225 150. 0. 1. 3 4. 8 "•-iM?025 . 1 . 8 9 6 4 -i . 9 2. 0 3579845 375. 0 353545. 2 2ft2 6 .114 4 3 3 . 1 .0 0. - q 400. 0 361097. 24632! -2 ^ 0. . 6 - ? 3163664 -, . 390 4 . 5 -2!6 414.5 3 64 5 S 5 25o65. 0. 2c'51hOc, ! T '-*2 3 3 -60 ! -2.5 Q vr 2 8 SCO. PERIGEE flLT RFOGEE RLT 4ft5 R q 84 t' i •-i DV1 412. PERIGEE RLT 336 6! RPOGEE RLT 164032 i-i DV2 375. DEOPBIT V E L O C I T Y 440. C I R C OP BIT 270 NM i i . , , , . ; : ; • ; M SSTO Lfluw. H VEHI C LE PJEI GUT S T H T E n h N 1 ' Lb i> > : : : : , ; i ; : i : SF 2.108 SFET 1.544 VLRND 195. S F E 1.806 OPSCOST
A

TRIL STRUCTURE 1-507. HERT SHIELD L R N D I M D RND RUi: SYST 422r.4 548570. P R O P U L S I O N - M R IN P P 0 P LJ L S I 0 N - f i M S \1 P C S 467' INEPT I"EI GHT 1508969. PESIDURLylii'J'JSflBLE FL 45C45. RESERVE FLiJIDS 0. I N F L I G H T LOSSES 1 9 1 S4 .
O P B I T HYDPDGEN TFiW 102306. u o q -, cr RP-1 TflNf LO:: TfiNF INPUT DUHL P O S I T I O N NO LE 60/270, NOZZLE EXTENDED

PflLORD

999991.

ELECS'HYDPU CflPGO COMPRPTMENT SUPFHLE CONTruLS HVONICS MPPGIN P R O P E L I RNT nns PPOPCLLRNF PCS F L I G H T PL'FFUM f ' E S H Y D R O G E N FUEL RP-1

49800. 36211. 18864. 21127. 1 50909. 31323 24145 1. 12 43983 19022490-

O::YGEN

RT 100000 FT.

RIPRODUClBILlTy OF THE ORIGINAL PAO§ IS POOR
VI-B-34

REFERENCES

1. Study of Alternate Space Shuttle Concepts, Final Report, Lockheed
Missiles and Space Co., Report LMSC - A989142, ACS-124A.

2. Research Study to Identify Technology Requirements for Advanced EarthOrbital Transportation Systems, Final Review, Martin Marietta Co., MCR-75-325 (Issue 3).

3. Technology Requirements for Advanced Earth Orbital Transportation Systems, Mid-term Briefing, Boeing Aerospace Co., D180-19168-1.

VI-B- 35

VI.

SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM B. HEAVY LlfT LAUNCH VEHCLE

VI-B-4. Launch Vehicle Cost Analysis J. Akkerman Future Programs Office The costs for payload delivery to l_ov^ E_arth_orbit^^aji jbe^ divided into four categories.
1. 2. 3. 4. Booster Propel!ant Operations Facilities

Each of these categories is discussed in detail below and the totals are summarized in Table VI-B-13. Booster Costs: Vehicle costs have been estimated by several groups in recent months. The results have been similar with about a factor of two (between 3 and 6 dollars per pound of payload delivered to low-Earth orbit including spares). One of the estimates, made by Boeing, was on the order of $3 and was based upon a grass roots investigation. The contractor considers the number conservative as it includes the cost of facilities, tooling, profit and all the other items they include in estimating any conmercial venture in aircraft production. Of all the studies done to date, this one has by far the most credibility. The only factor to keep in mind is that the cost is based upon conventional contemporary design, overlooking many potential cost reduction concepts. The 6 dollar estimate was made by extrapolation of in-house historical cost models for hardware and maintenance. As mentioned above, most of the experience to date has been with programs which put most emphasis on minimizing the cost of development, with little consideration of hardware production costs or operations costs. As a result, the models are understandably very likely to be high, especially on the maintenance/ repair factors. Most of the hardware we have dealt with in the past has been for one time only use. In many cases the items were "worn out" by excessive testing before they were flown. The HLLV hardware designs will very likely show a much better track record in this respect. A third approach to reflect reasonable costs tended to validate the contractor data. This costing approach involved the use of "unit cost per pound" as reflected by similar hardware items. By plotting the mass fraction of various rocket systems as a function of size, as shown on Figure VI-B-8, the dry hardware weight of the HLLV can be established to a reasonable degree of certainty. Note that the lower large stages are more efficient from a mass fraction standpoint, indicating that as we go VI-B-36

to larger vehicles, we can expect better mass fractions. The EDIN 338-76 vehicle used as a cost base design is shown at the top of the graph at a relatively low mass fraction, especially considering the size of the two stages. This results because of two reasons: p) a relatively conservative design including reserve factors, and (2) it is a reusable, winged vehicle which may indeed involve more hardware. Using the EDIN hardware weight, which should represent the upper limit for HLLV type boosters, Figure VI-B-9 can be used to estimate the cost of the vehicle. Note the consistency of costs for various types of vehicles. Road vehicles consistently cost very near to $2 per pound, whether they are cars, trucks, or trains. Light planes with piston engines all cost between $10 and $20 per pound, business jets between $130 and $180 per pound. Probably the most significant group is the heavy aircraft transports. These vehicles are almost as large as the HLLV. They fall into a range of $120 to $200 per pound, an amazingly narrow band considering the variations in design; number of engines, navigation gear, range capability, payload, etc. All this lends confidence to choosing a number for cost per pound for large rockets although we have not built very many large rockets. The only really good data point is the SIC at $200/pound; the first stage of the Saturn rocket which flew the Apollo missions. This is indeed a mammoth vehicle in terms of rocket experience. It was built with five engines of about the size required for the HLLV. Only twenty units were produced. The dollar cost reflects the cost of tooling, development, etc. By all standards, this should be a conservative example of dollar cost per pound; especially considering that the HLLV will amortize its development and tooling costs over a production run of hundreds of vehicles. The Shuttle number is nearing reality and even with some growth in the final stages of development, it should fall into the $200 to $300 per pound range. The contractor estimates for the HLLV as discussed above fall at about $200 per pound and with a lifetime worth of spares it comes up to about $300/pound. The only notable exceptions on Figure VI-B-9 are some of the recent high performance military aircraft, Bl, Fill, F15. The vehicles are very special and push a large frontier of technology in engines, /guidance and controls, weapons, aerodynamics and many others. The HLLV is a simple extension of well established technology. No new guidance is required, no different aerodynamic environments are involved; now new things are involved in engines or structures. The HLLV lift-off weight will simply be about four times that of the Saturn, and it will put about four times as much payload into orbit. Thus, the costs to be expected for the HLLV can be somewhat confidently predicted to be somewhere in the $200 per pound range, VI-B-37

based upon existing experience, technology and designs. As outlined in the Booster Cost Breakdown sheet, Table VI-B-14, this price (assuming 50% replacement in each 5-year - 300 flights - period) is $2.39 per pound to LEO. This represents a conservative estimate. A nominal cost would be about 90% of this number ($2.15/pound to LEO) and perhaps an optimistic (but probably achievable) number would be 80% of this number ($1.91/pound to LEO). Development cost for the booster is assumed to be four equivalent .vehicles., _twg_pf_whicJi_are_ refurbished and used in this flight P_rog_ram. The development cost is then amortized over the flights in 10 years and results in a cost of less than 10<£ per pound delivered to LEO. Propellant Costs: The costs reflected in Table VI-B-15 are based upon propel 1 ant loading requirements established for the EDIN 338-76 booster (a conservatively sized unit as discussed above) plus 10% for spillage. The prices are those described in Section D for propellent costs. These numbers are very much in line with all estimates that have been made to date. (See the Propellant Cost Breakdown in Section D.) These prices are for commodities produced from coal by the Lergy process. This process tends to make hydrocarbons on the light end, particularly methane. This makes hydrogen particularly cheap, and propane unproportionately expensive. Even though the individual costs of fluids are very different from what is typical of fluids produced in a normal petroleum industry (like today's), the total costs per flight are about the same. It is expected that a rocket using methane entirely will show a marked decrease in propellent cost, perhaps to a little as half the number shown. (See the Section VI-B-5 on HLLV cost effectiveness designs.) Operations Cost: By far the most abstract item in the HLLV cost picture is the operations cost. There has never been an activity that is comparable. The costs of wartime efforts are far too diversified to be applicable. Airline operations approach the magnitude involved, but direct application of airline data produces costs so low as to be hardly believable (5<£/pound to LEO). The Shuttle operation is somewhat akin to that planned for the HLLV, but is not in practice as yet. There is a great temptation to simply use planned Shuttle operations cost per flight data to estimate HLLV costs. There are hazards in this, however, in two areas: (1) flight rates, 1 per 6 days for Shuttle, 6 per day on HLLV, and (2) Shuttle funding for operations is directed to include all personnel from all sectors to what ever extent they are involved. This results from the management directive that all NASA budgets be "program based." It would be a financial catastrophy to operate the HLLV as an entirely government activity in the same sense as the initial Shuttle flights are planned. In any event, the "scale-up" factor of 36 times as many flights would certainly allow some considerable reduction in government "monitoring" activity on a per flight basis. VI-B-38

The present Shuttle operations cost is expected to be about $9.5 million per flight. This is shown in Table VI-B-16, Operations Cost. If the government costs in all areas except the launch facility are assumed to be constant beyond the Shuttle program and Into the SPS program, and if the Shuttle projected costs per flight are used for the launch facility operations only, including vehicle repair, stage retrieval, etc. the result is $5.46/pound to LEO as shown in Table VI-B-16. This should represent an early phase cost to which some degree of learning would result in a reduction. The HLLV operation should not be nearly so complex on a per flight bases as the Shuttle, since the payload is essentially the same in all cases. There should be little attention required for the SPS parts as compared to the items normally delivered by Shuttle. The profusion of flights (6 per day) would certainly motivate a streamlining of operations over a period of time. The dollars involved would certainly fund automation in reviewing flight data, servicing operations, stage retrieval, checkout and even in repair. It is reasonable that these costs could be reduced by 20 percent as a nominal (4.33), and possibly 40 percent to represent an objective minimum (3.25). These numbers are extracted from a current program, concentrating on reducing front end costs (DDT&E) and paying relatively little attention to design alternatives which cost a little more in development but would greatly reduce operating cost in the future. This financial environment of minimizing front end costs altered the initial all up reusable Shuttle design concept (which had payload costs to LEO for about $20/pound) to what we have now ($300/pound to LEO). Any program to support the HLLV must be planned with the benefits of operationally cost effective designs in mind and must willingly support the costs of the development required. Facilities/DDT&E: Original plans to estimate costs of HLLV put primary emphasis on defining early funding costs for facilities and development. However, in every case, these items have been found to be negligible considering the other costs. As an example, for facilities, if the land based vehicle (EDIN 338-76) is flown from a southwest United States area (Chinati Peak, Texas) as outlined by the WSTF study documented in Section VI-B-6, and the costs are amortized over 10 years of the program, the result is about 18<£ per pound in LEO. A portion of the costs are somewhat fixed, while some are used on a per flight basis. For example, the administration building will be essentially the same no matter how many flights are involved. This along with the tow path, the land, etc., if amortized over the total flights in 10 years (21,900 flights) amounts to about $.095 per pound into LEO. The other facility items (the ones more directly associated with launch rate), pads, tractors, etc. add up to about $.06/pound to LEO. These numbers are practically insignificant compared to other costs ($.16 out of $10 = 1.6%) means that we can spend about $61.50 on improved facilities to save one dollar per pound launched into Earth orbit, i.e., booster operation/product!on/propellant, etc. This practically quarantees efficiency in the latter areas with little extra cost. These numbers are shown in the calculations described in Table VI-B-17. VI-B-39

Total Costs: The HLLV costs outlined in Table VI-B- 13, 10.89 high, 8.44,nominal 6.0 low, represent achievable levels using the existing technology. The spread is representative of that to be expected in any such new program. With development of new booster designs (using today's technology, but emphasizing cost effectiveness instead of minimizing DDT&E) these costs can be expected to reduce substantially. Section VI-B-5 on HLLV cost effectiveness design considerations discusses this in some detail.

VI-B-40

TABLE VI-B- 13

HLLV Costs (Dollars/Pound—LEO)

Faci 1 i ty *Nonrecurring (Amortized) Booster Propellant Operations Recurring Booster DDT&E Facility
Hi
2.39 2.15 1.91 2.57 1.58 1.59 5.46 4.33 3.25
.12 .09 .06

Total

.20 .15 .10

.19 .14 .09

10.89
8.44 6.00

Norn
Mm

*For six flights per day on 10 year program = 21,900 flights

Booster
4.31B 21,900 fits
3.23B 21,900 fits 2.157B 21,900 fits $196,803.65/flt

Facility

4.190B 21,900 fits
3.14B 21,900 fits

=

$191,324.20/flt

$147,488.58/flt

=

$143,378.99/flt

$98,493.15/flt

2.095B 21,900 fits

=

$95,662.10/flt

VI-B-41

TABLE VI-B-14 Booster Cost Breakdown (Dollars per Pound to LEO) Five years reuse w/300 fit, i.e., 1 flt/6 days 6.08 Days Turnaround

5 years X 365 days/yr 300

Assume the booster is 50% replaced during its lifetime i.e., $200/lb X 1.5 = $300/lb total useful life cost. Weight Breakdown (EDIN 338-76) 21,331,885 Ibs gross weight Lift off wt. Booster Stg wt. Propel 1 ant 21,095,563 14,094,797 12.557.911 1,536,886 Ibs first stage dry wt. Interstage + 59.313

1,596,199
Second stage inert dry wt. contg.

+ 736,425 64.758 2,397,382 Ibs total dry wt.
X 300.00/1b (including 50% replacement during 5 yr life) $719,214,600 7300 flights = $2,397,382/flight for 5 years use (with spares in)

DDT&E = 2 X CPU + 2 ( . 5 ) (CPU) = 3 X CPU 3(719,214,600) = 2.157 Billion 2.157B 21,900 fits/10 years ,493.15/flt

For 1,000,000 pound payload, this results in $.098493/lb to LEO (10*)

VI-B-42

TABLE VI-B-15
Propel 1 ant Cost Breakdown (Cost per Flight; EDIN EX 338-76

STAGE I

Oxygen Propane STAGE II
Oxygen Hydrogen BEST

9,438,991 3,517,454

4,421,258 748,451

5%

Propane Oxygen Hydrogen

.08/lb .016/lb ,05/lb

Stage I Stage II

Oxygen Proparre Oxygen Hydrogen

151,023.85 281,396.32 70,740 37.422.55 540,582.85 X 1.1 = $594,640.20

N
7-1/2% Propane Oxygen Hydrogen

.25 .021 .36

Stage I Stage II

Oxygen Propane Oxygen Hydrogen

198,218.81 879,363.50 92,846.41 269,442.26 1,439.871.08 X 1.1 =
$1,583.858.19

WORST
10%

Propane Oxygen Hydrogen

.42
.026 .67

Stage I Stage II

Oxygen Propane Oxygen Hydrogen

245,413.76 1,477,330.68 114,952.70 501,462.17
2,339,159.32 X 1.1 = $ 2,573.075.25

VI-B-43

TABLE VI-B-16 Operations Cost (9.6 million $/flt 6 fits/day) Shuttle HLLV

JSC
JSC Contractor

.704

.0195
.0307

1.107
.381 .041

MSFC MSFC Contractor

.0105 .0011 1.287 1.380
2.303 .0045

KSC
KSC Contractor KSC Ground Operations OTDA

1.287 1.380
2.303

.165 .328

HQ
Program Support Other SSME Ohaul

.0091
.0300

1.080
.115 .368 .016 .269
9.543

.0031
.368 .016

Sys
Crew GSE

no fit crew 5.462

VI-B-44

TABLE VI-B-17

Facilities Cost Chinati Peak, TX (See Sec. VI-B-5)
NONRECURRING

Tow-way Costs - $1.65M/mi. X 253.1 mi. (pp 21 & 13, respectively) (6 Lane Divided Highway) $ 414.64M Range Control 90.0 M Utilities on Tow Path & Launch Area 30.0 M Parking Pad 1.0 M Land Costs (pg 13) 1,490.0 M Landing Area 70.0 M
RECURRING
Pad:

$2.095.64M 21,900 fits/10 yrs

$2,095.64M = $95,691/flt

Lasts 10 yrs, one flight/day - (May continue to be used, but refurbishment costs = cost of new one past 10 yrs. i.e., 3,650 fits/pad Cost new = $120M/3650 fits = $32,876.00/flt $10,958.90/flt
$l,369.86/flt $398,000.00/flt $5,479.00/flt

Industrial Area: Admi n. Building:
GSE:

(6 bays/6 veh (1 fit/day)) 40M/3650 fits =
5M/3650 fits =

(Equal to 1 booster but services 6 same life) (10 Yr) (20M/3650 fits) =

Pay load Building: Tractors:

For return (3M ea.) (3 required)
QM 5 year life !r \ ,^r\ = 4931.50/flt (5) (3o5) + 1QQ%for f
maintenace & service TOTAL

$9.862.00/flt $6Q,545.76/flt

VI-B-45

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Figure VI-B-8.

Vehicle Lift-off Weight VS. Vehicle Mass Fraction VI-B-46 REPRODUClBJLJ'i Y OF THJjJ PAGE IS POOR

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VI-B-47

VI.

SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM B. HEAVY LIFT LAUNCH VEHICLE

VI-B-5. Design Considerations

J. Akkerman Future Programs Office

The following items will be discussed in detail below:
1. Water transportation 2. Launch site location 3. Booster reserves and conservatism 4^—Development and-hardware-utrltzatton 5. Hardware designs and maintainability Water Transportation: Two factors drive the SPS program toward maximum utilization of water transportation. 1. 2. Cost per ton mile Size of the items involved

The existence of world trade is documentary to the low cost of water transportation. Land transportation—even the largest scale imaginable— the railroads—is prohibitively costly on anything but finished goods. The high prices paid for common items like gasoline in areas remote from gasoline production are documentary to high land transportation costs. Delivery of a Japanese car to the U. S. is less in many cases than subsequent delivery a few hundred miles inland. The second item—the size of the SPS items involved—is also a major factor to consider. Probably the largest single item ever transported across land is the Apollo stack. It weighed about 1,000,000 pounds—about the weight of a 20 car freight train. This was a small load by comparison to the first stage of the HLLV. Present concepts of the second stage are almost as big and heavy. Transporting these items several hundred miles on land represents a significant challenge. On the other hand, water transportation of such large items is a daily occurrence in the ocean ports of the world. The total weight of the finished SPS is hardly as much as a large ship, and it will be delivered in several hundred flights of the HLLV. Indeed, the SPS items are relatively small by comparison to many things carried by water transportation. It is very likely that any cost effective HLLV will maximize the use of water transportation. Launch Site Location: The use of water transportation can provide a lot of flexibility in choice of launch site. However, there is one major factor over-shadowing all other considerations in this VI-B-48

choice—the fact that booster payload to Earth orbit is significantly increased by launch near the equator (about 20% over launches from the southern U. S.). At $10 per pound for delivery of payload to low Earth orbit, this amounts to $2,000,000 per flight for typical HLLV concepts. This differential, plus the almost unlimited launch window, makes the equatorial launch very attractive. This combines with a fundamentally water type booster operation to promote a site south of the west coast out in the Pacific Ocean. A few shallow places are available several hundred miles off the coast of South America. Such a site should be very cost effective if properly utilized. Floating, but anchor-stabilized launch facilities can be built competitively in any of the large shipyards. Booster Reserves and Conservatism: Most booster programs have used sizable reserves to guarantee a given payload. The HLLV as an operational vehicle should avoid this inefficiency. This can be done if each booster is fully loaded but capable of unloading a portion of the payload in flight if the performance is less than expected. About half of the payload delivered to Earth orbit will be liquid for propulsion and other uses, and can easily be dumped in flight or used in the second stage propulsion. The SPS should plan on this efficiency improvement early in the design phase. Statistically, very little payload would ever be lost, providing significantly increased payload. Development and Hardware Utilization: The development costs supporting the SPS will no doubt be a factor in the overall cost of delivered electricity because the development cost occurs on the front end, and is paid for after the program succeeds. The key to minimizing development is to develop only those items which will be used throughout the program, i.e., to develop building blocks or modules upon which the total operational concept can be constructed. This improves reliability also since a lot of operating experience is gained with each element. The Shuttle is a good basic step in that direction. Any cost effective program will utilize the Shuttle vehicle to its fullest capability. There is no doubt that it can be used for guidance or flight control system development. Also, its down payload capacity can likely be utilized to recoup the valuable part of the second stage of the booster, i.e., the engines. The tank for the second stage will not be retrieved on a cost effective basis as discussed below. About half the payload for the HLLV can be carried in the Shuttle payload bay, and about half in a tank mounted between the Shuttle and the booster tank or in the second stage tank. The engines for the second stage must (in this case) be small enough to fit into the Shuttle cargo bay. Engines of the spike nozzle type are small enough, light enough, and yet will deliver the necessary 6 to 9 million pounds thrust. Actually, the second stage of the ultimate HLLV vehicle, can be used as a booster to replace the SRB for the Shuttle. The thrust and VI-B-49

weight are about the same for both applications. Figure VI-B-10 shows two boosters—the smaller is a shuttle derivative and the larger a possible HLLV. In the early phases, the Shuttle would fly with its external tank and the main propulsion system/QMS, etc. all in place. The first stage—the liquid rocket replacement of the solid units—would be retrieved ballistically like the SRB and as ultimately would be the case for the HLLV first stage. A lot of valuable experience can be gained with this hardware during the early parts of the program. When the need for the all-up HLLV finally matures, the external tank and main engines would be removed from the Shuttle and the old first stage would become a second stage. A new first stage would then be added. --The-new-1-arge-f-i-rst- s-tage-(-28-to-32-million pound-thrus-t-)--would-be

ballistically retrieved with a water landing and shipboard return. The second stage engines would be returned via the Shuttle, leaving the tank in orbit. The Shuttle would land in the vicinity of the payload production facility, or at least near the site where the payload is assembled, near a sea port. The second stage would very likely be stacked during the voyage to the launch site. The engines would be removed from the Shuttle payload bay and placed for assembly. The new second stage tank would be stacked over the engines. The tank for the expendable part of the payload (returned with the Shuttle in the area where the main engines are located presently) and the Orbiter would then be stacked into place. About half the payload for the HLLV would then be placed into the cargo bay of the Orbiter (SPS structure, solar cells, etc.). The entire dry second stage stack would weight just about 1,000,000 pounds. The necessary control wires, etc. for the engines would be connected and the entire assembly would be ready for stacking onto the first stage. After connecting still more control wires from the orbiter to the first stage and servicing, the system would be ready to fly. Possibly,the propellent part of the payload would be carried in the second stage tank. This hardware evolution would require the development of two new engines and two new stage tanks to complete the HLLV. The first engines would be about 13 feet in diameter, about 7 feet long and would produce about 2 million pounds thrust running on hydrogen and oxygen. It should be of the spike nozzle type for the sake of size and also to accommodate early use as a low altitude engine and later use as an upper stage engine. An appropriate compromise must be reached for the selection of the spike configuration. Five of these engines would power the vehicle. The second engine would very likely be a segmented aerospike type—16 of which would power the HLLV first stage. It would likewise have a thrust in the range of 2 million pounds and would use the very similar pumping machinery as the first engine but would run on methane. The only really new part would be the liquid cooled segment to fit under the stage. The first of the two new stage tanks would be a unit to hold about 5 million pounds of propel 1 ants. It would be about 42 feet in diameter and about 200 feet long. It would have a simple interface for easy attachment VI-B-50

of the engines on one end, and the payload/orblter on the other. It should have a tunnel through the center for connection of the necessary control wires for the engines. Simple clamps would be used to connect the engines and the plumbing. The second tank to be developed would be very similar to the first, but would hold about 16 million pounds of propellent. It would be about the same diameter as the upper stage (46 feet), and would stand almost as tall—150 to 200 feet. Steering for the stages would be provided by differential throttling of .main.engines, with_roll_control_beirLq provided by the orbiter systems. (Very little roll control would be required in an equatorial launch since there would be virtually no propellant vortexing. The two new stages would be simple mechanically compared to today's rockets. Gimbals and the necessary power systems to drive actuators would be eliminated. The opening at the base of the spike nozzle (which would be used in flight to dump the turbopump exhaust) could be closed during sea landing to keep the machinery dry. Some mechanical device might also be devised to plug the nozzle throat also to keep the inside of the pumping machinery and the injectors dry. Beyond the normal Shuttle type operation, the only new operation would be the ballistic recovery of water-landed first stages. This would not be greatly different from the recovery of the solid rocket motors presently scheduled in the Shuttle operation of water recovery of the liquid booster for the interim vehicle. The major difference would be in size of the elements involved. The operational plan would evolve from SRB's to the 9M thrust booster (future second stage) to the 32M thrust all-up HLLV first stage. Hardware Designs and Maintainability: Every effort should be made to keep the entire hardware program simple enough for every one involved to fully understand. The elimination of the gimbal system is a great stride in that direction. Modularization of hardware elements and commonality between the first and second stage engine pumping hardware should greatly reduce maintenance operations. These innovations and design features will no doubt impose upon engine performance and the ultimate in optimized specific impulse, but the money saved will easily pay for any extra propellant required. The use of the expended upper stage tank should receive careful consideration, especially for use as a one-way OTV. It is not worth recovering out of Earth orbit even if it is not used effectively in LEO. However, something must be done with it. The construction of one SPS will leave 500 to 700 of these tanks in LEO and that amounts to about 18 to 26 miles of tank in orbit. These units will have walls about 3/16 to 5/16 inch thick and a pressure capability on the order of 30 to 50 psi. They could be used to form the columns of a cable/column design SPS. Also, all VI-B-51

the propellant necessary for the GEO trip could be stored in these tanks. The tanks in this case might be specially insulated to minimize reliquefication energy requirements. In any case, the tanks will be excess baggage unless something can be planned for their use. One set of second stage engines can provide the GEO transfer in 4 to 20 hours depending on how many are burned at one time and the final SPS weight. The fact that the second stage tanks are not worth retrieving is based upon the assumption that the production costs at the required production rate (six tanks per day typically) will allow production at a cost of about twice the material cost. This is typical for high production items like automobiles, hamburgers, etc. Since the tank weighs about 80,000 pounds and the aluminum costs about $1.00 per pound, the tank will cost about $160,000 each. The cost to get it into orbit is about $800,000 ($10/pound). If this tank is deorbited along with the engines, the Shuttle can be left off, but the assembly would then need wings, wheels, thermal protection and grow to something akin to a Shuttle orbiter only larger much like EDIN 338. Assuming the down payload is about 50% of the retro weight, a 160,000 pound unit would have tn be put into orbit; an extra 80,000 pounds (or $800,000 worth). This would have to be deorbited at a cost of about 8,000 pounds of propellant (Isp = 400--delta V = 500 ft/sec). This costs about $80,000 at $10/pound. These numbers make the cost of a new tank look attractive by any standards whether the tank is used in orbit or not. The same logic applied to engines shows a marginal cost effectiveness, but since the cargo bay of the orbiter will be returning empty anyway, the engines actually can come home free. The orbiter serves as a cargo shroud and guidance on the way up as a primary function (rather inefficiently of course) but since it can serve the function of engine return, its inefficiency is somewhat alleviated. The system will likely prove to be most cost effective when flown manned anyway as the crew can do the docking, unloading, loading, retro and landing operations with simpler systems than automatic systems might. The reliability required for man rating will be inherent in the design because of the high cost of losing a vehicle. Also, as discussed in costs, the DDT&E for the vehicle is insignificant. Although the details will no doubt change the mode of utilization of the above cost effectiveness items, they should prove to be sound baseline objectives for each new concept considered. To summarize, several areas of detail study for cost effectiveness that need to be considered are: a. Booster design emphasizing evolution of Shuttle to HLLV with minimum new hardware. b. Water landing system design for the first stage and water transportation back to the pad. VI-B-52

c. Crane and/or hoist design for water operations (possibly a floating unit). d. Launch pad designs. e. Propellant supply system optimization all the way from source to loading. f. Payload/second stage transportation and operations details. g. Possibility of using the second stage tank for SPS structure and/or orbit transfer fuel storage. (Possibly a one way OTV using second stage HLLV engines.) h. Spike type engine/pump details with simplified controls and fast throttle response. i. Payload dumping parametric studies and/or payload in second stage tanks. j. Booster steering with differential throttling. k. Booster tank pressurization systems parametric studies. 1. Overall booster/propellant design trade-off studies for cost effectiveness emphasizing the results of e.

VI-B-53

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Vl-B-54

VI. SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM B. HEAVY LIFT LAUNCH VEHICLE

VIrB-6. Western U. S,-Launch Sites for the Heavy Lift Launch V e h i c l e R o b e r t Munson White Sands Test Facility White Sands Test Facility personnel examined the feasibility of launching the two stage winged launch vehicle described in Section VI-B-2 from the southwestern United States at launch rates required by the SPS. Six typical launch sites were examined and cost drivers for future site selection and design were identified. Preliminary cost estimates of launch site construction and operations were made to test some of the site selection criteria. The complete report is included as Appendix VI-APP-B. The advantages of a western U. S. launch site include weather, since there are no hurricanes or large scale tropical storms, and a minimum corrosion problem. The savings in corrosion related maintenance over seacoast sites were estimated to be 80 to 90% for facilities and ground equipment and the savings in corrosion control requirements for the launch vehicle were estimated to be on the order of 1 to 2% of the vehicle weight for equivalent vehicle lifetimes. Disadvantages with respect to equatorial launch sites include restricted launch windows and a payload penalty of approximately 7.3 metric tons or 16,000 Ibs because of the latitude. Seven launch site areas were selected for study. One was eliminated early because of high population density and other reasons. One of the remaining six, located near Animus, New Mexico, was selected to examine cost and design details. The launch and recovery zone is a key shaped area, approximately 200 miles long and includes a debris corridor. It is diagrammed in Figure 1 of VI-APP-B. The tow back road or track is not restricted to the zone limits. f The report indicates that launch sites located in the southwestern U. S. could support the two stage winged launch vehicle at SPS launch rates and that they offer some advantages over coastal, oceanic or foreign sites. No specific site recommendation was made, however, because of sensitivity to changes in vehicle design, launch-to-landing site distance requirements, and launch azimuth optimization.

VI-B-55

VI.

SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM C. ORBIT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

VI-C-1. Orbital Propel!ant Handling for OTV C. M. Jones Future Programs Office For the SPS space transportation scenario, all OTV's are based at LEO for fueling and flight vehicle turnaround activities. It was assumed that all OTV propel 1 ants are delivered by HLLV to a LEO depot "tank farm" or staging base for propel 1 ant storage before OTV fueling. There will be pre-flight propel!ant losses associated with this storage/ transfer activity in terms of daily boiloff, transfer residuals, and chilldown losses. In the FY 76 study these LEO propellent losses were estimated at 30% such that for every kilogram of OTV propellant required at LEO, 1.3 kilograms must be delivered to LEO by the HLLV. In the case of the POTV, the crew rotation mission requires that the second stage be refueled at GEO. This total GEO propellant loss was estimated in FY 76 at 50% such that for every kilogram of propellent required at GEO for the POTV second stage refueling. 1.5 kilograms must be delivered to LEO by the HLLV, and subsequently, the COTV must eeliver 1.2 kilograms to the GEO depot tank farm. A funded study was awarded in April 1977 to General Dynamics Convair Division to expand the data base in the area of orbital propellant handling. The primary objective of the 10 month study, titled "Orbital Propellant Handling and Storage Systems for Large Space Programs," (Contract NAS 9-15305), is to conduct a system analysis and comparative evaluation to establish requirements and conceptually define candidate methods for orbital propellant delivery, transfer, storage, and operations to support large space programs, in particular the SPS, contemplated for 1985-2010. In a preliminary exercise of the study task flow, the contractor has developed working layouts of delivery and storage tanks for "first cut" estimating of OTV orbital propellant handling losses associated with two SPS scenarios, LEO assembly and GEO assembly. The difference in the two scenarios for orbital propellant handling is the addition of the task of handling argon (LEO assembly) to that of handling L02/LH2 and the long flight time (180 days) associated with the COTV[_. Propellant loss mass percentages for various mission phases were provided by the contractor in the First Monthly Progress Report of NAS 9-15305, dated May 25, 1977. These data have been organized according to vehicle type and mission and tabulated to obtain total propellant mass loss percentages for input to the SPS space transportation scenario synthesis section of the FY 77 study (refer to Section VI.F). Total propellant loss percentage estimations include a 25% contingency to represent the level of detail in these "first cut" estimations.

VI-C-1

The COTV|_ is described as an ion electric propulsion system utilizing argon combined with a LC^/LHo occultation attitude control system. As an operating system, the COTVi_ is separated into four parts and mounted at each corner of a one-sixteenth SPS module for the low thrust, long term transfer to GEO. A description of the COTV[_ may be found in Section VI-C-4. The option of propellent reliquefaction was not assumed for conservatism. The "Subtotal" data were operated on with propel 1 ant mass ratios to obtain the "Bulk Mass Subtotal" line items. The total pre-flight and flight propellent loss of 7.0 represents the additional propellant mass percentage that must be delivered to LEO --to_derJ-ve_the-OTV-mamjmpulse-prope1-lant-required-for-the- LEO-to-GEO

transfer. (See Table VI-C-1.) The POTV is described as a common stage L02/LH2 utilizing a high-thrust transfer to GEO of approximately five hours for personnel versus the low thrust transfer time of 6 months for the COTVi_. As an operating system, the POTV performs the crew rotation function for the SPS space transportation scenario at a rate of 75 personnel per flight. As stated previously, the second stage is refueled at GEO for the return to LEO. Total POTVr pre-flight propellant loss percentage is seen in Table VI-C-2 as 5.4% and 10.8%, respectively, for LEO fueling and GEO fueling. Total POTVL pre-flight propellant loss percentages are seen in Table VI-C-3 as 5.4% and 19.0%, respectively for LEO fueling and GEO fueling. The COTVQ is similar in system concept to the POTV but has a larger propellant loading of 621,500 pounds per common stage compared to approximately 117,000 pounds per common stage of the POTV. As an operating system, the COTVg delivers cargo to GEO for the GEO assembly of SPS and returns with no payload to LEO for stage reuse. The total pre-flight propellent loss percentage is seen in Table VI-C-4 as 6.1% for LEO fueling of the COTVG. The options of propellant reliquefaction in LEO or during the low-thrust transfer and on-orbit processing of water into L02/LH2 in LEO will be traded in the course of the contractor study. Both may reduce the long term storage losses to less than 1% but would increase systems and operations complexity. Additionally, liquid transfer versus modular tank transfer will be traded in the study for losses and systems complexity. For these estimations, modular tank transfer was assumed in propellant delivery by the HLLV tanker to the LEO depot. Complete written results with several recommended logistic concepts and their system propellant losses, cost analyses, and implementation plans will be available from the contractor in final form in February 1978.

VI-C-2

VI-C-2.

Personnel Orbit Transfer Vehicle Definition C. M. Jones Future Programs Office

During the period of the FY77 study,.the FY 76 POTV^ reference configuration, monolithic common stage, was examined further along with other LO^/L^ configuration options including modular common stage, and monolithic and modular single stage for comparison. A parametric stage sizing analysis was completed for the options using the ground rules of the previous study. (Refer to Section VI-E of JSC-11568.) The geosynchronous satellite maintenance sortie mission (GSMS) was baselined with a mission delta-velocity budget of 30,132 feet per second based from 150 NM circular as compared to a crew rotation/resupply mission delta velocity of 28,366 feet per second based from 270 NM circular. The primary difference in the budgets is the GSMS requirement to visit three additional GEO sites (satellites) as seen in Table VI-C-5. The mission delta velocity budget for a LEO "repeating" orbit as described by Boeing in the SPS Systems Definition Study (NAS 9-15916) is also given for comparison. Thus, a vehicle with the initial GSMS payload sizing for early program applications will accommodate a heavier payload in the round trip crew rotation mode, especially when the second stage is refueled at GEO as was baselined for the POTVL. The particular advantage of the modular options may be also seen on Figure VI-C-1 with stage propellant loadings approaching 200,000 pounds with Shuttle compatible elements as compared to approximately 130,000 pounds limit in the monolithic (integral tanks) options. Data were generated on a 150,000 pounds propellent per stage modular common stage configuration sized for the GSMS mission. Vehicle configuration and data are presented in Figure VI-C-2. If supported by Shuttle delivery and on-orbit fueling, seven baseline Shuttle flights (payload = 65,000 pounds) will be required to establish the initial mission as depicted in Figure VI-C-3. On-orbit space basing and refueling will require only six Shuttle flights. Although modularization of stage element does "build-in" growth potential by allowing stretch of the modular tanks, the baseline requirements of the POTV in support of SPS crew rotation do not dictate the necessity for the additional performance. Therefore, the FY 76 POTV|_ reference configuration of monolithic L02/LH2 common stage elements (Figure VI-C-4) remains unchanged for FY 77. Table VI-C-6 presents a preliminary weight statement for the POTV reference configuration. To accommodate the 75-passenger crew rotation module and two man crew control compartment (Figure VI-C-5, -6) round trip to GEO, the second stage is refueled at GEO for the return trip to the LEO staging base as baselined in the FY 76 report. For the FY 77 study, the reference configuration for the POTVL and POTVG are baselined as the same vehicle. Synopsis of MDAC SSAS OTV Analysis In their performance of the Space Station Systems Analysis Study (NAS 9-14958), MDAC has produced a significant body of data on VI-C-3

personnel OTV. (Refer to Part 2, Final Report, Volume 3 Appendixes, Bood 2 Supporting Data, Section 11 OTV Concept Definition, dated February 28, 1977.) Similar to the JSC studies, a parametric vehicle sizing analysis was performed to obtain the optimum configuration to support GEO crew operations. The goal of the MDAC OTV design was a lightweight or high mass fraction vehicle configuration. To minimize design loads, an empty OTV launch was baselined for the space-based concept. As in the JSC studies, the L02/LH2 common stage configuration was selected by with the maximum propellant volumetric size that could be launched on a single Shuttle flight. The resulting stage is 56 feet jjjlJ.engih _w_i_th_.englne_nozzles_ retracted-and carries-a-propel-lant Joad^ ing of 129,081 pounds on-orbit. The configuration is compared to the JSC FY 76 POTV| and Boeing FSTSA manned OTV configuration in Table VI-C-7. Excellent subsystem descriptions for the MDAC common stage OTV are contained in Section 4 of Part II of the referenced report. VI-C-3. COTVG Reference Configuration Trade Analysis C. M. Jones Future Programs Office

A parametric vehicle sizing and cost analysis was performed to compare the advantages of utilizing the 2-1/2 stage COTVg versus common stage COTVg. During the FY 76 study, the 2-1/2 stage configuration was selected as the COTVQ reference configuration on the basis of lower ignition weight at LEO for a given payload as compared to single stage, 1-1/2 stage, 2 stage and common stage (refer to page VI-D-2-5 of JSC11568). For the FY 77 analysis, the total cost per flight was considered to account for the effect of buying and launching the expendable drop tank (DT) used in each 2-1/2 stage flight mission. The 2-1/2 stage payload delivery mission is performed similarly to the common stage except that the stage 2 outbound propellant tank is expended at GEO and only the stage 2 core returns to LEO for reuse along with the complete stage 1. The stage 2 core would be mated with a new expendable drop tank and then with stage 1 during the space based vehicle turnaround in LEO. Both complete stages of the common stage configuration are reused at LEO. Therefore, the primary advantage of the 2-1/2 stage is the lower per mission propellant mass required to deliver the additional down propel!ant to GEO. Preliminary mass estimates were derived for a common stage and 2-1/2 stage each with a payload delivery to GEO of 250 tons (551,250 Ibs). Table VI-C-8 presents the main propulsion delta velocity budget as associated with a payload delivery mission by the COTVg. Tables VI-C-9, -10 present the mass properties of the common stage and 2-1/2 stage, respectively. The propellant penalty of the common stage is seen in comparing the respective stage propellant loadings of 1.24M Ibs (common stage) and 1.18M Ibs (2-1/2 stage). Ignition weights without payload in LEO for the respective vehicles are 1.35M Ibs (common stage) and 1.29M Ibs (2-1/2 stage). Preliminary cost estimates of DDT&E and TFU were derived for both configurations and are presented in Tables VI-C-11, -12. Cost per flight VI-C-4

estimates with groundrules are presented in Tables VI-C-13, -14 for the common stage and 2-1/2 stage, respectively. A learning curve of .88 was assumed for the reusable stages and .85 for the expendable drop tank of the 2-1/2 stage. Referring to Section V I . F , 15,152 COTVQ flights are required to support the construction of 46 GEO truss SPS. Resulting average costs per flight were $13.8M and $16.1M for the common stage and 2-1/2 stage, respectively. Referring to Tables VI-C-13, -14, HLLV launch costs for the propellant for both vehicles and the DT unit cost for the 2-1/2 stage are seen as drivers in the average cost per f l i g h t . Figure VI-C-7 presents the effect of learning on the DT average unit production cost The DT unit costs range from $3.8M for the predicted .85 LC down to $1.0M for a very optimistic .75 LC. These costs are factored into the average cost per f l i g h t of the 2-1/2 stage, and the HLLV $ per pound to LEO is varied from $5/lb to $25/lb to test the sensitivity versus the common stage in Figure VI-C-8. The common stage is seen as more cost effective when compared to the 2-1/2 stage with DT LC of .85 over the range of HLLV $ per pound to LEO. Based on the above trade analysis, the all-reusable common stage COTVQ is recommended as the COTVg reference configuration. The reference COTVG combination is seen on Figure VI-C-9. VI-C-4. Cargo Orbit Transfer Vehicle - Low Earth H. P. Davis Orbit Construction C. M. Jones Future Programs Office

New work on the COTVi since last year was performed by the Boeing Company as a part of the SPS Systems Definition Study, Part I (NAS 9-15916). They selected the ion engine as the best-characterized of the electric propulsion thrusters for their analysis. With some consultation by Lewis Research Center and Hughes, Boeing "scaled up" the current 30 cm ion bombardment engine being developed for the Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS) to 120 cm diameter. Operating and mass characteristics were defined for this thruster based upon the size change, modest technology advancement (readiness date of 1987) and a change of propellant from mercury to argon (Figure VI-C-lO). Boeing elected to construct modules of the solar array in low Earth orbit which have a maximum array output of 1 GW. Sixteen such modules w i l l be b u i l t in LEO and transported to GEO to comprise a 10 GW ground output SPS. They pro-rated the microwave transmitter and other elements of the 10 GWe SPS equally among these 16 modules (Figure VI-C-11) This "nominal" mass estimate for the SPS module was 5,560 tons. An additional 18% mass was considered to be added to the SPS module to provide 13% oversizing of the array to compensate for loss of output of the exposed array (22% of the total) during transit through the trapped radiation belt, to provide for electrical power distribution of the array VI-C-5

output to the four electric propulsion modules at 3600 volts and structural support of the COTV propulsion system at each of the four corners of the module. Utilization of 5000 seconds specific impulse of the ion engine at 65% efficiency, 22% exposure of the array and voltage of array power distribution were derived by an optimization analysis which considered array degradation due to radiation, array power loss to the plasma, I 2 R losses, thruster electrical efficiency and other factors (Figures VI-C-12, -13). Thus, a trip time of 180 days and the consequent thrust level of 5600 Newtons (approx. 1250 Ibf) were selected from stability and control analyses and cost considerations. Cryogenic (02/H2) propulsion systems were provided to maintain attitude -contro-l-during-those-port-ions-of-the-orbit—that the^satel lite'passed through the Earth's shadow (about 18% of the total mission time). The dry mass of the propulsion systems for the transfer and attitude control were estimated to be 950 tons (17% of module mass). One thousand five hundred thirty tons of argon propellent and 400 tons of 02/H2 attitude control propel!ants were consumed by the mission. Total start-burn mass was thus 9440 tons, or 1.70 times the mass of the SPS module. For the purposes of this JSC report, the Boeing concept and its parameters were accepted without change for the "nominal" SPS transportation case, but the mass requirements were normalized to the JSC "nominal" 10 GWe SPS mass estimated at 78,000 metric tons. This resulted in the following SPS module mass at start of the transfer mission. Basic SPS module mass 13% oversizing for array degradation 5% "scar" weight for the EPOS, etc. 17% propulsive system mass 27.5% argon propel!ant 7% 02/H2 ACS propellant OBF = 1 . 6 9 start burn mass Cost per flight, "normalized" from Boeing, is $88M, including SPS resize costs. To define the "best case" COTV,, these data were modified to capitalize upon a more optimistic set or possibilities. Foremost among the possibilities is that SPS module solar arrays may avoid any degradation during transit either by rerroval of the "Van Allen" belt as prooosed by Dr. Owen Garriott, by the use of radiation-resistant array materials, 4875 tons

VI-C-6

or by restoration of output after delivery to GEO by an annealing process. With three separate approaches under consideration, elimination of the solar array radiation degradation concerns appears to be credible for the 1990 and beyond time frame. The following simplistic approach is utilized to obtain the best case COTVi_ characteristics: Nominal Case
Basic SPS module mass, tons 4875

Change
per EY

Minimum Case
2813

Oversizing for array degradation, tons "Scar" for EPOS & Structure Propulsion system mass Argon propel 1 ant @ 5000 sec
02/H2 ACS prope11 ant

634 244 829 1291
341

0% re 13% 4% re 5% 15% re 17%
n

0 113 422 610

= 70% re 65%
169

6% re 7%

Start-burn mass
COTV OBF

8214
1.69

4127
'1.47

Similarly, cost per flight is scaled with start-burn mass and all COTV hardware assumed to be expended on the single mission. Cost per flight = 88 (S?i)
8214

(1 - -si)
88

= 41M (no satellite resize penalty)

Cost per SPS = $.65xl0 9 for COTV purchase For the "worst case" self-powered transfer from LEO to GEO a simplistic approach is utilized again for characterization. Nominal Case Basic SPS module mass, tons Oversizing for array degradation, tons "Scar" for EPOS & Structure 4875 634 244 829 Change per EY 18% re 13% 7% re 5% 20% re 17% "Maximum" Case 7060 1271 494 1413

Propulsion system mass

VI-C-7

Nominal Case Argon propel 1 ant @ 5000 sec 0 2 /H 2 ACS propel! ant Start-burn mass COTV OBF

Change

"Maximum" Case 2334 1059 133634 1.93

1291 n = 55% re 65% 341 8214 1.69 15% re 7%

.S.imilar_ly_,_cost_per__f_light_is^scaled_wlth-star-t^burn-mass-and-a1-l- COT-V hardware assumed to be expended on the single mission.

Cost p e r flight = 8 8 ( )

= $146M

Cost per SPS = $2.3x10 9 for COTV purchase All three cases are planned to be refined by subsequent analysis, including the expected thruster characterization data to be provided by Lewis Research Center on the ion engine and Princeton University data on the MPD. Numberous other concepts for the COTVi may emerge as attractive candidates, including "mixed mode" thermal/MPD arc jet as suggested by M. Lausten of JSC or perhaps "mass drivers" as suggested by Dr. O'Neill of Princeton. In order to derive the effects upon SPS transportation costs for a constant mass SPS, this preliminary analysis was repeated for a constant 78,000 ton mass 10 GW SPS. Results of this analysis are tabulated below:
Minimum Basic SPS Module, tons Oversize for Array Degradation "Scar" for EPDA & Structure 1/16 0% 4% 15% n=70% 6% 4875 0 195 731 1091 293 7185 1.47 $72M Nominal 1/16 13% 5% 17% n=65% 7% 4875 634 244 829 1291 341 8214 1.69 $88M Maximum 1/16 18% 7% 20% 4875 878 341 975

Propulsion System Mass Argon Propellant @ 5000 sec 0 2 /H 2 ACS Propellant Total Start-Burn Mass Orbit Burden Factor Cost Per Flight

n=55% 1667 15% 731 9467 1.94 $101M

VI-C-8

The assumption of no solar array degradation for the "minimum" case opens up the possibility of a dedicated solar array as an integral part of the COTV for return of the COTV utilizing the high specific impulse argon ion system rather than chemical propulsion. Additionally, this assumption may permit-electric propulsion of inert payloads for geosynchronous orbit construction. Future analyses will treat these possibilities.

VI-C-9

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VI-C-22

TABLE VI-C-1

OTV Propel 1 ant Handling Losses SPS LEO Assembly, COTVL

Mission Phase Ground hold ascent to LEO Dock with depot Transfer to LEO storage

Duration 3 Win. 1 hr. 3 hr.

Remarks

Propellant Loss % Argon Hydrogen Oxygen
.5

1 2

.5

1
Modular tanks; no liquid transfer

1

0

LEO storage

6 days

No reliquefaction Modular tanks; no liquid transfer

Transfer to OTV

0

OTV Flight to GEO

6 Mon.

No reliquefaction, propulsion uses gas
5.5

Subtotal Bulk Mass Subtotal Contingency Total (25%)

10.0
5.6 1.4 7.0

5.5

VI-C-23

TABLE VI-C-2

OTV Propellant Handling Losses SPS GEO Assembly, PGTVr

Mission Phase Ground hold, ascent to LEO Dock with depot Transfer to LEO storage

Duration 3 Min. 1 Hr. 3 Hr.

Remarks

Propellant" Loss % LEO "Fuel ing GEO " Fuel i rfg Hydrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Oxygen

1

.5

1

.5

2

1

2

1

Modular tanks; no liquid transfer 6 days No reliquef action

0

0

0

0

LEO storage

2

1

2

1

Transfer to OTV: Chi 11 down Residuals GEO storage GEO refuel stage 2: residuals Subtotal Bulk Mass Subtotal Contingency (25%) Total

1 Hr.
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1

7.3 4.3 1.1 5.4

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10.8

VI-C-24

TABLE VI-C-3

OTV Propel!ant Handling Losses SPS LEO Assembly, POTVL

Mission Phase Ground Hold, ascent to LEO Dock with depot Transfer to LEO storage

Duration

Remarks

Propel lant Loss % LEO Fueling GEO Fueling Hydrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Oxygen

3 Win. 1 Hr.
3 Hr.

1

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1

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2
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1 0

2 0

1 0

0

LEO storage

6 days

No reliquefaction

Transfer to OTV: Chi 11 down Residuals COTV Flight to GEO with prop, cargo GEO Storage GEO refuel stage 2: residuals Subtotal Bulk Mass Subtotal Contingency (25%) Total

1 Hr.

2 .3 6 Mon,

1 ,3

2 .3
10

1 ,3

3 Mon. 1 Hr.
No chill down

5 1

3 1

7.3 4.3 1.1 5.4
VI-C-25

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13.8

3.8

19.0

TABLE VI-C-4

OTV Propellant Handling Losses SPS GEO Assembly, COTVr

Mission Phase "Ground hold, ascent to LEO Dock with depot Transfer to LEO storage LEO storage Transfer to OTV: Chi 11 down Residuals Subtotal Bulk Mass Subtotal Contingency Total (25%)

Duration 3"Mfn." 1 Hr

Remarks

Propellant Loss % Hydrogen Oxygen

1

.5

3 Hr.
Modular tanks; no liquid transfer 6 days No reliquefaction

2 0

1 0

2 1
8
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1 1
4.5

VI-C-26

TABLE VI-C-5 POTV Main Propulsion Mission Delta Velocity Budgets GSMS (FPS) LEO Parking Orbit (NM, degrees) 1. 2. LEO first injection burn LEO second injection burn Estimated gravity losses 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. GEO circularization burn (19,323x19,323 NM, 00) GEO rendezvous and docking 45° longitude shift, rendezvous GEO deorbit burn Return orbit LEO circularization burn Estimated gravity losses 8. 9. LEO rendezvous and docking Flight performance reserves 2% total delta-velocity TOTAL DELTA-VELOCITY 150x150, 28.5° 4270 3786 190 5851 131 1278 5840 (175x19323 NM) 8014 50 131 591 30,132 5798 (270x19323 NM) 7856 50 131 556 28,366 5979 (258x19323 NM) 7885 50 131 564 28,784 Crew Rotation/Resupply (FPS) 270x270, 28.5° 4270 3586 190 5798 131 258x258, 31° 4270 3615 190 5979 131

VI-C-27

TABLE VI-C-6

Preliminary Weight Statement POTV Reference Configuration - Common Stage 02/H2 GEO Crew Rotation/Resupply

Stage 1, Ibs Dry Mass Structures and Mechanisms Main Propulsion Thermal Control Auxiliary Propulsion Avionics
EPS

Stage 2, Ibs (15,210) .. _ .4., 850 2,270
1,180

(13,210) 4,650

3,190 1,070
480 560
620

2,630
560 680

Contingency (25%) Unusable Fluids
L02
LH2 APS

2,640
(860)
370 390 100

3,040 (1,340)
360 380 600

Stage Burnout Inflight Expendables EPS Reactant Boil Off Start/Stop Losses APS Impulse Propel lant Main Impulse Propel lant Stage Ignition Ibs (metric tons) Vehicle Ignition Ibs (metric tons)

(14,070) (117,460)
90
110 110 950

(16,550) (119,430)
420 440 120

2,570 115,880 135,980 (61.67)

116,200 131,530 (59.66)

267,510 (121.32)

VI-C-28

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CM co CO xO 0 r-

CM O • ^

o

o
O O 00 O CM
•. » •. *

oC •«•
i-H i-H CO"

_^

00

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CM

«£> CO sO rH

0 )

a to

CO

CO

>
i__
r^
I
^ ^

h^. o o o 0o
UJ
OL.

>< <0 o
r_J

USABLE

< r-

y

UJ 0

~ xN

;^

o
CO

Z

co o; UJ CL
CL 2»

_l => Q_
0 C£ CL

OQ < ^ D_ 0 < UJ O Z Q ^ < O O _1 1— >

ROUND!

o

0 O i— 1
i-H

0

z

^ z c-t- CM XT z ^ i-H < ^

^

Q UJ UJ

UJ

UJ otf Q r- O rCO

a ce: o: CL o

O O

VI-C-29

PERA!IONS/

> K

LOADED

DELIVER

co" 5 co" > >< UJ _l Q Q =) O

U_

rations
^3 mi \j

l
fO CL

O

TABLE VI-C-8 Main Propulsion Delta-Velocity Budget Payload Delivery by COTV Q

Mission Delta-V (FPS) LEO parking orbit -(-4-77-.-5-x4-77-.5--KM-.31-0-)1. 2. LEO first injection burn LEO second injection burn Injection & circularization burns gravity losses 3. 4. 5. 6. GEO circularization burn (19,323x19,323 NM, 0°) GEO rendezvous and docking GEO deorbit burn (270x19,323 NM, 26.30) LEO circularization burn (270x270 NM, 28.5°) Deorbit and circularization burns gravity losses 7. 8. LEO rendezvous and docking Flight performance reserces (2% total Delta-V) TOTAL DELTA-VELOCITY (FPS) (Meters/Sec) 4270 3615 190 5979 131 5979 7885 50 131 565 28,795 8,776

Stage 1 Delta-V (FPS)

Stage 2 Delta-V (FPS)

4270 1730 -— — -6000 50 131 244 12,425 3,787 1885 190 5979 131 5979 7885 50 131 445 22,675 6,911

VI-C-30

TABLE VI-C-9

Preliminary Mass Properties Common Stage L02/LH2 COTVG

i

Stage 1 (Ibs)

Stage 2 (Ibs) (38,920)
20,400 7,300 2,750 1,160 1,600
630

Dry Mass
Structure and Mechanisms Main Propulsion Thermal Control Electrical Power Auxiliary Propulsion Avionics Contingency (15%) Unusable Fluids L02 LH2 APS Stage Burnout Inflight Expendables Boil-off Start/Stop Losses APS Impulse Propellent Main Impulse Propel!ant Stage Ignition Weight Stage Mass Fraction

(41,000) 19,800 10,200
2,300 1,020 1,700
630

5,350 (3,930) 1,600 1,930
400

5,080 (4,360) 1,600 1,930
830

(44,930) (626,750)
330

(43,280) (631,170) 1,300
870

920 4,000
621,500 (671,680)
.925

7,500 621,500 (674,450)
.921

Varametrically derived from FSTSA Vol. Ill, (NAS 9-14323), dated December 31, 1976.

Sect. 3.1

VI-C-31

TABLE VI-C-10

Preliminary Mass Properties* 2-1/2 Stage L02/LH2 COTVG Stage 1 (Ibs) Dry Mass Structure and Mechanisms^ Main Propulsion Thermal Control Electrical Power Auxiliary Propulsion Avionics Contingency (15%) Unusable Fluids L02 LH2 APS Stage Burnout Inflight Expendables Boil-off Start/Stop Losses APS Impulse Propellant Main Impulse Propel!ant Stage Ignition Weight Stage Mass Fraction
(38,380) 18,500 9,200 2,570 950 1,530 620 5,010 (3,610) 1,450 1,780 380 (41,990) (573,560) 320 640 3,600 569,000 (615,550)

Stage 2 Core (Ibs)
(23,950) 10,200 6,400 1,020 1,100 1,510 600 3,120 (1,030) 110 140 780 (24,980) (49,950) 250 700 7,100 41 ,900 (74,930)

Stage 2 DT (Ibs) (23,790) 16,200 1,840 2,200 300 -150 3,100 (3,230) 1,450 1,780 -(27,020) (569,320) 320

— — 569,000
(596,340)

.924

.559

.954

Parametrically derived from FSTSA Vol. Ill, Sect. 3.1 (NAS 9-14323), dated December 31, 1976.

VI-C-32

TABLE VI-C-11

Preliminary Cost Estimate* Common Stage L02/LH2 COTVg
1977 $M
DDT&E TFU

Flight Hardware Structures & Mechanisms Main Propulsion (less engines) Auxiliary Propulsion Avionics Electrical Power Thermal Control Assembly and Checkout Engines System Engineering and Integration Software Engineering Test Hardware Ground Test Hardware (2-1/2 sets) Flight Test Hardware (1-1/2 sets) Systems Test Labor and GSE Initial Tooling Program Management (6%) Subtotal

(184.7/16.6) 18.2/3.0 14.4/4.6 12.9/3.4 12.6/3.5 4.2/1.1 7.9/1.0 -114.5/~ 9.3/2.5 7.2/1.9 (178.9/136.0) 111.8/85.0 67.1/51.0 15.1/4.2 2.0/1.5 23.9/9.8 (421.1/172.5)

(44.7/34.0) 5.7/4.6 1.4/.8 5.7/3.9 12.6/10.5 3.2/2.6 4.2/2.9 1.5/1.3 10.4/7.4

2.7/2.0 (47.4/36.0)

Cost Contingency (11%) Total

46,3/19.0 (467.4/191.5)

5.2/4.0 (52.6/40.0)

*Parametically derived from FSTSA Vol. Ill, Sect. 6.3 (NAS 9-14323), dated December 31, 1976.

VI-C-33

TABLE VI-C-12 Preliminary Cost Estimate* 2-1/2 Stage L02/LH2 COTVQ Stage 1 DDT&E Stage 2 Core/Stage 2 DT

1977 $M
TFU

Flight Hardware Structures and Mechanisms Main Propulsion (less engines) Auxiliary Propulsion Avionics Electrical Power Thermal Control Assembly and Checkout Engines System Engineering & Integration Software Engineering Test Hardware Ground Test Hardware (2-1/2 sets) Flight Test Hardware (1-1/2 sets) Systems Test Labor and GSE Initial Tooling Program Management (6%) Subtotal Cost Contingency (11%) Total

(182.6/13.9/12.1) 16.9/1.7/5.7 12.6/4.0/3.7 13.8/3.4/~ 12.7/3.4/.4 4.2/.9/.B 7.9/.5/1.8 — 114.5/--/— 8.9/2.1/1.9 6.7/1.6/1.4 (169.6/112.8/42.1 106.0/70.5/26.3 63.6/42.3/15.8 15.4/3.5/2.9 2.0/1.3/.2 23.1/8.1/3.6 (408.3/143.3/64.2) 44.9/15.8/7.1 (453.2/159.1/71.3)

(42.4/28.2/10.5) 5.3/2.4/4.2 1.3/.8/.5 5.4/S.7/ — 11.6/10.2/.5 2.9/2.5/.7 4.6/1.8/4.2 1.7/.4/.4

2.5/1.7/.6 (44.9/29.9/11.1) 4.9/3.3/1.2 (49.8/33.2/12.3)

*Parametically derived from FSTSA Vol. Ill, Sect. 6.3 (NAS 9-14323), dated December 31, 1976.

VI-C-34

TABLE VI-C-13 Cost per Flight Common Stage ASSUMPTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 15,152 COTVQ Flights support construction of 46 SPS 50 missions life 30% of max fleet size spare units (ground-based) LH2 = $.36/lb, L02 = $.021/lb Learning curve = .88 6.1% pre-flight propellent losses HLLV cost/fit = $9.0M

8.

1977 $

TOTAL DDT&E

= $658. 9M

from Table VI-C-11 TOTAL TFU = 92. 6M
15 52 5*Q

TOTAL UNIT BUY =

+ 7 = 310 units

AVERAGE UNIT PRODUCTION COST AVERAGE UNIT/FLT PROPELLANT $/FLT = 4-^|= =

=

92.6 (310 ) -88"1

=$46.5M/unit

$.9M/f1t

( 1 > 3 2 ^' 9 4 2 ) .36 + ( 1 > 3 2 9 > 9 4 2 ) 6 X .021 = $.!M/flt =
31 >>

PROPELLANT LAUNCH COSTS

X
3 8

9

= $12.8M/flt

HARDWARE LAUNCH COSTS

=

°

^

'

9 2 0

^

X

9 -r 15,152 + $.02M/fTt

TOTAL COST PER FLIGHT .9 + .1 + 12.8 + .02 = $13.8M/f1t (includes propellant launch)

VI-C-35

TABLE VI-C-14

Cost per Flight 2-1/2 Stage L02/LH2 ASSUMPTIONS: 1. 2. 3.
4.

15,152 COTVG flights support placement of 46 SPS 50 missions life for stage 1, stage 2 core; 1 mission life for stage 2 DT 10% of max fleet size spare units for stage 1, stage 2 core; 5% of max fleet size spare units for j5tage_2_DT
LH2 = $.36/lb, L02 = $.021/lb

5. 6. 7.
8.

Stage learning curve = .88, DT learning curve = .85 7.3% pre-f light propel! ant losses HLLV cost/fit = $9.0M
1977 $

STAGE DDT&E = $612.3M DT DDT&E STAGE TFU = $71. 3M = $83. OM

DT TFU

= $12. 3M
] 5

TOTAL UNIT BUY:

^ 52 + 7 = 310 stages +1318 (.05) = 15,218 DT
83 (sin)' 8 8 " 1 = $41.7M/stage 12.3 (15.218)- 8 5 " 1 = $ 2 . 9 M D T

^^

AVERAGE UNIT PRODUCTION COST:

AVERAGE UNIT/FLT

—^ bu

=

$.8M/flt (stage) + $2.9M/flt (DT) $3.7K/f1t'

PROPELLANT $/FLT:

(1>26^>359)
1 > 2

.36 '

+ X

( 1 > 2 6 ^ > 3 5 9 ) 6 X .021 = $.l/flt 9 = $12.1M/f1t

PROPELLANT LAUNCH COSTS:

VI-C-36

TABLE Vl-C-14 (CONT'D)

HARDWARE LAUNCH COSTS:

310 (38,380^23,950)

x

9>0

-M5.152

+

934]92Q

X 9.0

= $.2M/f1t

TOTAL COST PER FLIGHT

=

3.7 + .1 + 12.1 + .2 = $16.1M/flt

VI-C-37

VI.

SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM D. ORBITAL TRANSFER MISSION ANALYSIS 6. R. Babb

Mission Planning and Analysis Division Occultation Effects and Impact on Self-powered Vehicle Because the transfer starts from a low Earth orbit (LEO) at a relatively low inclination, the vehicle spends a portion of each of at least the low altitude orbits in the Earth's shadow (night). This occultation of the sun every few hours creates a special problem for the self-powered electric vehicles. For these cases at least part of the SPS is generating power for use by the thrusters. Thus, the entry into Earth's shadow results in a loss of system thrust. For these self-powered vehicles the electric thrusters will provide both translational acceleration and also attitude control. Temporary loss of translational acceleration has minimal significance. Primarily it increases the total flight time by the length of time the system is in shadow (i.e., the time the thrusters are not operating). Additude control loss is a different matter. The system cannot be gravity stabilized for attitude control because it must be oriented toward the sun to provide power. Consequently, considering the dimensions and mass of the power station combined with a quite limited thrust capability, it becomes apparent that active thrusting attitude control will have to be maintained more or less continuously. There are two potential approaches to this problem. Either find low thrust transfer orbits with no shadow entry, or provide a backup attitude control system (ACS). If the angle between the sun and the plane of the orbit is high enough, and the orbit is oriented correctly, the satellite will be totally in sunlight at a very low altitude. For instance, at winter (or summer) solstice when the sun makes an angle of 23.5° with the equator, an orbit with an inclination of only 45° can be oriented to be entirely in the sun at an altitude of only 250 n.mi. However, orbital nodal precession and the motion of the Earth around the sun both combine to rotate the orbit to where it intersects the shadow again within just a few days. This precession effect means that the shadow intersection problem not only depends on initial date and orbit configuration but also on thrust level and flight time. Figure VI-D-1 shows the percentage of total flight time (up to geosynchronous altitude) spent in darkness as a function of thrust level (and/or trip time). These are for several different inclinations all starting at the best possible time (winter solstice). The initial orbit orientation is same for all the orbits and is near optimum for the range of inclination examined. VI-D-1

The benefits of the high inclination winter departure are maintained as long as the thrust levels are more than about 10~4 g 4 (flight time approx. 50 days). As the thrust levels fall below 10' g; however, it suddenly becomes impossible to avoid precession rotating the orbit in the Earth's shadow and the total time spent in orbit suddenly increases to around 10-15%. Ion type engines have thrust to weight ratios on the order of 2 or 3 X 10-4 for Isp of around 5000 sec. That is for the engines alone. Total thrust to weight of the system should be about an order of magnitude —less. expect with a flight of the What this means is that the thrust to weight (T/W) we can from the high Isp systems will probably be around 5 x 10~5 g flight time approaching 6 months. At this thrust level and time, avoiding the shadow is impossible and approximately 10% transfer time will be in shadow.

With transfer times then, of 100 days and upwards, the primary advantages of starting at the solstice points or from a high inclination has been essentially lost. The vehicle should have a backup chemical thruster system to provide attitude control when the SPS in in shadow. This system should not be used to provide delta-V thrusting. To do so would nearly double the total propel 1 ant usage while only decreasing the flight time by around 10%. Departure should then take place whenever the SPS element is completed without trying to wait for the solstice. Inclinations should be as low as possible to minimize low orbit delivery costs and to minimize outbound delta-V and flight time. High Thrust Orbital Mechanics in Comparison to Low Thrust High thrust transfer equate to conventional chemical propulsion stages and synchronous orbit construction of the SPS. This should be a very standard conventional type operation using at least two propulsion stages from LEO both of which are returned and reused. For LOX/H2 propel!ants (Isp approx. 450 sec) the propellent used each flight is around twice the weight of the payload delivered to synchronous orbit. This means that approximately 3 pounds of mass must be delivered to LEO for every pound that reaches GEO. Launch of this material to LEO would make up the bulk of the transportation costs for high-thrust operations. Low-thrust transfer implies some sort of self-powered high Isp flight. This allows at least partial construction in low orbit. The total material in low Earth orbit is only about 1/2 as much as in the high thrust case. Operational complexity and the number of engineering
VI-D-2

problems that must be solved are vastly greater than for the conventional high-thrust case. However, the tremendous reduction in lauch requirements plus the advantage of keeping most the manned construction in low orbit implies the possibility of significantly reduced total transportation costs.

VI-D-3

S S 3 N > I H V a Nl 3WI1 dO lN30H3d
VI-D-4

VI . SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM E. PROPELLANT COSTS

VI-E-1. Summary and Conclusions

R. K, Allgeier and Hoyt McBryar Propulsion and Power Division

A literature search, and subsequent study of an integrated space vehicle fleet provisioning system was conducted to scope the national impact and buildup commodity costs for the SPS. A detailed cross-check study was conducted to verify the technique used, and showed close correlation for the example fluid (t^J checked. The basic study determined the costs for LH2, L02t liquid argon, propane, and RP-1 using coal, air, and water as the only raw materials. Plant investment was also found. Study results indicated the need for a current-technology plant design to be optimized for the production of the propane (or butane) and RP-1. Specifically, it was found that; The amount of coal to be mined and processed in order to support SPS in the peak year will amount to about 10 percent of the national output at that time. New plant investments for SPS propellant production are about $1-1/2 B/yr throughout the SPS program. The amount of coal required will not impact national reserves. No new technology is required to produce the subject fluids. Detail cost data as a function of interest rate and coal price is presented and supports a small reduction in propellant costs compared to the FY-76 report for interest rates of 9 percent or less. A major benefit of the study was to earmark those several areas where synergistic and regenerative benefits exist but require in-depth studies in themselves. For example, one area not treated at all in this study is the byproduct benefits to be derived from coal ash and slag. Among these are building blocks, gallium, arsenic, and so forth. It is probable that other areas have been overlooked in areas such as thermodynamic heat recovery, since an older gasification process was baselined. VI-E-2. Purpose and Requirements This effort provided propellent cost data as a function of raw material cost, interest rate on 100 percent debt fraction, and byproduct VI-E-1

sales. Its purpose was to resolve discrepancies in existing cost projections by building the final cost up from basic element costs. In this way, management visibility was extended to the "study assumptions" level and bottom line costs could be redefined as parameters such as interest rate or coal cost changed or underwent redefinition. Eight cases were provided as a baseline. These cases are given in table VI-E-1 and when taken in conjunction with table VI-E-2, provide the basis for the "snapshot-year" propellent summaries shown in -t-able-VI-E-3-r- For-re fere nee, -vehicle- conf-igurat ions-are- given -in
table VI-E-4.

VI-E-3. Proposed Provisioning System Rationale - The nation's natural gas and oil resources are projected to increase dramatically in cost, forcing a turn to coal, originally the second most economical and plentiful fossil fuel. Economic pressures will also increase the use of the lighter hydrocarbons from the "basic" methane to propane and butane. Thus, the only raw material which could rationally be considered was coal. Likewise, the large quantities of cryogens and fuels required at the launch site more than justified the complexity and initial expense of moving the fluids by pipeline. In the quantities contemplated, even for the nominal (minimum) case, transportation by pipeline overshadows other methods, including rail, in efficiency by a large margin. Integration of the entire provisioning system allows several synergistic and regenerative benefits which translates as a cost savings, Among these are a gasification plant which provides hydrogen (a) to be liquefied for space vehicle use, (b) to provide prime-mover power for oxygen, argon, and nitrogen liquefaction, and (c) to provide pipeline pumping power. The liquid nitrogen thus produced is used in hydrogen and propane liquefaction with residuals as a byproduct. The oxygen, produced to feed gasification of coal as well as space vehicle oxidizer, is not needed as a liquid by the coal gasification plant. Thus, its heat of vaporization is reclaimed to prechill the inlet air at the beginning of the air separation process (low temperature distillation). Description - Figures VI-E-1 and VI-E-2 depict the proposed integrated provisioning system, both schematically and geoaraphically. The mining, gasification, and refining of coal is taken to be in the vicinity of Casper, Wyoming due to its overall excellent quality and to large, mostly undeveloped coal fields in that region. However, bottom line costs would not be drastically affected if older, developed mines were baselined. As usual, the launch facility is assumed to remain at KSC. VI-E-2

Coal Gasification and Refining—The plant design for the synthesis of propel!ants from coal was derived from the process incorporated into a coal refinery for the production of motor gasoline in South Africa. This plant has been in operation since the mid-50's by the South African Coal, Oil, and Gas Corporation. Basically, the process involves complete gasification of coal into a mixture which is essentially composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This mixture is generally referred to as synthesis gas. The synthesis gas is then converted to liquid hydrocarbons by reaction under appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature over a suitable catalyst. As in most complex chemical reactions, selectivity of the catalysts is not complete. Therefore, a variety of products are produced. Catalysts and operating conditions are thus selected to maximize the yield of the desired products. Figure VI-E-3 presents a flow diagram for the manufacture of hydrocarbons from coal. The coal preparation step includes the normal process of crushing, drying, and removing undesirable constituents required of any gasification concept. The gasification step utilizes the Lurgi process which is the best developed and most widely used. Newer concepts now in the development stage show promise and may become favored. Some of these are the U-Gas, Hy-Gas, and CONSOL processes. In the gasification step a distillate is obtained consisting of aromatic gasoline and oils. The primary product of gasification (Hg/CO) is "shifted" as necessary with steam which increases the hydrogen content of the synthesis gas with hydrogen derived from catalytically decomposed water. The liquefication step is a Pullman-Kellogg process labeled "SYNTHOL" which was developed from the work of Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute dating back to 1923. This process utilizes, principally, an iron-based catalyst in powder form circulating in counterflow to the synthesis gas to produce a variety of products, largely, motor gasoline. In order to maximize the output of light hydrocarbon compounds (C]_^), severe hydrocracking over suitable catalysts of the heavier gasoline molecules is required. This reaction requires a source of hydrogen which is derived from the shift conversion or from steam reforming of methane, a product of the plant. During 1975 and 1976, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) conducted a study for Langley Research Center to produce aircraft fuels from coal. Also in this time period, Pullman-Kellogg (the designer of the SASOL-Synthol plant) prepared a report for the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences showing how the SASOL-Synthol plant could be modified to produce aviation jet fuel. These reports and telephone communication with the authors of both reports were used to establish estimates of product yields, plant size, raw materials requirements, plant costs, and product distribution of a coal refinery. Table VI-E-5 presents a summary of these estimates. Approximately 20 products

VI-E-3;

are routinely produced with the primary emphasis of the plant being upon propane. If a mix of low molecular weight hydrocarbon fuels were acceptable, the plant yield could be improved since re-refining and separation losses would be reduced. In order to provide a basis for comparison, a column of the 1975 national production of the various products is given. It is felt that the market could absorb most of the products. Ethanol would, however, be produced at four times the 1975 production capacity for the maximum case, and unless converted to gasoline (a process is under development and showing promise to do this), the ethanol market could be -glutted. Sulphur-may-also-present-a marketing problem^Annual coal requirements are 27.5 x 106and 203 x 106 metric tons for the minimum and maximum cases, respectively. Overall efficiency is 49 percent (Btu value of the products out/Btu value of the coal in). These estimates were derived conservatively. A more indepth treatment of the various plant processes will likely show a considerable improvement in efficiency through better selectivity and recycling, and through a relaxing of the propane purity requirement which would improve the power output. Cost Analysis Technique—Some idea of the fluids pricing technique can be obtained using table VI-E-6. Part I traces the required pound of LH2 loaded aboard the vehicle backwards through the system to build up the required H2 production at the plant. Hydrogen is taken as the example here because the analysis is the most complex due to the choice of hydrogen as a "catchall" prime-mover fuel. The byproduct stream could also supply prime-mover power but the bottom line on the propel 1 ant cost is not much affected by this choice. This is true if all the byproducts are treated as salable at the fair market price. Part II of table VI-E-6 reverses the flow and begins with the coal mine, since part I provided the amount of coal which must be mined to ultimately load a pound of LH2 aboard the vehicle. The left-hand column details the recurring costs, in 1976 dollars, for coal and the SNG (synthetic natural gas) credit allowable in the byproduct stream. No credit is taken for the C02 byproduct since the future market for large quantities of C02 is uncertain. To balance this uncertainty, no charge is admitted for the water required in the process. These assumptions are, and should remain, very conservative since at today's market value, 1.85 pounds of C02 is worth nearly 700 times as much as 2.24 gallons of water cost, even at a rather high figure for water of 7<£ per ton. The column letter labels refer to the steps in part I and, as may be seen, no recurring charges are applicable for steps G through B since they are powered by the hydrogen already produced and capitalized in the right-hand column. The right-hand column reflects that amount of

VI-E- 4

capital needed per pound of product stream in the nominal full year of production. Part II analysis then accounts for financing that entire amount for the 30-year plant (and SPS program) life to arrive at fluid costs per pound as a function of interest rate. Cost Curves—Part IV of table VI-E-6 results in the data plotted in figures VI-E-4 through VI-E-11. In each case, three coal costs were taken. Coal at $5.50/metric ton would reflect a situation where the coal fields were already owned by the government and captive to the SPS (or other government program) and therefore insulated from the market. That is, charges are for labor only since plant capitalization has already been accounted. The $17/metric ton is a good current average cost for coal purchased from a private operator while ISO/metric ton is a projected next-decade cost and not in 1976 dollars. These amounts are conservative by, at least, the plant capitalization penalty. Each curve on each cost data figure is a double curve and represents a 5 percent spread to account for operating labor in the plants and on the pipelines. It is seen that the interest rate is the dominant parameter over coal and labor cost and even over whether a credit is allowed for the byproduct stream. Figures VI-E-5, VI-E-9, and VI-E-11 depict a situation where no credits are allowed. This variation is provided in lieu of a lengthy and uncertain market forecast in order to bracket the best and worst case for propel 1 ant cost. In all cases, 100 percent debt fraction and no profit operations were assumed. The oxygen and argon curves are of a unique nature in that, as a benefit of baselining an integrated provisioning system, they are insensitive to coal costs and do not have a significant byproduct stream credit possibility. This situation arises from the fact that the hydrogen cost includes the cost of liquid nitrogen production to support its liquefaction for use on the spacecraft. As a "byproduct," enough liquid oxygen and liquid argon are distilled (for the maximum case) to meet the spacecraft needs. No credits are allowed for liquid nitrogen residuals since its optimum use should be the subject of another lengthy study. It would be used to liquefy propane in Wyoming and prechill inlet air to the KSC separation plant. Additional large quantities are available due to its high mass fraction in the atmosphere, and are shown schematically on figure VI-E-3 as a byproduct. It could, however, be used to aircondition the blockhouses at KSC. VI-E-4. National Impact
\ ^

The quantities of coal required to support the SPS program in a peak year would, if needed now, constitute a large percentage of the 1976 production (about 2/3 of it). However, even conservative projections of coal production during the rest of this century indicate a minimal impact. This is certainly evident when 63 percent will be used in 1980 for the production of electricity in conventional plants. Figure VI-E-12 shows the SPS impact in 1995-2000 A.D. very dramatically. VI-E-5

Table VI-E-7 gives some actual past values of coal production in the U.S. as well as some estimates of future production. In conclusion, table VI-E-8 is presented to bracket the investment to be made to provide the physical plant for the SPS provisioning system. It is apparent throughout, and here especially, that the three additional SPS constructed per year for the maximum case represent significant additional expenditures. It should, however, be a straightforward exercise to design a modern coal gasification plant and refinery that is optimum for SPS needs. The size (and byproduct stream) of the coal-refinery would' thus be~reduced~and "bring the capital "in Ves'tment'bT" 4 to 29 billion dollars into line.

VI-E-6

- ALL CONFIGURATIONS ARE TRUSS-TYPE CONFIGURATIONS -

CASE I

GEO ASSEMBLY. CONSTRUCT 4 SPS AND REPAIR 112 SPS IN ONE YEAR. USE NOMINAL VALUES. CIRCA 2010-2025. GEO ASSEMBLY AS ABOVE, CASE I. USE MAXIMUM VALUES. GEO ASSEMBLY. CONSTRUCT 7 SPS AND REPAIR 112 SPS IN ONE YEAR. USE NOMINAL VALUES. CIRCA 2022-2025. GEO ASSEMBLY AS ABOVE, CASE III. USE MAXIMUM VALUES. LEO ASSEMBLY. CONSTRUCT 4 SPS AND REPAIR 112 SPS IN ONE YEAR. USE NOMINAL VALUES. CIRCA 2010-2025. LEO ASSEMBLY AS ABOVE, CASE V. USE MAXIMUM VALUES. LEO ASSEMBLY. CONSTRUCT 7 SPS AND REPAIR 112 SPS IN ONE YEAR. USE NOMINAL VALUES. CIRCA 2022-2025. LEO ASSEMBLY AS ABOVE, CASE VII. USE MAXIMUM VALUES.

CASE II CASE III

CASE IV CASE V

CASE VI CASE VII

CASE VIII

Table VI-E-1, SPS IMPLEMENTATION CASES

VI-E-7

PI
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GLOSSARY AND PROPELLANT APPLICATIONS HLLV - HEAVY LIFT LAUNCH VEHICLE NOMINAL - 2 STAGE BALLISTIC "o~ 1ST STA6F-T02 WPROPANE o 2ND STAGE - L02 AND LH2 MAXIMUM - 2 STAGE WINGED o 1ST STAGE - L02 AND PROPANE o 2ND STAGE - L02 AND LH2 COTVg - CARGO ORBITAL TRANSFER VEHICLE, GEOSYNCHRONOUS EARTH ORBIT CGEO) ASSEMBLY OF THE SOLAR POWER SATELLITE

(SPS)
o 2-1/2 STAGE - L02 AND LH2 ALL STAGES COTVL - CARGO ORBITAL TRANSFER VEHICLE, LOW EARTH ORBIT (LEO) ASSEMBLY OF THE SOLAR POWER SATELLITE o COMBINED ELECTRIC AND CHEMICAL L02, LH2, AND ARGON
Table VI-E-4. GLOSSARY AND PROPELLANT APPLICATIONS

VI-E-10

GLOSSARY AND PROPELLANT APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED)

PLV

- PERSONNEL LAUNCH VEHICLE - SAME FOR GEO AND LEO ASSEMBLY TASKS o .EXTERNAL TANK - L02 AND LH2 ' o BOOSTER - L02 AND RP-1

POTVG - PERSONNEL ORBITAL TRANSFER VEHICLE - GEO ASSEMBLY TASKS o COMBINED ELECTRIC AND CHEMICAL L02, LH2, AND ARGON POTVL - PERSONNEL ORBITAL TRANSFER VEHICLE - LEO ASSEMBLY TASKS o COMMON STAGE L02 AND LH2 GEO LEO - GEOSYNCHRONOUS EARTH ORBIT - LOW EARTH ORBIT
:

Table VI-E-4

VI-E-11

PRODUCT
CHEMICALS

.CASE

PRODUCT isoo.oo
130.15 ZlO.HO S O M O . 10

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TOTAL PLANT OUTPUT
COAL PLOW (M.T./>fR.)

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Table VI-E-5. COAL REFINERY PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION -LBS./YR. X 106VI-E-12

-HVDR06EN-

PART I - TRACE 1 IB. OF Hz BACKWARDS THROUGH THE SUPPLY SYSTEM
A. B.
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«

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LBS

MINE 20.9 LBS. OF COAL, USE l.OOl COAL FOR PCV*6R. Table VI-E-6. COST ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE
VI-E-13

OF

EXAMPLE

Table VI-E-6 Concluded

PART IX - COST BACH STEP IN THE TRACE
PART II - COST EACH STEP IN THE TRACE RECURRING CAPITALIZATION RATIO

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30.00/M.T. O.

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-PLOT COST AS F(IMTEREST RATE) ^CORRECT FOR LABOR
Table VI-E-6 Concluded

VI-E-14

COAL PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.— —
IS (P! •—

OMER 6,30 MILLION TOMS LESS THAN HOO MILLION TONS
OVER 5SO MILLION TONS

(UTILITIES USED z«io MILLION TONS)

1180 ^»-

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llg MILLION TONS

MEDicTEb Zooo —

(UTILITIES TO USE AS M\*H AS
HBO MILLION TONS)
AS

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^-^ BILLION TONS

ESTIMATED RESERVES IN THE U.S.- RECOVERABLE
3210 BILLION TONS*- HALF ARE. KNOWN

SPS PROTECTED REQUIREMENTS NOMINAL NEAR: 53.3 MILLION TONS SEE CASC s:

MAXIMUM ^EAR: 47Z5

MILLION TONS sec CASE

COLORADO

SCHOOL OF MIMES

Table VI-E-7. COAL REQUIREMENTS COMPARISON
-U. S. TOHS-VI _ £ _ 15

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VI-E-27

VI.

SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

F. SPS Transportation Scenario Synthesis Introduction

C. M. Jones Future Programs Office

To understand the space transportation fleet traffic and implications thereof, a space transportation scenario was developded as associated with the SPS implementation scenario 1 the1 FY 76 study. for For FY 77, two SPS placement schedules (Scenario A and C ) are utilized to evaluate the effects of increasing the annual maximum SPS implementation rate from two to five over a 16-year period. Figure VI-F-1 presents these SPS placement schedules. In addition, annual repair of the on-orbit operational SPS units represents a space transportation requirement above the construction-related requirement. The annual repair payload mass has been estimated at 1% of the on-orbit operational SPS mass. For the FY 77 study, the space transportation fleet design was assumed to have a useful life of 16 years through the year 2010 (as compared to the FY 76 study groundrule of 30 year fleet design life). This assumption is based on the hypothesis that advancement in technology and operations will dictate a cost effective redesign of the fleet for the last half of the SPS program. The operational requirements of the transportation system were considered for two SPS construction options (truss/GEO and truss/LEO) in order to scope the transportation costs and other parameters for the baseline scenario. Maximum, nominal and minimum estimates of characteristics were made for each option by using all worst case estimates of characteristics for maximum, characteristics judged "most likely" for nominal, and optimistic estimates of characteristics for minimum. The space transportation fleet is characterized by four vehicles: a. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) - unmanned launches of all cargo to LEO. b. Cargo Orbital Transfer Vehicle (COTV) - LEO to GEO transfer of all cargo. c. Personnel Orbital Transfer Vehicle (POTV) - LEO to GEO and return transfer of all personnel and optional high priority cargo to LEO. d. Personnel and Priority Cargo Launch Vehicle (PLV) manned launches of all personnel and optional high priority cargo to LEO. The space transportation scenario logic involving operational aspects of the SPS and characteristics of the space transportation fleet

VI-F-1

was developed by the Future Programs Office for the FY 76 study and updated for FY 77. The effort involved a HP-9810A computer program with typewriter output so that yearly and total SPS program space transportation traffic models and sensitivities with associated costs could be derived efficiently as corresponding scenario data inputs evolved. Launch Site Considerations As in FY 76, a 28.5° latitude due east launch was assumed for the HLLV's, requiring the OTV's to make the plane change for the equatorial orbit. This is a conservative assumption for performance, since an equatorial launch site offers the advantages of increased Earth rate, a slight increase in altitude because of the Earth's oblatness and, most importantly, the elimination of the plane change requirement which saves approximately 1500 fps of delta V. An additional operational benefit of an equatorial launch site is the opening of the launch window to almost "at will" launch instead of the total of about 3 hours daily available at 28.5° KSC launch site. Future studies will investigate more thoroughly the technical and other trade-offs for various launch sites combined with low Earth staging orbits. Western U.S. launch sites are discussed in Section VI-B-6 of this report. Transportation Fleet Description Vehicle characteristics for the space transportation fleet were synthesized for input to the scenario computer program. In-house and contractor studies served as background and reference data for developing the detailed vehicle data. Projected ranges of technology (performance, weights, and costs) were used in sizing the minimum cost (MIN), nominal cost (MOM), and maximum cost (MAX) vehicle derivatives. Cost per flight estimations include production with learning, propellant, and operations/ manpower costs. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) - The HLLV will be utilired for transport of all SPS hardware, OTV hardware and propellents, construction and support bases and consumables, and personnel consumables from Earth to LEO. Three candidate launch vehicles were identified in the FY 76 study and remain under consideration: complete winged entry/ recovery, complete ballistic entry/recovery, winged entry/recovery with large external hydrogen tank expended. HLLV detail data may be found in Section VI-B of this report. The range of HLLV input data presented below represents a selection of characteristics judged to be typical of the final HLLV configuration design for a one million pound payload (gross) vehicle. The extremes of the HLLV cost per flight - $7 to $14M - reflect the range of uncertainty in defining the manpower and operations cost per flight.

VI-F-2

Min Pay^load/flt, tons (net) , Fit cost, $M/flt F i t turnaround, days Mission life 400 445 7

Norn 424 9

Max 382 14 5 6 7

300

200

Cargo Orbital Transfer Vehicle (COTV) - The COTV will be utilized for transport of all SPS hardware, GEO bases and consumables, and GEO personnel consumables from LEO to GEO. Several configurations have been identified in two basic categories of independent power (high thrust chemical) and dependent power (combined chemical/low thrust electrical propulsion). For SPS geosynchronous construction, independent power is required of the COTV and based on studies to date, conventional l^/LHg high thrust propulsion is selected with a common stage option. "Mm" and "Max" estimates were obtained by operating on the nominal values of payload. The range of COTV G (subscript "G" denoting SPS GEO construction) is described as follows: Min Payload, MT Stages
Isp, sec
460

Norn 250 2
460

Max 200 2 2
460

300

Total inert weight, MT Prop weight, MT Fit cost, $M/flt F i t turnaround, days Mission life

36 574 1.7

36 574 2.6

36 574 3.9 5 6 7

100

50

25

For SPS LEO construction, a dependent power vehicle utilizing electrical propulsion for the transfer from LEO to GEO has been selected. Conventional 02/H2 chemical propulsion is required for attitude control during occultation periods. The SPS truss concept may be separated into 16 modules, each of which can provide electrical power to the electrical propulsion stages. Propulsion units are assumed to be mounted at each of four corners of each module. During the low thrust transfer to GEO, the SPS module makes several passes through the Van Allen Belt which causes degradation of

VI-F-3

exposed solar array. Sizing of the COTV|_ accounts for the penalty of this satellite resizing as well as the electrical power distriubtion system (EPOS) added to the SPS array to provide power to the electric propulsion system. The COTVL mission life is limited to one mission; i.e., the system is expended or remains with the SPS module at GEO. The range of COTVL derived is described in Section VI-C-4 and is given as follows: Min Payload, MT Electric Propulsion Isp, sec n, % Inert weight, MT Prop weight, MT Chemical Propulsion Isp, sec Inert weight, MT Prop weight, MT Total Vehicle Inert weight, MT Prop weight, MT
Fit cost, $M/flt

Norn 5753 ... 5000 65 791 1291
460 38 341

Max 8828 5000 55 1269 2334
460 144 1059

2926 5000 70 403 610
460 19 169

422 779
41

829 1632
88

1413 3393
146

Mission life

1

1

1

Personnel Orbital Transfer Vehicle (POTV) - The POTV will be utilized to transport all personnel from LEO to GEO and return. To minimize passenger exposure to the Van Allen belt radiation, a trip time of less than 1 day is required. Therefore, conventional high thrust L02/LH? cehmical propulsion is utilized. The common stage POTV is assumed utilized for both LEO and GEO assembly. The mission mode of the POTV takes advantage of the economies of the COTV by having its down propellent delivered to GEO by the COTV. Nominal vehicle chracteristies are unchanged from the FY 76 POTVi_ configuration. New cost data were derived with attendant flight and production unit buy numbers.

VI-F-4

Min Passengers
Isp, sec

Norn 75
462

Max 50
462

100
462

Inert weight, MT Prop up, MT Prop down, MT Fit cost $M/flt F i t turnaround, days Mission life

21 108 54 2.4

21 108 54 3.0

21 108 54 3.8 5 6 7

100

50

25

Personnel and Priority Cargo Launch Vehicle (PLV) - The PLV will be utilized for transport of all personnel from Earth to LEO and return. The PLV will be available for small loads of priority cargo, but this capability is not considered in this scenario exercise. Basically, the PLV is an upgraded Shuttle with the two baseline SRB's replaced by a "liquid replacement booster" (LRB) that operates in a series burn mode with the Orbiter/resized ET. The LRB is reusable following a ballistic entry and parachute/landing rockets water splashdown. The range of PLV characteristics is given as follows: Min Norn Max

Passengers/fit
Fit cost, $M/flt

100

75

50
16.2

10.2 13.5

Fit turnaround, days Mission life

9 150

11 100

13 50

Orbital Propel 1 ant Storage/Transfer Losses For the SPS space transportation scenario, all OTV's are based at LEO for fueling, and flight vehicle turnaround activities. It was assumed that all OTV propel 1 ants are delivered to HLLV to a LEO depot "tank farm" or staging depot for propellant storage before OTV fueling. There will be propellant losses associated with this storage/transfer activity in terms of daily boil off, transfer resideuals, and chill down losses. Estimates for FY 76 have been refined and are presented in Section VI-C-1 per vehicle/mission type, i.e., COTV|_ POTV, or COTVG. Due to the storage register limit with the HP-9810A scenario program,

VI-F-5

COTV[_ and POTV|_ propel 1 ant mass loss percentage estimates of 7.0% and 5.4%, respectively, for LEO assembly have been combined by propellant mass usage ratioing into a single loss percentage of 6.9%. Similarly the COTVQ and POTV propellant mass loss percentage of 6.1% and 5.4%, respectively, have been combined to obtain a single loss percentage of 6.1%. The special case of the POTV second stage return propellant was also treated and a propellant mass loss percentage of 10.8% and 19.0% determined for the GEO propellant handling mode for the POTVg and POTV|_, respectively. Thus, these data were input to the scenario program to account for the OTV preflight and flight (COTVL only) propellant losses .and_cons_eguent_a_dditipnaj launch costs. SPS Construction/Personnel/Logistics Data Input The range of satellite mass inputs were provided by Mr. Lou Livingston of the Spacecraft Design Division and were sized upward for the LEO assembly case to account for solar cell degradation during the low thrust LEO to GEO transfer. These data were 45,000; 78,000; and 113,000 metric tons for the range of GEO assembly satellite masses. Resulting data for LEO assembly with satellite resize penalty were 46,816; 92,048; and 141,248 metric tons, respectively. Construction and staging bases consumables were estimated at 1000 metric tons per year per SPS distributed between LEO and GEO. Personnel consumables were estimated at 200 kg per man-month (Boeing NAS 9-15196 estimate). Personnel count at LEO and GEO for both LEO and GEO assembly options is contained in the following table: Min GEO assembly: GEO personnel LEO personnel 507 77 235 508 Norn 724 110 335 726 Max 941 143 436 944

LEO assembly: GEO personnel LEO personnel Program Output Results

Annual and total 16 year (half program life) scenario runs have been completed for the two SPS assembly options for the two implementation schedules (Figure VI-F-1): Concept 1: Truss SPS constructed at GEO Concept 2: Truss SPS constructed at LEO Man-trips, cargo mass, number of vehicle flights, fleet and replacement unit requirements are computed. Costs are computed for each vehicle as well as the specific costs expressed in $/KWe buss and $/kg SPS.

VI-F-6

Table VI-F-1 presents the Scenario A1 16-year computer printouts for annual activity for construction plus repair. Nominal fleet size build up over the 16-year period is presented on Figure VI-F-2 (Concept 1) and Figure VI-F-3 (Concept 2). Table VI-F-2 presents the Scenario C1 16 year computer printouts for annual activity for construction plus repair. Nominal fleet size build up over the 16-year period is presented on Figure VI-F-4 (Concept 1) and Figure VI-F-5 (Concept 2). The maximum fleet size (nominal) is compared in Table VI-F-3 for Scenarios A1 and C1. Tables VI-F-4 and -5 present the total 16 year computer printout for construction only/Scenarios A1 and C', respectively. The runs sum all flight numbers and cost data for the entire period. Tables VI-F-6 and -7 present the total 16 year computer printout for repair only, Scenarios A1 and C1, respectively. The runs sum all flight numbers and cost data for the entire period. Tables VI-F-8 and -9 present the total 16 year computer printout for construction plus repair Scenarios A1 and C1, respectively. The runs sum all flight numbers and cost data for the entire period. Percentage costs expressed in $/KWe are shown for SPS mass and construction/repair logistics, OTV propellant launch costs, COTV flight costs, and manned support in Figures VI-F-6 and1 -7 for 1 the nominal results of both GEO and LEO construction, Scenarios A and C , respectively. COTV[_ Performance Variance Sensitivity The sensitivity to COTVL performance variance has been developed by running the scenario program over the nominal SPS mass, personnel, bases, and consumables, POTV, PLV, and HLLV values for Scenario C1. Table VI-F-10 presents the total 16 year computer printout for construction plus repair. This run sums all flight numbers and cost data for the entire period. Table VI-F-11 minimizes the COTVL spread and consequent $/kg SPS and $/KWe buss spread. The defined range of COTV|_ characteristics produced a range in $/KWe buss about the nominal value ($482) of -13% to +14% and a range in $/kg SPS about the nominal value ($52.35) of -1% to +7%. HLLV Cost Per Flight Variance Sensitivity The sensitivity to HLLV cost per flight variance has been developed by running the scenario program over the nominal SPS mass, personnel, bases, and consumables, POTV, PLV, COTV, and HLLV payload values for Scenario C1. Table VI-F-12 presents the total 16 year computer printout for construction plus repair for HLLV costs per flight VI-F-7

of ($M, 1977) 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20. The effect of varying this cost is seen on Figure VI-F-8 in a plot of $/KWe buss versus HLLV cost per flight. The GEO construction case is seen as twice as sensitive to HLLV cost per Alight -ith a * l^cost/flt of 71 as comPared to a A $MKcost/f1t Of 35 for LEO construction- Figure VI-F-9 is a plot of $/kg SPS versus HLLV cost per flight. Again, the GEO construction case is seen as more sensitive to HLLV cost per flight. The FY 77 "Nominal" HLLV cost per flight estimate is $9M/flight for reference. Transportation Cost Sensitivity for Nominal SPS Inputs of nominal SPS mass, personnel, bases, and consumables were used over the range of inputs for the space transportation vehicles for the construction plus repair case (Scenario C'). Table VI-F-13 presents the computer printout for tris case. Table VI-F-14 summarizes the results in terms of contributing component vehicle flight costs (HLLV, PLV, COTV, POTV) to the total specific transportation cost of $/kg SPS. Table VI-F-15 summarizes the results in terms of contributing component vehicle flight costs (HLLV, PLV, COTV, POTV) to the total specific transportation cost of $/KWe buss. The HLLV component vehicle flight cost is seen to comprise 83% and 62% of the total transportation cost in the nominal column for SPS GEO and LEO construction locations, respectively. The COTV component vehicle flight cost is seen to comprise 12% and 30% of the costs similarly. The manned support PLV and POTV combined component flight cost is 5% and 9% of the costs for GEO and LEO construction options, respectively. Concluding Remarks As in the FY 76 results, the HLLV dominates the SPS transportation cost and operations picture. The accuracy of the HLLV cost per flight estimation is critical; thus, the complexities of operating the large fleet of HLLV in multiple daily flights need thorough study to evolve more realistic operations/manpower cost estimates for each HLLV flight. This area is now estimated to comprise 1/3 to 1/2 of the cost per flight which represents approximately 35% and 26% of the total SPS transportation costs for GEO and LEO construction, respectively. For the LEO construction case, the cost advantages of the with its lower propel 1 ant requirement are obvious in comparison to the conventional COTVG. With consequent lower HLLV flights required, the option of self-powered transfer by COTVi_ is 1/3 less costly as the option of chemical propulsion high thrust transfer for SPS GEO construction. However, in terms of technical risk involved, the COTVg vehicle and operations are better understood than the COTV|_ at this time.

VI-F-8

The area of OTV orbital propel!ant handling losses was reduced in impact on the total transportation cost from the FY 76 to the FY 77 studies. Mass loss percentages and consequent HLLV tanker launch costs dropped as a result of the funded study effort developing new data in this area. More accurate loss estimates and concepts of the LEO OTV staging operations are expected as results from the funded effort in early CY 1978. Manned support cost percentages remain less than 10% of the total transportation costs. Doubling the manpower or reducing the crew rotation period of 180 days to 90 days, for instance, would not greatly effect the total transportation costs.

VI-F-9

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EDIN EX-338-7o

SECTION V I

APPENDIX A

PRELIMINARY DESIGN ANnLYSIS

OF A SPACE POWER SATEILITE

- HEAVY LIFT LAUNCH SYSTEM

by:

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS DIVISION

Prepared by! NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas 77053 VI-APP-A-1 December, 1976

EcJin

EDIN EX-333-76

CONfRI BUT ING UPGANIZATI OH 3

(He would l i k e to acknowledge the outstanding contributions from the ? I £ M ft TinN personnel for their support in the document ation of this report, Also, technical assistance and advice from personnel of the f o l l o w i n g di"lsions of the Engineering and Development Directorate is greatly appreciated and acknowledged: PROPULSION AND POWER DIVISION SPACECRAFT DESIGN DIVISION STRUCTURES HMD MECHANICS DIVISION

FDIN EX-338-7C VI-APP-A-2

EDIN EX-338-76

1.0

ABSTRACT

A preliminary design launch vehicle having a 30 pound per cubic foot payload density has been sized to deliver the solar power satellite into low earth orbit. The vehicle is a tandem-staged, reusable straight winged launch vehicle capable of delivering a 1 - m i l l i o n pound payload to a 270 nautical m i l e , 5.5 degree inclined circular parking orbit, This launch vehicle has been designated EDIN EX-338-76. The EbIN EX-338-/6 concept used l.OX/C^HQ booster' engines and LOX/LHg engines in the upper stage. The weight scaling coefficients were derived from Space Shuttle Phase B System Studies. The booster stage rocketr engine firopul fion system weight scaling and performance characteristics reflect a 1995 technology level. The second stage used uprated (Pc=4000 PSIA) existing space shuttle main engine <SSME's). The gross liftoff weight of the vehicle was 21,095,563 pounds. The booster stage required 16 x 1.916 nii 11 ion pound vacuum thrust engines; the second stage needed 14 x 544 thousand pound vacuum thrust engines. The vehicle was designed to a liftoff thrust to weight ratio of 1.3. The diameter of each stage was 50 feet.

EDIN EX-338-76

VI-APP-A-3

ecJtn
TABLE OF CONTENTS

EDIM E X - 3 3 8 - 7 6

PAGE 2 . 0 SUMMA R_V ....................................................... 3 . 0 _I_N_T REDUCTION ................................................. 4 . 0 METHOD OF ANALYSIS ............................................. 4.1 ASSUMPTIONS AND GROUNDPULES ............................ ..... 4.2 SIZING A N A L Y S I S ............................................. 4.3 LAUNCH ANALYSIS ............................................. 4.4 ENTRY ANALYSIS .............................................. 5 •° -LLrl uNj- DISCUSSION ......................................... 1 2 3 3 3 3 4 4

5.1 GENERAL VEHICLE ............................................. 4 5.2 BOOSTER STAGE ............................................... 4 5.2.1 GEOMETRY ............................................ 5 5.2.2 AEPOSURFACE GROUP ................................... 5 5.2.3 BODY GROUP .......................................... 6 5.2.4 THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM .......................... 6 5.2.5 LANDING SYSTEM ..................................... 6 5.2.6 ASCENT PROPULSION GROUP ............................ 6 5.2.7 AUXILLIAPY PROPULSION GROUP ......................... 6 5.2.8 PRIME POWER SYSTEM .................................. 7 5.2.9 ELECTRICAL CONVERSION AND D ISTRI BUT I ON SYSTEM ....... 7 5.2.10 HYDRAULIC AND CONVERSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.... 7 5.2.11 AEROSUPFuCE CONTROLS ................................ 7 5.2.12 ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM ............................... 7 5.2.13 AVIONICS SYSTEM ..................................... 7 5.2.14 PERSONNEL PROVISIONS ................................ 7 5.2.15 PPOPELLANT LOSSES AND LOADINGS ...................... 8 5.3 SECOND STAGE ................................................ 8 5.3.1 GEOMETRY ............................................ 8 5.3.2 AEROSURFACE GROUP ................................... 9 5.3.3 BODY GROUP .......................................... 9 5.3.4 THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM ........................... 9 5.3.5 LANDING SYSTEM ...................................... 9 5.3.6 ASCENT PROPULSION GROUP ............................. 10 5.3.7 AUXILLIARY PROPULSION GROUP.., ...................... 10 5.3.8 PRIME POWER SYSTEM .................................. 10 5.3.9 ELECTRICAL CONVERSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ....... 10 5.3.10 HYDRAULIC AND CONVERSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.... 10 5.3.11 AEROSURFACE CONTROLS ................................ 10 5.3.12 ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM ................................ 11 5.3.13 AVIONICS SYSTEM ..................................... 11
5.4 5.5 5.3.14 PERSONNEL PROVISIONS ............................... 5.3.15 PROPELLANT LOSSES AND LOADINGS ...................... ASCENT TRAJECTORY ........................................... ENTRY TRAJECTORY ............................................ 11 11 11 12

EDIN EX-33S-76

ecJin

EDIN fX-338-76

LIST OF FIGURES

PAGE

F i jure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 F igure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figures 20-28 Figure 29 Figures 30-31 Figure 32 Figures 33-34 Figure 35

Assumpt ions and groundrules Rocket engine propulsion system patameters Liquid rocket engine data Vehicle summary weight breakdown. Launch vehicle trajectory parameter summary Mated configuration geometry Mated configuration drawings Liquid rocket booster geometry sutiiinary Booster pitch trim aerodynamics Booster drawings Liquid rocket booster weight statement Booster weights as a percent of empty weight Booster center of gravity data Launch vehicle secorid stage geometry sumniary Second stage pitch trim aerodynamics Second stage drawings. ... ; Launch vehicle second stage weight statement Second stage weights as a percent of empty weight.. Second stage center of gravity data Ascent trajectory plots Ascent trajectory tables , Booster entry plots Booster entry trajectory tables Second stage entry plots Second stage entry trajectory tables

13 14 14 15 15 16 17-20 21 22 23-26 27-28 29 29 30 31 32-35 36-37 38 38 39-47 48-56 57-58 59-60 61-62 63-73

EDIN EX-338-76

VI-APP-A-5

EDIN EX 338-76

2.0

SUMMrtR ,'

The purpose of this study was to determine the p r e l i m i n a r y requirements for a tandem-staged, reusable straight -winged launch vehicle to d e l i v e r the = olar power s a t e l l i t e <SHS> into a 2.70 nautical m i l e p a r k i n g orbit via a 50 x 270 n a u t i c a l m i l e insertion o r b i t . The v e h i c l e was sired to d e l i v e r a 1r u i l l i o r i pound payload to the parking orbit when launched due east from a 5 5 degree latitude. The payload was placed into circular orbit at the jf70 nautical m i l e apogee using a 51,390 pound propulsion system. ft 50 foot diarneter was assumed for both stages. The vehicle stages were sized using a set of weight and geometry estimating relationships <UA6ERS>. The coefficients for these WttGERS were derived from Space Shuttle Phase B System Studies. The booster was assumed to be an a l u m i n u m heat sink entry "ehicle w i t h t i t a n i u m a l l o y covering areas w i t h excessive heating. The second stage used a hardened compacted fiber t hernia 1 protection system C T P S > . A 10>. dry weight contingency was added to >*ach stage to a l l o w for weight g r o w t h . The booster stage rocket engine propulsion system weight scaling and performance characteristics reflects a 1995 technology level. The secund stage u^-ed uprated e x i s t i n g space s h u t t l e main engines (.SSME's), H) 3d pound per cubic foot payload density was used for this c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Nlso, an e x p e n d a b l e interstage was assumed, The v e h i c l e was sized us in? a 1.3 liftoff thrust to weight ratio ^T/U) arid a 1.1 second stage T. ID. F i n a l l y , the c o n f i g u r a t i o n used LCCVCgHg for the booster propellant and moderate -.hamber pressure <P c = 3uOO F'SIA) gas generator cycle engines. These engines were l i m i t e d to a ma* iinum vacuum thrust of 2 nil 11 ion pounds, The second stage used LOX/LH2 p r o p e l l e n t w i t h h i g h chamber pressure <P C =4000 HSIA) staged combustion cycle engines. These engines were uprated to a m a x i m u m vacuum thrust level of 580 thousand pounds, stages were designed to be aerodynamically trimmed Both vehicle hypersonically at an angle-of-attack of 60 degrees to m i n i m i z e aerodynamic accomplished by proper selection of heating during entry, This was aerodynamic surface areas and deflections. However, it was determined that a 75,000 pouna ballast had to be added in the booster nose to locate the entry center of gravity (e.g.) properly to prevent the aerodynamic surfaces from becoming excessively large. The gross liftoff weight of the v e h i c l e was 21,095,563 pounds. The booster stage weighed 14,094,797 pounds w h i l e the second stage weighed 5,867,823 pounds, The booster required 16 LOX/PROPHhE engines; the second stage required 14 LOX/LH2 engines. The configuration is summarized in detail in the plots and tables presented in this analysis. The configuration is designated as EDIN EX-338-76.

EDIH EX-33S-76 VI-APP-A-6

EDIN EX-338-76

3.0

IMTRQDUCTION

Preliminary estimates of the SFS system indicate that an operational powergenerating satellite w i l l weigh about 200-rni 11 ion pounds in geosynchronous earth orbit. Since most SPS scenarios call for the assembly of up to four operational satellites per year, the number of earth launches is several hundred por year and launch vehicle payloads of 1 m i l l i o n pounds w i l l probably be required. The transportation system necessary for the implementation of the SPS would require "heavy lift" launch vehicles (HLLV's) to be dedicated, designed, and developed specifically for the SPS mission. In addition, the high launch rate required by the SPS program in some measure dictates the desired characteristics of a launch vehicle; for example, vehicle lifetime, the extent of reusability and operational mode would have a direct bearing on total program costs. This report is part ot a parametric study to I'efine variable vehicle concepts to support the SPS.

F.DIN EX-338-7C

V|_ A pp_ A _7

EOIM EX-338-76

.0

METHODS.. OF 4.1 HSSUMPTIONS AND GROUND PULES

The: assumptions and tjroundrules for the sizing analysis are presented in f i g u r e 1, The analysis may require updates as groundrules and requirements change w i t h p r o g r a m m a t u r i t y , 4.2 SIZING UNALYSIS

1 he v e h i c l e stages- uere sixed using UlnGERS, The coefficients for these UHi"-LRS were d e r i v e d from Space Shuttle Phase B System Studies. The booster "35 assumed to be an a l u m i n u m heat sink entry v e h i c l e w i t h titanium a l l o y • overing ar eas w i t h excessive heating. The second stage used a TPS •-. onsi st ing of hardened compacted fibers CHCF) bonded to the body structure f ternal to the i n t e g r a l a l u m i n u m mainstage p r o p e l l a n t tanks. Titanium structure and HCF were used for the aerodynamic surface TPS, The booster stage racket engine propulsion system weight scaling and p e r f o r m a n c e characteristics reflect a 1^95 technology l e v e l . The upper stage used uprated <.PC-4000 PSIA) existing space shuttle m a i n engines CSSME's). 4.3 LAUNCH u N A L V S I S

All trajectories for this analysis w e r e computed using a 3 degree-offreedom trajectory program i n t e g r a t i n g the equations of motion of a p a r t i c l e moving over a rotating o b l a t e spheroid planet under the influence of g r a v i t y , thrust, ard aerodynamic forces, During firs* stage f l i g h t , the "ehicle f l e w a vertical rise for 16 seconds and then pitched over at a constant inertlal p i t c h rate for 10 seconds, The vehicle then flew a v r a v i t y turn trajectory to staging A 4 second coast period was allowed for stage separation. During second stage f l i g h t the v e h i c l e was flown using a ne-ar o p t i m u m 1 inear-tanjent steering law to insertion. The vehicle then coasted to apogee of the insertion orbit where the payload was separated from the vehicles second stage, The o r b i t maneuvering propulsion system <OMPS> circularized the payload at 270 nautical m i l e . The OMPS for this analysis used a solid rocket motor having a vacuum specific impulse of 300 seconds and a motor mass fraction of 0,80, Saturn V aerodynamic data was used for this p r e l i m i n a r y analysis, The reference area used in conjunction with the aerodynamic data was calculated based on the crosssectional area of the base diameter of the vehicle.

FDIH EX-333-76 VI-APP-A-8

ECJm
4.4 ENTRY ANALYSIS

EDIN EX-338-76

The entry trajectory analysis for the booster and second stage were computed u-»ing a point mass program to determine major- system environiients. Vehicle heating rates, ranges, dynamic pressure, loads, and other pertinent trajectory results are given in figures 30-35. The aerodynamic data for the vehicle wing size and trimmed balance characteristics were generated from Newtonian hypersonic flow theory. The governing criteria for wing sizing is the entry trim requirement and not vehicle landing speed , The first and second stages of the system have c.g.'s in excess of 70X body length aft of the nose. The major reason for the aft e.g. is the heavy engines and thrust structure in the aft end of the vehicle. A canard is used to provide subtonlc stability and control. At hypersonic speed it is desired to have the canard «it a zero degree angle-of-attack to reduce wing area requirements. Various combinations of canard, body flap, and eleven incidence can be ui-ed to provide the control required for a sudfonic o-~ hypersonic angle-of-attack transition maneuver. 5,0_ RESULTS HND DISCUSSION 5.1 GENERAL VEHICLE Rocket propulsion system data obtained from F-ropulsion ^nd Power Division personnel is presented in figure 2. Main booster propellants are LOX arid propane with second stage propellants of LOX and hydrogen. System vacuum • p e c i t i r impulses are 340 and 466 seconds, respectively^ The booster stage required 16 x 1.916 m i l l i o n pound vacuum thrust engines with the second stage requiring 14 x 544 thousand pound vacuum thrust engines.

Vehicle gross weight and size results are presented in figure 4. Gross lift-off weight for the configuration is 21,095,563 pounds. Booster stage inert weight is 1,349,769 pounds with a propellant load of 12,557,911 pounds, The second stage inert weight is 736,425 pound* with a propellant load of 5,066,640 pounds. Dimensions and gross geometric characteristics of the launch vehicle configuration is presented in figures 6-7,
5.2

BOOSTER STAGE

The booster weights in terms of percent of vehicle empty weight is presented in figure 12. It is apparent from this figure that the greatest percentages are: ascent propulsion, 31.7%, body group, 29.0%, and the wing and tail group, 10.7%. These Item*, make up 71.4': of the stage empty weight. Most of this weight is located in tha rear of the stage. This produces an aft e.g. of 75.45* body length. The 75.45% e.g. could be relieved if the propulsion system weights could be reduced or relocated. This data presents an area amenable to engineering work; such work could reduce the vehicle weights and result in a w.ore favorable e.g. location.

E.DIN EX-333-76 VI-APP-A-9

EDIN EX-338-76

5.2.1

GEOMETRY

A geometry s u m m a r y of the booster stage is presented in figure 8 The •;',>st em tank volumes are 79,625 cubic feet for fuel and 136,842 cubic feet for o x i d i z e r . The basic v e h i c l e has a slenderness r a t i o of 5,333. The = ys tern length is ^£6,9 feet with a 50 loot diameter. The basic plan loading is 1?0 pounds per square foot which has 11,123 square feet of theoretical Hi ri 6 area, The w i n g area requirement is d i c t a t e d by hypersonic entry t r i m and fiot v e h i c l e landing speed, The booster w i n t selected has a sweep angle of 44 degree? and an aspect ratio of 3 54. The wing span is 193,43 feet and the w i n g body chord is 67 feet, The canard has an area of 2,523 square feet w i t h a sweep angle of 0 degree;, I he canard s-nan is 91.66 feet at an •aspect r a t i o of 3.33, The vertical t a i l consists of a single fin located at the aft end of the body. The tot si vertical t a i l area is 2,elO square feet. The a e r o d y n a m i c surfaces have not been o p t i m i z e d , but have been selected to p r o v i d e * workable baseline. Impr ovements can be made at a later "ehicle i t e r a t i o n cycle. The booster confijuration and its pitch trim •^orodvriam i cs -=»re presented in figures 9-10. In order to I eep wing areas lower, a ?5,OuO pound ballast in the booster nose was used. This ballast can possibly be traded against ^ reusable interstate at 3 later date when the vehicle's interstage m i g h t be designed for reuse, The vehicle landing *peed is estimated to be ISO Hiots. The booster detailed weight statement for subsystem and component weights is presented in figure 11. They are •L;enerateiJ and d e s c r i b e d as ueight fractions developed from the Ul^GEPS, 5.2.2 AEPOSUPFrtCE GROUP

The booster wing weight has been determined as 116,359 pounds. The canard jnd vertical t a i l w e i g h t s »re 9.217 arid 13,353 pounds, respectively, An d i i x i l l l a r y body f l a p for trim is estimated to weigh 8,750 pounds, The total -e resurface g r o u p w i l l require hi ore detailed analysis to determine the o p t i m u m surface size, material design, and construction techniques. The current analysis is an exponential function of empty w e i g h t , load factor, area span, and iri^ersly proportional to root thickness. These data have been obtained from historical results and applied emperical techniques. The canard and vertical t a i l a r e a ha"e been selected proportional to body surface area, The coefficients applied to the canard area was 3.65 pounds per square foot of theoretical area and the vertical tail was 5.12 pounds per square foot. The body flap surface used 7 pounds per square foot as the weight scaling factor.

EX-33S-7S

VI-APP-A-10

EcJin
5.2.3 BODY GROUP

EDIN EX-338-76

The booster body group weights are presented in figure 11. The body group includes tanks, thrust structure, skirts, bulk heads, tank domes and other structural components, The total group weighs 379,674 pounds with the LOX tank neighing 86,391 pounds and fuel tank weighing 50,269 pounds. Detailed structural analysis must be used to update these weights. These data have taen obtained from emperical results of historical data. The nose structure, forward skirt, inner tank, and base skirt are determined as a function of surface area. The mainstage propellant tank weights are determined directly proportional to tank volume. The aft skirt and thrust structure are determined directly proportional to the vacuum thrust of the itage.

5.2.4

THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM

"I he booster TPS weight breakdown is presented in figure 11 . The gross system weighs 63,447 pounds . The body structure, tanks, and other main fuselage components are considered to be heatsink . In this study the wing, canard, and vertical t a i l were considered to have HCF insulation with titanium panels applied at local hot spots. These weight data were obtained as directly proportional »alues of surface area. 5.2.5 LANDING SYSTEM

The gross landing system weights are 55,203 pounds and are presented in figure 11. Detailed analysis wil be required for substantiation of these data. The current analysis considers the landing system weight as linearly proportional to the landed weight. These data have been obtained from extrapolated historical data. 5.2.6 ASCENT PROPULSION GROUP

The ascent propulsion group consists of main engines, accessories, ginibal systems and fuel and oxidizer system. The weights are presented in figure 11. The group weighs 415,396 pounds. These data were obtained from Propulsion and Power Division personnel. 5.?.7 AUXILLIARY PROPULSION GROUP

The auxilliary propulsion system weight is estimated to be 10,986 pounds and is shown in figure 11, These data have been scaled linearly proportional to the stage entry weight, These data have been obtained from historical results.

EUIN EX-338-76

VI-APP-A-11

EDIN EX-338-76

5.2.8

PRIME POUILP SYSTEM in be

The p r i m e pouer system weight estimate is 3,881 pound.? atiu Is shown t i j u r e 11. This data was deter ruined f r o m WAGERS and considered to l i n e a r l y p t o p o r t i o n a l to v e h i c l e landed weight.

5.2 9

ELECTRICAL CQNVEhSIGN HMD DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

i he felcclr i c a l syfte.n is est iruated to wtigh 1,818 p >unds and i s shown in figure 11. These data were estimated from UIAC-ER3 and is considered to be a i-oristar.t weight.

5.2.10

HYDRAULIC CONVERSION

AND DISTR IBLl T ION SNSTEM

1 he h v d r a u l i c confers! on and d i s t r i b u t i o n system i* estimated to ueigh ^ S ? pou id? and is shown in f i g u r e 11. These dsta were estifiiated frorn ^ ' liiAGEP'3 and are obtained directly proportional to vehicle landed weight.

5.2.11

AEROf-LlPFACE CONTROLS

The 5ei o.»urt ace controls arp est i ru;-it ed to uelgfi 21,746 pounds arid Bre shown i.i tig'ire 11. The.-e d a t a are estimated from UiH&ERS and historical data, F^ch s u r f a c e control is considered directly proportional to it's own t h e o r e t i c a l surface area.

5.2.12

E N V I R O N M E N T A L SYSTEM in

The enwi ronriiental control system is estimated to be 0 pounds as shown figure 11 since the current requirement is for an unmanned system

5.2.13

AVIONICS SYSTEM

The avionics system weight is estimated to be» 4,900 pounds and is shown in figure 11, These data are estimated from WAGERS and historical data, For this study it is assumed to be a constant weight.

5.2.14

PERSONNEL PROVISIONS in

Currently personnel provisions are tstirnated to weigh 0 pounds as shown figure 11. Current groundrules require an unmanned operation,

EDIN EX-333-76

V|-APP-A-12

EoJin
5.2.15 PROPELLENT LOSSES AND LOADINGS

EDIN EX-336-76

Empty vehicle weights and various propellant losses and loadings are presented in figure 11 arid are estimated to be 27,392 pounds for residuals, 193,002 pounds for inflight losses, 2,515 pounds for RCS, and 236,322 pounds for preignition propellant. 5.3 SECOND STAGE

The second stage weights in terms of percent of vehicle empty weight is presented in figure 18. It is app-arent from this figure that the greatest percentages are: ascent propulsion, 17.7>., body group, 34.05;, and wing and t a i l groups, 11.98'<i. These items make up 63.7'4 of the stage empty weight. Host of this weight is located in the rear of the stage. This produces an aft e.g. of 72.S/: body length. However, this aft e.g. is not as severe as tha booster e.g. so no ballast is required in the nose of the second stage. 5.3.1 GEOMETRY

A geometry summary of the second stage is presented in figure 14. The system tank volumes are 174,099 cubic feet for fuel and 63,751 cubic feet for oxidirer. The stage has a slendern^ss ratio of 5.004. The system length is 250.19 feet; its diameter is 50 feet. The basic pl^n loading is 98.8 pounds per square foot which has 7,368.9 square feet of theoretical wing area. The wing area requirement Is dictated by hypersonic entry trim and not vehicle landing speed. The second stage wing selected has a sweep angle of 44 degrees and an aspect ratio of 3,54. The wing span is 161.51 feet and the wing body chord is 52.47 feet. The canard has an area of 2,353.2 square feet with a sweep angle of 0 degrees. The canard span is 88.52 feet at an aspect ratio of 3.33. The vertical tail consists of a single fin located at the aft end of the body. The total vertical tail area is 2,433.9 square feet, The aerodynamic surfaces have not been optimized, but have been selected to provide a workable baseline. The second stage configuration and its pitch trim aerodynamics are presented in figures 1516. The vehicle landing speed is estimated to be 180 knots. The second stage detailed weight statement for subsystem and component weights is presented in figure 17. There are no detailed design descriptions of subsystems. They are generated and described as weight fractions developed from WAGEkS.

E.DIN EX-333-76

V|_App-A_13

EDIN EX-338-76

5.3.2 ftEROSUPFACE GROUP The second stage wi ng weight has been determined as 64,253 pounds The canard and v e r t i c a l t a i l weights are 8,59? and 12,454 pounds, respectively, Hn a u x i l i a r y body flap for t r i m is estimated to weigh 8,750 pounds. The total aerosurface g roup w i l l require more d e t a i l e d analysis to determine the optimum surface size, fnaterial desjcn, and construction techniques. The current analysis i s an exponential function of empty weight, load factor, c<rea s p -a n, and i n v :rsly proportional to root thickness. These data have >= 11 e e n obtained from historical results and applied emperical techniques, The canard 3nd vert ical t a i l area have been selected proportional to body s>ur face ar -=a . The coefficients applied to the canard at ea was 3.65 pounds (.•e.r square1 foot of theoretical area and the vertical t a i l was 5.12 pounds p =r squar e foot , The body flap surface used 7 pounds per square foot as the weight scaling factor. 5.3.3 BODY GROUP

The second st3>pe body group weights are presented in figure 17. The body group includes tanks, thrust structure, skirts, bulk heads, tank dornes and other strui tural components. The total group weighs 242,338 pounds w i t h the LOX t^nk weighing 27,647 pounds and fuel tank weighing 99.563 pounds, retailed structural analysis must be us«-.id to update these weights. These • lata have been oblaintM from ernper ical results of h i s t o r i c a l data The nose structure, forward s k i r t , inner.tank, and base skirt are determined as a function of surface area. The nainstage propellant tank weights are determined d i r e c t l y proportional to tank volume. The aft skirt and thrust structure are determined directly proportional to the vacuum thrust of the s tage.

5.3.4

THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM

The The second stage TPS weight breakdown is presented in figure 17. gross system weight is 116,237 pounds, In this study the body, canard, and vertical tail were considered to have HCF surface insulation w i t h t i t a n i u m panels applied at local hot spots, These weight data were In addition the obtained as directly proportional values of surface area, hydrogen tank required internal foam insulation,

5.3,5

LANDING SYSTEM

The gross landing system weights are 29,922 pounds and are presented in figure 17. Detailed analysis wil be required for substantiation of these The current analysis considers the landing system weight as data, linearly proportional to the landed weight, These data have been obtained from extrapolated historical data.

fT'IN EX-338-76

VI-APP-A-H*

EDIN EX-338-76

b.3.6

ASCENT PROPULSION GROUP

The ascent propulsion group consists of main engines, accessories, girnbal systems and fuel and oxidizer system. The weights are presented in figure 17. The group weighs 125,738 pounds. These data were obtained from Propulsion and Power Division personnel. 5.3.7 AUXILLIARY PROPULSION GROUP

The auxllliary propulsion system weight is estimated to be 5,678 pounds and is shown in figure 17, These data have been scaled linearly proportional to the stage entry weight. These data have been obtained from historical r esult2,

5 3.8

PRIME POWER SYSTEM in be

The pr ime power system weight estimate is 2,104 pounds and Is shown figure 17. This data Wc«s determined froiii UIA&LRS and considered to linearly proportional to vehicle landed weight.

5.3.9

ELECTRICAL CONVERSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

The electrical system is estimated to weigh 1,818 pounds and is shown in figure 17. These data were estimated from WAGERS and is considered to be a constant weight.

5.3.10

HYDRAULIC CONVERSION

AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

The hydraulic conversion and distribution system is estimated to weigh 8,640 pounds and is shown in figure 17, These data were estimated from UDAGERS and are obtained directly proportional to vehicle landed weight.

5.3.11

AEROSURFACE CONTROLS

The aerosurface controls are estimated to weigh 16,101 pounds and are shown in figure 17. These data are estimated from WAGERS and historical data. Each surface control is considered directly proportional to it's own theoretical surface area.

EDIN EX-338-76

VI-APP-A-15

EoJin
5.3.12 ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM

ED1N EX-338-76

The environmental control system is estimated to be 0 pounds as shown in figure 17 since the current requirement is for an unmanned system.

5.3.13

AVIONICS SYSTEM

The avionics system weight is estimated to be 4,900 pounds and is shown in f i t u r e 17 . These data are estimated from WAGERS and historical data. For this study it is assumed to be a constant weight.

5.3.14

PERSONNEL PROVISIONS in

Currently personnel provisions are estimated to weigh 0 pounds as shown figure 17. Current groundrules require an unmanned operation.

5.3.15

PROPELLANT LOSSES AND LOADINGS

Empty "ehicle weights and various propellant losses and loadings are presented in figure 17 and are estimated to be 15,625 pounds for residuals, 71,534 pounds for inflight losses, 1,311 pounds for RCS, and 22,294 pounds for preignltiori propellent,

5,4

ASCENT TRAJECTORY

Ascent trajectory data are presented in figures 20-29. Pertinent parameters of most interest are! Max Max Max Max Max G Booster = 3.6 G Second Stage = 4.0 Q = 733.5 psf Heating Rate = 17.5 BTU/SQ FT/SEC Heat Load = 1,810.9 B1U/SQ FT

Staging Conditions Time - 13S.3 Sec Relative Velocity = 6,149 fps Relative Flight Path Angle = 17.86 Altitude = 143,943 Feet

deg.

EDIN EX-33S-76

VI-APP-A-16

EoJin
5.5 ENTRY TRAJECTORY trajectoj y profiles are The b a s i c point mass entry 30-35.

EDIN EX-338-76

presented

in

figures

The major trajectory parameters for

the booster stage are:

Max Q «= 121 psf Max G = 4.9 p Down Range = i°i n' mi • Max Heat Load = 427 BTU/SQ. FT. Max Heat Rate * , 3.6 BTU/SQ. FT. /SEC

'Ihe major trajectory parameters for the second stage entry are:
Max Q = 49 Max & " 1.86

Down Range = 5,37**- n. mi. Max Heat Load = 38,6l8 btu/sq. Max Heat Rate = 53 b tu/sq. ft.

ft.

EDIN EX-333-76

VI-APP-A-1?

LDIN EX-338-76

FIGURE 1. t * •+ * •t * +•

ASSUMPTIONS HND CPOUNDRULES

TWO-STAGE STRAIGHT WINGED REUSABLE TANC'EM-STAGED LAUNCH VEHICLE HEATSINk BOOSTER 1 MILLION POUND PH'il.GAD <DOES NOT INCLUDE MANEUVERING PROPULSION SYSTLM)

PAYLOAD BAY FILL EFFICIENCY WriS 6u* PAYLOAD DENSITY IS 30 POUNDS PER CUBIC FOOT PAYLOAD LOCATED IN FORWARD NOSE STRUCTURE VEHICLE SIZED FOR DUE EAST LAUNCH FROM SITE 5.5 DEGREES LATITUDE

* *

50 x 270 NM INSERTION ORBIT (.270 NM CIRCULAR PARKING ORBIT) PHASE B SPACE SHUTTLE WEIGHT AND GEOMETRY TECHNOLOGY USED FOR WEIGHT SCAI. ING 10 PERCENT DRY WEIGHT CONTINGENCY ADDED ON BOTH STAGES NO AIR BREATHING ENGINES ON EITHER STAGE

* * * t * * * *

50 FT. DIAMETER STAGES NO MAX Q CONSTRAINT 4 G MAXIMUM ACCELERATION L I M I T LOX'PROPANE PROPELLANT USED IN BOOSTER STAGE

LOX/LH2 PROPELLANT USED IN SECOND STAGE BOOSTER PROPULSION SYSTEM WEIGHTS AND PERFORMANCE DATA REFLECTS 1995 TECHNOLOGY LEVEL SECOND STAGE USED UPRATED EXISTING SPACE SHUTTLE M A I N ENGINE BOOSTER T/W = 1 . 3 , SECOND STAGE T/W = 1 . 1 LANDING SPEED FOR BOTH STAGES IS APPROXIMATELY 130 KNOTS SATURN V LAUNCH VEHICLE AERODYNAMIC DATA ESTIMATES FPR PPOPELLANT CALCULATED BASED ON IDEAL VELOCITY RESERVING 0.75* OF TOTAL

* * * * *

EDIN EX-333-76

VI-APP-A-18

FIGURE 2. ROCKET ENGINE PROPULSION SYSTEM FttRrtMETERS PARAMETER PPC'I I I LANT MI' IM,<E R A T I O (OF) CHfni. t.P PRESSURE <.P5IA) ENGH-E OPERATION CYCLE EXFH'^IGN PATIO <AE'AT) VACUUM SPECIFIC IMPULSE (.SEC) £•c. u ifTi o > rr_r TiP t r I M P I |I I - P " < ^ r r ^ _> r H i r. C.L . p L t _ r i<^ iiiiL. u.-_'C. voL'^x FUEL r-E-NSITY (LB?-'CUFT) OXII-1TEP C-EN3ITY <LBS-'CUFT^ FUEL STORAGE TEMPEPATUPE <DEG F) OXH'IZER STORAGE TEMPERATURE cDEG F) STAGE 1 LOX/C3H8 2.68:1 3000 .0 GAS G E N E R A T O R 40 .0 340 .00
Oft *t 11 oU d . 1 1

STAGL 2 LOX'LH2 6.00 : 1 4000.0 STnGLf- COMBUSTION 200.0 466.0

46.50 71 .38 -297.0 -297,0

4.42 71 .38 -420 .0 -297.0

FIGURE 3. LIQUID ROCfET ENGINE DATA

FMRAMCTFR
NUM»:> K OF ENGINES VACUUM THRUST ENGINE UBS) VHCIJMM ISP -.SEC) SEA 1 E''EL THPUST'EN&INE <LBS) SEA L EVEL ISP '.SEC)
E X I T A R E A - E N G I N E kSQ IN) ENGINE UIEICHT

STAGE 1

STAGE 2

16.0 19162^2 ; 340 .00 1714014.304.11 13713.0 19162.9

14.0 543924.3 4C6.00 341334. 8 292.43 13^34.1 8118.3

VI-APP-A-19

F IGUPL' ITEM Pf-E - I G N I T I O N

4.

V E H I C L E SUMMER t

W E I G H T BREAKDOWN (HEIGHT /LES)

UILIGHT PPOPELLANT 236322

2 1 331385

PPE-IGNITION

GFOSS LIFTOFF WEIGHT FnnSTEP L I F T O F F U I E I G H T M H I N S . T H & E PROPEL L A N f INEFT iiiFIGHT <LLS'E CONT; DP "i 1 HI E I G H T &HLLAST IMEPiTAGE t INLL iLP * ,1j M C O N D S T & THPUE.T B U U f U P f - P u F f -.HIOND - E T G LI F I OFF UltH-HT riMlN'E1m.-.L INEFT DP r .HEIGHT FPOf-EiLHtn MNCl FFF UILIGHT - I EE '. C u N T ^ - l O C n n u n 0' f.1390 C O N T I N U E NC f 1255T911 1345769 14094797,

1 1211? 750 uO

rurjTifjuLrj'i'i

iDE'-IUN

FIGURE P A F h M E fEP IDFHL V E L O C I IN FLIGHT FLIi-HT (FT 1 ' LE.EC^

5

Lf'UHi.H

VEHICLE

T P H J E C T O P i ' F nh'HMF.T F.P SUHMnF STnGF ?.
29: 3o 9

STrtGE CFF'i ) PrtTH nf-'L-tL ^C'LG> (DfL-1 C F F C. > >.FF'E ^
953 1 . 9

1

FELHiIVE PELHllVE I t J E l . IrtL I f ' C K 1 IAL ALT ITUDE &UFN riML

17.36

. 17

VELOCITY V F L O i IT !
1

6148

y

245=i5.2

F u T H nNGl E

14 :-•:•
7 6 1Q 1 14394? d
13i:«, "-C 35.9
451 6?0

16
261 :t .4

3 0 7 0 U5. 2

ۥ

FHUGL - rni,'
riHl I HUM D ' i N H M I C EUFNUUT INI flHL BLIFiJ FciitJFE <. & > 'PSFv CF'LF,' DViHHIC P ^ E S ? U P r HCCELErATION

9

7£'3

5 4 1 1 4 .0

£3

1 .3 3 6

OUT H C C E L E P A T I U N •'G)

VI-APP-A-20

•fPRODUCEBIUTy OF ORIGINAL PAOf 18

FITURE 6.
TOTAL VEHICLE

MHTED CONFIGURATION GEOMETRY

LENGTH

519.1 266.9 50.0 193.4 11123.3 91.7 2523.0 2 0

ruiiSTER LENGTH BOOSTER D l A M E f E R BOOSTER WING SPnN BOOSTER WING AREA BOOSTER CANAFD SPAN BOOSTER CANARD AREA i I K H P E N C E bETUJEEN STAGES

SM:UND STAGE LENGTH
SECOND STAGE M n M E I E R SECOND STAGE 'IHN& oPAN SEC ONE' STnGE W I N G nREH 50.0 161.5 7368,9

rt.o.2

SECOND STAGE CANARD SPAN SECOND S-THGE CHNHPD APEH

83.5 2353.2

VI-APP-A-21

FIGURE: ? MHILD CONFIGURATION PLAN FORM VIEW

VI-APP-A-22

REPRODUCIBIL1TY OF 'r ORIGINAL PAOI IS POOR

FIGURE 7A MuTED CONFIGURATION SIDE VIEUI

VI-APP-A-23

REPRODUCIBILITY OF THB OR-ICrfNAL PAGE IS'POOR

FIGURE ?B MUTED CONFIGURATION FRONTHL VIEW

VI-APP-A-24

"-»•„-„

FIGURE 8. L I O U I D ROCKET BOOSTER GEOMETRY S

LOX TANK VOLUME F U F L THNK VOl UME t:n|>Y WETTED SURFACE AREA S T A G F SL ENL'EPNESS P A T I O I U I A L ^ T A G E LENGTH nf 1 C-IHMETER • iHGE r - I A M F T E F B A L E S K I R T I ENGTH A F T S K I R T LENGTH FUEL TANK AFT EKD ENGTH FUEL TAW B A F F E L IIN.--TH FUEL TAW FUD Ff D LENGTH L O X THNK nF F t'J D LtNL-TH LOX T A W PHKF.EL L E t J u T H LOX THNK FUID BKD LENGTH

1 J6842. 79625,

166. 30 50 .00 5U .00
IS .4=. 23 .€8 17 .68 3 '-J.05 17 .68 17 .68 62 . 19 17 68 22 .68 62 .50 6-1 .50 50 .no so .no
120 .0?:

SK'IRT LENGTH NOSE LENGTH
INTEPSTnGE LFNGTH T N T E F S THbE nl- T DI I N T E F S T t i G E F Ul L ' D I A M E T E R INC- L O A D I N G IhLOF-l'TICHL Ul ING nPLn i -POJ;ED UUNG APEn I ! AD ING EDGE SHJEEP ANGi f_ If .lit ItJG EDGE 'ElnEEP ANGL E HI ING A S P E C T R A T I O "i ING TnPEP FAT 10 i F O M L T P I C til ING EPnN J.TPUCTUPHL lilirJG SPnN •U1NG POOT CHOPD ("INL- BODY C H O F D 'UING TIP CHOFD Fl F.VON A V E P A G E CHn/CCANnRD T H E O . APEn

CANARD EXPOSED APEA
HI ING ROOT THICKNESS HJING CENTROID OF ttFEA CANARD ASPECT RnTIO rANAPP TAPER PATIO C f i N A R D G E O H E T F I C SPHN CANnRD POOT CHuRD C A N A R D TIP CHORD VFPT TAIL THEO. AREA BODY FLAP CHOF-D BODY FLAP AREA NOTE - ALL DIMENSIONS ARL GIVEN IN FEET ALL APE AS MPE GIVEN IN SC'UARE FEET ALL VOLUMES ARE GIVEN IN CUBIC FEET VI-APP-A-26

11123.3 7-495. 1 44.00 27.51 3.5400 ,4350ft 19S.4T ? 4 7 , 24 78, 15 67. 0 0 . 33.. 9 8 15. 15 . 252:. . 0 1 146.T 8.3544 71 . 0 9 5 3.3300 1.00000 91 .66 27.53 27,53 2 6 0 9 . c. 25.00 1250 .0

BOOSTER HYPERSONIC T R I M * * * * * REFlKFNCF DIMENSIONS 11123.28 f+* RHDIUSBODY •« 25.00 LEflC-TH = **« III INC*** S E .P H- 7 4 v 5 . f i f c BOD. C67 Ou TIP •- = 33. i?3 X Ltf F.I,= 1 ?.-*. 9U

ESP A-- 1 Mb.

75

LENlMH-266.90 NOSE L= 62.50

coor c=
TIP "IE C= BC=

2?.5j
27.53 6?.5f» 91 . f 6.

'. PHN-

I •* 4".

M«iRLPLI E" JN *• CHOFD15 1*. T E F L ECU ON.0"
i" I ' *H
— -—-

44.00
I N C I D E N C E - - 1 5 00 «• &OP'» FI ,iF + H= 1250 Oo 1= 25.00 nNi.1 Ef'O
r n 1. M — f n 1 lrf "4 T f M L, n 1~\

XC'
lit l C i li ti r l

i B-

. 7'..45
- --

e
J5 3>1 15 4n 45 50 55 L.U ^•5 70 75 :U o5 I . I I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I . I I . I . I . I I . I. I . I . I . I . .25"3214 3'-»t4 4 ' <5 SSn5 L.25j! e.^52 7505 9t?' ,35?5 8-03 9104 917 J

PF
040 n*o ."74 n j*3 112 1 <£ .151 .It 9 .195 1 "»S 210 .213 .2 : J

c

ID

UOfc^ .24n? C'i:3 32ft} .0241 44 ?4 03C.13 . •»56'5 "515 f-738 Ot7.i 7^ii r.0^'... .9043 H'll 1 nir? i.^iti 1 l of ? 1 ?> > 4 1 1 ^00 I 5 4 t 1 25 , 4 . 1 1'^4 1 I'O 7n . 1 :J t 1 " 3 7 4

b 10 4c. 1 'o^ 15 "7 1 7 15 2H If 2. J 5< 450 ..'tC7 °7-?? Cf^J l^cJ 2?S9 2^73

-

bF i'12 016 «>22 rt«?7 'i .•> > n y} -J44 U49 '154 H5S " tl "64 Ufc5

C Dl . fi".. ^ • 0 5 J O fc 4^'^ . Q j l * .Out5 -.0714 &^ t -i5 .0244 . " 1 1 3 - , 0 ? 4 u 1 1 " lci 02'-i. H 1 7? - . 1 1 ?1 1 . 4" "O . 02" 7 "242 -.143.'* 1 t'-..'. . 0 1 1 9 O':)rt .It 77 1 . -- I 4 ,0ni4 0^' .l'-17 2.^07 U " 1 5 .0-l'Ji 2 1 4 3 2 4::v£ - . 0 0 5 , 1 .D*" '-'' • . 2?47 2 . 7 H C * 5 - . f i l ? i . ' . O C 4 ' - 1 - 2 u -2^ 2 ^ 0 4 4 - . 0 2 0 0 . O.V5 - i f f € , 3 OC 15 - . 0 ? C t , 0 7 9 4 - 2 7 7 1 3 175"* -.Ol'^'t. O t 5 4 -.2-33t 3 . 2 4 4 2 - . 0 3 7 9

'

^MJJtgyji^OGIBlljITY OF DRIGINAJL PAGE IS P 1
VI-APP-A-27

FIGURE 10 BOOSTER PLAN FORM VIEW

VI-APP-A-28

FIGURE in A BOOSTER SIFE VIEW

VI-APP-A-29

FIGURE IOC BOObTER

ORTHOGONAL

VIEW

VI-APP-A-31

FIGURE 11. L I Q U I D P O C K E T E'O'JSTER uir_JC,HT SfATFHENT

IUING GROUP T(4II. GROUP CfnNAPD VERTICAl BODY FLAP BODY GROUP NOSE', I NT TPV> FHIP SKI FT LO" TANC INTER ThiM FUEL IhNK AFT Sf IF T TH,''Ur.T ' rf'Ul r i l K k tnSE SK1K1

116859. £2570 .

9217. 13353.
8750 . 379674 . 43747. 19592. &6391 . 39937. 502t.9 . 0. 1221:00 , 173S9. €3447.

riiLPMnL pKurtcnoN
BUDY t N I R T TPS FLAME SHI ELL' LOI' TANK INSULHTIQN INTEPTHW I N S U L A T I O N FUEL TnW INcUt nl ION

HUNG THS
CttNilPD IF 5 VERT TAIL If 3 BODY FLAP 1PI L hNL>ING SYSTEM NOE.E GEAR M A I N GEAR DPOUbE CHUTl ff CENT PROPULSION MM IN E N G I N E 5 ACCESSORIES GIMP.AL SYSTEM FUEL SYSTEM OXIDIZER SYSTLM nUX. PROP. SYS. PRIME FOIHEP Fl ECT CONV nN[' DISTR HYDRAULIC CONV AND ['SIR AI RO SURFACE CONTROLS WING SURFACE CONTROLS CANARD SURFACE CONTROLS VERT TAIL SURFACE CON1RULI-. BODY FLAP CONTROLS AVIONICS E N V I R O N M E N T A L CONTROL PERSONNEL PRO 1 ' I S I DNo DRY HIEIGHT CONTINGENCY

0. 13035. 0. 0. 0. 30 395 . 6754. 9847. C.
55203. 4490 . 50 7 1 3 . 0. 41 5396 . 006607. 0. 43538. 3060 . 62190. 10986, 3881 . 1818. 15939. 21746. 15y22. 864. 3171 . 1789. 4900 . 0. 0. 1121169 112117. 75000.

BHLLACT VI-APP-A-32

LIQUID

ROCKET BOOSTER WEIGHT STATEMENT

<CON'T) 130828e-. 1421 1 . HO?.

E M P T Y UlEIGHl RESIDUAL FLUID'S OX ID PFti>S L- ASSES FUEL PRESS C-nSSLS
PCS PRIME

pniiiER FLUIDS

0. 0.
11778.

HYDFAULJC

LANDING W E I G H T M"-"i> I NFL 1 1~ HT LuSoES PRIME FOIUEP F P n P E L L A N T t-LSEkVES ENTPS IHEIC-HT ADuPTER

1335673
1980U2. 691.

0.

Ib3437l.

PLS PROPELLHNT
F"if> I N F E R S T A & E OF P f t Y L O A D • 5 Lh'£PMllON S Y S T E M 3589. 1596195.

J E I U E - O N (HEIC-HT A T MF i C U T O F F Mh-IN'-'TH^E f K O P E L L A N T

MHIN-THI,E O^-IDITFP
s i HI,E. FUEL BOCi?fEF L I F T O F F lilL f-'l-E-I&NI r i O N P P O r ' E L L H f J f

914243=..
3412476 .

14154110. 23t3i2.
14390432 .38723 3517454.

PPE-IGNITIOf4 WEI&HT
BOOSTER MnSS F R r t C l I H N T O T A L LOX IHEINHI T O T A L FUEl itfEI&HT <*> ALL UlEIC-HTS ftPL 1 M POlirU-S

VI-APP-A-33

riGURE 12. BOOSTER l/iEIC-Hri AS A '/. OF EMPTY WEIGHT ITEM

PCT
8.532 1 .725 .669 29.021 4.850 4.220 31 .751 .840 .297 . 139 1 .218 1 .662 .375

WING GROUP TAIL GROUP BODY FLAP
E'i'.DY GROUP

THERMAL PRG1LCT ION LHNDING SYSTEM
ASCENT 1 POPULSION AUX. PROPULSION SYSTEM PRIME POWER ELECT CONV AND DISTR HYDPHULIC CONV HND DISTR AERO SURFACE CuNTPOLS AV IONIC?. E N V I R O N M E N T A L CONTROL PERSONNEL PROVISIONS DRY HEIGHT DESIGN RESERVE CONTINGENCY PALLAST EMPTY WEIGHT

.ono
.000 35.698 8.570 5.733 100 .000

FIGURE 13. BOOSTER CG DATA ITEM FORWARD NOSF1 STRUCTURE BALLAST FORWARD SkIRT LOX TANK LOX TANK PPLSSLIPANT FUEL TANK FUEL THNK PPESSURANT INTEKTANK STRUCTURE LOX TANK INSULATION FUEL TANK INSULATION INTtPrANh INSULATION BASE SKIRT BODY FLAP TOTAL STAGE
STAGE XCG (PCT LB>
AFT STA *• WEIGHT

X CG *
36 ,79 5 .00 73 .84 116 .27 116 .27 203 .25 203 .25 167 .05 116 .27 203 .25 .00 257 ,68 279 ,40 201 .39

62.50

.00
85. 18 165.05

.00
237.45

.00
18t>.72

.00 .00 .00
266.90 291.90 266.90

43746. 5S 75000 .00 19592. 10 86390 .92 14210 .97 5026S.&7 1402.67 39987.0^ .00 .00 .00 17J38.72 8750 .00 1179158.67

75.454
IN

O>

ALL STATIONS hND CENTERS OF GRAVITY ARE GIVEN FEET LOCATED AFT OF STAGE NOSE

VI-APP-A-3^

FIGURE 14. LHUNCH VEHICLE SECOND STAGE GEOMETRY SUMHHRY
1 OX TANK V O L U M E
b375l 74093 3&371

f uri

TANK VOLUME:

fJrtDY W E T T E D S U R F A C E AREfi FAVLOftD VOLUME PAYl OAD BH'I VOLUME f IHD NOSE VTiLLIHE STP,r,r •UENt'ERNESS FAT 10 T O T A L STAGE LENGTH
Hf T D I A M L T F k M A G E OlHhhTLR BA'EE SK IK 1 1 ' E N l - I H L FN&TH 1ENGTH HFT S K I R T I FNGTH LOX TANK AFT bib L OX TnW
LOX

0.
01359, 5.0038

5n . n 0 50 ,uO
22.70 28.68 17.68 24.97 1 ? . t3 17.68 88,67 1 P. 68 22.63 .00 62.50 .00 50 .00 50 .00
9&. ?? 7368.9 4467.6 44.00 27.51 3.5400 .43500 161.51 201 .24 63.59 52.47 27.66 12.02 2353.2 1024.0 6.8040 57.86S 3.3300 1 .00000 88.52 26.58 26.58 243C. .9 25.00 1 250 . 0

&AKFF-L

H«D E t [ - Lf NuTH fUEl 1AM ATT Ft 0 LFNGTM FUEL T A N K BHhFFL I FNGTH FUEl THNI, FIHD L\ 0 LENGTH FWP K I h T LENGTH PAYLOAD BnV LENGTH FIH[i NO&E I ENi'-TH INTEPiTAbL LENGTH INTEhSTAGE AFT PIAHK.7EP INTER iTnuE FD'O IH'NG LOADING HEOPE1 ICAL W I N G f , POSFf UUNG APEH

i IMPING FDT-F.

C

.UIEEF AN>VI E

T A I L I N G ET'GE • UlE EP ANGl E ill ING ASPECT P A T I O 'JUNG TAPER R A T I O '--EOMETRIC UUNG SFn» STRUCTUPHL W I N G SPnN U'lNb KOOT CHOFCDUNG BODY iHORD

HUNG TIP CHOPCEI.EVON AVERAGE CHORD CANARD THEO. APEH
CfNAkD EXPObFP APFA W J N G PGOT THICf'NES^ U 1 N G CENT RO ID OF AREA CuNAPD ASPECT RAT 10 CuNftRD TAPER RRTIO C^NHPD GEOMLTP1C SF^N CK NARD ROOT CHOPO T A N A R D TIP CHOPC' VERT TAIL THEO. A F E A t'ODY F L A P CHOPD Bn['Y FLAP AREA

NOTE - ALL DIMENSIONS APE GIVEN IN KEET ALL APEHS HFE GIVEN IN SQUARE FEET ALL VOLUMES APE GIVEN IN CUBIC FEET VI-APP-A-35

FIGURE 15 SECOND STAGE HYPERSONIC l f - I M DATA •M + >** REFERENCE DIMENSIONS <* ***•* AKEA = 7368.92 LENGTH-- 2f.0.19 * + * BODY *•++ **••* WING -M * *+* CANARD •»*-» RADIUS= 25.00 EXP A= 4467.56 EXP A= 1024.03 LENGTH = 25n . 19 BODY C= 52.47 BODS' C= 26.53 NOSE L= 62.50 TIP C= 27.66 TIP C= 26.53 NOSE=CONE X LE BC = 197.72 XI E BC = 62 . 5u SPAN = 161.51 SPAN= 88.52 Stl)EEF= 44.00 SillEEP^ .00 INC1PENCE=-18.50 * WING ELEVON •+ * BODY FLAP * CHOPD= 12.02 A= 1250.00 XlG'LB= .7255 DFFLEC TI ON= .00 L= 25.00 ANGLE= .00
M L. r rl ri
^ 14
^11

*~M i

uri i

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 55

.228 .254 1 , 0?46 .279 1 . 1516 . 300 1 . 1929 .317 1 .2173 .329 1 , £2-*0 .337

B .3494 .4447 5451 ,6479 . 75U 1 .8488 .9409 1 .0237

BF .061 .085 . 1 \2
, 140

, 17fi . I*'?

C .0036 .0110 .0224 . 0373 .0553 .0759 .0983 . 1220 . 1462 .1702 . 1933 .2147 .2337

HI .2166 .3031 .3989 .5010 .6063 .7115 .8136 .9094 ,??60 1 .0707 1 . 1313 1 . 1760 1 ,2033

B . 1396 . 1706 2U21 , 2334 .2*35 .2916 .3169 .3386 . 3560 .3687 .3762 .3784 .3752

BF -.020 -.028 -.036 - . 045 -.055 -.065 -.074 -.083 -.090 -.097 -. 103 -. 107 -, 109

C .0015 .0047 .0095 .0158 .0234 .0321 .0416 .0516 .0618 .0719 .0817 .0907 .0958

ID -.0528 7966 -.0739 1 .0766 -.0973 1 . 3846 -, 1222 1 ,7114 -, 1479 2 .0473 -, 1735 2 .3S21 -. 1934 2 .7058 -.2218 3 .0084 -.2429 3 , 2809 -.2611 3 .5150 -.2759 3 .7035 -.2868 3 .8407 - . 2935 3 . 922^

.0458 .0419 .0360 .0287 .0200 .0105 .0003 -.0101 - . 0205 - . 030i; - . 040 n -.0434 -.0557

VI-APP-A-36

FIGURL It S.ti.uU[> STAGE PLfiN FORM V I E W

VI-APP-A-37

HEPRODUCIBILJTY OK T ORIGINAL FAGS IS POOR

FIGURE 16A SECOND STAGE SIDE VIEW

VI-APP-A-38

FIGURE 16B SECOND STAGE FRONTAL V I E W

VI-APP-A-39

FISUPL

16C SE'CGHD STntE ORTHOGONAL V I E W

v I -APP-A-40

|TEP«DDUCIBILrrr OF THE ORIGINAL PAGE IS POOR

FIGURL 17. I.HUNCH VEHICLE SECOND STAGE WEIGHT STATEMENT

HUNG GROUP TAIL GROUP CANARD VERTICAL BODY FLAP EHDY GROUP NGSE-.INC TPS) FtoD SKIRT L0\ TANK TNTEPTANK FUEL TANK AFT ShIRT THPUST S T R U C T U R E BASF SKIRT THERMAL PRuTECTIOH BOC-V FNFP.Y TPS FLAME SHIELD LOX TilNK, IN? Ul nTION INTLKTANt: I N S U L A T I O N FUEL TttNk I N f U L A T I O N W I N G TPS C u N A R D TPS "EPT TAIL TF3 BODi FLAP TFS I HfJDING SYSTEM NOSE GEnR M A I N GEnR DFOUbE CHUTE H'ZCENT PROPULSION MHIN ENGINE? ACCESSORIFS G I M B A L SYSTEM FUEL SYSTEM OXIDIZER SYSTEM AUX. PFOP. SYS F P I M E FOIHER n.ECT CONV AND DISTP HYDRAULIC CONV AND DS1R AFRO SURFACE CONTROLS UiING SURFACE CONTROLS CANARD SURFACE CONTKOLS VERT TAIL S U R F A C E CONTROLS BODY FLAP CONTROLS A"IONICS CNVIRONflLfJTAL COfJTROL PLRSOrJNFJL P R O V I S I O N S DR>r W E I G H T CONTINGENCY

C4253, 21051,
12454

242338,
40.M7

19592, 27647, 0, 99583, 0,

116237,
54141 , 1 3n35 , 0, 3'jO* , 65IU , 201 St.,

54141 ,

29922
2-424. 27IS3. 0.

125783
113656. 0. 8961 . 1422. 1749.

5678, 2104, 1818, 8640 , 16101, 10548, 806, 2957, 1789. 4900 0 0 647578. 6475S,

VI-APP-A-41

LAUNCH VEHICLE SECOND STAGE WEIGHT STATEMENT BALLAST EMPT, DIE I GUT RESIDUAL FLUIDS OXID PRESS GHSSES FUEL PRESS GttSSES PCS PRIME POWER HYf-FMULlL FLUIDS LANL--NL-. WEIGHT Mr-3 INFLIGHT LOSSES (-,< I HE FOUIER PPuPFLLANT \ I SERVES ENTF". WEIGHT PC; PPOPELLANT FiHD INTERSTAGE OR PA'i LOAD ADAPTER ..FPERATIOH SYSTEM
STfcGf INERT IHEIGHT

CCO(J'T)

0.
712336 15625. 72:23 2018. 0. 0.

727961 71b34. 377. 0.

1311 . 0. 0.
801183, 5039^*51 . 27389. 4342834. 7238U6.

MnINSTHL-E P R O P E L L E N T IMPULS1"E P P O F E L L A N r FLIL-MT PERFORMANCE RLbLR'^ES MAINSTA&F OXIC'I?fR M A I N S T A G E FUEL SEC . i& LIF TOFF IHF IGHT ! K C - I G f J I T I O N FROPELI.ANT

STAH-F P R E - I G N I T I O N WEIGHT SEC STG M A = S FRnCTION fUTAL FUEL WEIGHT TLHAL LOX WEIGHT ORB U MuNEUV PROP G i'ST

5890117. .86346 748451. 4421258. 51390.

VEHULE USEFUL PA^LOAD <*> ALL WEIGHTS ARE IN POUNDS

lOOnooo .

VI-APP-A-A2

FIC-URL IS. SECOND STG WEIGHTS AS A '/. OF EMPTY WEIGHT
1 fEM

PCT
9.020 2.955

uUNG GROUP F A I L GROUP pnf'Y FLAP K.UDY GROUP THERMAL P R O T E C T I O N L HMD ING SYSTEM

1 .228 ^4.020 16.318
4.200 17.659 .797 .295 .255 1 .213 2.2^0 .683 .000 .000 90 . 9 0 9 9.091 .000

ASCENT PROPULSION
A U X . P R O P U L S I O N S 1 . STEM 'H1ML" FOKIER t 1 ECT CUNV AND DIS1R H i D R A U L I C CON" HND D l S l P HLPO SUI F ACE CONTROLS f»\'iriNIC c Lt.-/IROrjf1^NTAL CONTROL Ft f-'E.ONNLI. P P O V I S I O f J S [ F V HlEIi^HI , [-filGN f - E S E R V L C GUTINGENCY F:H| L A S T E f l F T V Ult IGHf
C

100 .ono

h J i,l IRE 19. ITEM F O R W A R D NOSF1 STRUtTUr^E BALLi'ST FOR^lnRD S K I R T LO^ \MW LOX TANt' PPESSURANf FUEL TnNK FUEL TANK PRESSUTANT INT€f-THNK STRUCTURE LOX TANK IMSULHTION FUEL TANK INSULHT10N I N T t f T A N k INCULATION BASE S K I R T BODS' FLAP TOTAL STAGE

SLCONC- S T A G E CG DATA
AFT STA * W E I G H T
62.50
.00 85. 18 216.49 .00 173.85 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 250 .19

X CG *
36.79 5.00 73.84 186.33 186.33
126 56 126.56 .00 186.33 126.56 164.46 238.34

43746.58 .00 19592. 10 27647.39 f 222. 76 99582.64 2018.34 .00 .00 6519.60 3505.91 21394.25 8750 .00 638579.93

275. 19 250 . 19

262.69 181 .52

STAGE XCG CPCT LB) CO ALL STATIONS AND CENTERS OF GRAVITY tIRE GIVEN FEF.T LOCATED fiFT OF STAGE NOSE
VI-APP-A-^3

72.554 IN

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VI-APP-A-45

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VI-APP-A-A6

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VI-APP-A-48

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VI-APP-A-50

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MPRQDUCIBILny OF THE ORIGINS PAGi 18 POOR
VI-APP-A-51

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VI-APP-A-52

FIGURE. 29 ASCENT IRriJULTukY WF.1&H7 (LPS) HCCEL (&)

Cf '

<LBS>

0 F.

THI« OTL

CHIP

t F i* ) N LirruFF) U 2:7424231 .5
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2 10 95563.0 20915206 .0 20734&49 .0 10554492 .0 203741 !-,5. U 20193778 n 20013421 .0 19833064 , 2 19652707 2 1 ->4 72250.2
1 =12^1 =*,n o

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1 .39 2.78 4. 17 5.56 6.95
5.99 7 08 8.26 9.51 10 .84 12,24 13.70 15.21 It .76 18.36 19.98 21 .63

185705t5 5 2797c'iC84 . 2 13390 2U ?. 5 2R0555I3 .7 32 n 18209tM ,5 28 13*= 6 32 .5 1&H29494 5 3-1 f 28221744 .5 36 .0 17849127 .5 176e87c'0 3? . 0 23310499 0 ^ 17488423 ,7 40 . 0 /£402'jl7 , r 2S497J77 . 5 42.0 1730 £06 6. 7 285946^9 5 44 .0 17127709 .7 28693831 46 0 1694, "352 7 2*794464 0 4C. .0 167t£9''-5 .9 2£ 3960 26 . £l 165?e£ o9 ,0 50 0 28993004 .0 52.0 16406222 ,0 29039897 .0 16225925 0 54 .0 29201192 .7 16045568 , 1 56.0 29301360 .0 15365211 . 1 56.0 29399952 .0 60 .0 15684354 1 29496454 .5 62.0 15504497 ,2 29590403 .5 64 0 15324140 .2 29681377 .7 15143733 2 66.0 29769015 ,7 14963426 4 68.0 29852946 .•5 1478^069 .4 70 .0 72,0 29*33035 .2 146H2712 . 4 .7 74 , 0 30003624 14422355 .5 30079498 C 14241998 .5 76.li ( M A X I M U M DVNhMIC PCES oUPE'' 14061C41 .5 78, U 30145413 .5 30206204 .5 13881284 , 6 30 .0 13381234 .6 80 .0 3(1206204 .5 S2.0 30261773 .5 13700927 .6 J t. 0 30312110 .0 1352H570 6 86. 0 13G40213 ,6 303572S1 .0
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1 .494 1 .511 1 . 529 1 547 1 . 5» 6 1 . 5.,'j 1 .604 ], 624 1 .644 1 .6t-5 1 6<J5 1 706 1 .726 1 746 1 .7o6 1 .7T5 1 1 .802 1 .817 1 841 1 .8^6 1 .8^5 1 .928 I .962 1 .9=13 2 .026 2 .Obi 2 .096 2 .096 2 . 132 2 . 168 2 .206

127 . 6 149 1 172 .4 197 .4 224 , 1 252 ,4 282 2 313 .4 345 .7 379 , 1 413 .3 448 2 483 3 518 , 5 553 , 2 587 . 3 620 . 1 651 , 1 679 , •? 706 . J 729 , g 750 . 2 767 . 1 778 3 733 .5 782 .0 773 .2 773 .2 2 757 __ o 734 704 .8

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100 .0

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10U li 100 fl

100 ,0 100 0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 ,0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 0 ion 0 100 ,0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 . 0 100 0

23.30 24.98 26.67 23.35
30 .03

31 .71 33.37 35.01 36.63 38.23 39.80 41 .34 42.85

44.32 45.76 45,76 47. 16 48.53 49.85

VI-APP-A-53

VEHICI E ftSCENT T R A J E C T O R Y
TIME

THRUST

WEIGHT

ftCCEL

THFOTI

CHIP

30397320 . £ 1315^35b -» 88.0 30432154 0 12979499 . 7 90 .0 12799142 7 92 . 0 30462743 2 304S9459.5 12618785, 9 94.0 1243&423. 9 96 . 0 305127oO 5 30532960 5 12253071 . 9 9£ .0 305505119 . 7 12077715 0 1 U0 . 0 30^50509.7 12t'i77715 0 100.0 11897358. 0 305*5707,0 102.1" 30cj?Qf<^2 . 2 11717001 . 0 104.0 30590112 2 1 1536644 0 106.0 30 60 On ,15 7 li:-5*£87, 1 108. 0 3060350o . 7 1117^930 . 1 110.0 30615847. 7 Hi 5*5573. 1 11? 0 114.0 iO 622 160 .0 10815216. 2 30*27583.2 1U6P4R59 .2 116.0 3063224U .5 10454502 2 lie 0 3U6562 3.3 . 7 10274145 4 1 20 . u 306n9fc,70 .2 10 09:-.; es. 4 122.0 3U642613.7 9913431 . 4 124.0 30645133 2 9731:074. 5 126 0 30647303.5 955271,7. 5 128.0 20649160 .2 9?,'2360 5 130 .0 30650752. 7 919?003. 6 132.0 30 652 11 9.5 9011646. 6 134.0 30653592 . 7 8831283. 6 126.0 30654301 5 8650 ^32 .7 138 0 30654561 . 5 8537652 .1 139, 3 <ENO BOOSTER STAGE BURtO .0 6941452 9 139.3 .0 143.3 6941452. 9 < BEG IN SECOND- 3 TPGE BURN) 7614940 .6 6919170. 2 143.? 7612653.2 6733441 . 6 151 .3 7613555.6 6657713. 1 159.3 7614093.3 6526984, 4 167.3 7614417 7 6396255 9 175.3 7614615 . 0 6265527. •3 183.3 7614735.9 6134798. 7 191 .3 7614940 .6 613479S 7 191 .3 7614810 .5 6004070 . 1 199.3 7614556 . 8 5873341 . 5 207.3 7614335.8 5742612. 9 215.3 7614904. 1 5611884. 3 223.3 7614915.9 5481155. 7 231 .3 7614923.4 5350427. 1 239.3 7614940 .6 5350427. 1 239.3 7614928.4 5219698. 5 247.3 7614931 .6 5088969. 9 255.3 7614933.8 4958241 . 3 263.3 4827512. 7 7614935 3 271 .3 7614936.4 4696784. 1 279.?

2 .244 2 ,283 2 . J?3 2 . 3t,3 2 .404 2 . 445 2 .487 2 .487 2 .5 JO 2 .573 2 . 618 2 6o3 2 . 7u9 2 75P 2 .807 2 .357 2 .909 2 .96^> 3 .018 3 .075 3 . 134 3 . 1*5 3 .25S 3 . 32;. 3 .391 3 .461
3 .534

3 .5C2
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88 .4 64 .9 64 .9 41 .0 27 .3 18 .6 12 .8 8 .9 6 .3 6 .3 4 .5 3 .2 2 .3 1 .7 1 .3 1 .0 1 .0 .8 .6 .5 .4 .3

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58 . 10 59 . 14 6d , 14 61 . 11 62 .05 62 .9£ 63 .84 64 .69 65 .51 e£ .30 67 .07 67 .82 1:8 .54 69 .23 69 .91 70 .56 71 . 19 71 .80 72 .40 72 .97 73 .32 73 .02 74 .43 61 .03 61 .67 62 .72 63 .59 64 .46 65 .35 66 26 66 .26 67 . 17 68 . 10 69 .04 69 .99 70 .96 71 .93 71 .93 72 .92 73 .92 74 .92 75 .94 76 .97

10u 0 U. HI 0 100 ,0 100 ,u 100 0 1UO 0 luO 0 100 0 100 .0 100 0 100 0 100 .0 100 0 100 0 ion . 0

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100

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100 ,0 100 .0

100 0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0

VI-APP-A-5 1 *

VIIHICI L ASCMH TRAJECIGPY
TIME

IHEIGHT

nCCLL

Q

CHIP

7t.l493T . 1 7614^37 .6 7614933 .0 7614908 .2 7614938 .4 7614938 . 6 76 14 =138 , 7 761 4 * 38 .7 7614938 .7 76149~-:8 « ~? I 76149J8 p 761 4^38 . 7 7614^38 i£i 3yi 7M4938 . t, 390 , 3 7614-^3^ .4 40? . J ?614C'38 . J -i 415 _' 7614--O8 .2 423 v • ,-614938 . 1 431 ~; 7614-H38 . 1 409 .' 761493S .0 44? 3 76 14 ^38 . U <IN if.CT ION,' 451 . 6 7M9675 , 0
1

28? _' 295 ". 303 311 t 31 - . 2 327 335 -, 343 .3 351 35°" . J 367 ^ 375 s 3S3 -.

4566055. f-, 4435326. 9 4304S9G 4 4173£'69. c 4043141 ~. -•912412 6 37S1&E4. 0 3650 9:-b 4 3520216 . 8 33894^8. 2 325P7t9. 6 31?Rn41 . n ? r< ''": K- 4 •,: 2St^5Sl: 8 .-VI.585b 2

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247439S 1 2343669. 5 2212940 9 2082212 3 1951480. 7

1 .668 1 .717 1 .769 1 .824 1 . %&'•> 1 .946 2 .014 2 .056 2 . 1 f, 3 2 .247 ?. 3 J .' ?.4 '--4 2 .541 2 . 656 2 .783 2 .923 3 .077 ? .249 3 .441 3 .65.' 3 , 9n : 4 . OIMJ

.3 .3 .3 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .3 .3 .3 .3 .4 .t . C. .6 .6 .7 ,8 .9 .9

100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 1 0 fi .0 10U . 0 10U .0 1 0 0.0 1 0 0.0 lOu .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 .0 100 n ico .0 100 .0 i o o .0 l u u .0 .0 10 ft 100 .0 10U 0

78 .00 79 .04 £.0 .09 31 . 15 82 .21 83 .28 84 .35 85 .43 86 .M 87 .59 88 .68 89 .76 90 .85 •=>! .93 33 .02 ?4 . 10 95 . 18 96 .25 97 oo 98 .39 9? .45

1879 "MS. 7

1 .0

^rt 7

100 .02

VI-APP-A-55

FIGURE 29 ASCENT TRAJECTORY

T I ME <SEC >

VEL REL <FPS)

VEL I (FPS>

GAMMA R (DEC)

GAMMA I i'DE&)

ALTITUDE <FT>

RANGE <NM)

(BEGIN L IFTOF'F ) ,n 1519 .0 .0 1519 , 1 19. 9 2.0 4 .n 1519 , c 40 . 6 sj _ o 15?0 62. 0 6.0 84. 2 1521 .3 8.0 107. 3 1522 ,7 10 .0 131 . 1 1524 .5 12.0 14.0 155. 8 1526 .8 (BEGIN T ILT> 1529 .6 181 . 4 I6.fi 1534 .0 2QQ-. 0 18.01541 .0 235. 4 20 .0 1551 .0 22.0 263. 8 1563 .8 24.0 293 . 3 1579 . 5 323. 9 26.0 (END I1L T) 1595 .4 28.0 355, 7 388. 7 iei3 . 2 30 . 0 32.0 423. 1 16;-i3 8 34.0 458. 8 1657 . 2 36. n 495. 9 1683 .6 534. 5 1713 . 1 38.0 1745 .9 40 .0 574. 7 42.0 616, b 1782 . 0 44 .0 660 . 1 1821 .5 705. 5 1S64 . 5 46.0 1910 .9 752. 7 48.0 802. 0 I960 .7 50 .0 853. 2 2013 .9 52.0 906. 5 2070 .5 54,0 961 . 8 2130 .3 56.0 1019. 2 2193 .4 58.0 1073. 7 2259 .5 60 .0 1140 . 2 2328 .4 62.0 64.0 1203. 8 2400 .2 1270 . 0 66.0 24?5 .2 1339. 0 68.0 2553 .4 1411 . 0 2635 .0 70 .0 2720 .1 72.0 1486. 3 1564. 8 2808 .6 74.0 76.0 1646. 5 2900 .3 < MAX (MUM DVNHM 1C PRESSURE) 1731 . 5 2995 .4 78.0 80 .0 1819. 8 3093 .8 80 .0 3093 .8 1819. 8 82.0 3195 .6 1911 . 6 84 .0 3300 .7 2006. 8 66.0 2105. 5 3409 . 1

31 .32 89 .91 S3 .91 89 .91 89 90 89 .90 89 .90 89 .90 9U . 1 1 89 .79 89 .06 87 .99 fab .69 85 . 22 84 . 13 83 04 81 .88 80 .63 79 .31 77 .92 76 .47 74 .97 73 .43 71 .84 70 .22 68 .58 66 .93 65 .26 63 .53 61 .91 60 .24 58 .57 56 .93 55 .30 53 .69 52 , lu 50 .55 49 .02 47 .•53 46 .07 44 ,64 44 .64 43 .26 41 .91 40 .60

.00 .75 1 ,53 2 .34 3 . 17 4 .04 4 .93 5 .86

- .5 19 .0 79 .5 181 .7 328 .5 519 .7 758 .0 1044 .2
1D81 , 7 lc-71 ,0 2214 . 2 2713 .2 3269 . 7 3835 .0 4561 .5 7.301 .0 61U5 ,5 6976 .7 7916 .5 89.-J6 ,2 1 0 0U T . 5 1 1 1 6 1 .5 12389 .7 13692 5 15071 .2 16526 , 2 18057 .7 19€66 .0 21350 . 7 23111 .0 24946 . 7 26856 , ? 28838 .0 30890 ,7 330 1 4.0 35206 .5 37467 .5 39796 .5 42192 .5
44654 .0 47179 .7 47179 .7 49768 .2 52418 , T 55129 t 2

.0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 .1 .1 .1 .2 .2 .3 .4 .4 .5 .6 .7 .9 1 .0 1 .2 1 .4 1 .6 1 .8 2. 1 2.3 2.6 2.9 3.3

6.81 7 .79 8.79 9,?9 10 .79 11 .79
12 .81 13 84 14 .85 15 85 16 ,82 \? .76 18 .66 1-3 ,52 20 32 21 .07 21 .7f22 .38 22 .94 23 .43 23 .85 24 ,20 24 .48 24 .70 24 ,P^ 24 .95 25 .00 25 .00 24 .95 24 .87 24 .75

a* ,60
24 .41 24 .41 24 .20 23 .96 23 .70

3.7 4. 1 4. 1 4.5 5.0 5.5

VI-APP-A-56

VEHICI F A C C E N T

1 IMC

VEL REL

VFl

I

C-HMM R

bttMM

I

AL T I T H T ' E
57? J<=. 7

RANEE

2207 8 252" q ="IJ U 2313 6 36 3 c 1 3754 .6 2423 .0 ?l- o c,4 o o r ^ t» 5 253* .0 •Hill 1 t ^fc. U 2652 .7 }•? 0 41 '0 4 2773 . 1 4?rl 4 li'il .ft 2897 1 4i>-r . 4 28?7 . 1 me . o oft 1*1 5 4397 9 I'll ft 315fc 3 453t- . & in 4 0 '291 5 467* 2 1'lf ft C - 4 3 0 .5 452=' . 1 ing o 49-M 5 :-573 . 4 11 ft . o 5)17 t MC.O C710 1 1140 5/ 34 4 5370 3 5 4 4 4 •> 4ii25 5 11£ . » 4194 4 5 1 ' i ^ -r IIS " c- -» • •* 4:47 3 c 1 2 n .ft 5 C '4 : ' . 0 4514 .6 122 .0 tilt 2 124 .0 4t,?b . 1 true .& 43t2 1 12t 0 t 4 ^ 1 *• 5U41 f. lie 0 5127 . 5 *€•?! 0 1 30 . 0 6^.'4 Ci 5417 . 7 132 0 134.0 7H.':- 5 5612 .5 71 C',' 0 i :- 6 . o 5312 4 74. : -~, 5 tul7 4 133 ft 139 . 3 6 1 4 8 .9 76 1 :» 1 (EMC- E s G Q E T E R STHGE E?HFN > 7619 , 1 6143 9 13-=" ., 7557 .5 61 10 1 143 3 ( B E G I N S E C O N D STAC-F E U FtO 75S7 .5 61 10 . 1 143-3 6317 7S04 .2 151 .3 ^ 8ft 30 2 6535 3 159.3 6764 2 62t.5 6 167.3 8510 . 4 7 0 0 2 .9 175. 3 &764 , 7 7252 0 183 3 9028 , 6 7511 .3 191 .3 9023 9 7511 .6 191 .3 9302 , 5 7731 3 199.1 95S6 . 1 8061 .5 207.3 9879 , 7 215.3 8352 ? 10183 7 6653 •^ 223 3 10493 , 3 8966 .2 231 .3 92S'-> .9 10S23 8 239.3 10813 .8 239.3 9289 _ 9 1 1 1 6 f t.5 962b .2 247.3 255.3 11508 .9 9972 .2 11869 . 2 10331 .5 263.3 1?142 . 0 10703 .4 271 .3 279.3 12t;7 .8 11088 . 4

?-:, n

3* 52 ir} 3t' .59 C-.5 .74 34 .61 33 53 ' 2 4.J 12 48 31 . 47 ",u . 4 9 19 .54 !& t 3 ^ i' . 7 4 16 ?5 ? 6 .07 15 .27 24 51 23 . ? 7 J 3 05 ~* "• 36 21 . 7n 21 06 2ft 4 4 19 oS 1 ? 27 18 .72 1& . IS 17 . 36
3i

23 41 23 1 1 -V . 7 9 22 4€ 22 . 12 21 .77 ^1 41 21 , 4 1 21 0 4 20 .67

m

. 2<5

19 . 31

1 3 54

19 . It. 1? . 78 l o 4M IS 0 2 17 . t 5 17 .29 16 ^2 \ f 56 I t I'l 15 1 1. 15 52 15 15 14 35 14 53 14 33
14 33

2 63>. 0 r 2 66 '..4? 2 60551 . n 725A--5 .7 75657 CJ 75657 78792 2 8197? 7 85197 it 884t 3 2 9177H 5 951 It . 5 93500 . ^L 101*20 (\ UI5I.74 i lfti:t 1 7 112:?1 (\ 1 ^^C^ 0 1 1 =!•• 1C1 7 12:1 : t ii lit ,'t^ . n 13041, 2 1241! =" u
IT

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2

1415, ^ 2 143* t i 1
14I 1 }-* ? 2 15125? . 2

6 1 6.6 7.3 7.9 8 t> 9.3 10 . 1 10 .1 10.9 1 1 .8 12.7 13.7 14 7 15. S 16 . 3 19.0 19.3 20 5 21 9 23. 3 24.7 2t> 2 27.8 2n .4 31 .1 32.9 34 7 35.9

17 86 I f .8C 16 . 8 3 15 42 14 u ^ 12 .85 11 . 7 0 10 62 9 .el 9 .61 S .68 7 .31 7 .Oft 6 .25 5 .56 4 Q 4 92 4 32 3 .78 3 .27 2 .81 2 .39
2

13 4? 13 .43 12 43 11 4 3 10 . 4 9 9 60 <3 77 7 .99 7 . 99 7 .25 6 56 5 .91 5 .31 4 .74 4 .22 4 22 3 73 3 .27 2 85 2 .46 2 . 10

35.9 39.7 39.7 47.5 55.6 64.1 72.9 82.0 91 .4 91 4 101 .3 111 .5 122.1 133.1 144 .5 156.3 156.3 163.5 131 2 19-1.4 208.0 222.1

151 5? . 2 I t 5 . 4 3 e; ITS i ! 4 7 190507 5 2u2:n4 . 2 213117 .2 223553 0 223592 . r 233305 2
242>30 2 250531 .0 2 5 ? t r i .2 2 6 5 ? 1 1 .5 2 / 2 = 6 7 .2 2725t 7 5 275651 . 7 2':4173 _ ~ 2351-. 3 _ ^> 2 t ' ? ^ 20 7 2975t,7 . 2

VI-APP-A-57

VEHICLE ASCENT TPfitECTORY TIME

VEL REL

VEL I
13027 0 13440 .4 138t8 ,6 14312 .2 14772 .2 15249 .5 15745 .0 16259 .8 16795 .2 1735? , 5 17933 .4 18539 .5 19172 .8 1*835 6 2u530 .4 21260 .3 22028 .6 22829 3 23697 . 1 246U7 . 6 255 ?? .5 26136 .4

CAMM R

13AMM I

ALTITUDE 301019 ,5 303934 .5 306511 .2 30&590 . 5 310253 .0 311520 .7 312419 . 0 312974 .2 J13J14 .7 313172 .0 312300 .2 3123f'fc. .2 3 1 1 7 LI 1 5 3109UO . 2 310023 7 3091^6 .0 30£27fi .0 30752 3 , ^ 306963 .5 306677 .0 306761 .7 307005
t

RANGE
2?6 i
«_•

287 *-. 295 .3 303 . 3 311 , 3 319 ^_ 'j o 327 335 . 3 343 . *J 351 .3 359 .3 367 .3 3^5 . 3 383 . 3 391 . 3 399 .3 407 . 3 415 . .1
423 .3 431 .3

11487 .0 11899 .9 12327 .7 12771 . 1 13230 .9
13708 . n 14203 .4 14718 , 1 15253 .5 15810 ,S 16391 .7 16997 .9 17631 .2 18194 . 1 1&989 .0 19718 . 9 20487 .3 21298 . 1 22155 ,9 23066 .5 24036 .3

2.00 1 .65 1 .33 1 .05 .79 .56 .36 . 19
.04

439 , i 447 , 3 < IN TKCT:torn 24595 .2 451 .6

-.08 -. 18 -.25 -.30 -.33 - .34 -.32 -.28 -.22 -. 14 -.04 .09

1 .77 1 .46 1 . 19 .93 .71 .51 .33 .17 .04 -.07 -. 16 -.23 -.28 -.31 -.31 -.30 -.26 -.21 -.13 -.03 .09 . 16

252 0 267 .7 233 .9 SHU .8 ?18 . 3 3:6 .4 355 . 1 374 .6 394 .7 415 6 4?7 . 3 459 7 483 .0 507 .2 532 .3 558 . 4 585 .5 613 .7 643 0 €73 .6 690 .9

. 17

^

VI-APP-A-58

FIGURE: 29 ASCENT TRAJECTORY
TIME (SEC.) MACH ALPHA <DEG)
LAT (DEC)

LONG (DEC)

HT RT TOT HT <B'bF/S > (B'-SF)

REL ftZ <DEG>

(BEGIN LIFTOFF) .0 .00 2.0 .02 4.0 .04 6.0 .05 8.0 .07 10 .0 .09 12.0 . 12 14.0 .14 (.BEGIN TILT) 16.0 . 16 18.0 .18 20 .0 .21 22.0 .23 24.0 .26 2€ . 0 .29 (END TILT) 28 0 .32 30 .0 .35 32.0 .38 34.0 .41 36.0 .45 38.0 .48 40 .0 .52 42.0 .56 44.0 .60 46.0 .65 48.0 .69 50 .0 .74 52.0 .80 54.0 .85 56.0 .91 58.0 .97 60.0 .03 62.0 . 10 64.0 .18 66.0 .25 68.0 .33 70.0 .42 72.0 1 .51 74.0 1 .61 76.0 1.71 (MAXIMUM DYNAMIC 78,0 1.82 80.0 1.92 80.0 1.92 82.0 2.03 84.0 2.14 86.0 2.25

.000 -.008 -.016 -.025 -.033 -.040 -.049 -.056

5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5,46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5. 40 5.46 5.46 5.4t 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46

-80 .60 -80 .60 -80 €0 -80 .60 -80 .60 -SO .60 -80 .60 -80 .60 -80 .60 -80 .60 -80 60 -£0 60 -eo.60 -80 .60

.0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
.0

.0 ,0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0

90.0 90.0 90 .0 90.0 90.0 90.0 90.0 90.0
90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90.0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90.0 90.0 90.0 90 .0 90 .0 90.0 90.0 90 ,0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90.0 90.0 90.0 90.0 90 .0 90.0 90 .0 90 .0 90.0 90.0

-.002 -1.118 -1 .758 -2.0t8 -2. 14? -2.061
.000

.0
.0 0

.1 .1 .1
.2 .2 ,3 .4 .6 .7 .9 1 .2 1.5 1 .9 2.3 2,8 3.4 4.2 5,0 6.0 7.1 8.5 10 .0 11 .7 13.6 15.9 18.4 21 .2

.ono
.000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 PRESSURE) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000

-80.60 -80 .€0 -80 .60 -80 .60 -80 .60 -80 .60 -80.60 -80 .60 -80 .60 -80 .60 -80.60 -80 .60 -80.59 -80 .59 -80.59 -80.59 -80 .58 -30.58 -80 .58 -80 .57 -80 .57 -80.57 -80 .56 -80.55 80 .55 -80.54 -80.54 -80.54 -80.53 -80 .52 -80.51

.0 .0

.1

.1
.1

.1
.1
.d
.2 .2 .3 .3 .4 .5 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1 .0 1 .2 1 .3 1 .5

1.6 1 .8 1 .8 2.0 2.2 2.4

24. J 27. 8 27.8 31 .6 35.8 40.4

VI-APP-A-59

V E H I C L E ASCENT TPAJFCTOKY TIME MACH ALPHU LAT LONG Hf RT TOT HT PEL AZ

.OOU 88.0 2 .35 ,000 90 .0 2 .45 .000 92.0 2 .55 .000 2 .65 94 ,n .000 2 .76 96 0 .000 9£'.0 2 .87 OUO 2 .98 100.0 .000 2 .98 100 .0 .000 102.0 3 . 10 3 . 22 104 0 .000 .000 3 . 35 106.0 108. n .000 3 .48 .000 3 .61 110.0 .000 3 .74 112.0 .000 3 .87 114.0 000 4 .01 116.0 .000 118 0 4 . 15 .000 4 .28 120 .0 .000 122.0 4 .42 4 .57 .000 124.0 .000 4 .71 126.0 000 4 .86 128.0 .000 130 .0 5 .01 .000 132.0 5 . 16 .000 134.0 5 .32 .000 5 .48 136.0 .000 5 .£4 138.0 .000 5 75 139.3 BURN; (END BOOSTER STAGE .000 5 .75 139.3 .000 5 .67 143.3 (BEGIN SECOND STAGE BURN) 13 ,395 143.3 5 .67 14 . 133 151 .3 5 .84 14 .774 159.3 6 . 13 6 .47 15 .322 167.3 15 .780 175.3 6 .84 16 . 154 7 .24 183.3 7 ,6ft 191 .3 16 .447 7.66 16 ,44c 191 .3 16 .663 199 3 8.09 8.54 16 .807 207.3 16 .884 215.3 9 .01 16 .897 9.49 223.3 16 .849 9.99 231 .3 16 .745 239.3 10 .51 16 .745 10 .51 239.3 16 .589 10 .89 247.3 16 .383 255.3 11 .28 16 . 131 263.3 11 .69 271 .3 15 .836 12 . 11 279.3 15 .501 12 .47

5. 46 5.46 5.46 5 46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5 46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5 46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5 .46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.4t 5.46 5.46

-80 .50 -80 .49 -30 ,48 -80 .47 -80 .46 80 . 45 -£•0 .44 -SO .44 -£0 42 -SO .41 -80 '9 , -80 38 -&U . 36 -CO .S4 -80 .32 -80 .30 -SO .28 -SO .26 -8G .24 -80 .22 -&0 . 19 -80 . 17 -SO , 14 -80 . 1 1 -SO ,ne -30 .05 -80 .02 -30 00 -80 .00 -79 .94 -79 94 -79 .81 -79 .67 -79 .53 -79 .39 -V9 23 -79 .08 -79 .08 -78 .91 -78 .74 -78 ,56 -78 .38 -78 . 19 -77 .99 -77 .99 -77 .79 -77 .58 -77 .36 -77 . 13 -76 .89

2.6

2 3
3.0

3 2
3.4 3.C 3.8 3.S 4.0 4 .2 4.5 4.7 5.0 b.2 5.4 5.7 5.9 6. 1

6 4
6.6 6.8

7. 1 7 3
7.6 7.8 8.0 8.3 8.5 8,5 7.2 7.2

45 .4 50 ,7 56 .4 62 , 5 69 . U 75 .9 83 . 3 83 . 3 91 . 1 99 .4 108 , 1 117 .3 126 9 13? , 1 147 .7 158 8 170 .3 182 .3 194 .8 207 .8 2.il .3 235 .2 249 , 6 264 .5 279 .8 - 295 . 7 312 .0 322 . 5

90 .0 90 .0 90.0 90.0 90 .0 90.0 90 .U 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90.0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .0 90 . 0 90 0 90 .0 90 .0 90 .1 90 , 90 . 90 . 90 90 . 9U . 90 , 1 90 . 1 90 . 1 90. 1 90 . 1 9U . 1 9U . 1 90. 1 90 .2 90 .2 90.2 90.2 90 .2 90 .2 90 .3 90 .3 90 .3 90 .3 9" . 3 90 .3 90 .4 90 .4 90 .4 90 .4

5 46 5 46
5.46 5.46
5. 46

322 .5 353 .6 353 .6 406 ,4 452 . 1 492 5 528 .6 561 0 590 .2 ' 590.2 616 .6 640 .8 662 .9 683 .4 702 .4 720 .3 720 .3 737 .2 753 .2 768 .7 783 .9 798 .9

6. 1
5.4 4.8 4.3 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.2

5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45

2. 1
2.0

1 .9 1 .9 1 .9

VI-APP-A-60

V E H I C L E ASCENT T R A J E C T O R Y TIME MrtCH rtlPHH LuT LONG HT RT TOT HT REL AZ

28? .3 295 . ;• 303 .3 311 .3 319 3 32? O 335 .3 343 "^ 351 . 3 359 . 3 367 ^^ 375 -i 3S3 3 391 _ o
3?*> •^

12. 81
13. 17

407 _, 415 , ^i 2?. 38 423 _ T> 431 o 24. 35 439 . 3 25. 37 44? .3 2t 43 < I H TLGT ION; 451 , t 27. 03

13. 57 13. 98 14. 43 14 91 15. 41 15. 95 If.. 52 17. 13 17. 77 IS . 45 19. 16 19, 92 20 . 72 21 . 56 C. i~. i 45

15 . 13u 14 .724 14 .2S7 13 &2U 13 027 12 .&11 12 .272 11 .713 1 1 . 13? 10 545 9 940 3 313 8 ,f9t. e .Obi 7 . 420 e . 7 7C" e . 124 o .474 4 . 823 4 . 1 74 o 528

5 44 5 44 5 .44 5 .4-1 5 43 CT 43 5 43

5 ,42 5 .42 5 .41
5 .41 5 40 5 .40 5 39 5 .38 5 38 5 .37 5 .36 5 .35 5 .34 5 .33

-76 b5 -76 . 39 -76 . 13 -75 .96 -75 ,58 -75 .2* -74 .98 -74 .6? -74 .34 -74 .01 -73 .66 -73 , 30 -72 .92 -72 .5? -72 . 13 -71 71 -71 27 -70 .82 -70 .35 -C9 ,se -t-9 . 35

1 .9 1 .9 2 .0 2. 1 2.3 2 .4 2 .7 2 , <a -* 3 ^ 3 .7 4. 1 4 .7 5 ,4 6 .2
7. 1 8 .2

9 .5 10 .9 12 .6 14 ,4 16 .4
17 .5

814 .0 329 .3 M5 . 1 861 6 87? . 1 89? . 9 916 .2. 940 .6 9t.5 .3 992 8 1023 .9 1059 . 1 109? . 2 1145 .2 11 9b . 1 12^9 .2 1329 .9 141 1 .5 1505 .5 1613 ,5 1736 .6

90.5 90 .5 90 ,5 90 .6 90 .6 90 .6 90 .6 90.7 90 7 90 .8 90.8 90 .8 90 .9 90 .9 9n .9 91 ,0 91 .0

91 91 91 91

. 1 . 1 .2 .2

i 17b

5 32

-t-9 ,06

1810 .9

91 .3

VI-APP-A-61

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VI-APP-A-62

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VI-APP-A-63

FIGURE 32 BOOSTER REENTRY TPATECTURY TIME <SEC>

ftLT (FT)

VREL

GHMMA
^
<DE

R

LAT (DEC)

LONG

<NM)

1336369. 0 WEIGHT = 143942 .2 139. 1 15ti276 .2 147 .3 17098*3 .2 I5b. 3 181992 . 5 16?.; 191242 . 2 171.5 198713 . 7 179 3 187. 3 204391 .0 20R264 .5 195.? 21 Hi- 31 .0 203. 3 2 1U591 5 211.3 219. '^ 209053 ,5 227 . 3 205730 .7 200648 5 235.? 19.-S846 .5 243. 'i 1*3392 5 251 . 3 259 . ? 1 7*53*5 0 It 40 "!.-:: 2 267.3 275 • 15 11. 9 3 5 138591 •5 28 ? i 291 .? 125-":0l 7 114^45 .0 29-=>.3 1047e7 , 1 307.3 97554 . 5 315.3 92118 2 32? . 3 87742 . 7 331 . 3 83831 . r 309.3 800J2 7 347. 3 76103 .2 355. 3 7206H .5 363 . 3 67935 .2 371 .3 63827 .2 3Y* . 3 59845 .0 337.3 56074 .7 395 3 52554 .7 403.3 49275 .0 411.3 48268 .7 413.8

t!43 .9 5707 .3 5443 .9 5^64 ,0 51 33 .9 51 35 ej 4 ^60 6 4904 ,2 4863 ,2 43C-'5 .4 4S18 .9 4811 .5 4810 .6 4 ° 1 22 4810 .3 47 :*5 8 47-54 . 1 4660 .8 4473 . 5 4141 9 3642 .5 3032 4 243H 0 1-324 .4 1 5VS .9 12bS .0 1057 .2 914 .5 811 . 1 731 .6 664 .5 603 .7 516 .8 497 .3 455 .9 444 3

17 .P.6 17 .26 15 .81 13 .92 11 .75 9 .40 6 .91 4 .34 I .71 - .^5 -3 .62 -6 .28 -8 .89 -11 .45 - 13 .91 - 16 .22 -18 .33 -20 . 12 -21 .40 -21 ,8S -21 .3b -20 . 02 -18 62 -18 . 1? -19 .27 -22 .32 -27 .07 -32 .95 -39 . 17 -44 .97 -49 .84 -53 .64 -56 .46 -53 .64 -60 .35 -60 .81

5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5 . -+6 5.46 5.4C 5.46 5. 46 b. 4t. 5.4t. 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.45 5.45 5 45 5. -V5 5.45 5.43 5. 43 5 45 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.45

-SO .00 -79 .88 -7^ .76 -73 .( 5 -79 .54 -79 .43 -79 .32 -79 .22 -79 . 11 -79 01 -78 .90 -78 .80 -78 ,69 -76 5<3 -73 .49 -78 .39 -7? 29 -?e 19 -73 . 10 -?? 0 1 - 77 .93 -77 .86 -77 .80 -77 76 -77 .72 -77 .69 -77 .67 --77 .65 -77 .64 77 .62 -77 .61 -77 .61 -77 .60 -77 .59 -77 .59 -77 .59

.0 7 .4 14 .3 21 .1 27 .7 34 .2 40 .7 47 .0 53 .4 59 .7 66 .0 72 .3 78 .5 84 .7 90 .8 96 .8 102 8 103 .6 114 .2 119 .5 124 .2 128 .3 131 .7 134 .4 136 .5 138 .2 13y .6 140 .7 141 .6 142 .4 143 .0 143 .5 143 .9 144 . 3 144 .6 144 .7

VI-APP-A-6A

FIGURE 32.

BOOSTER REENTRY TRAJECTORY

TIME <SEC>

MACH

Q <PSF)

Al PHA <DEG>

HEAT <B/SF>

HT RT <B/SF/S>

REYNID NO.

WEIGHT = 1336369.0 139.3 88. 4 5 .75 147.3 43. 0 5 .27 24. 5 5 .06 155.3 15. 4 4 .07 163.3 10 . 4 4 .92 171 .3 17?. 3 7. fc. 4 .89 187.3 5. 9 4 .87 5. 0 19?>3 4 .85 203.3 4. 5 4 .83 4. 4 211 .3 4 .80 4. 7 4 .77 219.3 227.3 5. 3 4 .73 6. 4 235.3 4 .69 8. 3 243.3 4 .63 11 . 4 4 .56 251 .3 16. 2 4 .49 25* 3 24. 1 267.3 4 .39 37. 2 275.3 4.32 58 5 4 .21 283 . J 87. 0 291 .3 3 .973 .56 113. 0 299.3 121 . 3 3 .01 307.3 109. 5 ?.44 315.3 323.3 89 2 1 .94 70 . 2 331 .3 1 .56 56. 7 339.3 1 .28 48. 3 1 .08 347. J 355.3 44. 0 .94 42. 5 .84 363.3 371.3 42. 8 .76 43. 9 379.3 .70 44. 9 387.3 .64 45. 3 395.3 .58 44. 8 403.3 .53 44. 1 411.3 .48 43. 9 .47 413. f

60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 60 .0 60 .0

.p.

.0 52 .0 85 .2 108 .7 126 .5 140 .8 152 .7 163 . 1 172 .6 181 .7 19U .8 200 .2 210 .4 2£1 .9 235 .1 250 .7 2fc9 .4 291 .6 317 .7 346 .3 373 .4 394 .7 408 .3 416 .0 420 .2 422 .5 424 .0 424 .9 4?5 .6 426 .2 426 .6 427 .0 427 .2 427 .5 427 .7 427 .7

0.5 5. 0 3. 4 2. 5 2.0 1 .6 1 .4 1 .2 1 .2 1 .1 1 .2 1 .2 1 .3 1 .5 1 .8 2. 1 2. 5 3. 0 3. b 3. 6 3. 1 2. 2 1 .3 ,7 t4 . 2 ,1 .1 .1 ,1 ,0 .0 ,0 .0 .0 ,0

82270.4 42211.1 25603.4 16997.6 12080 .0 9148.6 7381 .8 6356. 1 5850.7 5762.8 6071.0 6827.2 8168.0 10351 .3 13829.7 19394.7 28446. 1 45134.9 75637.8 .125352.8 190681 . i 251792.8 288595.9 300622.6 298295.8 296789.8 303363.4 322119.6 354950 .8 401458.4 458817.4 522532 . 4 589292.6 640789. 1 683097.0 694959.4

VI-APP-A-65

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VI-APP-A-66

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VI-APP-A-67

FIGURE 35.
TIME (SEO
ALT <FT>

SL< our- STAGE REENTRY TPAJEPTOKY
GAMMA R CDFG)
LAT (DE&)

VREL C.FPS) .7 24J54.6 24:58.2 24361 8 24?65.3 2436C.8 24072.2 24375.6 24278.8 243.82.0 243S5. 2 24 :?& . 2 24391 .2 24394. 1 24396.9 24399.6 24402.2 24404.7 24407.0 24409.3 2441 1 ,4 24413 3 24415. 1 24416.7 2441ft. 2 2441 ?. 4 244PO . 4 244? 1 .2 24421 .7 24422.0 24421 ,9 24421 .6 24420 .9 24419.8 24418.4 24416.6 24414,3 24411 .6 24408.4 24404.6 24400 .4 24395.6 24390 .2 24384.2 24377 . 6 24370 .3 24362.4 24353.8 24344.5

LONG (DE&)

RHNGE
<NM>

72S337 UIEIC-H1 4979.7 399999.5 498?. 7 397045.2 4995. 7 394123.7 5 I'm 3, ? 391235.2 50 1 1 7 383380 .2 5019, 7 38'J559.0 5027,7 382772.0 5035. 7 3S0019 . 0 5043 7 3773011 . 7 5051 ,7 374617.2 5059.7 371969.5 50 tV. 7 369357.2 50?uj 7 366, 'SO .5 5083. 7 364240 .5 50 91.7 3c 1737.0 5099.7 359270 .7 5107.7 356842 , 0 5115 ? 354450 7 5 1 2 '-i . 735^095 .0 5131.7 34C|783.2 5139.7 347508.0 5147.7 345272.0 5155.7 343075,7 5 It3. 7 340919.7 5171.7 338804.7 517y.7 336730 .7 5 1 8 7 . ? 334698.7 5195.7 332709.2 5203.7 330762.2 521 1 .7 323859 ,2 5219.7 327000 .5 5227.7 325186.7 5235.7 323418.5 5243.7 321696.5 5251 .7 320012.0 5259.7 318394.5 5267.7 316815.7 5275,7 315286.5 5283.7 313807.7 5291 .7 312379.2 5299 . ? 311003.2 5307.7 309678.7 5315.7 308408. 5 5323.7 307191 .7 5331 . 7 306H30 .2 5339,7 304923.7 5347.7 303873.5 5355.7 302380 .0

-.88 3.92 -.87 3.95 -.86 3.99 - ,85 4.03 -.84 4.06 -.83 4. 10 -.82 4. 13 -.81 4. 17 --.SO 4.20 -.78 4.23 - .77 4.27 -.76 4.30 -.75 4.33 -.74 4.37 -.73 4.40 -.72 4.43 -.71 4.46 -.70 4 .49 -.69 4.52 -.68 4.55 - . 66 4.58 -.65 4.61 -.64 4.M -.63 4.67 -.62 4 .69 --.60 4.72 -.59 4.75 -.58 4.77 -.57 4.80 - .55 4.82 - .54 4.85 -.53 4.87 -.51 4.90 -.50 4.92 -.49 4.94 -.47 4.97 -.46 4 99 -.44 5.01 -.43 5.03 -.'41 5.05 -.40 5.07 -.38 5.09 -.37 5.11 -.35 5. 13 -.33 5. 15 -.32 5. 17 -.30 5. 18 -.29 5.20 V I -APP-A-68

-145,61 -•145.09 -1 44.56 -144 ,04 -143.52 -142.99 -142.47 -141 .94 -141 .42 -140 .89 -140 .37 -139.84 -139.02 -138.73 -138.27 -137.74 -137.21 -136.69 -136. 16 -135.63 -135. 1 1 -134.58 -134 05 -133.5? -133.00 - 132.47 -131 .94 -131 .42 -130 .89 -130 .36 -129.83 -129.30 -128.78 -128.25 -127.72 -1?7. 19 -126.66 -126. 13 -1^5.61 -1*5.08 -124.55 -124.02 -123.49 -122,97 -122.44 -121 .91 -121 .38 -120 .85

.0
31 .5 62.9 94.4 125.9 157.4 188.9 220 . 4 252.0 283 5 315.1 34& 6 378.2 409.7 441 .3 472.9 b04.5 536. 1 567.7 599.3

630 . 9 €.62.5 694 . 1 725.8 757.4 789 . 0 820 .7 352.3 884 .0 915.6 947.3 979.0 1010.6 1042.3 1073.9 1105.6 1137.3 1168.9 1200 .6 1232.2 1263.9 1295.5 13?7.2 1358.8 1390 .5 1422. 1 1453.7 1485.3

SECOND STAGE REENTRY TRAJECTORY TIME <SEC> 5363.7 5371 , 7 5379 . 7 5387.7 5395 7 5403 7 5411.7 5419 7 5427 7 543'j 7 544_-t.7 5451 7 5459.7 5467.7 547-S.7 54&3 7 5491 .7 54^3. 7 5507. 7 5515 7 5523.7 5531 7 5539.7 5547 7 5555. 7 5563 f 5571 .7 5579 7 5567 7 5595.7 5603 7 5611 .7 5619.7 562,'. 7 5635 7 5643.7 5651 .7 5659,7 5667.7 5675 7 5683.7 5691 .7 5699.7 5707.7 5715. 7 5723.7 5731 .7 5739 . 7 5747.7 5755.7 5763.7

Al T O'T;
301943.7 3U1064.5 300243 0 299479 2 ^9-3773 5 298125 2 .±97533. 7 296999 2 29C520 .2 2*6n96 .5 295725.7 295407 5 29514U ,0 29 19? 1 . 5 294749.5 ?9-?fc'i2 2 294537 5 29449?, 0 294483,7 294510 0 29<15b7 .2 ?94o5':« 2 294764.0 ?94£.97.2 293049.5 295? 18 .0 295399.2 29b589.7 295786 .5 295386.5 296186.5 296383,5 296573.7 296755.2 296924.2 2971(78.2 297214.7 29*7330 .5 297423.7 297491 .2 297530 7 297540 0 297516.7 297459.0 297365.0 297232.0 297059.0 296843,7 296585.0 296281 .2 295930 .7

VRtTL <f-PS>

GAMMA R <DEG>

LKT

LONG (.DUG)

RMUG.C <NM) 1516.9 1548.5 1580 .0 1611.6 1643. 1 1674.6 1706. 1 1737.6 1769 1 1800 .5 1832.0 1863.4 1894 .8 1926 . 1 1957.5 1988.8 2020 .1 2051 .4 2082.6 2113.9 2145 i 2176.3 2207,4 22?8.6 2269 7 2?00 .8 2331 .9 2362 9 2394 .0 2425.0 2456.0 2486.9 2517.9 2t>48.8 2579,7 2610 .6 2641 .5 2t>72,3 • 2703.2 2734.0 2764,8 2795.6 2826.3 2857. 1 2887 . 8 2918.5 2949,2 2979,8 3010.5 3041 . 1 3071 .7

24034 5 24323.9 24? 12. 6 24;,0i> .7 2.42^8 . 1 ?4274 .9 24261 . 1 24246.7 2*231 .8 Z.4 £ 1 6 . 5 2 <1200 .7 L4 1"4 5 Z4l£-&.0 24151 2 24134.2 ^4117.0 £40 so. 7 24082 3 240 t 4 . 8 "4047 .3 24029.9 24U12.5 23995.2 2C97S.O 2C.':>60 .9 2 " : 4 .0 ';'4

-.27 -.25 - , 23 -.^2 -.20 -.18 -. 17 - . 15 -.13 -. 12 -.10
-.09 -.07 -.06 -.04 -.OS - .Q2

2:.:'27.3 ^; >io .8
2?894 .4 23:173.3 2C- 3c2 .4 2334'". .7 23331 .2 23815.9 23SOO .8 23785.9 23771.2 23756,6 23742.2 23727-f 8 23713.6 23699.5 23685.4 23671 .3 2S&57.3 23643.2 23629.0 23614.7 23600 .4 23535.8 23571 .0

.01 .00 .01 02 .03 .04 |14 .iTS .05 .06 .06 .06 .06 .06 .06 .06 .05 .05 .04 .04 .03 .02 .02 .01 -.00 -.01 -.U2 -.03 - 05 -.06 -.07 - .08 -.10 -.11

5.22 5.23 5.25 5.26 5.2S 5.29 5.30 5.JZ 5.33 5.34 5 . :". :: 5.36 5.37 5.38 5.39 5.40 5.41 5.41 5 42 5.43 5.43 5. 14 5.44 5.45 5. 4b 5. 16 5.46 5.46 b.46 5.46 5.47 5.47 5.47 5.47 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.46 5.45 5.45 5.45 5.44 5.44 5.43 5.43 5.42 5.41 5.41 5.40 5.39 5.38

-120 33 -119.80 -119.27 -118,74 -118.22 -117 69 -117.17 -l lfa.64 -1 tt . 1 1 -115.59 -115,00 -114 "34 -114.01 -113 49 -112.97 -1 1?. .44 -111 .92 -111 40 -110 88 -IHi ?,5 -10 -.33 -109,^1 -108 7=1 -108 27 - 107 75 -107 23 - 1 U6 , 7 1 - 1 0fc. 1 9 -1 U5. 6/ -105.15 -104. €4 -104 12 -1 ii 3.60 -1113.03 -102.57 -102.05 -101 54 -101 .02 -100.50 -99.99 -99.43 -98.96 -98.45 -97.93 -97.42 -96.91 -96.39 -95.88 -95.37 -94,86 -94.35

VI-APP-A-69

SECOND STAGE R E E N T R Y TRAJECTORY TIML <SEO

ALT <FT>
295533 . u 29508c .2 294590 .0 294042 f 2934 4 J. 7 292792 .7 292088 .7 291332 . u 29U521 . 7 289658 ,5 283741 , 7 287773 .0 286752 .2 2S5t>8Q .5 284559 .5 283390 .7 282175 ,5 280917 .2 279618 .2 276281 .7 27€91 1 .5 275511 — 274087 .5 272643 .7 271186 . 7 269721 2 268253 ,0 266787 ,5 265330 0 263886 .5 262463 .2 261065 ,2 259C98 ,2 258367 .0 257076 .0 <i55829 2 254628 .5 253476 .7 252373 .7 251319 .0 250310 .5 249345 .5 248418 .7 247525 ,0 246657 .2 245807 .7 244967 .7 244128 .5 243279 .7 242412 .5 241517 .5

VREL

GAMMA R (DEG;

LAT

LONG
1

RnflGE O1M>

5771 .7 5779,7 5787.7 5795 7 5003.7 561 1 .7 5819.7 5827.7 5835.7 5343.7 5851 .7 5859 7 58t>7.7 5875 7 5883 7 5891 .7 58^9 7 5907.7 59 It. 7 5923,7 5931 .7 5939,7 5947.7 5955 7 5963.7 5971 ,7 59^9.7 5987.7 5995.7 6003 7 601 J .7 6019.7 6027.7 603*5.7 6043 7 6051 .7 6059.7 60C7.7 6075.7 6083.7 6091 .7 6099.7 6107.7 6115.7 6123 7 6131 .7 6139.7 6147.7 6155.7 6163.7 6171 .7

23556 0 23540 t> 23524 . 9 23508. 8 23492 2 23475. 1 23457 .4 23439. 1 23420 . 0 234 Ou . 0 23379 .0 23357. 0 23333 .7 23309. 1 23283. 0 23255. 1 23225. 4 2^193. 5 23159, 4 23122. 6 2C f>33 . 0 230 in 3 22994 1 22944. 1 22890 .1 22832 .1 22769. 9 22703. 2 22631 . 6 22555. 1 22473. 4 22386. 3 22293. 7 22195. 5 22091 . 7 21982. 2 2186?. 2 21746. 6 21620 . 8 21489. 8 213-D3. 8 21213. 2 21U68. 1 20918. 7 20765. 3 20608. 1 20447. 1 20282. 4 20114. 0 19941 . 9 19765. 9

-.13 5. 3? 5. 36 -. 14 -. 1C 5. 35 -. 17 5 .34 - 19 5. 33 -.21 5. 32 -.22 5. 30 -.24 5. 29 5. ?8 -.25 5. 26 -.27 -.29 5. 25 -.30 5. 24 -.32 5. 22 -.34 5. 21 -.35 5. 19 5. 17 -.37 5. 16 -.38 -.39 5. 14 -.41 5. 12 5. 10 -.42 5. 09 -.43 -.44 5. 07 -.45 5. 05 -.45 5. 03 -.46 5. 01 4. 99 -.46 -.46 4 .97 -.46 4. 95 -.46 4, 92 -.45 4. 90 4. 88 -.45 -.44 4. 86 4. 83 -.43 4. 81 -.42 -.41 4. 79 4. 76 -.40 4. 74 -.38 -.37 4. 72 4. 69 -.36 4. 67 -.34 4. 64 -.33 4. 62 -.32 4. 59 -.31 -.30 4. 57 4. -.29 54 4. 52 -.29 - . 2<? 4. 49 -.30 4. 46 -.30 4. 44 4. 41 -.31 4. 39 -.33 V l-APP-A-70

-93. 84 -93. 32 -92 81 -92. 30 -91 . 7? -91 . 28 -90 . 78 -90 27 -£9 . 76 -89, i^ - 38 . 74 -08. 24 -87. 73 -87. 22 -86. 72 -t'b , 22 -E5. 71 -85. 2.1 -84. 70 -84, 20 -33. 70 -83. 20 -82. 70 -82. 20 -81 . 71 -81 . 21 -80 . 72 -80 . 22 -79. 73 -79. 24 -78. 75 -78. 27 -77. 78 -77. 30 -76. 82 -76. 34 -75. 87 -75. 39 -74. 92 -74. 46 -73 99 -73. 53 -73. 07 -72. 62 -72. 16 -71 . 72 -71 . 27 -70 . 83 -70 . 39 -69. 9& -69. 53

3102 ,3 3132 ,9 3163 .5 3194 ,0 32^4 , t, 325C. .0 3285 5 3315 .9 3346 .3 3376 ,7 3407 . 1 3437 .5 3467 .8 3498 . 1 35?8 ,3 3558 .g 3588 8 3618 .9 3649 .0 3679 , 1 3709 1 3739 . 1 3769 .0 37 98 .8 3828 .6 3858 .3 3888 .0 3517 5 3947 .0 3976 4 4005 ,7 4034 .8 4063 .9 4092 .8 4121 .6 4150 .3 4178 .8 4207 .2 4235 ,4 4263 .4 4291 .3 4319 .0 4346 .5 4373 .8 4400 .9 4427 .9 4454 .6 4481 . 1 4507 .4 4533 .4 4559 .3

SECOND STuGE R E E N T R Y

UAJECTORY

i THE
6179.7 61S7.7 6195.7 €203.7 6211 .7 6219 f 62if . ? 6205 . 7 6243 7 6251 7 6259 ,' 6267 7 6275.7 €2£3 7 62^1 .7 62^'9 7 C-3H7 . r 6315.7 6323.7 63:.l .7 63:"5 . ,' 6347 7 635C-. 7 6263 7 6371 7 6379 7 60S 7. 7 6395,7 6403.7 6411 .7 6419.7 6427.7 6435.7 6443.7 6451 7 6459.7 6467.7 64^5.7 6483.7 6491 .7 6499 7 6507.7 651-5.7 6523.7 6531 .7 6529. 7 6547.7 6555.7 6563 7 6571 .7 6579.7

ALT

VP?El CFF'S >
r iot.35 . -t 1940 1 .4 19212 .3 1^0 18 n IBSlo . 1 1 £ 1. 1 2 .0 If. 39 3 .2 1S179 .0 IT ^5U .£ 17714 .0 1 7 4 C o. 1 17; 12 .4 lt.046 .5 It.c70 .0 It 3-'2 6 16Uc4 3 15775 1 15455 ,0 15124 C 14784 .0 144?4 0 . 14075 ' 137U8 4 1 ?034 , 1 i:^53 . 1 125--* 0 11173 . 5 1177€ 0 1 1 3 {"-•.9 10967 .7 10357 .6 10143 .9 9726 .8 9306 8 S884 .2 8459 .3 8032 .8 7605 .4 7177 .8 6751 2 6326 .5 5902 .8 5480 .3 5U61 .0 4646 .9 4240 .7 3«45 .5 3464 .4 3100 .5 2756 .9 24?6 .5
1

C;AMMA R tDE U>

LAT <DEG,>

LOHC-

RHN&E
>
•'NM> 4584 .0 46 in C. 4635 4 46fO 3 46&4 . 9 4705 3 4733 . 4 4757 ? 47&U 7 4&UC •3 4326 , o 4849 .4 4571 .7 4893 . 6 4915 . 1 4936 . 2 49^7 .0 4977 4 4997 .3 5016 8 5005 .8 5054 . 4 5072 5 5090 . 1 5107 .3 5120 .9 5140 .0 5155 .6 M70 .7 5185 .3 5199 .4 5212 .9 5225 .8 523W 2 5250 . 1 5261 4 5272 .2 5282 .4 5292 .0 5301 .1 5309 .6 5317 .6 5325 .0 5331 .8 5338 _ 2 5343 9 5349 .2 5353 .9 5358 . 1 5361 .9 5365 .2

240585 _ 2 239608 .0 238579 .0 237438 5 236334 .7 235112 7 233&£:0 ,2 232456 . 7 231023 .0 229521 . 2 22795b U 226331 . 5 224e.54 .5 222901 .7 221170 7 219378 .0 217360 .5 215724 5 213873 7 212011 .5 210108 0 20.E-252 n 206350 2 204427 .2 2U2475 . 2 200486 0 103449 .2 196355 . 0 194191 .7 191940 , 7 189619 .0 187190 .5 184C56 .2 182009 .5 179245 .0 176358 .2 173347 .0 170208 .0 166939 .0 163539 .5 160007 .7 156347 .0 152567 .0 14S679 .0 144691 .2 140610 . 2 136433 . 2 132174 0 127813 .7 123353 .7 113789 .0

- .35 - .37 - .3v» - .42 - .45 - .48 - .52 - .55 - .58 - .62 -- .65 - .c.9 - .72 - .75 - .78 - .&0 - .33 - 85 - .88 - .90 - .93 - . 3t - 1 OU -i 0-t
4

4.36 4 33 4.31 4.28 4.25 4 .23 4.20 4. 18 4.15 4.12 4.10 4.07 4 05 4.U2 3 i3 ^ 3 97 3.91 j 92 3 . 90 3.87 3 . &5

-69 . 10
-6? ,e8 -fc.8 .2& -fc-7 .84 -c7 ,4J -67 .01. -t.6 .63 -£6 . 23 -t.5 .84

-65 ,45 -65 ,fi7 -£4 . ?0 -64 Li -t 3 . of. -fc 3 ,fu -fc : . <--Ti -62 =il -62 . "jf
-62 .24 -61 0] -61 . t.U -61 .?3 -f n .09 -fil .69 -to .41 -t.n . 13 -59 .86 -59 .60 59 .35 -59 . 11 -58 .83 -58 .65 -5S .44

.09

3. &"•> 3 . $r> 3.75 3 , 7o
3. 74 3. ,'? 3.7CI 3.68

-1 . 14 -1 .21 -1 . 29 -1 .38 -1 .49 -1 .61 -1 .75 -1 .91

-2 .08 -2 .23 -2 .50 -2 .74 -3 .02 -3 .33 -3 .68 -4 .07 -4 .52 -5 .02 -5 .58 -6 .23 -6 ,08 -7 .88 -3 .95 -in .24 -11 .80 -13 .70

3.66 3 64 3 €? 3.60 3.58 3.57 3.55 3.54 3.52 3.51 3.50 3. 48 3.47 3.46 3.45 3.44 3.43 3.12 3.41 3.41 3.40 3.39

-53 .23 -58 .04 -57 .85 -57 .67 -57 .50 -57 .34 -57 19 -57 .05 -56 .91 -56 ,79 -56 68 -56 .57 -56 .48 -56 .39 -56 .01 -56 .24 -56 . 13 -56 . 12

VI-APP-A-71

SECOND STAGE R E E N T R Y TRAJECTOR.' TIME <SEC)
ALT <FT>

VREL <FPS>
2141 . 7 1S74. 2 1635. 3 1425. 4 1?13. 7 in,33. 6 95S. 2 348. 2 754. 1 674. 3 604. B 544. 8 493. 3 448. 5 411 . 8 381 . 9 373. 1

GAMMA K <DK
-16 .no -18 .74 -21 . 99 -25 . 73 -29 .91 -34 .43 -39 .08 -43 .61 -47 .77 -51 .34 -54 .24 -56 .45 -58 .03 -59 .03 -59 .68 -60 .03 -60 .09

LAT <DLG>

LONG <DEG>
-56 ,03 -56 .04 -56 .00 -55 .97 -55 .94 -55 .92 -55 .91 -55 .83 -55 .03 -55 .87 -55 .86 -55 .85 -55 .85 -55 .84 -55 .84 -55 .84 -55 .84

RHNGE <NM> 5368. 1 5370 . 6 5372. 8 5374. 6 5376. 1 5377. 4 5378. 2 5377, 3 5376. 6 5376. 0 5375. 4 5375, 0 5374. 6 5374, 3 5374. 0 5373 8 5373. f

6587. 7 1 1 4 1 1 8 .5 A595, ? 109347 . 2 6603 7 104487 .2 99560 .0 661 1 .7 94600 .7 6619.7 £9653 ,5 £627. 7 84770 .7 6635.7 6643. 7 80009 .0 6651 .7 75429 .0 71085 .0 6659.7 6t67. 7 67014 .2 6675. 7 t3.?35 .5 66£0 7 5974," .2 6691 . 7 56537 .5 6699. 7 53581 .2 670/.7 50-339 .2 4t>954 .5 6710 .4

3,39 3.38 3.38 3,37 3.37 3.36 3.36 3.3b 3.35 3.35 3.35 3,35 3.34 3.34 3.34 3,34 3 .33

VI-APP-A-72

FIGURE 35.

SECGtU-

STAGE REENThY

T*ftJECTO*Y

TIME <SEC>

MflCH

0 <PSF>

ALPHH <DEG)

HEAT )

HT RT fB/SF/S>

PEYNLD NO.

UIEIGHT 7283^7,7 4979.7 18 .54 .0 4987.7 18 .97 .0 49^5 . 7 19 .44 .0 5003.7 .0 19 .71 5011.7 19 .96 .0 5019.7 2il .22 .0 5027.7 20 .48 .0 5035. 7 20 .76 .0 5043 7 21 .03 .0 5051 .7 21 .32 0 .n 505? 7 21 .61 5067. ? 21 .91 .0 5075.7 22 .22 .0 .1 50£3 7 22 .54 .1 5091 .7 22 .37 509^,7 23 .09 .1 1 5107 7 23 .26 .1 5115.7 23 43 .1 5 1 ?. 3 . 723 .60 .1 5121 .7 23 .78 .1 5 1 3 'I . f23 .95 .1 514P.7 24 . 12 .1 5155.7 24 .30 5163.7 24 .47 .2 .2 5171 .7 24 ,64 5179.7 24 .82 2 5187.7 24 .99 .2 5195.7 25 . 17 .2 .3 5203,7 25 ,34 .3 5211 .7 25 .51 521^.7 25 .64 .3 .4 522?. 7 ?5 .75 .4 5235.7 25 .85 .4 5243.7 25 .94 5 5251 .7 26 .04 .5 5259.7 26 . 13 .6 526,7.7 26 .22 .6 5275.7 26 .31 .7 5283.7 26 .40 .7 5291.7 26 .48 .8 5299.7 26 .56 .8 5307.7 26 .64 .9 5315.7 26 .71 .9 5323.7 26 .78 1 .0 5331 .7 26 .85 53?9. 7 26 .91 1. 1 5347.7 26 .97 1. 1 5355.7 27 .02 1 .2 5363.7 27 .08 1 .3 5371 .7 27 . 12 1 .3

60 .0 60 .0 60 ,0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0 60 .0

.0 15 . 2 31 .4 ^3 .7 66 .8 86 .0 106 .3 127 .7 150 .4 174 .4 199 9 226 .9 255 .5 286 .0 318 3 352 .7 003 .0 427 .4 468 .0 510 .9 506 .2 604 .0 654 . 5 70? .8 764 . 1 823 ,4 886 .0 952 . 1 1021 6 1094 . 3 llr'2 .0 1253 0 1337 .8 1426 .7 1519 .7 1616 .9 1718 , 4 Ift24 .3 1934 .7 2049 .5 2168 .9 2292 .9 2421 .4 2554 4 2691 .9 2853 . 9 2980 .3 3130 .9 3285 .6 3444 .4
VI-APP-A-73

1 8 2. 0 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2_ 5 2. 6 2. 8 2. 9 3 1 3 3 3. 5 3. 7 3. 9 4. 2 4. 4 4. 7 4. 9 5. 2 5 .5 5. 8 6. 1 6 5 6. 8 7. 2 7. 6 8. 0 8. 5 8. 9 9. 4 9. 9 10. 4 10 . 9 11 . 4 11 . 9 12. 4 13. 0 13. 5 14. 1 14. 6 15. 2 15. 8 16. 3 16. 9 17. 5 18. 0 18. 6 19. 1 19. 6 20 . 1

2 .0 2. 3 2 .7 3 .0 3 .5 3. 9 4 .5 5. 1 5 .8 6 .7 7 .6 8.8 10 . 1 11 .7 13 .5 15 .4 17 .4 19 6 22 . 1 25 .0 28 .2 31 .8 35 .8 40 .3 45 .4 51 • t. 57 . 5 64 .7 72 .6 81 .5 90 .7 100 .5 111 . 1 122 .6 135 . 1 148 .5 162 .8 178 .2 194 .5 211 .9 230 , 1 249 .3 269 .4 290 .2 311 .7 333 .8 356 .3 379 . 1 402 .0 424 .9

SECOND STAGE REENTRY TRAJECTORY
TIME CSF.O
537', ,7 5387 .7 5395 , { 5403 .7 5411 , 7 541°! . 7 54c7 .7 5435 . 7 5443 7 5451 , 7' 5459 p 54£7 .7 5475 .7 5483 7 5491 7 5499 . 7 550 7 p

MrtCH

0 <HSF, 1 .4 1 .5 1 .5 1 .6 1 .7 1 .7 1 .8 1 .8 1 .8 1 ,9 1 9 1 .9 1 -3 1 9 2.U 2.0 2.0 1 .9 1 .9 1 .9
1 .9

Al PHH

HLAT <E,/SF) 2606 , <j 3773 . 1 3942 7 4115 .5 4191 ,2

HT PT (B/SF/S)
20 .5 21 .0 21 .4 21 8 22 , 1 22 . 5 22 .7 23 .0 23 .2 23 .4 23 .5 23 .6 23 .7 23 .7 23 .7 23 .7 23 .6 23 ,6 23 .5 23 , 4 23 .2 1:3 . 1 22 .9 22 .& 22 .6 22 .4 22 .2 22 . 1 21 .9 21 .7 21 .5 21 .4 21 .2 21 .1 21 .0 20 .8 20 .7 20 .7 20 .6 20 . 6 20 .5 20 .5 20 .6 20 .6 20 .7 20 8 20 .9 21 .0 21 ,2 21 . 4 21 .7

REYNLC- NO.

55 It! .7 55 'i3 i 1
5531 . 1 55 s* . 7 5547 . 7 5555 . f 5563 ,7 5571 .7 5579 -7 1 5587 7 559b .7 5603 7 561 1 7 5610 , 7 5627 ,7 5635 7 5643 ,7 5651 7 5659 ,7 5667 .7 5675 .7 5683 .7 5691 7 5699 -J 5707 .7 5715 7 57?3 p 5731 .7 5739 7 5747 .7 5755 . 7 5763 7 5771 .7 5779 .7

27 . 16 27 .20 27 .24 17 ,27 27 .29 •*» — * .31 33 t- I 27 ,34 27 .35 27 .35 27 .34 27 ?2 27 . 20 27 .28 27 .26 27 .24 2 7. 22 27 .20 27 . 18 27 . 16 27 . 14 27 13 27 . 11 27 .09 27 ft 6 27 .03 27 .00 26 .96 26 .93 26 .90 26 .87 26 .84 26 .81 26 .79 26 .76 26 .74 26 .71 26 .69 26 .67 26 66 26 .t4 26 .63 26 .62 26 .61 26 .61 26 .61 26 .61 26 61 26 .62 26 .63 26 .63

60 ,0 60 .0 60 .0

447. 5
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VI-APP-A-75

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NASA-JSC

VI-APP-A-77

SECTION VI APPENDIX B WESTERN U.S. LAUNCH SITES
FOR THE

HEAVY LIFT LAUNCH VEHICLE

VI-APP-B-1

WESTERN U.S. LAUNCH SITES

The HLLV as conceptualized in previous SSPS studies is a hightraffic vehicle of large size. It may be presumed that it will have dedicated launch and landing facilities, and that operations will be routine, in the sense of commercial airline activities, rather than by special and intensive efforts such as marked the Saturn/Apollo launches. The selection, design, and scope of equipment of the HLLV launch site will be large drivers on the design weight and cost of operations of the HLLV, as shown by the following table from data prepared by EX4: Launch Site Latitude, Peg 5.50 28.608 32.30

Launch Site South America ETR Arizona

Launch Elev., Ft 0 0 6,000

Gross Payload, Lbs 1,051,390 1,016,315 1,034,487

OMPS, Lbs 51,390 49,675 50,564

Net Payload, Lbs 1,000,000 966,640 983,923

Payload Change, Lbs 0 -33,360 -16,077

In short, moving the launch site north requires a vehicle or payload weight penalty for orbital maneuvering propellant; locating the launch site at high elevations saves main-stage propellant and vehicle weight. The most desirable launch site is thus at the highest feasible altitude at the point closest to the equator. Within the Continental United States, this combination occurs in the Southwest from West Texas to Arizona and Nevada. Advantages and disadvantages of a Southwest U.S. launch site are summarized below: Advantages: Climate - is characterized by rain falls of 6 to 10 inches per year. Operations are seldom constrained by adverse weather; military and commercial airport operations are conducted under VFR rules 95-99% of the year. There are no hurricanes or other large-scale tropical storms. Corrosion is minimal, and preventive maintenance costs on facilities and ground equipment are in the range of 10-20% of these for equivalent items at a seacoast launch site. Savings in corrosion control requirements on the HLLV may be in the order of one to two percent of vehicle weight for equivalent vehicle lifetimes.

VI-APP-B-2

Direct Costs - payroll costs are based upon prevailing U.S. payrolls; and field-station bonuses and overseas pay differentials are avoided. Transportation costs are nominal, and payloads may be shipped directly by rail, avoiding trans-shipment and handling costs and delays. Money remains in the U.S. Indirect Costs - Existing communities can provide support of their local economy (e.g., homes, hospitals, medical care, groceries, highways, recreational and entertainment facilities); whereas, an island launch site, such as Kwajalein, requires about as many indirect personnel as direct (e.g., BX/s, or PX's, field hospitals, recreation centers, etc.). Total costs for an island launch site are about double those of a conus site. Operational Advantages: An inland site has potential alternate landing sites available for returning orbiter vehicles. Disadvantages: Operations; Launch opportunities are limited, in comparison with a near-equatorial launch site. Launch and landing operations impose sonic-boom and launch noise overpressures on a broad footprint. Safety: Given the number of flights, the probability of a catastrophic failure during launch approaches 1.0, and a debris corridor must be provided. This report examines some of the cost factors for an inland, Southwestern U.S. launch site, which can be used in examining the cost tradeoffs between launch sites. Throughout this study, data for launch rates was taken from JSC-11568, Initial Technical, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power Concepts, using the program model for "Truss in LEO;" vehicle configuration and performance data was taken from EDIN EX-338-76 when it became available.

VI-APP-B-3

HLLV SITE SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS At the commencement of this study, at the suggestion of Mr. H. P. Davis, JSC Future Programs Office, a nominal launch and landing profile was selected which consisted of a due-East launch, a booster stage landing 200 miles down-range, and an orbiter landing using the same landing field after return from orbit. While this mission profile is simplistic, it provided a convenient baseline from which to begin the study, and upon which to base comparison between sites. To this profile were added the following assumptions: a. Launch site buffer zones are sized by: (1) Noise impinged by launch on adjacent property owners. (2) Explosive hazard limits of launch vehicle propellant load at launch or early boost phase, taken as 10 kiloton high explosive equivalent. b. Launch debris corridor scaled from WSMR practice for off-range missile tests. High hazard events are at first-stage ignition and lift-off, and at separation and staging. (For EDIN EX-338-76, separation begins at 144,000 feet altitude, 35.9 miles downrange; second-stage ignition occurs at 151,000 feet, 39.7 miles downrange. ) c. Landing area approach zones sized by desire to keep sonic booms of over 8 1 psf limited to areas of low population density (less than one person per square mile). Above criteria developed a "key" shaped zone representing potential land area impacted by HLLV operational characteristics (see figure 1 ). Since it is desirable to launch at higher altitudes, it was assumed that launch sites could be located in mountainous terrain, and that potential savings in vehicle weight and performance would pay for fairly extensive site development. Since the booster and orbiter are envisioned as fixedwing craft, it would be desirable to have landing sites at the lowest possible elevations, to minimize the size of wing required for nominal landing speeds. While NASA need not own all the land shown in the "key," it would be desirable for the Agency to own the land at VI-APP-B-4

d.

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the launch site, the landing site, and the actual right-of-way of the tow path returning the launch vehicles from the landing site to the launch site. Ideally, this land should be in the public domain, already owned by the Bureau of Land Management, DoD, U.S. Forest Service, etc. h. Land in the launch debris corridor, approach zone, and hazard zone surrounding the launch site need not be owned by the NASA, but should be restricted from development, by interagency agreements, BLM protective withdrawals, purchase of development rights, etc. Use of Indian lands should be avoided, if possible, since changes of treaty lands would require Congressional approval.

i.

From these assumptions, and from study of 1:100,000 scale aeronautical maps, seven sites were selected for further study. (See Figure 2). Additional maps (scale 1:250,000) were obtained from the U.S. Army Map Service, and land use maps (scale 1:500,000) were obtained from the Bureau of Land Management for the states of New Mexico, Arizona, and Nevada. (Texas land is almost universally private or state-owned, under the terms by which Texas entered the union.) In the course of further study, one of the tentatively-selected sites was found to offer no compelling advantages (Indian Springs, NV) and several compelling disadvantages, among them a high population density in the Lake Meade Recreational Area and very adverse terrain for the landing site, lying north of the Grand Canyon. This site was dropped from further study. The following tables indicated our findings on the launch sites.

VI-APP-B-6

VI-APP-B-7

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VI-APP-B-12

Cost Comparisons between Launch Sites To compare relative costs between launch sites, it was assumed that launch pad and landing site construction and site preparation costs would be roughly equal between the various sites. (This was a simplifying assumption only; these costs may vary by a factor of two depending upon the actual terrain selected; but limited study resources did not permit site inspections.) Major differences were assumed to lie in the amount of land to be acquired; land in Federal ownership was assumed to be available to NASA without additional cost.. The other significant variable was in the cost of acquisition and construction of the transportation route of the booster and orbiter back to the launch site. Overlays on land status maps provided an approximation of land to be acquired from private ownership, and local realtors -provided gross estimates of land values. Launch vehicle transport routes, informally called tow paths, were selected "by review of 1:250,000 maps and (from Eastern Arizona to Dell City, Texas) by personal reconnaisance. Table IV displays the findings of these cost studies. Costs of land acquisition should be taken as figures of merit only, since they were based on broad estimates and land quality is highly variable in the Southwest. The figures for land acquisition in Texas, particularly, are uncertain since the largest unknowns are the amount of state-owned land and the policy of state government officials if an HLLV site were selected in Texas. Costs of tow-path right-of-way and construction are based upon railroad-type construction practices, rather than highway practices. Pricing was performed using rules of thumb of the Southern Pacific engineering staff, and are probably accurate to within + 30%. Costs of providing utilities to the launch area were derived from estimating data provided by El Paso Electric Company and El Paso Natural Gas Company engineers. If longer booster flights are required, there exist a number of potential launch-landing site pairs along Latitude 32°. Table V displays tow-path costs between the letter-designated points shown in the previous figure.

VI-APP-B-13

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Selection of Candidate Site No specific site recommendation is made, based upon this surveylevel study, since refinements in vehicle design, launch azimuth optimization, and launch-to-landing site distances, would rapidly supersede any of these study findings. However, to examine other cost and design aspects, a launch site in the Pyramid Mountains near Animas, New Mexico, and a landing site near Dell City, Texas, were postulated, and tentative site facilities and operational time lines were developed around this site. (The considerations discussed below would not, however, change significantly from site to site for the Table Mountain, Whetstone Mountain, or Hueco Range sites, since their configurations would be similar to the Pyramid site.) For the site concept selected, the Industrial Area was located midway between the launch and landing sites, since the largest number of the HLLV operations team will operate in that area, and local transportation and homes, businesses, and other-elements of the supporting economy are available without cost to the program. Preliminary concept sketches were prepared to sharpen our understanding of the design and operational problems, and a preliminary operations timeline was postulated as a method of sizing work crews, quantity of equipment, number of vehicle assembly bays, etc. (The first sketches were made before EDIN EX -338-76 became available to us, and are included only to show our general approaches.) The design and cost drivers identified for the HLLV ground facilities are listed below: Launch Area: Design drivers - high "production" launch rate (10-12 per day) - probability of catastrophic failure at launch, over life of program (35,000 launches) approaches 1.0. Consequences - permanent party at launch area should be kept small, and LV handling, erection, loading, and checkout should be highly automated. - launch crew should be "vehicle-oriented," should come to the launch site with the vehicle, and be capable of erecting, loading, and launching in one working shift.

VI-APP-B-16

MPRODUCIBILITY OF TH« ORIGINAL PAG I JS POOR

Figure 5:

Launch Area Concept

- launch vehicle repairs (except very minor repairs, e.g., quick changes of LRU's) should be performed at the Industrial Area, even if this involves returning the LV from the launcher to the I.A. - erection procedures should be simple, with tilt-tables or other positive vehicle handling, rather than by cranes, hoists, slings, and dangling loads. - if line sizes and loading times permit, propellant loading should be by gravity feed rather than pump feed, to avoid propellant pump failures impacting launch schedules. - launch sites may be located on or near mountain tops, requiring steep grades for the launch vehicle transporter. A design/cost study of alternatives for achieving these higher-altitude sites (e.g., comparison of cog-wheel railroads, cable-assisted systems, etc.) should be performed . Landing Site: Design Driver Consequences number of launches per launch window may require "ripple-firing" of HLLV's - GSE should be available to move LV's from runway in three to five minutes, at least to dispersal (parking) areas. - permanent party at landing site is small; receiving and servicing team meets launch vehicle at landing site, loads on transporter, and performs post-flight checkout on transporter during trip back to Industrial Area. — launch vehicle deservicing (draining, purging, etc.) must be kept to a minimum, if vehicle turn-around times are to be achieved. Best practice would appear to be no deservicing except when LV's are scheduled for overhaul.

VI-APP-B-18

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Transporters; Design Concepts Following airline practice, it may be desirable to keep the launch vehicle electrical systems powered-on at all times. Transporters will furnish this power when vehicle is switched from internal to external power. LV's will be on transporters except when they are on the launch pad or in flight. Checkout of LV's should be done by a "Mobile ACE" station on each transporter. (In this concept, boosters would not be tied to second stages, but could return immediately to the launch site, to meet a new second stage, unless major rework or refurb were required.) transporter should have a small maintenance shop aboard, as well as crew rest quarters, galley, etc., since trip times from landing site to launch site may be 12 hours or more in duration. drive-train of the transporter should be propane-fueled, to simplify logistics. Either a diesel-electric or turbine-electric drive would be suitable. Cog-wheel gearing and an alternate low-speed, high-gear ratio drive train will provide for moving transporter up and down steep grades at launch site, and positive control at creep speeds at the landing site and in the industrial area. transporters are envisioned as interchangeable between booster and second stage vehicles with only minor kit changes. Vehicles are supported on the transporter by inflated air bags, to avoid alignment problems and provide a cushioned ride. Tow Path Design Concepts r- Interstate highway construction was compared with rail construction as follows: 1976 costs 4-lane Interstate (right of way, grading, draining, cut and fill) (Ballast and pavement) $1.2M/mile $0.6M/mile $0.6M/mile

VI-APP-B-21

1976 Cost 1976 Cost

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Railroad, single $175,000/mile track, two-rail construction, using new 119# rail, including rails, ties, ballast ($33/foot) Cost of double track $950,000/mile with cuts, fills, right of way, draining, ties, ballast, and rail

(Very Large Array Radio Telescope near Socorro, New Mexico, performed equivalent analysis and is using rail.) Industrial Area: Design Drivers - HLLV's are probably too large to build elsewhere and transport to launch operations area, and therefore final assembly facilities should be at the launch center Industrial Area. - Payloads, as assembled, will also be too large for conventional transportation and payload assembly should similarly be performed at the launch center Industrial Area. - Production rate of HLLV's should be reexamined since rate as shown in JSC-11568 will require a large number of vehicle assembly bays, - Number of assembly/refurbishment bays is also dependent upon reuse and refurbishment rates of LV's, and time required for overhaul. Final concept shown, following railroad round-house and turntable technology, assumes that production rate of LV's is fairly constant, and that assembly bays can also be used for launch vehicle refurbishment. Launch Center Construction: A preliminary construction phasing for the launch center facilities was developed as follows: VI-APP-B-22

Figure 9 VI-APP-B-24

TABLE VI Initial Construction Three launch pads ($120M each) Propellant Tank Farm Landing Area Towpath Propane Pipeline and Pumping System Lox Plant, Part I Six Final Assembly/Refurbishment Bays Payload Buildup Building Admin/Logistics Building Launch/Vehicle Parking Pad Launch/Range Control 10 Transporters Third Year Construction Rectenna and Power Distribution Hydrogen/Electrolysis Plant, Part I Three Launch Pads Expand Propellant Tank Farm 10 Additional Transporters Tenth Year Construction Six Additional Final Assembly/Refurbishment Bays Six Additional Launch Pads Expand Propellant Tank Farm Lox Plant, Part II Hydrogen Plant, Part II 40 Additional Transporters
40 720 200 40 60 360

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360 150 70 140 200 40 40 20 5 1 90 90

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100 40 360 150 90 740

1420

Total Estimated Cost of Facilities, 1977

$3366M

VI-APP-B-25

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STAFFING A preliminary estimate of the staffing required for HLLV operations has been made/ based upon the following assumptions: - final assembly of the launch vehicle is performed at the launch complex industrial area, but other manufacturing operations are performed elsewhere. - payloads are assembled, integrated, and loaded into payload units at the industrial area, but are manufactured elsewhere. - all HLLV operations are conducted on a three-shift, seven-day work week, since the cost is small in comparison with the cost of maintaining the on-orbit work crews in space. Final Assembly crews were based upon present Shuttle final assembly crews at Palmdale (36 engineers, 258 technicians, and 40 supporting personnel) and Dryden (12 engineers, 184 technicians). Launch crews were based on a "core-team1 concept, with a core group of 4 engineers, 16 technicians, and 8 support personnel per vehicle per shift. To maintain twentyfour-hour operation, the core team, per vehicle in the operations pipeline, was estimated as 16 engineers, 64 technicians, and 16 support. To this core team were added trainees, backups for sickness and annual leave. Landing crews were also based on the core-team concept, with a core group of 4 engineers, 12 technicians, and 2 support personnel per vehicle, per shift. Refurbishment crews were estimated as a fraction of the final assembly crews. Since no experience from Shuttle is available, these estimates must be regarded as soft. Payload buildup crews were matched to payload launch schedules. A learning curve was applied to their productivity, so that there are signficantly fewer personnel/payload in the years of peak activity. This estimate is also 'soft'. Peak staffing occurs in the twentyseventh year of HLLV activity, peaking at about 1500 engineers, 5300 technicians, and 1200 support personnel. Total staffing was: Engr'g-38,830 manyears, at$1.55 Billion, Tech'n-122,110 manyears, at 3.05 Billion Sup't - 30,900 manyears, at .93 Billion $5.53 Billion, 1977 dollars. Vi-APP-B-27

This staffing was based on achieving the launch rates for the Truss SSPS in LEO. The following table displays the staffing, by function, for each year, starting with a year Zero indicating the size of the site activation team.

VI-APP-B-28

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PROPELLANTS Propellant supplies for the HLLV will be of such scope that dedicated production plants and systems will be desirable. A survey of availability of propellants in this area did not reveal any major problems except for sources of hydrogen. a. Propane: Propane appears to be one of the few fuels that that will be reasonably available in the 1990 time frame on the world market. A local LP gas distributor who serves on the Board of Directors of the national LP gas distributors association reports that the association anticipates that there will be no major world shortage of this fuel in the next decade. Probable sources will be from production in the Middle East. Estimated prices for propane on the current world market are: Algeria, 24C/gallon; Saudi Arabia, 36C/gallon, Venezuala, 20£/gallon. An average world price of $115 per metric ton may be used as a baseline present price. Chemical and Engineering News predicts an average U.S. price, in 1985, of Sl.lC/gallon (C&EN, 18 April 1977) as compared with a present price of 13.8^/gallon. Propane, butane, and natural gas are still being flared in most locations in the Middle East for lack of a market. Propane may, however, find an alternate use as existing natural gas supplies are depleted; plans to supply a propane/ air mixture in existing natural gas markets are being studied. At present, New Mexico produces about 600 million gallons, and consumes 100 million gallons, yearly. Total U.S. Production in 1974 for propane was 12,347 million gallons, down 6% from the peak 1973 production of 13,100 million gallons. By comparison, the HLLV (EDIN EX-338-76) will require 850,000 gallons per launch, and in the peak program year (2022, Truss in LEO) 2282 HLLV flights will require 1,920 million gallons. The total flight program will require 30,000 million gallons. In short, HLLV operations will have a significant effect on national supplies of propane. Commercial suppliers of Propane are already investigating storage of propane in known salt domes in West Texas and Eastern New Mexico. Propane would be brought to terminals in Houston and pumped through existing pipelines to these storage domes. Propane may also be produced by hydrogenating coal, of which there are ample supplies in New Mexico, Colorado, and West Texas. However, the price of manufactured propane does not appear to be competitive, as predicted, in the 1990 time frame. If propane is selected as the HLLV booster stage fuel, contractual commitments for this fuel should be made as early in the program as possible. VI-APP-B-30

b. Oxygen: Oxygen is, of course, readily available; its principle cost driver is the energy required for compression and liquifaction. Dedicated production plants for LOX, either GOCO or COCO, should be included in launch site planning. Since the production of LOX will itself be a major user of energy, it is recommended that locating a ground rectenna at or near the launch site be considered; electrical power from the SSPS can thus be used to bootstrap the deployment of additional SSPS's, and the excess sold to the local power grid. Peak year requirement of LOX (Truss in LEO) for 2282 HLLV flights is 16 million tons. c. Hydrogen: Present sources of hydrogen depend upon cracking natural gas, propane, or refinery "lights". These will be in continuing high demand during the HLLV program, and may not be available. Hydrogen can also be made by flashing steam against coal; this process is, however, both environmentally "dirty" and expensive. Hydrogen is made in commercial quantities in Canada by reverse electrolysis of water (cf. Consolidated Mining and Smelting, Ltd, Trail, B.C.) because of the ready availability of hydroelectric power. If the launch site includes an SSPS rectenna, electrical power from the system can be used to make hydrogen at the launch site. Requirements for water as a feed stock are not excessive. However, most water presently available in the Southwest is already allocated; in the case of the Rio Grande valley, the existing water supply is presently 110-120% allocated. An existing unallocated source of water, however, is .the output of municipal sewage plants, which are of surprisingly high quality since they must meet EPA requirements. For example, the Las Cruces municipal sewage plant (50,000 population) processes 4.5 million gallons per day; if electrolysis produced hydrogen from one-third of this water, there would be available from this source alone 460 million pounds of hydrogen per year. The HLLV will require 750,000 pounds H2 per launch; at peak launch rate, hydrogen consumption will be in the order of 1,720 million pounds per year. Production of hydrogen by electrolysis will not be the cheapest method during the HLLV program, but it may be desirable to do so since, again, the SSPS program could be presented as bootstrapping itself rather than causing an additional drain on national energy resources.

VI-APP-B-31

OTHER CONSUMABLES a. Water: As noted, water throughout the Southwest is a carefully managed resource. As soon as a Southwestern launch site is selected, coordinated planning with the appropriate State water agencies should be commenced, to assure that water will be available. Water-conservation practices should be designed into the facilities (e.g., recycled cooling water at the launch pads, LOX compressor cooling, industrial sewage reclamation, etc.) b. Electricity; Electrical power is readily available at all the candidate launch sites, except the Monitor Mountain site. Electrical power can be routed to launch sites for a cost of $100,000 per mile. A map of the existing and proposed electrical power distribution grid for the Southwestern states was obtained from the Western Systems Coordinating Council (See figure 11 ) . c. Industrial Fuels; Natural gas and LP gas are the only fuels in use, or available in significant quantities in the Southwest. Coal is mined for electrical production on-site in the Four Corners area, but no commercial distribution exists. Natural gas suppliers (e.g., El Paso Natural Gas) are reluctant to make commitments to new users, since they anticipate significant shortages within the next decade. If the fuel selected for the HLLV is propane, it is recommended that the launch and industrial areas be designed to use propane as an industrial fuel, and that the vaporization losses from the liquid propane on site be used as the plant boiler feed.

VI-APP-B-32

VII.

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS A. MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION RECEPTION 1. Cumulative Side Lobe Effects

The peak power density levels in the far side-lobes of a 5GW SPS system were calculated to ascertain the expected radiation levels over the United States and Europe. Apparently the IMS (industrial medical, and scientific) band of 2450 MHz + 50 MHz is recognized only in the United States and certain portions of Europe. ^GWAn10db gaussian taPer antenna system, with error parameters of a - 10U, + idb, and 2% failures, was used for the analysis. The data f ^ - flgur?VII-A.l T n ? indicates an average peak level of l X 10 raw/cm^ in far fields. Grating lobe spikes will occur every 440Km for the 10 meter by 10 meter subarrays . However in order to reduce computer simulation time, the subarrays were increased to 18 meters thereby producing spikes every 245Km which were 10-12db higher than the surrounding peaks as shown in the figure. The radiation levels from one hundred, 10GW SPS stations will be approximately 4 X 10^ mw/cm2 in the far-fields .is shown by curve ( ) 1. Since this level is over two orders of magnitude lower than the USSR radiation standard of .01 mw/cm2 and five orders of magnitude lower than the present US standard, there should not be a problem in radiating with the 2400-2500 MHz power beams.
A

VII.A.I

Figure VII.A-l.

-Far-Field Radiation Levels for Individual and Multiple SPS Stations

22 10

U.S. RADIATION LIMIT PEAK POWER DENSITY LBT.L AS A FUNCTION OF RANGE FROM RECTENNA

CONDITIONS:
1.0
lOdB, GAUSSIAN TAPER ANTENNA <T= 10°, +_ IdB, 21 (1) - AVERAGE PEAK LEVEL FOR ONE HUNDRED 10 GW SPS STATIONS (2) - AVERAGE PEAK LEVEL FOP ONE 5GW SPS STATION

.1

.01

USSR RADIATION LIMIT

2
io6 io7
IO8

*GRATING LOBE SPIKES OCCUR EVERY 245 Km FOR THE 18 METER SUBARRAYS USED ON SIMULATIONS, ALTHOUGH ONLY TWO GRATING LOBES ARE SHOWN. THE SPS 10 METER SUBARRAYS HAVE GRATING LOBES EVERY 440 Km.

1000
_£_

2000

I i \ 1 3000 4000 5000 6000 RADIUS FROM BORESIGHT (KM)
JL

7000

8000

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500

1000 1500

2000

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3500 4000

4500

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VTI.

A. 2

Ionospheric Tests

a. Heating Tests - by G. D. Arndt Introduction The SPS system sizing of a IKm 'transmit array with 5GW of DC power out of the rectenna is constrained by a maximum power density limitation in the ionosphere (Ref . 1) . A power density of ZSmw/on^ has been postulated as the threshold level for nonlinear interactions between the microwave power beam operating at 2450 MHz and the heated ionosphere (Ref . 2) . This threshold level places a maximum size on the antenna for a given power output at the rectenna, i.e., the IKm, 5GW system. However, there is not sufficient experimental or theoretical data available to accurately predict the exact threshold level. Since the maximum power density, or threshold level, is a critical parameter in sizing the SPS system, a program is now underway to study the microwave beam/ ionospheric interactions. Microwave Beam/Ionoshpere Interactions As the high power microwave beam passes through the ionosphere, a very small fraction of its energy is absorbed by the ions and electrons in the surrounding plasma. Although there are equal numbers of positive and negative charged particles, the electrons, because of their small mass, are dominant in interacting with the microwave beam. Energy is extracted from the microwave signal and adds to thermal energy of the electrons. The simplist type of energy transfer is ohmic heating which, for the 2450 MHz microwave signal, is written
Q=l/2aE2=l/2
mw

-%

=k P

X2

where E a P_ X k
v

- is the peak value of the microwave electric field - conductivity of the plasma - power density of microwave beam - wavelength of microwave beam - a constant containing electron density, mass, and charge _ collision frequency (dependent upon altitude)

For the typical SPS system, the associated heating level in the ionosphere will be PDX2 = 30 mw/cm2 • (12.25)2 cm2 = 4.5 watts (2)

As the ionosphere is heated, the electron density decreases in the Fregion (150 - 300 Km) due to expansion of the plasma along the earth's magnetic field lines. Reductions in electron density of up to 40% of the ambient density have been calculated for the SPS beam passing through the F-region (Ref. 3) . This reduction is similar to that produced by a strong VII.A.3

magnetic storm. The heated electrons spiral outward up and down along the field lines and thus diffuse, conducting heat away. The increases in electron temperature produced by the SPS system have been calculated for a mid-day ionosphere over Arecibo, P.R. to be (Ref. 4): Height in Km 75 100 150 200 250 300 Ambient Electron Temp. (°K) 200 300 1000 1700 1900 2000 Heated Electron Temp. (°K) 2200 1600 1500 2500 2600 2600 The strong heating effects in the D-region (70-100Km) will produce an increase in electron density due to a reduced electron/ion recombination rate. The electron temperature will have a very large increase as shown in the previous chart. However, even though the electron temperature increases by an order of magnitude in the D-region the electron density is very small compared to the F-region density. These effects will be accompanied by changes in the chemical reaction rates for this region. In the F-region the changes in electron temperature and electron density will at some level become large enough to produce nonlinear instabilities such as thermal self-focusing. This thermal self-focusing can produce large-scale irregularities of the ionosphere, with the striations aligned with the magnetic field lines. That is, the regions of high electron density tend to focus the microwave beam into regions of lesser density. The power density then increases in the focal region, giving more energy to the electrons, furthering reducing their density and continuing the self-focusing process. These regions of high and low density are aligned with the magnetic field lines and flow outward. The following diagrams show the field aligned, thermal self-focusing phenomenon (Ref. 5) Since these high energy electrons produced by the thermal self-focusing move along the field lines, these disturbances or perturbations in the ionosphere may no longer be limited to the region around the high-power beam. The perturbations could possibly cover large geographic areas along the field lines. The main problems associated with nonlinear heating and density depletion are possible disruptions to existing communications and navigation systems due to fading, scattering, multipath, etc. Study Program A program to study the ionosphere/microwave beam interactions is now underway. Overall objectives of these programs include: o 1. Determine power density levels (mw/cm ) at which nonlinear interactions begin to occur. 2. Assess the effects of both ohnic and nonlinear heating on commerical communications and navigation systems. VII.A.4

Figure VII.A-2

-Thermal Self-Focusing at High Density Levels

EM Wave Focuses into Regions of Lesser Density

Density Perturbation

Density Flow Out of the "Hot" Regions

Higher Density 4-4-4 ^ .. * Lower Density

Incident EM Wave

Field-Aligned Plasma Density Striations

B
Incident EM Wave VII.A.5

3. Determine RFI effects on radio astronomy (scattering of microwave power beam and associated noise components by ionosphere). As the first step to achieve these goals, a contract was awarded in 1976 with the following specific objectives: 0 Determine analytically the threshold density levels for nonlinear interactions. 0 Develop a detailed test program for full-scale tests to measure these interactions—includes parameter measurements, frequencies, facilities, and modification costs. 0 Using the existing Arecibo antenna facility, making S-band measurements at a density of 1-2 mw/cm2. 0 Investigate possibility of laboratory plasma experiments.

This work is headed by Prof. W. E. Gordon of Rice University, who has been the team leader for low-frequency heating experiments at the Arecibo Observatory; Prof. F. W. Perkins of Princeton University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (MCAR) is performing theoretical analyses. The study tasks are proceeding on schedule. The theoretical work by Perkins and Roble at NCAR is producing contours of electron temperature (illustrating the distortion along the field lines) and electron density for several ionospheric conditions. The frequency scaling laws that should apply for ohmic heating of the ionosphere (which is straightforward), for thermal self-focusing, and for communication scattering cross-sections are also being completed. A working paper has been written on scaled laboratory testing. Arecibo Tests The heating tests using the existing Arecibo antenna facility are scheduled for June 2-15, 1977. The following equipment will be used in the tests: Transmitters
4-11 MHz, 200 KW 430 MHz, 2MW 2300 MHz, .5MW

Antenna
305m

2 This equipment will produce an S-band power-density of 1-2 mw/cm in the F-region. While this density is considerably lower than the 20-30 mw/cm2 expected for an SPS station, it will be a first step in reaching that level and provide valuable experimental data not now available.

VII.A.6

Other agencies cooperating in the tests are the Aeronomy Laboratory of NOAA at Boulder and the Institute du Globe at Paris. A 50 MHz diagnostic radar will be set up on Guadeloupe in the Leeward Islands by the Institute du Globe and operated by the NOAA staff. This station is located where the radar beam is perpendicular (for maximum reflection) to the magnetic field lines at 220 Km altitude over Arecibo. It is capable of observing field-aligned irregularities produced by thermal self-focusing from Arecibo. The thermal self-focusing will be attempted by all three transmitters as listed previously. The limited tests using the existing facilities at Arecibo were completed June 15, 1977. The results may be summarized as follows: Three heating frequencies were used - 4-11 mega hertz, 430 MHz, and 2300 MHz. The power2 density for the 430 MHz test at a height of 200 kilometers was .6 mW/cm , "which is 1/12 of the equivalent SPS level" in a 1 kilometer heated cross-sectional area; the corresponding density for the 2300 MHz S-band test was 1.1 mW/cm2, "which is 1/20 of the equivalent SPS level" in a 200 meter heated cross-sectional area. No non-linear heating effects were observed by the diagnostic radar at Guadeloupe for any of the heating frequencies. These negative results were as anticipated. These tests and analytical analysis will greatly enhance knowledge about the SPS microwave beam/ionosphere interactions. However, to fully resolve the ionosphere issues, the ionosphere must be heated from the ground to an equivalent SPS level. Preliminary costs estimates for modifying the Arecibo Observatory for full-scale testing is about $3M. The detailed costs for modifying Arecibo and the Platteville, Colorado facility will be included in the contractor report, scheduled for August 1977.
REFERENCES

1. Technical, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation of Space Solar Power Concepts - Vol. II, JSC 11443, July 15, 1976 2. "Microwave Power Transmission System Studies" NASA CR-134886, ER75-4368, Raytheon Company, December 16, 1976 3. Mid-Term Report, NAS , Raytheon Company, December 16, 1976

4. April Progress Report - NAS 9-15212, Rice University, April 1977 5. March Progress Report - NAS 9-15212, Rice University, March 1977

VII.A.7

R. H. Dietz Tracking and Communications Development Division VII. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS A. Microwave Transmission Reception 2. Ionosphere Tests b. Communications

Once the effects of the MW beam on the isophere is determined, the immediate question is: "What effect will these ionospheric disturbances have on users of the ionosphere?" Users are defined as those who are dependent on communication, navigation, and radar systems which utilize the ionosphere as a transmission medium. Two areas of possible effects require investigation in order to answer the basic question. Ohmic heating effects on communications services will require investigation. These will occur primarily near the MW beam penetration of the ionosphere. Determination should be made of the extent and occurrence of disturbances, effect of electron density depletion caused by ohmic heating, and effect of scintillation and scatter. Another area requiring investigation is the nonlinear effects of the ionosphere on communication services. Primary here is the question of the geographical extent of nonlinear interactions. Determination should be made of extent and occurrence of the disturbances, as well as the geographical area affected. Communication affects caused by variations in election densities, scintillation and scatter also require definition. Definition of the above areas can be accomplished using both analytical and testing techniques. If testing continues to look desirable, the test program should be conducted in conjunction with the ionosphere heating tests discussed in section a. above. Communication Effects - lonosphonic disturbances and their effects on communication services are generally well known and documented in the literature. The more extensive disturbances which are known at this time and which are generally predictable are associated with solar flares and can be classified as ionospheric disturbances, storms, and polar region absorption. The disturbance takes the form of abnormally high absorption in the D layer, phase and amplitude changes, changes in the effective height of reflection and sudden frequency deviations. Ionospheric storms are accompanied by magnetic disturbances and are usually more intense in the auroral regions. These changes in the ionosphere can cause reduction of the critical frequency in the F2 region, and radio blackout due to absorption, enhancement of spread F and sporadic E. The less extensive disturbances are associated with electron configurations that move with time and are localized. They are not extensive because of their local nature. Anticipation of the ionospheric disturbances caused by one SPS MW beam may be localized, but has the possibility of spreading geographically along the magnetic lines if nonlinear effects are created.

VII.A.8

For a complete complement of over 100 SPS's, the "localized" effect will also spread geographically. It is for these reasons that a thorough understanding of ionospheric effects on communications services should be developed. Communications, Radar and Navigation Systems (COMMRAN) - The possible COMMRAN systems which may be affected by MW beam disturbances of the ionosphere are numerous. It will be extremely difficult to assess the affects on all the COMMRAN systems. Any program of this magnitude will require grouping into types for analytical investigations and possibly a further combining into groups for a possible test program. Basic types of systems include, but are not limited to: a. Long-haul communications - typical HF frequencies of 3-30 MHz which depend on ionospheric reflection for long range communications. Users include military, civilian and amateur. b. Commercial satellite communications - typical UHF to S-band frequencies of 1.2 - 4.0 GHz. c. Military satellite communications - typical VHF/UHF frequencies of 225 - 400 MHz for space-to-ground and space-to-aircraft communications. d. Military radars for large area surveillance - typical HF frequencies of 5 - 30 MHz which utilize the ionospheric reflection. e. Military radars for space tracking - typical frequencies are in the VHF-UHF bands. f. Satellite global positioning system - typical frequencies in UHF band are 1.2 and 1.6 GHz. g. Omega/Loran C navigation aids - typical frequencies in VLF band of 10 KHz require use of ionospheric reflection. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Systems - Two systems on the SPS may be affected by ionospheric disturbances caused by the MW beam. These are the phase control system's pilot beam transmitted from the ground and the SPS antenna pointing control signal. As mentioned in the "Technology Advancement Report," JSC-12702, these two systems should be investigated further. Because of the criticality of antenna pointing and MW beam phasing, it is deemed necessary to test the effect of ionospheric heating on these systems. These tests would have to await either a LEO or GEO SPS test article. When these test articles are available, ionospheric heating should be done, simultaneous with the phase control and antenna pointing tests. Transmission of these control signals could then be directed through the heated portion of the ionosphere. Approach for Investigating COMMRAN System Effects - Because of the overwhelming number of communication service users who are affected by the ionosphere, a logical methodology of categorizing users and systems must be established. The approach outlined below intentionally omits SPS design

VII.A.9

and development activities and concentrates only on investigating ionospheric heating effects on the COMMRAN systems. The approach should include: a. Survey of all COMMRAN systems which depend on or are influenced by the ionosphere. b. Categorize systems into similar/related types.

c. Based on predicted changes in the ionosphere due to the MW beam, perform in-house and/or contract study to determine frequency bands affected, time, duration and extent of changes, etc. on the typical COMMRAN systems. d. If study warrants further investigations, establish the overall testing plan. e. f. Perform comprehensive selection of COMMRAN systems to be tested. Assimilate baseline test data on selected COMMRAN systems.

g. Determine optimum location of transmitters and receivers for the selected systems. h. Coordinate availability of selected systems with using agencies or suppliers. i. Coordinate availability of ionospheric heating facility.

3. Coordinate availability of transmitter/receiver locations with proper authorities. k. Develop testing procedures in coordination with COMMRAN system users and ionospheric heating test facility personnel. 1. Determine methods of real-time coordination during testing activiites. m. Determine test times and resources required to conduct test program. n. Assimilate necessary COMMRAN systems, attendant support equipment, and personnel. o. Coordinate test procedures with all affected parties.

p. Conduct baseline tests on selected COMMRAN systems without ionospheric heating, including appropriate day/night cycle conditions. q. levels. Conduct tests with inosphere heated to expected SPS operational

VII.A.10

Summary - The above discussion has focused on the need for determining how ohmic heating, non-linear thermal self-focusing and other ionospheric disturbances will affect communication users of the ionosphere. Although it is generally understood how the MW beam will affect the ionosphere, and individual users of communication services understand how ionospheric disturbances affect the service, it is recognized that an extensive investigation should begin to assure that the SPS MW system will not adversely affect worldwide communications dependent of the ionosphere. To this end, the above sections serve as an outline of issues to be investigated and approaches to be considered.

VII.A.H

VII. A. 3

MICROWAVE RADIATION BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS By D. S. Nachtwey, SD4

The Solar Power Satellite (SPS) microwave beam is potentially hazardous both in space and on the ground. Potential exposure situations to space workers could occur during power beam tests or SPS maintenance. In addition exposures to radars and communications transmitters are possible. Potential exposures of humans and other biota on the ground could occur at or near rectenna sites. In addition, very low level exposures of the public will occur over very large geographic areas from power beam side lobes (see Figure VII-A-1). This section discusses some of the biophysical characteristics of radio-frequency (RF) radiation in general, some of the potential biological effects (primarily numan effects), RF Radiation Exposure Standards, the philosophies underlying the standards, and areas requiring additional research. Biophysical aspects of RF radiation. Because the assessment of the biological impact of RF radiation is highly dependent upon the basic biophysical aspects of the interaction of the radiation with biological systems, a somewhat extensive discussion of these biophysical aspects may oe fruitful. RF radiation like all electromagnetic (EM) radiation consists of a stream of photons each possessing a discrete energy. The behavior of EM photons can be described by wave equations so the different types of EM radiation are designated either oy their energy, their wavelengths, or the frequency of the waves in cycles per second (Hertz or Hz). The energy of the pnoton, is directly related to its frequency and inversely related to its wavelength (see Figure VII-A-3). A biological effect of any EM radiation requires that tne photon interact with molecules within the organism and the energy of the pnoton be absorbed; without absorption of energy, there is no possibility for a biological effect. For high energy photons such as those in x- or gamma-rays, the photon's absorbed energy can cause ejection of an orbital electron, i.e. it can cause lonization and thus detrimental alteration of the molecule and possibly the organism. For lower energy photons such as ultraviolet radiation, the photon does not cause lonization but can raise an orbital electron in a molecule to an excited state which can then cause a detrimental chemical change in the molecule. As the frequency of the EM radiation decreases further the absorbed pnotons are not sufficiently energetic to excite orbital electrons, but they can affect the molecule by increasing its vibrational, rotational, or translational energy, i.e. increase its temperature. In general, RF photons

*The major source of information for this section is a review by S. M. Micnaelson (20), parts of which have been extracted verbatim.

VII-A-12

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