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HISTORY

OF

MEDIEVAL

AND

MODERN

EUROPE

HISTORY
OF

MEDIEVAL

AND

MODERN

EUROPE

BY

HENRY
PROFESSOR RESERVE
IN THE

E.
COLLEGE

BOURNE
FOR

WOMEN,
OF
'

WESTERN
THE THE

UNIVERSITY

; AUTHOR
AND SECONDARY
CIVICS

ING TEACHELEMENTARY

OR

HISTORY

IN

AND

SCHOOL,'

ETC.

LONGMANS,
91
AND

GREEN,
93 FIFTH
AVENUE,
AND

AND
NEW YORK

CO.

LONDON

BOMBAY

1905

T.
Li";,v'.iy of TfifJGrtS'ss fwu
Copies
rtuceiveu

NOV

TO

l^Mi"

Copyright,

1905,

by

LONGMANS,

GREEN,

AND

CO.

ALL

RIGHTS

RE8ERVED0

NottooolJ
J. S. Gushing

i^tcsB
Berwick

"

Co.

"

"
U.S.A.

Smith

Co.

Horwood,

Mass.,

PREFACE
pupil the history of Europe because it is also the early history of his own lie the beginnings of American the older Europe
To

the American

is important
people. In

institutions

as

of thought. Europe since the somewhat

well as religious customs, But it is difficultto explain

civilization, literature, and habits


the development Empire

of

downfall

of the

Roman

rigorous limits assigned to a text-book has the advantage of making possible a larger use of ing books for supplementary reading, which are constantly increasin numbers and utility. One of the conditions of brevity facts which are ordinarily explained The principle of selection adopted in the preparation of this book has been the value of the fact in the explaining the Europe of the present day and in showing has also been laid upon course Emphasis of its development.
is the omission of many or at least mentioned. facts in order that the geography of Europe already studied in the elementary school may be reviewed and it must necessarily be in the study of the historical explained, as facts which lie behind the present frontier lines or the

within the A brief text-book.

geographical

condition of modern The has attempt


more

nations. been made

to

narrate

the history

important
of giving

countries
to

together

in chronological

of the stead order, in-

each

the

reader

to

move

separate treatment, and so obliging forward and backward along the chronological
a
an

series and, by necessary

unusual
or

correlation of events,

effort of attention, make fail to gain an adequate

the
conception

Many as a whole. of the progress of Europe events in one country directly affected events in another or at least illustrated similar tendencies in thought in institutions. or

"

Vi
The result of the attempt
may

PBEFACE

this way clearness advantages otherwise

of

the history of Europe in to lack the compactness occasionally seem and but it should possess the separate treatment,
to narrate
a

of
seem

larger unity, the

making

intelligible what

might

of individual caprice or of This method the pupil to group chance. should also accustom events, in order by discovering their relations to gain more of consequence
their meaning. To the pictures and maps have been added descriptions which should render them more of the maps
are,

explanations and Several useful.

with Europe.

with the consent of the publishers, reproduced from Freeman's Historical Geography modifications Two
In Modern
or

of

three

Handatlas.

Atlas
France

of

making Europe

upon maps Lane-Poole's modifications

are

based

in Droysen's
Historical de la

and

Longnon's

Atlas

Historique

The author's thanks constantly consulted. for permission due to Professor S. B. Platner to use are a picture of the Wall of Aurelian which appeared in his Ancient Borne.

have

been

author has Professor Edward


The

been

greatly assisted by the suggestions of G. Bourne, of Yale University, and of Dr.


Eeserve

W.

S. Robertson,

of Western

University,

in manuscript, read the book and of Dr. Western Reserve has read the proof-sheets. University, who No is, however, one of these gentlemen responsible for any
errors

have who E. J. Benton, of

which

remain

uncorrected.
HENKY E.

BOURNE.

Cleveland,
August 1, 1905.

CONTENTS
PAGE

Introduction

xv

CHAPTER

I.

The

Roman

Empire

in

the

Fourth

Century

1 20

II.
III. IV. V. VI.

The
The The The

German

Invasions
and op
the

Church
Beginnings

Mohammedans New Peoples

"

.37
.53 66

'
.

Age

of

Charlemagne
op

Beginnings The New Rise

Feudal
its

Europe Rulers
and its

82 Foes
.
.

VII. VIII. IX.

Europe,
of of
the

99

The
The
AND

People Empir:e
:

120
The

Ruin

the

Growth

of

England

France
of
the

134
and

X.

Wars
IN

Nations

Races:

The

Cry

of

Reform

Church

148 167
Revolution
of of
the
.....

XL XII.

The

Renaissance Protestant

The
The The The The

184

XIII.
XIV. XV. XVI.

Struggle
Last

Faiths Religion

204
225 241 259

Wars

Puritan

Revolution Louis Louis


for

Age

of
of

XIV
the

XVII. XVIII.
XIX. XX. XXI.

Downfall
New

Great
.....

273 288
....

Struggles
Empires

Supremacy Gained
Despots
and

Colonial
The From The

Lost

299
312 326

Enlightened Reform
to

Revolution
at

XXII.
XXIII. XXIV.

Revolution
Rise
of

War

with

Europe

341 356

The
The

Napoleon
of

Conquest

Europe vii

368

Vlll

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

PAGB

XXV. XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII. XXIX. XXX.

Eeorganized
The A Revolution New Era

Europe
of

387.
1848 Wars
Empire
.

403 419 434 449 Century 464

of
the

National

Refounding
After Last
the

German
National
the

Great
of

Wars

Decade

Nineteenth

LIST
(From
photographs
or

OF
prints

ILLUSTRATIONS
unless
otherwise

indicated.

Arranged

in alphabetical

order)
PAGE

Abbey Abbey

of

Montmajour

42

of Mont-Saint-Michel

94
.

Aix-la^Chapelle Alcazar
Amiens,

(Aachen)
of

77 124 171
218

at Seville, The

Cathedral
Ship
An

Armada Assignat,

(from MacLehose.

From

the Monarchy

to

the Be-

By puhlic in France. permission) Bastille, The (from Plan de Louis Bretez,

335
dit Plan de Turgot,

1734)
of

328

Bible, Wycliffe's

(from Tout

and

Sullivan's

Elementary

History

England)
Bismarck, Bonaparte, Prince Napoleon

158 435

(from the

portrait in the Versailles

Museum)

361

Calvin, John Canterbury


Carcassonne Carcassonne, Carmelite
The

197
Cathedral
...........

131 23 121
.

Causeway
The

Monastery,

345 103 95

Castle of Talaise Castle of Montlh^ry Cathedral, Cathedral, Cathedral, Cavour, Chamb^ry, Charles
Amiens

171
.

Canterbury
Notre Dame
. .

131 365 426 283

Count

di

Chateau

of
a (after

I. of England
a (after

portrait by Van

Dyck)

242 190

Charles V.
Chateau Chateau

portrait by

Titian)
.
. . .

of Chamb^ry
of Chenonceaux
.

283
.
. "
"

196 136

Chateau

Gaillard ix

"

"

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

PA6K

Chenonceaux,
Church

Chateau

of

196
Ill 6

of the Holy

Sepulchre

Claudia, Ruins
Clive, Robert

of the
a (after

portrait by Nathaniel by

Dance)
part

304

Coligny,

Gaspard

the Oratoire

Commons, Commons,

House
House

(the monument at Paris) of (from Gardiner's


of, Contemporary

de

Crauk,

of the apse

of

215

StudenVs
View

History

of England)

293

455
50
. .

Cordova, Council

Mosque of Trent,

of
The

(from a painting ascribed to Titian) Cooper, Oliver (aftera portrait by Samuel Cromwell, at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge) from the portrait in Life Danton, G. J. (reproducedby permission by A. H. Beesley) of Danton Book Domesday (from Gardiner's Students History of England) Elizabeth, Queen Erasmus a (after portrait by Holbein)
" "

207

255

349 105
210 186

Falaise, Castle of Fight


between

103
of the Time of Henry 141 317 engraving

Armed

III.

(from

Knights and Mounted Cott. Ms. Nero. D. i. f. 4)

Frederick Garibaldi

the Great

(from an
S William

by HoU

from

photograph)

428

Gimignano,
Gladstone,

172 465 405

Ewart

(from

portrait by

Guizot, F. P. G.

(from an engraving Gustavus II., Adolphus (from an engraving A. Van Dyck)


Hadrian, Henry Henry Holy IV.

Elliott and in Guizot's History

Fry) of France)
.

after the picture by

Sir 235
2

Wall

of of France
a (after

220

VIII.

picture belonging of the


in
"

to the Earl

of

Warwick)

194
Ill 160

Sepulchre,
d'Arc, La

Church
Tour
a

Jeanne
Kaaba, Kossuth

The

(from
Marquis
in

picture

Bilder- Atlas

zu

Mekka

")

46
412

Lafayette,

de
an

329

Lafayette

later life

original by

(from Levachez)
old of the Roman

engraving

by

Freeman

after

an

397 246
at

Laud,

William

(from an

print)
Wall

Leicester, Ruins History Louis


XIV.

(from Gardiner's

Student''s
56 261

of England) (from an engraving)

LIST

OF

ILLUSTBATI0N8

xi
PAGE

Louis Louis

XVI. XVI.,

(after
a

portrait by
of

Execution

Duplessis) (from Les Bevolutions

337
de

Paris,

contemporary

newspaper)
Llibeck
Lutlier, Martin

347
150

188
Duke of

Marlborough, Godfrey
Metternich, Mirabeau, Moltke,

(from

an

engraving

after the original by

Sir 278
392

Kneller)
Prince

Comte Count
von

de

(from

steel engraving

published

in

Paris)

333 443 95

Montlh^ry,

Castle of
Abbey of Abbey
a

Montmajour,
Napoleon Napoleon
III.

.42
of

Mont-Saint-Michel,

94
414 portrait
in the sailles Ver-

(from

French

Bonaparte,

First

print) Consul (from the


Abbott

Museum) Nelson, Lord a (after Gallery)


New
Notre

361 portrait by
in the

National

Portrait

369
168

College, Oxford
Dame,

Paris
-.

365
175 467
The

Nuremberg Palais Bourbon Pantheon,


Peter

Rome,

9 278
,
.

the Great
.
. . .

Philip II.

a (after portrait by Titian) Pitt, William a (after portrait by Hoare) Puffing Billy (from Gardiner's Studenfs History
.
.

208 303
389

of England)
Louvre)
.

Ravenna,

Tomb

of Theodoric

at

29
in the
.

Richelieu

the (after portrait by Champaigne Robespierre (reproducedby permission from Memoirs, ed. by G. Duruy)

237

the portrait in Barras's

350

Rochambeau, Rome,
Rome, The The

Comte
Pantheon

de

315
9

Wall

of

(from Platner's

Ancient

Borne., by

permission)
.

13 32 33

Saint Sophia,
Saint Sophia Steamboat,
"

Constantinople
Interior

An
vom

Early
und

English
zum

Stein, Baron
Temple, Thiers, Trent, The Louis The

(from The Instructor of 1833) (froman engraving published at Leipsic)


. .

388 376 344 445

(from an
Adolphe

old

print)
painting

Council of

(from a

ascribed to

Titian)

207

xii

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Tuileries, The

(from
of

the plan of 1734, called the Plan

de

Turgot)

332 266
421

Versailles, Palace
Victor Emmanuel H. A M.

II.

Victory,

S
or

370

Vikings,

ship of the Northmen

(now

in the University

at

Chris85

tiania)
Vincennes,

Chateau

of

152
2

Wall Wall

of Hadrian
of Rome Duke Hall
of

Wellington, Westminster William


William

(aftera portrait by Sir Thomas

Lawrence)

.13 381 251

I. of Germany

446
the (after portrait by

III. of England

Sir Godfrey

Kneller)

268

Wycliffe's

Bible

158

LIST

OF

MAPS
PAGE

1. Physical Map
2. The Roman Empire 600

in 395
a.d.

a.d.

Colored
....

facing facing
facing
750.

xiv 1

3. Europe, 4.

about

Colored
its Greatest

34

Saracen

Dominion

at

Extent

Westward,

Colored
5. Europe, 6.

facing
of Seventh

49" 62 70

End

Century

Italy in 814 of

7. Empire

Charlemagne

in 814,

with

the

three

subdivisions

made
8. Lotharingia 9. The 10.
11.

in 843 North of the Alps

79 according
to the Division

of 843

83 110

Moslem

Peril, 1090

Extent The

Empire about 1180. Colored of the Hohenstaufen in the Fourteenth Century Seven Electorates
.

facing
.

129 151 163 193

12.

Advance Dominions

of the Turks.
of Charles
V.

Colored

....

13.

prior to 1555.

Colored
and

facing facing
about

14. Division 1555


15. 16. 17.

of Territory

between

Catholics

Protestants

205 of England,
Europe

Division
Western The

January,

1643
....

249

in 1660.

Colored
Power.

Waning

of the Turkish

Colored

facing facing
.

254 276

'

18.

Settlements

in 1713, 1714, 1720, 1721.

Illustrating the division 282

19.
20.
21. 22.

possessions and the advance of Russia First Partition of Poland, 1772 Boundaries Colored facing of France. The Settlement of 1814-1815. Gains of the principal states
of the Spanish
.... .

308 363
383
"

Unification
Prussian The The

of Italy.

Colored
War the

facing
.

428 439

'

23. 24.

Conquests
Mediterranean and since the Russo-Turkish of
.....

Eastern

457

25.

Colonies

Dependencies

Europe

and

United

States in 1900.

Colored

facing

469

GENEALOGICAL

TABLES
PAGE

Principal

Descendants Family

of Charlemagne

98

Hugh
Family Heirs

Capet's

98
119 of France
to the Crown

of William

the Conqueror Philip IV.

of Philip III. and Yorkist and Lancastrian Hapsburg,


Heirs

165

Claimants Spanish

of England

183
203

Burgundian,
VII.

Relationships
....

of Henry

Claim

of Henry

VIII. of England and Henry of the House of Bourbon, of Navarre,

224
to the French

Crown

224 of the Spanish Hanoverian Heritage Families


. .

Claimants
Stuart and

272
286

Bourbon-Orleans

Relationships

402

INTRODUCTION
The Aim of History.

"

Some

study of history because and the laws of the progress in the same manner from them
the
as

men eminent its facts cannot


or

have

disparaged

be systematized decay of civilization deduced exactness and with the same


have

the laws of physics


are

and
or

chemistry physical

been deduced
The of
a causes

from of any

what

called chemical
not to speak

facts.

single event,
at
a

of the condition

whole

country

not and so various that they canparticular time, are so many is the case as be isolated and examined with facts which Certain of them could belong to the world of natural science.
not

it possible to stud}^ them sepabe measured rately. exactly were The decision of Eobert E. Lee to resign his commission

in the
attempt

United

States Army
from

and

follow
was

his State in her

to withdraw

the Union which


nor

momentous,

but the
could not
nor

weight of each of the reasons be mechanically determined the

influenced

him

exactly

estimated,

could

been scientific predicted with resulting decision have history offers at least partial exNevertheless, planati certainty. depend so much upon of even such events, which
character.
a

individual method

As

for

events

of

another

sort,

the

president in this country or the system in England, history explains how these of cabinet government in which they were developed to be, and the exact manner came of electing shows, better than any
other

form

or real meaning of the custom the result of passing intrigues or of tendencies lying deep in Among the experience of the people. the school studies those literature, or concern most which closely, language mankind

is the of reasoning, what it is institution and whether

political economy many services.

civil government, Some literary works


XV

or

depend
more

upon

history for

than

others require

XVI

INTll

OB

UCTION

historical explanation, but it is safe to say that all are if the age when is also better understood they were produced
an

understood. to history are and


more

The

relations of political economy and of civics is becoming more stillcloser. Political economy is called
men

what

economic
which

history, that is, the history


result in the production and

of those activities of

Civics treats of the political activities distribution of wealth. in municipality, state, and of men nation, or describes the have grown institutions which out of these efforts. It needs to prove the value of history in the study of such no argument
; subjects it furnishes

well as a History to explain.


as

gation of their principal methods of investimultitude of illustrations of what they aim


one

merly, therefore, be considered, as forto amuse a polite study, of littleutility save the leisure versatio of the idle or to offer an occasional anecdote to enliven concannot,

Supplementary

Reading.

"

History

services learned

if historical

knowledge A

from

the

text-book.

these will not perform is limited to what may be like this, which text-book
years

attempts

to explain
can

fifteen hundred
than

do littlemore

an awaken further inquiry.

events,

summarize interest in such facts, and The pupil should consider

opment, develof European the most important


lines of hishis study of tory suggest

course mainly as the beginning of a systematic of instruction and of reading which is to be one of the sources The intellectual pleasure of his later years. text-book will

in school

furnish improved

temporary
as

framework

for facts, to be enlarged

his knowledge

increases.

During

and schooldays he

should also learn how to use other books and should acquire the habit of reading historical works of real literary interest. Affixed to each chapter of this book are two lists of books,
"

detailed statefor obtaining more brief manuals, ments convenient is alluded to in the further explanations or of what text, and larger works, many of them chosen from permanent

historical literature. look up

It is not

expected

that
''

all the references

suggested

under

pupil shall Further Study."

the

INTBODUCTION

xvii

be under effective must reading to be made careful individual direction. It is better that pupils be sent to a particular query, or to these books to search for answers to obtain different points of view about an event or policy, or
Supplementary
more

by

If a student is prompted details of a special incident. " " dently, outside personal interest to do this reading indepenthe better,but it should not be made so a unimuch form requirement.

Many

of the books

character

that they will be useful The


"

referred to are of such primarily in assisting the

teacher

rather than the pupil. Selections from the Sources.


"

books
are

most

commonly

re-

ferred

to under

"

Further

Study
"

taken

are what docun^ents, letters, or

from

called
other

collections of passages that is, from original sources,"

the event the writing may be a part of the event, as Pope Urban's speech a good at Clermont was part of the origin of the First Crusade. As the selections in such books have been made with the

time at which

the writings which appeared near Occasionally touched upon occurred.

both in of the pupil and the requirements of the subject mind, these books are, on the whole, the most useful for supplementar It is not expected that the pupil shall reading. become historical investigator or that he shall acquire any an
needs large part of his knowledge from original material, but in these selections he will often find the best illustrations of the topics he is studying, and presented in a form which adds a peculiar interest to Mohammedanism The what is said.
more

Selections
do

from

the

Koran

make

real than

ordinary

explanations. pupil kinds, but this the

are explanations necessary, for without could do littlewith original material of some

them

material

teresti element of actuality or bring out an inIn using these selections it is advispoint of view. able for the teacher to give specific questions for search. may add
an

Vague

reading

here

anything else. The in note-books, in order that they may clear.

reading of results of these inquiries should be written


vague

is of

as

little value

as

be made

concise and

xviii
The

INTRODUCTION

have always and geography Dates are primarily useful in been called the eyes of history. facts of a period in their exact time keeping the elementary relations until their less obvious causal relations can be studied
Use
of Dates.
"

Chronology

that they of such importance in the memory. Many of the should be fixed permanently in the list at the end more mentioned significant dates are with
care.

few

dates

are

of each

chapter. History and Geography.


to

"

In
to

the

study
"

of

history

it is

necessary world the


as

refer constantly it is to-day, because

the causes consequences how the world showing maps had been changes after important

to the map maps, of the this is a summary of many of history explains ; to of which or some portion of it appeared

made

in the boundaries

give an which peoples; and to relief or physical maps flat or mountainous, of different countries, whether waterless full of rivers. There the or are also maps which show how

of idea

of the earth was while knowledge still incomplete. Maps in the fifteenth and sixteenth cenmade turies to appreciate the difficulties of navigating us enable in many
cases

world drawn,

looked

to

geographers

at

the

time

when

they

were

unknown charts.

seas

or

of sailing along

coasts

not

yet noted

on

the

The

the world as Romans had had

2, of this volume, of representation given in Map it appeared to Ptolemy reveals the fact that the they conquered about all of the lands of which it should using historical maps lines have been changes in boundary In

definite knowledge.

be remembered that as frequently, can a made small collection of maps portray the incidents like an situation only after important unusually in his M. Longnon or the emigration great war of peoples. includes seventeen maps of Gaul for the period between the later years of Chlodwig sion and the accesOnly such large atlases can of Charlemagne. give with In this the important changes. even satisfactory completeness
Historical Atlas

of France

volume
at

several
one

maps

period

embody and that

comparison
at

between

the situation

another

period

sufficiently

INTRODUCTION

xix

remote

to show

By

such

the final settlement for the territory in question. it is possible to understand the comparisons

Europe gradual process of the growth of modern and to perceive the relation of this modern world to the ancient and the mediaeval world. Influence of Geography
History.

upon

"

It

was

not

until the

eighteenth which
such

century that thoughtful men the history of different peoples

realized the extent to has been influenced by

geographical

conditions

as

and nearness minerals, waterways, great deposits of coal and iron close to one another, with rivers for ocean-going ships, surrounded deep enough by seas which highways to the gates of other lands as well as means are of defence for herself,
and
seems

climate, character of the soil, England, to the sea. with

destined

by

nature

to

become

manufacturing for commerce everything

country, provided with vast fleets It would be a mistake to explain and for war. by such natural reasons, for much depends also

trading

upon the characteristics of the people who occupy the region. In most cases the inhabitants of a country a already had developed cesses they settled in it, so that their succharacter when
or

failures

can

be attributed
reasons
are,

itself. Geographical
they

in part only to the region however, important so that

should Geography
a

is

be considered at every step. A glance at Map 1 shows that Europe of Europe. between thrust southwestward the seas peninsula and
"

narrowing total area United

toward

Spain,

its terminus.

This

peninsula,

the

is only slightly greater than that of the of which States, -has been the scene of nearly all the history

It is true there is a Greater alluded to in the present volume. Europe, wherever Europeans have carried their civilization or have won the mastery, but this larger history has been touched

Several of the features of Europe's only incidentally. geography have Before the strikingly influenced its history.
into Spain its width is only two hundred peninsula broadens A frontier so short, combined and fifty miles. tical with the pracimpassability of the Pyrenees except at the eastern and

XX

INTRODUCTION

western

almost

from the rest of the continent ends, separates Spain Channel separates Great Britain. as mucli as the English
has affected the fortunes of the English at every Eevolution, like the French Movements which broke

The
turn.

Channel

In later days the Channel. all other barriers, could not cross European to hold aloof from it has enabled the English ances, allito dominate fleet strong enough the a relying upon

Spain's aloofness is not an equally " splendid have Spain would ever isolation," and it is a question whether important i^art in European affairs had not the played an in Italy and the Netherlands, of her monarchs possessions
"

narrow

seas."

their marriage

The
two

and their championship alliance with the Hapsburgs, isolation. drawn them out of their of the Church Between is also full of meaning. situation of Erance

and northern she has been part of both Mediterranean Romanized One of the most thoroughly of the worlds. repeatedly in she has been foremost provinces of the Empire,
seas,

the enterprises of the later Europe. the plain stretches from unbroken

Europe one northern North Sea to the Urals. In

Here

is the secret of the fate of Poland.


a

Without

compactly
prey to nean, Mediterraa

and organized government better-organized neighbors.

strong

army
across

she fell the

Looking

and
to be

it is clear that the belt of country between the deserts that it could not support a populathe sea is so narrow tion It was doomed destiny. large enough to control its own
a

land

time

when of Algiers

from the of colonies and the spoil of conquerors founded Carthage to the occupathe Phoenicians tion
"

and

Tunis

by the French

and

Of Egypt

by the

English.

Danube,

peoples frontiers.
"

rivers of Europe, especially the Rhine and the have had important an of part in the migration and in commerce, and have served also as military

The

"

invaders the ordinary route by which the Goths, the Huns, the Magyars, and the Mongols The Magyars, or Hungarians, toward western Europe. marched The

Danube

was

were

finally driven back the defenders

and

plain, becoming

settled in the great Danubian of the West against the Turk.

INTRODUCTION

xxi
to allude here
even

Natural

Boundaries.

"

It is impossible

to

has exercised upon the history the principal influences geography peoples or states or cities. To gain an adequate of European understanding consult such books
by H.
as are

teacher and student should of the subject, Tlie Relations Geography as and History,

of

B. George.'

But

there

is

to require

brief comment.

apparently marked Channel, the Spanish

off by by the Pyrenees,

other topic so important limits of certain nations The by the the English nature,
one
"

the

Italians

by

the

by the Carpathian Alps, and, to some extent, the Hungarians If the history of these and other peoples be conMountains. sidered attentively, many
events
seem

to work

together

to emphasize

the controlling influence of such natural boundaries. The Channel was English kings a good reason why the Norman France. The Pyrenees should not retain territories in western

Rousillon was served partly to explain why ceded to France in 1659. The absence of such clearly marked boundaries also have struggled so explains why the French and the Germans long over the region west of the Rhine, and, as already remarked, why Prussia, Austria, and Russia succeeded in partitioning Poland. Nevertheless, it is unsafe to draw inferences hurriedly from indicate physical features which apparently Ages rulers paid no Throughout the Middle good boundaries. attention
or

to

such

influences;

it was conquest wherever Europe shows in the acquisition of colonial possessions a similar defiance of physical restraints. Moreover Italy, instead of

acquired The possible.

they

fiefs by marriage latest history of

being for

over

united country, remained a thousand The years.


fanshape

"

"

geographical
eastern

ranges

expression of the Alps

spread out time of the Visigoths into Italy.


The

valley, and from the have offered to invaders an easy entrance Swiss geographically belong to two or three
one

into the Danubian

different countries, but remain loyal to The argument from natural republic. during the Revolutionary the French annexing the region west of the Rhine,

another

boundaries

and to their was used by


excuse

Wars

as

an a

for

although

river is not

xxn

INTRODUCTION

and the people real barrier, except in the military sense, both sides are likely to show the same characteristics. fact it is necessary studying this or any other geographical
a

on

In
to

take into account

all the conditions

which

influence the result.

KEFERENCES

"

BOOKS

USEFUL

FOR

TEACHERS

Bourne,

H.

E., TJie Teachinff


of Seven, B., History

of History
in Schools.

and

Civics.

Longmans.

Committee George,
H.

Macmillan. and

The

Belations

of

History

Geography.

Oxford

versity Uni-

Press

Hinsdale,
Mace, New
W.

B. A., H.,

Hoio

to

Teach

and

Study
Ginn.

History.

Appleton.

Method History

in History. Teachers'

England

Association,

History

Syllabus

for
in

Secondary
New England

Schools.
History

Heath. Teachers'

Association,

Historical

Sources

Schools.

Macmillan.

Huns
S itfis strogo

h G AK

lAj

^%^!

RE

?"

BORMAY

"

CO.,N.Y.

MEDIEVAL

AND

MODERN

HISTORY

CHAPTER
THE

I.
THE

ROMAN

EMPIRE

IN

FOURTH

CENTURY

1. The
the
one

Roman
era

World.
has

"

Christian
government.

the

since the fourth century of civilized world been united under


Never
are

Roman
Romans,
save

single countries as large as the to the Empire, and the world includes lands unknown but they alone have been able to boast that all peoples
There
outer

the

barbarians
was

were

joined with

them

in

one

great

state.

pushed
France,

the result of victorious campaigns forward from land to land by the Republic and completed is now It included what England, by the Empire.
a

This

dominion

Spain, the southern portion of the part of Germany, Austro-Hungarian the Balkan states south empire, of the Danube, Greece, Egypt the Turkish empire, Italy and and
northern widely Africa.

Although
"

scattered regions
"

dwelt in these the peoples which Syrians, Greeks, Egyptians, Romans,


as

Celts, Germans
as

were

well-nigh

different from

one

their modern successors, they were three centuries by ties even stronger legions. Rome might of the Roman

bound
than

together

another for two or and the

the courage

robbed them of their independence, but in return she had given them ernment, orderly govfreedom from into a wars, entrance endless petty community of peoples which shared all those ways of living,
laws, and ideas, which together had civilization. At first the conquered
customs,
1
we

had

call Grseco-Romaa been treated as sub-

BOM

AN

EMPIRE

IN

THE

FOUBTH

CENTURY

but jects,

a native of the ceased to mean of Italy ; it became equally applicacity by the Tiber, or even ble Constantinople, or Alexandria. to the dweller in London,

afterward citizenship. The name

they

had

been

raised

to

the

level of

E-oman

There
as

were

many

reasons

why
a

provinces
were

under
causes

this union of neighboring ples peosingle imperial rule should endure,


were

but there

also

which

working

its ruin.

One
Wall

of

the

Defences

of

the

Empire.

Severus (193-211). (117-138); also ascribed to Septimius of Hadrian Firth, T3h miles ; height 12 feet from the mouth Extends to Solway the Tyne of faced with (with parapet, 16), thickness about 8 feet. Material, concrete, On the north a ditch, 10 to 15 feet deep, about 32 feet wide at top. square blocks.
Along
the

line, 18 walled

camps,

watch

towers

and

"mile-castles"

between.

2. Bonds
a

of Union, Routes. traced

"

Sometimes

the boundaries

of

nation
or

are

Such
once

mountain natural barriers also protect the union The Roman this has been accomplished.

by

nel, by bodies of water like the English Chanlike the Alps and the Pyrenees. ranges
of peoples when Empire had no

bulwarks
shores

of this sort; but since its provinces lay about the Sea, it possessed water routes of the Mediterranean

BONDS

OF

UNION

an of securing its unity. almost equally good means wliicliwere To guard these routes the government organized several war Eavemia, Egypt, Syria, the fleets, notably those of Misenum,

But it did not think such Sea, Britain, and the Rhine. Just as modern were governments enough. natural highways have built railways in order to be able to move their armies Black

rapidly to any place on the frontier or to bind distant parts covered the Empire of their territory together, so the Eomans These roads were pushed of great roads. with a network peoples Eome. They along the route the bold and tireless energy of blocks of dressed were stone, laid upon with heavy paved straight
over

hills and

across

marshes,

teaching

the

foundations

two

or

three feet deep, and

so

that long sections of them relays of horses were readiness in order that

stillremain.
stationed,

solidly constructed vals interAt convenient


vehicles
were

and

in
sent

forward

were also rapidly So well managed were and travellers. provided for merchants was the roads that merchandise generally carried by them It was not of the until the middle rather than by sea.

and officers could messages Private wagons to distant places.

be

nineteenth

century, between and

as

comfortable

built, that comwere the railways municatio when became different parts of the world again In France, at least, the new system rapid.
of railways is based largely upon the Lyons, Gaul the principal centre was
across
"

of national roads and For Roman system. which From


the
was

reached roads

from

Lyons

Italy by three routes in all directions, branched

the Alps.
to

northward

to the to the Channel, westward northwestward to Marseilles. lower Loire and the Garonne, and southward direct road from Italy Through the more Aries and Nimes ran

Rhine,

to Spain. at

In Britain four roads centred The

at London

and

three

Chester.

3. XTnion through Language.

"

use

of Latin, the language

more than the system even of roads, showed of the Romans, becoming how all the conquered parts of one vast peoples were took the East of the Adriatic Sea Latin never community.

ROMAN

EMPIRE

IN

THE

FOURTH

CENTURY

place of Greek spread of Greek

as was

the language furthered


ease

life. Indeed, the of common by the peace which the Romans

brought
that the Greek
or

and

by the

eastern

half

of communication under their rule, so became more of the Empire and more

Hellenic
was

in ideas and used


as
an

Greek, Latin
Latin had
no

Side by side with sympathies. In the West, officiallanguage.


the rival. It early became Its struggle with Celtic in

such unconquered language Spain. of Africa and Gaul continued longer, but even

before Latin
was

had

become
eagerly
use

the

language

of

the

common were

educated men it in formal forgotten words


of

who

it people famous soon the

studied

by
of

for their skilful

In speech. that in modern

Celtic origin.
any
so

so end Celtic was completely French there are only twenty-six Although did not the government

organize
were

system
eager

schools, the provincials of public elementary have their children taught that man}'' to

private schools were of higher education who ordered Marseilles was the

Secondary opened. schools and schools directly encouraged by the emperors, were

The them. school at cities to maintain famous for its physicians, and that at Bordeaux for its training in the use of elegant Latin. Youths came even from
a

Athens was the seat of schools. the imperial government stillgreater school, at which, as in Rome, in felt at home Educated men supported professors.
Italy to attend

these

all parts of the

of some fact.
were

A glance at the history world. illustrates this of the literary men of the later Empire Ulpian and Papinian, two of the ablest Roman jurists,

Graeco-Roman

natives of Syria. the fourth century, one

Of the three most prominent poets of Asiatic, another a Spaniard, and an was

best history of the time was written by Ammianus, a native of Antioch, as who, after an active career tine, Augusa soldier, lived in Rome and wrote his work in Latin. the third
a

Gaul.

The

the most influential theblogian of the period, was a north African. Jerome, born on the confines of Italy and Greece, the Vulgate, his immortal translation of the Bible completed

into Latin, in

convent

at Bethlehem.

But

east

of the Adri-

BONDS

OF

UNION

more and Greek ideas were making atic the Greek language mon progress than Latin, and in the West the Latin that the comnot the language of Cicero and Caesar, people learned was but the ordinary language of conversation on the streets, which

had taken with them to the provemigrants inces, later developed into the earliest forms and which of French, Spanish, and Italian. the soldiers and

4. Law.
was

"

Another

the most it were to be based the laws of southern upon and western At first it was Europe. to a privilege to be judged according this law, but when granted to all the provincitizenship was cials, longer any reason to administer two kinds no there was
of law,
one

law. This of union was the Roman lasting benefit conferred by the Empire, because

bond

for Romans

made being improved by the


cases

been

and Romans.

one

for natives, since all had officially Meanwhile the law itself was duty

judgeswhose

it

was

to decide

the

brought

before

them.

Punishments

became

less

severe,

the
more name

lot of the slave was bettered, women and children gained the of law was rights; in short, this system winning " so often applied to it since, of written reason."

5. Manner
them, ways

of Life.

"

The

Romans,

like the

Greeks

before
some were

carried everywhere these cities have


with

the art of living in cities. In They not yet been surpassed.

adorned

splendid
water,

of pure distant hills.

public brought

baths, furnished
in stone

One

of these

stillspans the river Gard. stillstretch supplied Rome temples, afterward

aqueducts, The broken


across

dance abunaqueducts often from built to supply Nimes, which of the

with

an

arches of some Many the Campagna.

into Christian churches, remain, in ruin, the wonder even builders. and inspiration of modern The theatres also were public buildings, but unfortunately the in their teaching. not always wholesome plays were
converted
Rome tolerant toward was and the Churclii the religions of the peoples which With the she conquered. it became to look upon establishment of the Empire customary
*
"

6. The Empire

the emperor

as

god, the embodiment

of the

genius

of Rome

BOM

AN

EMPIBE

IN

THE

FOURTH

CENTURY

which had brought The to the world.


and organized
were as

other advantages peace, security, and many Christians refused to joinin this worship

tions secretly into churches, although all secret associaThey were therefore looked upon contrary to law. Since subjects.
they attended and Kome them
to
no

disobedient

which the ancient gods of Greece believed their neighbors sometimes

were

festivals at honored,
and

be unsocial

Ruins

of

the

Claudia.
Emperor
more was

An
These

aqueduct

arches plain to the hills.

by the completed extended originally


The
structure

Claudius
seven a

in 52
across

a.d.

than nearly

miles hundred

the

feet high..

even

haters of the human the


more

race.

But the spread

first among higher and

poor and obscure, and influential classes, could of popular hatred


nor

of Christianity, the among afterward be checked neither by the spasmodic

by

the

outburst

attempts

condeath those to punish victed with of the emperors by the This policy was changed of being Christians. in 311, and Christianity was imperial government reluctantly

the recognized as a legal religion. A year or two afterward Constantine carried out more Emperor effectively the policy of

VICTORY

OF

CHRISTIANITY

toleration.
was

Later

in the

century

forbidden. longest

The
among

old religions the countrymen,

all other religious worship died hard, defending themselves


or

pagani.

For end

this

reason

they

came

to be called "pagan."

By

the

of the

fourth century the Christian Church was bishops of cities, metropolitan bishops and patriarchs of five great honored most patriarchate held, had St. Peter thinkers
were

highly organized, with

of provincial capitals, The the East. cities, chiefly m

been
had
came

founded

that of Rome, which, it was by St. Peter and St. Paul, and of which
was

been

the

first bishop.

As
as

soon

as

the

Greek

to look upon to

Christianity

true

religion, they

eager

to questions, set themselves how men Christians, and how they explain just might become in the world. A great might be free from the evil that was held at Niceea, in 325, under the presidency council was of

about God less anxious

define exactly what and about Jesus Christ.


to argue

believe each one should The teachers of the West,

about

such

Constantine, God.
This

to settle the question

of the relation of Christ to

council drew up a creed, which, after some changes, Nicene became Christians who the creed. refused to accept the doctrine about Christ set forth in this creed namely, that
"

Christ is in being the


Arians, because

same a

and

Arius,

coequal with God priest of Alexandria,

"

were

called
a

the council condemned. which did for this doctrine, Augustine

view What the council of Nicaea did for the doctrines of Christian

held

character and conduct, so that by the middle of the fifth century the beliefs commonly called Christianity had all been in books carefully explained and in the acts of councils. Although the victory of Christianity seemed to give to the Empire another bond of union, in reality it did not strengthen the feeling of loyalty or gratitude toward the It taught men to regard their fate in an'other important It than their condition on earth. against the barbarians, who might imperial world
as

rule.
more

prejudice
Christians.
which

the weakened also be fellowand

It founded

government

of bishops

councils

eventually

rivalled the government

of the emperors.

ROMAN

EMPIRE

IN

THE

FOURTH

CENTURY

emperors of the fourth Augustus, had were tried century who very different from though simply to play the part of the first citizen of Rome, he had held those magistracies to which would enable him
"

7. The Imperial Government.

The

His successors control the government. in the full sense and had of the word with the ceremony had senate, which
and the splendor the

had

become

monarch

themselves surrounded despots. The of eastern

actual ruler of the Eepublic, and had shared their power, was the early emperors with which hardly more than a body of nobles enjoyinghigh privileges Distinguished taxes. burdensome the most and freed from

been

in the provinces were raised to senatorial rank as a favor The difference in rights between or as a ancient reward. Roman difference due to and provincial gave place to a new
men

office or rank granted by the emperor. like those which by titles much go The office in some modern countries.

Such

rank

was

with nobility titles count and

marked high or
duke

began
four

to be used.

The into the

prefectures

chief officialswere the Roman which vicars


of of
one

the prefects of the divided. world was

Under under

them

were

the

thirteen

dioceses, and

these the governors For the ordinary


not these public
men

hundred

were

clerks, who held their positions for life, and who, from their knowledge of in which business had been done, were the way government likely to control their nominal more chiefs than to be controlled

citizen the most but the subordinates

and eighteen provinces. irajDortant officials


or

by them,

especially

as

even

so

great

an

held his position only a short time. to be managed by a bureaucracy, that is, by officers or came to which employees of the bureaus or commissions all public business
was

officer as a prefect Thus the Empire

intrusted.
"

It has been said that the world has of Empire. been so happy in the second century never as and prosperous At that time the Empire of the Empire. meant peace and for justice all, and its cost to the ordinary After the turmoil of the next citizen
was

8. Burden

not

densome. bur-

century

had

ruined

BURDEN

OF

EMPIRE

provinces, and after the reorganization of the imperial by Diocletian and his successors had increased the monarchy many
expenses, of money

the

situation steadily grew demanded of the taxpayers raised

worse. were

The
not

total
greater

sums

than

those voluntarily

by

some

modern

peoples, but the bur-

Copyright

by Underwood

and

Underwood,

N.Y.

1'he

Pantheon,

Rome.

Built by Hadrian,
or was

greater dedicated

than

called S. Maria

The diameter 120-124. is a little over 142 feet, of the dome In the year 609 this Roman that of any other dome. temple Martyres. It was S. Maria as the church of ad afterward Rotonda. Now used as a burial place of the kings of Italy.

heavier by the wasteful made of collecting method by the frequent efforts of officialsto enrich themthe money, selves at the expense of the taxpayers, and by special favors
was

den

granted to rich and influential and in this way putting


neighbors.

men

from payexcusing them ment, the burden their poorer upon


of
a

Occasionally

the

owner

great

estate

with

10

liOMAN

EMPIRE

IN

THE

FOURTH

CENTURY

defied the tax-gatherer to enter his small army of servants Besides the taxes paid in money domains. there were others imperial officials with proor the army visions, paid by furnishing cations. with transportation, and with labor on roads or fortifi" " had grown in kind Such taxes out of the scarcity of money and the depreciation of the coins in circulation. This falling back upon a system of barter shows that society was
"

as the political economists call a "natural economy" what from It also showed distinguished that a economy. money fast becoming was the community unable to bear the expenses of the Empire.

9. Crushing

Load

of the Middle

Class.

"

One

the of this system of taxation was to-do middle class. Each city, like all ancient cities,included large amount a of territory, often larger than the average

quences of the conseruin of the well-

American
acres

Landowners county. belonged to the local senate the heavy task

who
or

held
curia.

at

least
them

sixteen
was

To

assigned

of collecting

the

taxes.

The

sum

for

fixed by the government be collected and must city was by the curials from the citizens or paid out of their own As the task became difficulttheir only means resources. more
each

rank of imperial senators, free them from They which could not would such duties. The burden their residence nor change sell their property. from father to son. descended Some sought to escape it by of escape
was

to be elevated

to the

taking

refuge

among

the barbarians.
"

10. The City's Defender.


on

Oppression

in spite of the

attempts

of the taxpayers went to check it. After of emperors

364 each city was a provided with a defensor, sort of attorney business it was to guard the interests of the city and whose to protect the lower classes against the exactions of sometimes Occasionally, also, the defensoracted the part of the curia.
government agent

in holding

the

curials

to their

disastrous the

task.

Later

the

defensorwas

often and

replaced
power

by by

bishop,
his

influence who naturally gained flock against oppression.

guarding

ENSLAVEMENT

OF

WORK

11

11. The
not

Enslavement

only ones became the Empire

the

local senators The were of Work. liberty disappeared as the needs of whose
"

greater.

The

which of artisans and tradesmen to insure the for social purposes or


were

associations or corporations had originally been formed

members

decent the
tax

burial which

used

as

means

of

more

readily exacting

fell upon

the performance of this class or of compelling For of work necessary for the welfare of the community. the pig and cattle merchants and the bakers who example,

persons

food for provided and Constantinople impossible

the
were

to withdraw.

at Eome public distributions made treated as castes from which it was So, also, were the boatmen and the

conductors. of transports.

The
even

armories, and guard against his task could


place.

mines their

were

workmen branded

in the imperial mints, with a red-hot iron to


to

escape.

the unwieldy

chaining each man fabric of the Empire be kept

Only

by

in

12. The
cases,

Enslavement
to

ceased

be

an

of Land. independent
"

The
owner

farmer,

he gave up Sometimes partly enslaved. in order to be protected against the tax-gatherers. neighbor invasion and local disorder exposed him He did this, too, when
the only way to extricate himself from the burden of debt which the hardness of the times laid upon discovered him. Unfortunately, also, owners of great domains
to ruin.

also, in most of land and was his title to his rich

Often it

was

that

they

could

to account

they

were

being called seize these little farms without by the distant prefect to whose jurisdiction alone in criminal matters. All such abandonments

subject
were

by a species of fictitious sale, accomplished in order to avoid openly breaking the laws which forbade such in this way ceased to be The free farmers who transactions. to cultivate them. Their owners of their farms continued
of title

position

similar to that of other freemen, called coloni, or the landlord had granted a farm. The govsettlers, to whom ernment, in order to make that each piece of land paid sure
was

its due

share of the

taxes, took

account

of

such

tenants

and

12

liOMAN

EMPIRE

IN

THE

FOURTH

CENTURY

compelled

marrying that mean


There
were

to remain their children after them manently perThey land. also lost the privilege of upon freely outside the estate, for such a marriage would

them

and the

some

other

landlord

had

lost

one

other coloni, the freedmen, who free coloni only in that they could not bequeath property, and a the slaves who had been settled upon portion of the estate better than did the ordinary in order that they might work men freeThese dragging were changes slave under the overseer. down The

of his tenants. differed from the

toward
two met

slavery
on

and pulling the level which The


was

freedom. slaves up toward in the Middle Ages is

called serfdom. 13. Those who Profited. prosper while the Empire noble. Wealth
more

"

only
growing

man

who

continued

to

meant and more was cultivated either by slaves or by coloni. A large estate was an with its villages of coloni, community, almost independent its great courtyard by houses for slaves, a prison, surrounded

the lich weaker was landed property. Ihis

barns, storehouses, shops, a mill, a winepress, distance the mansion at some of the lord, with

and a forge, and house provided

dining halls, and libraries, promenades, spacious rooms, by extensive gardens, often overlooking a charming surrounded It was the invasions began or bands country-side. only when of marauders transformed

their peace that these mansions into fortified strongholds. The owners were threatened

were

not

They disdained service in warriors like the ancient Romans. fond of literature and the arts, and their They were the army. civilization an gave to later Roman efforts to cultivate them appearance from view of refinement

and

sinking had lost that taste for war slavery and the nobles and the ancient conquest eagles over which carried the Roman the regular army. was world, the sole safeguard of the Empire This consisted of about four hundred some thousand men, of
"

the signs of weakness Since 14. Defence of Empire.

intellectual energy and decay. the


freemen
were

which

hid

toward

them

settled in communities

along

the frontier and intrusted

DEFENCE

OF

EMPIRE

13

with

These its ordinary defence. German from some drawn and

quently fresettlers were tribe that had entered the


soldier its reward

service of the Empire The more of land.


garrison

had found

in such

grant

in towns

kept in was active portion of the army detachments from which could be moved

The

Wall

of

Rome.

Built by the Emperor Aurelian (270-275),ebuilt by Honorius (395r Constructed brick-faced ; thickness, 12 or 13 feet ; concrete 423). of
height, from 29 to 58 feet, according
to the

slope

of the

ground.

portant All imthe frontier. points on by towns, even those in the interior, were surrounded walls, for after the invasions of the third century the frontier longer secure. was no
rapidly toward threatened 15.

Beyond

the Frontier.

"

The

greatest

danger

lay

on

the

northern

frontier from

the mouth

of the Ehine

to the mouth

14

ItOMAN

EMPIRE

IN

THE

FOURTH

CENTURY

There had been campaigns, some of the Danube. of them disastrous, against the Persians in the upper valleys of the Tigris and the Euphrates, but it was only the Germans who actual invaders. The principal tribes the Franks on the lower toward the end of the century were Rhine, and north of them the Saxons, the Burgundians on the Main, the Alamamii between the upper Rhine and the upper
were

likely to become

Danube,
Visigoths the

the Vandals
north

between the Danube

of the lower Danube, Several of these names Ostrogoths.

and the Theiss, the and stillfurther east reappear in the Franconia, Saxony,
name

modern Essex,

geographical Burgundy, and

names,

"

France,

in Allemagne, the French The

for

Germany. 16. German

Immigrants.

"

Empire. within the Roman historian, had great Roman

not strangers before, Tacitus, a centuries vices sought to chastise Roman

Germans

were

Two

by holding up the picture of German virtues. Caesar,also, a hundred and fiftyyears stillearlier, had written about the Germans. From had entered the army, time to time Germans

Some either singly or as tribes of confederates or foederati. Stilicho,the greatest general of them had risen to high rank.
in the fifth century,
was
a

Vandal.

German

fashions

were

As the population of the much admired by the Romans. Empire decreased, thousands had been given of Germans vacant lands within its limits. In Gaul many became coloni on the large estates. In the eastern provinces the masons, porters, and water-carriers were 17. Germans at Home. The
"

mostly

Goths.

"^^^ pies to the Empire


Roman

were

so

peorelations of the German that in all the borderland close

The words ways of living began to be customary. mans, which described these things also were adopted by the Gerand have remained in their language to this day. They

had

and to already learned to dwell in settled communities cultivate the soil. It is probable that the freeman owned simply his house and the land immediately about it,and that

the land which

he planted

was

assigned to him

each year,

or

THE

GERMANS

15

at the end

of

chief
early Roman
To

wealth youth they

As with all early peoples, the period of years. loved war, in cattle. The men was and from its hardships. To the trained to endure were
a

seemed

tall, fair, and

of

fierce countenance.

joined some rude unhappily virtues they Men staked even and gambling. vices, especially drunkenness it took a family freedom, once their own reduced although
their simple
to

slavery three To the Romans Although


freemen, there

generations
each

to

rise

again
a

to

full freedom.
or

tribe

seemed

civitas,

were

kings, most

and either by shouts of disapproval to them proposed what was rejected They together in token of acceptance. or clashed their arms who
met

from

of the power time to time in an assembly

city-state. belonged to the

could
not

even

depose

their king.
some

Their

leader

in

war

was

often of
or son.

the king himself, but


in battle.

bold warrior
men

chosen

because

his prowess dukes. Occasionally


Besides although power

These

the Romans from


were

called duces father


to

the

kings

the office descended there and the dukes

they of
the

decreased kings
was

in

numbers
strengthened

and

other influence
wars

nobles,
as

the

by

and

by

expeditions. 18. German did not have crude customs though a man
a

Ideas
the
same

of Justice and

of God.

"

The

Germans

Their ideas of justice the Romans. as personal liberty that set so high a value upon like had killed his neighbor he was not punished The
or

modern upon

criminal.

family

the aggressor
"

man

in the tribe

ivergeld fixed by the ivergeld or damages


or was

any or slave noble, freeman, If the aggressor were law.


"

take vengeance coiild, however, Each his family. sort of of had his price
to pay

ready and

to the

family, injured
wrong way.
was

the family

willing
were
were

to

accept

this, the
same

righted.
parties

Other
in
a

wrongs

settled in the

If the

quarrel

presided over learned through

willing to bring the affair before the assembly by a chosen chief or by the king, the truth was
a

solemn

parties

or

by

various

oath supported by the friends of the to one According of these ordeals.

16

ROMAN

EMPIRE

IN

THE

FOURTH

CENTURY

ordeals
water,

the accused and if after


he
was
were was

man

^as

to thrust his hand


arm

into boiling

healing and

certain cirae the By considered iiii cent.


a

accuser

to

tight I eiure
as

the

showed signs of another, both accused judges, and the victor's


peoples, the
sunlight

statement

accepted worshipped and

true."^Like

the Germans

the the

all European great forces of nature,

and The week


names

the storm,

of several gods Tuesday, Wednesday, days,


"

beauty mysterious have been preserved


Tliursday,

of the
to

earth.
our

and
"

mark Friday.

19. The

Christian
had

Conquest
been

after Christianity

Not long of the Germans. legalized in the Empire it Avas

by the Visigoths among north of the Danube also taught Bishop Ulphilas, a child, it is said, of Christians taken captive his followers were in an earlier Gothic raid. When persecuted by their heathen
cross

fellow-tribesmen,

they

river and settle within the Arianism been ordained a bishop in 341 when his Gothic at Constantinople, so that he taught the doctrine

gained Empire.

to permission Ulphilas had


was

favored
this

converts

The result was that of the relation of Christ to God. detested the Goths not only as invaders and the later Romans of the true Church. plunderers, but as heretics and enemies As

Christianity passed Arianism became the

from

the Goths

to other

German

tribes,

Germans
reaching

general form of belief held by all the The work the Franks. so farsave of Ulphilas was a chiefly because he had given the Gothic language

written form, and had translated into it the Bible, except the he feared would books of Kings, the warstrengthen which like A manuscript this Bible still exists and is the of spirit. language. earliest example of a Germanic
In the latter of the Visigothic Federates. dom part of the fourth century the loosely organized Gothic kingby the Huns, a was attacked people of shepherds and from northern Asia across the which had wandered marauders

20.

Revolt

"

The Ostrogoths into the valley of the Volga. Visigoths in 376 were thousand conquered, but two hundred They behind the Danube. sought refuge within the Empire

Ural

Mountains

REVOLT

OF

VISIGOTHS

17

were

granted

lands
they
were

on

condition
so

they

soon

rose

region.
was
overrun

At

ofi"cialsthat in revolt and*^'"t5gan to lay waste the whole battle in 378, n^air-Adrianople, the Roman army
a

of serving as ted by the Roman ill-tr^

fortunat foederati.Un-

the

Valens, charge of Gothic horsemen. The Theodosius, new sucemperor, perished. emperor, ceeded in pacifying the Goths and in settling them again as
sudden in Asia Minor
sons,

by

foederati partly

he died, in 395, his two

and partly in Europe. Arcadius and Honorius,

When

one at Constantinople, the other at Rome. Empire was never really united under

reigned, After this date the


so

a a

single emperor,
new era

that it is often taken the Middle Ages.

as

the beginning

of

or

even

of

SUMMARY
I. The

Roman

Empire.
to

"

1. Size:

(a)
helps

(6)
race, same

in relation

the

modern and

in relation to civilized world ; its frontiers would states which


to

enclose.

2. Hindrances

union:
overcome

of language,

and

of religion, partly
a

(a) differences (") by grant


law, increasing
as

of of
use

rights, growth of Latin as the language of of administration


and

general

system

of

of literature and by
a

of education, similar
manner

well

as

and
system
as a

of the courts, of roads


or
"

by

good

and II. The

its triumph Roman

help

and waterways hindrance.

of living, Christianity ; (c)

Government.

1.

Change

in its character.
expenses

2. Its
taxes.

subdivisions.

3. Its officials. 4. New who

and
pay.

heavy

5. The

men

paid and

the

men

who

did not

6. An

cial offi-

protector

for the weak.


"

III.

The

People.

1.

2. Farmers

farmers

of their
IV. The

(a) as ; (c) the freedmen privileges ; (6) their


:
"

and disappearance

Artisans

tradesmen

lose
;

their

liberties.

of free farmers

farmers.
manner

3. The of life ;
2.

(6) the colonist nobles : (a) origin (c) their dislike of


tribesmen
as

military service. Army. 1. Lack

of free recruits.
4. Military

German

soldiers.
town

3. Size of army.

frontier settlements tribes


manner

and

V.

The
2.

garrisons. Outer Barbarians.

"

The

German

1.

Location.

Immigration.

3. Their

government,

of

life, and

religion.

18

ROMAN

EMPIRE

IN

THE

FOURTH

CENTURY

Special
1. Weakness
the

Points

of View Empire

"

of the

(a)

from

its many money


of

increasing
of

difficulty of wliere from


the

raising
the the

frontiers ; (6) from ; (c) because of the


society
were

decay
than

patriotism

burdens

greater

its benefits ;

(d)

lack of freemen had

ready

to enlist in

the

army from

(e) because
danger
revolt.

nobles

lost the in the

fighting spirit ;
service
of

(/)
2.

the

that

German

tribes

the

Empire Beginnings

should

of Mediasval

Society
by workmen

(a)

grovyth and by
or

of

new

nobility ;

(6)
were

loss of freedom in which

in town
were

country

(c)
men,

land and

system

vast

estates

held partly

individual wholly
to defy

cultivated
;

by

men

who

had

lost their freedom

(d)

growing

custom

of great

nobles

public officials

and

exempt

their lands from

taxation.

FURTHER

STUDY
pp.

(See also
General Reading
Holy Roman
:

Bibliography,

477.)
the Middle and

Adams,
Empire

Civilization during

(ed.1904 ) ;
and Monod,

Munro

Ages ; Bryce, Sellery, Mediaeval


Emerton,

Civilization;
Introduction

B^mont

3Iediceval The

Europe;
Middle

to the Middle

Ages

; Duruy,

Ages

ningham, ; Cun-

Western

Civilization, Vol. II. ; Lavisse,


countries,
"

Political History

of Europe;
Adams, Spain,
Newman,

histories of separate

England, Terry;

by

Bright, by

5 vols., Gardiner,

Green,

Andrews,

Cheyney,

France,

Duruy, by

Kitchin,

Burke,

2 vols. ; by Henderson, 3 vols. ; Germany, history by Fisher, 2 vols. ; manuals of Church

2 vols., Alzog,

3 vols. ; selections from


:

the

sources,

ments, docu-

writings,

letters, etc.

Henderson, Readings Ages

Historical in

Documents

of

the Middle

Ages;

Robinson, during

European

History;
lations Trans-

Jones,

Civilization
and

the Middle

Reprints

History Kendall, Paragraphs


:
"

; source Adams-Stephens.

; Thatcher-McNeal, books of English

; Pennsylvania Book Source


history by

for

diaeval MeLee,

Colby,

1.

The

heritage Adanjs,

of

civilization

left by

the

Greeks

and

Romans,

Civilization, Munro and

Ch.

2.

3.
4.

Language, Roman

Sellery, 3-17.
For later influence 132 of this law,
see

Law,

see

Morey.

graphs para-

32

(Justinian's code),

at (revival Bologna

and

elsewhere).

BOMAN
Paragraphs
5.

EMPIRE

IN

THE

FOURTH

CENTURY

19

"

Architecture, Roman

see

Sturgis, Ch. 2,
toTward

or

Lanciani.
:

6.

Policy

Christianity
letters, and
and Nos.

selections
Roman

from and No.

imperial Christian 1 ; Jones, 3 ; Bury,

decrees,

contemporary in Translations Robinson,

from

writers, No. Vol.

Beprints,
6 and
;

Vol,
see

IV.,

1 ; and

7 ;
or,

Adams,

Ch.

I., 1-24 ; Newman,


Roman

147-172

at length,

Ramsay.

7-13.

The

Government,

the

burdens
; Hodgkin,

it imposed, Theodosius,

the

consequences,

Cunningham,
Munro

170-195
; Bury,

33-54

particularly and 234 ; list of officials, Tr. and Bp. , Vol. VI., No. 4 ; life among barbarians Nos. 8, 9. more tolerable, Robinson,

Sellery, 18-43

25-49,

Dill, 189-

15-18.

Ch. 1 ; Civilisation, Ch. 5 ; Henderson, see also Bury and Dill ; selection from the Germania of Tacitus, in Tr. and Bp., Vol. VI., No. 3 ; Thatcher-McNeal, Nos. 1, 4 ;
The Germans
:

Adams,

Jones,

No.

2 ; Kendall,

No.

2 ; Colby,

9-13.

Additional

Reading

Hodgkin,

Dynasty

of

Theodosius

and

her Invaders,

8 vols. ; Villari, The

Barbarian Law

Invasions
Later

Italy and Italy,

of

vols. ; Morey,

Outlines

of

Boman

Empire,

2 vols. ; Dill, Boman

; Bury, Society in the Last


and
Fall

Boman

Century
Boman

of

the

Western
Bury and

Empire

; Gibbon,

Decline

of the

Empire, Pagan

ed., 7 vols. ; Gummere,

Germanic
The

Origins;

Lanciani,

Christian Borne;

Ramsay,

Church

in the Boman

Empire;

Schaff, History

of

the Christian

Church,

6 vols. ; Sturgis, European

Architecture.

CHAPTER
THE
GERMAN

II.
INVASIONS

21

The

Fall of Rome.

"

Within

two

centuries

of the death

was the ruin of the Empire almost complete. of Theodosius ders Instead of a single will controlling the peoples from the bordoms kingmany of Scotland to the valley of the Euphrates,

had
Frankish, thrones

into existence, mainly in the West sprung Gothic, and Vandal Burgundian, and
"

"

Saxon,
on

the

were

men

with

strange

names

"

Ethelbert, Middle

Penda, had

Chlodwig,

Euric, Gondebald, This


seems

Genseric.

The

Ages

begun.
sixth
not

centuries

did

clear to us, but the men not look at things as we chiefly of what
saw

of the fifth and do. They were taking place in

accustomed Europe, western with


as

to think

was

and
at

they

that

the

Empire the

its capital
as

Constantinople,

and

with

still existed ancient East

well

north
some

Africa under its administration. It even recovered of its lost territories in Italy and in Spain.
kings

Moreover,

accepted from the emperor titles which high officials of his that they were meant A few of them government. actually so regarded themselves, gence and such the people thought them to be. Even men of intelliunion of the world under a Eoman These were emperor. not the first centuries that had invasions from which seen the Empire Eude recovered. diers solcontinued
had
many
"

several of the German

to believe

in the

times

led

their

troops

"

and

among

them

German

foederati into

of power, and had even invasions which

the heart of rich provinces the impei'ial throne. mounted


now

in search The successive

ruined the Empire


or

came

either at

such long

intervals of time

troubled
20

such

widely

separated

VISIGOTHIC

RAIDS

21
put them fall of the

provinces
together Empire.

that not until long belonging to one as

afterward
great

could
"

men

event

the

22. Alaric's First Attacks.

"

The

Visigoths

were

foederati

in the service of Rome, but they had gained a taste for plunder Their and had not forgotten their victory at Adrianople. chief, Alaric, soon after the death of Theodosius, possibly

because

the government in the refused him a high command army, led them on a plundering expedition through Macedonia The imperial of"cers were into Greece. too jealousof one

Stilicho at one another to unite against the common enemy. Alaric in his power, but allowed him time had to escape. To free Greece from such a scourge Arcadius appointed Alaric he Illyricum, whence general of the imperial forces in western likely to march into Italy than to threaten his After the Gothic chieftain had Constantinople. armed followers in the imperial arsenals he did attempt the invasion
would
more

be

of Italy, only to be beaten back in 402 by Stilicho. A new danger now Italy in the onset of a vast horde threatened of Germans wave Eadagaisus, a of invasion and slaves under thrown forward beyond
new

goths by the movements and the Ostroof the Huns the northern frontier. Stilicho was equal to this
the invaders
were

task, and

either slain

or

captured

and

sold as slaves. Unfortunately 23. Provinces ravaged ; Rome sacked, 410. Stilicho was spiring party at court of consuspected by the Roman he was Already the to create a throne for his son.
"

the adopted daughter His wife was virtual ruler of the West. was the wife of Honorius. of Theodosius, and his daughter German the Partly prompted by jealousy of this powerful Conlegions of Britain proclaimed name, an whose emperor

stantine, reminded

men

raised to the throne before. The usurper kept busy in Gaul by and Suevi, who

of the good fortune of another by these legions just a hundred


could
a

soldier

not

march

years into Italy, for he was

crossed

multitude the Rhine

of Germans,

chiefly Vandals Another at the end of 406.

22

THE

GERMAN

INVASIONS

and Stilicho's Eoman fears of Honorius, persuaded jealous


year

passed

enemies, working him to slaughter

on

the

Stilicho,

his family, and many party of the Koman of Stilicho, saw pay

The victory other influential Germans. brief. Alaric, who had been in the was his opportunity. He that this was

As its walls were too strong at once upon Eome. marched it by famine and put it to to be taken by assault, he reduced two Eoman He demanded ransom. manent provinces as a pernext home
He
was

for his people. behind himself secure

he had

made
After

would not consent. the marshes of Eavenna, which Alaric' s first invasion of Italy. his capital since emperor

The

Alaric
Eome.

tried the

expedient

this scheme

of had

setting up a rival emperor failed, in 410, he forced an

at
entrance

to his barbarous followers into the city and gave it over to pillage. Only the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul were

of palaces offered rich spoil to the while hundreds Not since the year 390 before Christ had the plunderers. Men could not of the barbarians. city been in the hands
respected,

understand the
to

so

portentous

an

event.

Those

the old

ancient gods impiety which had


religion. describing
a

declared

that the

still worwho shipped due disaster was

the

Christianity to displace permitted Augustine in reply wrote his famous City


a new

of

God,

true

home,

spiritual city, the Christian's like the earthly Eome city not to be overthrown and
men.

by the weaknesses and the crimes of 24. Germans in Gaul and Spain.
prey to bands and The ransomed evidences
of wandering

"

Meanwhile

Gaul

was

Germans
length

through

the

who plundered, burned, and breadth of the land.

have been discovered in the of their work scanty ruins of Eoman cities and country houses, their stones blackened by fire, or in some secret store of gold or silver that
was

hurriedly

buried

at the

approach

across usurper invited the marauders After they had gone, the Visigoths

A new of the enemy. into Spain the Pyrenees

under

Alaric's brother-in-law.
him
concluded

He

succeeded

that it was

Italy up from marched and the chiefs or kings who best for their peoples to

GERMANS

IN

GAUL

AND

SPAIN

23
their

enter the service of the


career as

Empire

rather than

to continue

As that led them the chief reason plunderers. the lack of land, the only way for the was within the Empire For to grant them land. to purchase Empire their service was

this they Spain.

and the Suevi agreed to drive the Vandals Spanish These peoples had not captured many

out

of

cities,

Carcassonxe.

City

on

the

Aude

in
on

Visigoths, rebuilt and

probably enlarged

France. Fortified southern foundations Roman of walls. Middle Ages.

by

the
121.

Walls

in the

See, also, page

but

All the Vandals those country. except open were north of the Douro conquered, and the Visigoths received the provinces in the Garonne valley as their reward. Although they had originally come to this region as plunderers, they now
the

held

began

left the Eoman property was what Since it was land that they must have, it was that when they could not be provided out of vacant
to respect

ants. inhabitdecided
or

public

24

THE

GERMAN

INVASIONS

should be required to give up twoIn the case tribes thirds of their estates. of other German demanded. This land settlement occasionally only one-third was

lands the larger landowners

distress had it brought much not have of itself would destruction of property, the by wanton been preceded not A little burning of cities, and the massacre of the natives.
later the

in the as also were recognized valley on similar settled in the Ehone service of the Empire, taking place greater numbers While these events were terms. Burgundians,
who

had of Germans region that was fixed themselves


in time French the

to the west moved Alsace to become


so

bank
and

of the Ehiue into the Lorraine. Here they

firmly that
separation

their western

border
two

became

line of

between

the

languages,

The southward movement of the Franks and German. along the lower Ehine, driving the ancient inhabitants of the the river Lys and the neighboring Belgian provinces beyond forests, marked by abandoned After

the origin of the Flemings. legions and Avas the Roman


was over

Britain had been left to defend


seemed

self. itstill

the first storm

the Empire

united, although its borders.

German

kingdoms

had been established within

Since the day when the Visigoths had been extending the Huns took refuge within the Empire Their to the great bend of the Danube. their power westward

25. Attila and

Aetius.

"

To guard the provinces on the Theiss. somewhere capital was forced to was from their raids the emperor at Constantinople soldiers were pay a heavy tribute. Occasionally, also, Hunnic Aetius, the Stilicho of hired to fight in the Roman armies.

this period, had been a hostage through their intercession been


and of Ravenna, Although Aetius
were
on even

with

the

restored
to the

and had once to favor at the court


Huns, of the troops. of the Huns,
a
war

advanced and Attila, the friendly terms, Attila was

command terrible king

drawn

into

Empire

in which Aetius became in this way : the Vandals had

his antagonist. again

with the It happened

occupied

part of Spain and, taking advantage

of quarrels

southern in the African

the

ATTILA

AND

THE

HUNS

25

officialsin Africa, had crossed the and between Eoman straits of Gibraltar in 429 and seized the disturbed provinces. At firstthey entered into a bargain with the Eoman government Church,
at Constantinople

and

the

bound similar to that which to the court of Eavenna. Burgundians


to pay

the Visigoths They


even

promised became
please

an

tribute of grain and oil. kingdom. independent Vandal


a

Afterward It
was

Africa
partly
to

king, who feared Aetius, partly to claim a as husband princess, partl}^ for of a Eoman share of the Empire into Gaul in 451 at plunder and conquest, that Attila marched Ostrogoths, and other tribesmen. the head of a host of Huns, the Vandal
Never
western

before

power In the presence of this danger Europe. the Visigoths, the Burgundians, and even stretched
common

had

Asiatics

their

so

far into

Aetius
the

suaded perFranks

to make

cause

followers, Eoman
were near

saved Orleans, which besieging, and a little later fought a battle with them This is commonly Troyes, at Maurica. called the battle
and where it
was
so

with German,

the

Eomans.

Aetius

and his the Huns

of

Chalons,
The

formerly

believed

to

have

taken

place.

through

struggle was the fields was

fierce that the rivulet which flowed In swollen into a torrent of blood. German give and
Hun
were

after days it was said that their graves and rise from Although was neither party

wont

to

victory belonged capital. The next plains of the Po. known. Probably
disease and

ghostly battle in the air. really defeated, the fruits of to Aetius, for Attila decided to retreat to his
year Why he invaded Italy and

he army

did
was

not

advance

the plundered is not to Eome

his
by

harassed
an

by famine weakened and At all events, the troops of Aetius.

led by the Eoman bishop, Leo, he embassy A year later he died, and his kingdom soon again retreated. fell to pieces. The folly which had destroyed same jealous Stilicho now As the Aetius. to murder caused the emperor after receiving

first sack
so

of Eome

another made

was

of Stilicho's murder, and worse pillage of the city by the Vandals in 455 Leo again interpossible by the death of Aetius.
was

the consequence

26

TUE

GERMAN

INVASIONS

the vened, and, although he could not save from plunder, he protected the people from

riches of the city


massacre.
"

Emperors, The murder of the West Eoman by the murder of the emperor of Aetius had also been avenged III. At this time, as at the death of Honorius, Valentinian

26.

The

Last

twenty

years before, the whole


a

Empire

might

again

have

been which

brought

provided ended. in the stormy days which followed there Indeed, several times but the phantom save no was at Constantinople, emperor of a in Italy lingered for another imperial government separate
The years. its leaders, successors twenty generals,
a

under had Theodosius

single

the ruler, and for in 395 might

separation have been

German,

belonged to the army and to real power to Stilicho and Aetius. One of these during almost emperors made and unmade

his After his death another general named period. Eomulus, son, emperor, and to him was given the title young Augustulus, He did not reign long, for the little Augustus. Odovacar, a foreign officer,deposed him in 476, and caused the

the whole

for the to Constantinople asking embassy " '' be granted reunion of the Empire, and that the title patrician to Odovacar. followers, like the Visigoths and Odovacar's
senate to

send

an

Burgundians,
settle. another In
one

wanted
sense

portion of the became Italy now


a

land
a

upon which kingdom, German

to

in

at under the rule of the emperor Constantinople. lived on The Romans under their old laws, while their German ruled according to German neighbors were This event has often been called the " Fall of the customs.
sense

it was

brought

and it has been taken as the proper startingAges. Such a description of it was the point of the Middle invention had did not truly understand what of men who
Empire,"

Roman

happened. which

The

Roman

Empire
were

was

falling, but
over

the

events

brought

about its ruin

scattered

the fifth and

sixth centuries.

The death of Aetius and of Gaul and Britain. in Italy took away the confusion what little chance there was in Gaul and keeping up the apof restraining the Germans

27. Fate

"

FATE

OF

GAUL

AND

BRITAIN

27

The Burgundians enlarged pearance of real imperial government. in the Ehone Visigoths their territory valley, and the invaded foederati.They even ceased to consider themselves

Spain
time

conquered from extending

and

it for themselves,
the Loire
to

their kingdom
straits of

for

the

Gibraltar.

Already

left its Constantine Britain, which since the usurper by a Roman army, was ing suffershores had not been protected bands. Many from incursions of Saxon of and Anglian

the Britons, in despair, crossed to Gaul, and in the peuinsula Others laid the foundations of modern Brittany. of Armorica the western shores of sullenly and slowly fell back toward Britain itself.

gallant resistance cluster the The legends of King Arthur and his Knights. struggle was so stubborn that nearly all traces of Roman and Christian civilizatio came destroyed and the eastern part of the island bewere the Rhine. and heathen as the lands beyond few provinces under In the north of Gaul there were a the Even this remnant general, Syagrius. of rule of the Roman in 486 when Prankish king, Chlodthe empire was swept away
as

About

their

barbarous

wig

(Clovis), conquered
Victorious

Syagrius

at Soissons.
"

28. The

Franks.

Soon

by treacherous

It was his rule. He during this struggle that, tradition says, he took a step which changed All the German tribes the relations of Roman and German.

and- brutal deeds, united the Alamanni. next conquered

Chlodwig, afterward all the Franks under

had hitherto received.

held to the Arian


the

With

as regarded Arianism Roman to live quietly side by side. and German kings could not overcome the peaceful Burgundian

they had at first views which influence of the Church, which growing difficult to comdeadly heresy, it was a pel
Even the

looked upon. The wise with which they were the power which the bishops held and won them support by accepting the Christian faith in the form

suspicion Chlodwig saw


over

to

his

they taught

and by being baptized with three thousand of his followers by Saint Remi. in any conflicts which the Franks Henceforward were to have with either the Burgundians or the Visigoths

28

THE

GERMAN

INVASIONS

the powerful churclimen long before It was not


south of the Burgundians

for a Frankish victory. wish would had driven the Visigoths Chlodwig

Garonne
a

and

his

successors

had

made

the

Franks

Unlike the other tributary people. did not demand a part of the soil. They

of the Germans
were

of emigrants, and after their victories many Chlodwig, who died to their northern homes. them returned line of kings, named iu 511, was the founder of the Merovingian conquerors,
not

from

his legendary

ancestor

Meroveus.

29. The

Ostrogoths

invade

Italy.

"

The A

did not long rule undisturbed he deposed the little Augustus

in Italy.
one

soldier Odovacar short time before

branch

king, Thiuda-reiks, people received a new during his youth, Theodoric, the Romans.
hostage
at Constantinople,
a

of the Ostrogothic by called Theodoric

had

lived

as

tribe and
served

the

Empire.
as

pledge of the peace betweerj his king he alternately After he became

and quarre^lled commander of foederati with the emperors, harrying the country almost to the gates of In one of the intervals of peace he was Constantinople. raised
a

the Empire

to the

consulate,

Finally power. into Italy, overthrow

it gave no real still a high honor, although he proposed to the emperor to lead his Goths

peror and rule there until the emto reestablish his own come these could authority over The was well-nigh lost provinces. emperor glad to have so
an

Odovacar,

Theodoric, in as officer as far away possible. 488, gathered his tribe together, probably about two hundred in number, thousand fighting men. The with forty thousand troublesome

journeyfrom
no

the banks

for it lay through


match Ravenna. for his After
a

long and dangerous, was of the Danube the lands of hostile tribes. Odovacar was new rival and in 490 shut himself up in
soon
was

three years' siege he surrendered, but The excuse suffered the fate of Stilicho and of Aetius.

the

himself. Theodoric was and the murderer 30. Theodoric From the rules Italy, 493-526.
same,
"

Odovacar
ruled

until his
unopposed

own

death,
over

over

Italy.

thirty years His followers

of later, oric Theodreceived


a

death

THEODORIC

IN

ITALY

29

ing third of the land, and settled quietly beside the conquered, livlaws. The officers,and probably the same under the same the taxes were not changed of Italy was ; even organization collected in the
was

old way,

though

made

more

endurable.

the condition of the curials himself Theodoric surrounded


as

with

advisers who

sincerely tried to rule

the

Empire

had

Tomb

of

Theodoric

at

Ravenna.

Constructed
choir block

during Ms reign. Used during the Middle Ages as the The roof is a single S. Maria della Rotonda. tlie church of Istrian marble, 33 feet in diameter, 300 tons. of weighing

been

ruled

in its happier

vanished

prosperity. had been an

days, and Italy began to recover The distribution of land to the partly because

its

advantage,

conquerors it brought

many
some more was

estates under cultivation, and abandoned of the greater estates were subdivided.

partly because

Italy became although


it

The grain from other countries. greatest obstacle in Theodoric's path grew out of the fact that

of furnishing still necessary to fetch

capable

its

own

food

supply,

30
his followers

THE

GERMAN

INVASIONS

were

Ariaus dwelling
Arians Romans and
to
as

which

looked

upon

suspected him and


He

that the
his

in the midst of a population dangerous heretics. He naturally both were plotting to drive away
restore

Goths, been

the

had

the

Empire,

stamped, rule. Toward


of treason,

and on but he did not

careful to act as his coins the image


mean

authority of the emperor. if Italy was a part of


of the emperor
was

that the emperor

the end of his reign, mastered he struck as savagely as at Ravenna.


were

should actually by his suspicions


Two

tinguish dis-

Romans
wrote

during captivity
has

Boethius, of whom, put to death, one book on the Consolation Philosophy,

of

which honors
went

immortalized the

his

name.

About
the

the

same

time

the

which
on an

emperor

Theodoric.

to embassy The pope, on

pope of Rome, who Constantinople, further exasperated his return, was arrested, and died showed

In 526 Theodoric in prison. One year more also died. and by Justinian, whose the imperial throne was generals mounted had so wisely to destroy the kingdom Theodoric were managed.

31. The New


down marched as the West. the emperors

East:

Justinian, 527-565.
had

"

Ever

since Alaric

into Italy the East

To had

suffered almost as much protect from raids their European provinces been forced to pay tribute to one barbarian

chieftain after another. the administration

Shortly before Justinian


had been reformed,

became

emperor

prosperity had
were as

returned to the provinces, and the revenues During the first years of his reign it seemed its former territories in Africa to recover was and to enter upon a new to be imperial and was kingdom. Byzantine Because
the Middle

increasing.

if the Empire

and in the West, ceascareer ing of glory, but in fact it was distinctly a Greek or becoming more it lingered until of this change into the full blaze of the Renaissance.

Ages

were

passing

the people stillcalled themselves Romaioi, they gained a spirit really Greek and national, which gave them more Justinian tacitly recognized unity and greater power of resistance. the change
when

Though

he abolished

the ancient

consulate

and

JUSTINIAN

31

he permitted Greek to take the place of Latin in official when his codification of the In strange documents. was contrast legacy by which Rome's law, the most important means Roman
to the world
was

to be preserved.

32. The Roman


six months bring into

Law.
he

"

Justinian
a

had not been

on

the throne

to revise and commission a consistent whole perors all the laws which previous emThe result was had issued. the Civil Code, completed

before

appointed

in

littlemore

than

year.

Tribonian,

the best-known

member

was placed at the head of a second, of this commission, into five or six volumes more which in three years condensed than a hundred of opinions of lawyers whose explanations volumes

accepted by the courts as called the Digest or Pandects. After Justinian's great 33. Reconquest of Africa and Italy. law was finished, his general, Belisarius, in 534, work for Roman of disputed questions decisive. This work was

had

been

"

utterly destroyed the Vandal imperial province. This an

kingdom
was

of Sicily and the overthrow in Italy. the Ostrogothic kingdom of In both Africa and Italy the excuse for war ment the dethronewas In Italy the prosperous of princes favorable to Justinian. days of Theodoric
tax-gatherers
was
a

and recovered Africa followed by the reconquest

as

regretfully remembered began to oppress the people.


a new

were

rial the impewhen For a time there

would

hero, the chivalrous Totila, restore the fortunes of his countrymen ished, ; but he, too, perItaly in 552 became in fact, as a part of the Empire and
chance

that

Gothic

it always had been in name. The cost of it all was terrible, for the land was The population of Rome, covered with ruins. had been a million, had which so late as the reign of Honorius During the last sieges the aqueducts sunk to fifty thousand. had been cut, so that the splendid baths became useless, and they, as well as the temples, began to crumble.

34.

The

Lombards.

"

Justinian

had

not

been

dead

three

horde, appeared German years before the Lombards, another in Italy, and quest. of a large part of its conrobbed the Empire They seized the plains of the Po, and extended their

32
rule far down

THE

GERMAN

INVASIONS

beyond Rome. There peninsula remained Rome pendent dethe territory immediately to the Greeks and only it, the lands about Ravenna, and the southern upon These were ruled by an officer called part of the peninsula. an exarch, who lived at Ravenna.
the

35. Glories and


not

merely

Perils of Justinian. for his victories and

"

is remembered his laws, but also for

Justinian

Saint
At

Sophia.

Constantinople,

by converted in diameter,

in 538 as a church, erected by Justinian into a mosque. Its dome is 107 feet the Turks is 1-12 feet. the dome while of the Pantheon

his great public buildings, and especially for the church of St. Sophia, which still stands, though into a Turkish transformed
mosque. world
was

In

the

midst

overwhelmed only

of by

his enterprises the whole eastern be a plague so frightful that it can

in the Peloponnewith the plague at Athens in Europe across sian War, and the Black Death which swept had been shaken A few years before his power 1347-1348. by an insurrection in Constantinople, called the Nika. While compared

SAINT

SOPHIA

33
encouraged by the bold assured him it was better

the struggle was stillundecided, Theodora, words of the Empress

he who

was

Note.

"

The

interior marbles,

in beautiful
are

of Saint of the church were and its columns


the

Sophia

was

sheathed

of porphyry.
saints
a

These
and

but still unharmed, been covered angels have

mosaics because the

representing is now church

mosque.

34
to die

THE

GERMAN

INVASIONS

on

the throne

than

to live in exile, and who

reminded sheet."
the

him

of

" Empire old saying that 36. The Doom of Ancient

an

is

fair winding
"

Civilization.

In

century

and

half

between

the march

Italy by the Lombards,


changed
were
now

of Alaric and the occupation of had Europe the appearance of western


districts had forests
were
no

strangely.

Whole

been

depopulated dangerous
Pirates

and
wild

beasts.
the

covered with The great roads


seas.

infested longer

by

safe.

terrorized

Commerce
and
their

and

trade

languished.

Artisans

came be-

scarce, reason a

work

horse

cost

less than

inartistic. For this rude and gundy king of Burhis bridle. The
his dominions

searched
could who languished

in vain through
a

for

construct

water-clock.

Industry
among

mechanic in the towns

because

The indispensable. which was artisans needed to people disorder and violence drove men the world with barian terrors, demons, imaginary goblins, and dragons, as if barTheir not enough. chieftains and robber lords were
notions the

each great to do the work

estate had

its slaves the

became as of nature crude Greeks before the philosophers


a

and and

childlike

as

those

painfully

shadow

out worked scientific notion Ages of the Dark already lay upon

mathematicians of the world.

of had

The

Europe.

SUMMARY I. The
Three Attacks.
the
1. Visigothic

"

federates

and

the

Germans

beyond

Rhine

first repulse

Suevi ravage federates reconquer

(a) Alaric's march through Greece and his in Italy ; (6) raid of Radagaisus and ; (c) Vandals Rome Visigothic Gaul and Spain ; (d) sack of ; (e)
:

Spain

from and

Vandals Vandals
:

and

settle in Vandals

Garonne
cross

2. Attack of Huns valley. Africa ; (b) Attila invades retires ; southern

(a)

into

Gaul,
Rome

(d)
Gaul

Vandals and

sack

is repulsed ; (c) invades Italy, in kingdom ; (e) Visigothic kingdom in Rhone valley ; 3. Ostrogoths

Spain,

Burgundian
conquest

(/)

Angles

and

Saxons

begin

of Britain.

: and Franks (a) Odovacar in control of in Italy ; (c) Chlodwig in nortliern Gaul.

Italy ;

(6) Theodoric

EUBOPE
ABOUT
AFTER
Tlie Empire red lines.
in red.

600 GERMANIC
fi-ontier made Italy,

A.D.
INVASIONS
in ttie West
on

THE

Earlier

indicated
frontier.

by

broken

Sliglit gains
West

liad been
of

tlie eastern and

In the broken

tlie population

Spain
the

of Gaul,

south
a

of the small

line remained of it.

chiefly German

Gallo-Roman, kingdoms which

Germans

forming
are

percentage

had

disappeared

noted.

Longitude

East

from

Greeowich

THE

GERMAN

INVASIONS

35
:

11. German
southern

and

Roman.

"

1. German

settlements

(a)
in

Visigoths

in

Gaul

and

Spain

(c) Franks
Italy.
and

in northern
;

Gaul

(6) Burgundians ; (d) Ostrogoths


Saxons
:

Rhone

valley ;

in Italy ;
;

dals (e) Vanin

in Africa

(/)
;

Angles,
or

in Britain

Lombards (gr)
case

2. Destroyers

neighbors

(a)

compare
case

of Visigoths
or

Ostrogoths
and

(b)

compare 3.

these with Land

of Franks,
:

(c) of

Angles

Saxons,

settlements

(6)
III. Partial

Frankish

; (c) Ostrogothic.
of

4.
"

Law

(a) (Theodoric).
his work

Visigothic ;
his still

Recovery
2,

Empire,

1. Justinian,

and

conquests, under

Lombard control

attack.
at end

3, Portions

of old Empire

imperial

of Justinian's

reign.

Special
With

Point

of Vie-w

"

the aid of books


careers

Aetius,

Study," consider the referred to under "Further defenders of the (Stilicho, and assailants of the Empire Syagrius, and the generals of Justinian ; Alaric, Attila, Odovacar,
why
and

Chlodwig,

Theodoric),in

order

to

discover

additional

reasons

the Empire

lost in the struggle,

IMPORTANT
378, 395. 410. Battle Death
of Adrianople.

DATES

of Theodosius of Rome by

; administrative

Sack

Alaric

J 449. \ 451,
r 476.

Beginning

of Anglo-Saxon

division of the Empire, (group minor events in relation to this), of Britain, conquest
associate Vandal sack of Rome, of Rome

Battle of Maurica

(Chalons) ;
Romulus
over

455.

Odovacar
Victory Theodoric

deposes

Augustulus Syagrius,

(" Fall

").

\ 486.
l 493.

of Chlodwig
becomes

ruler of Italy. 527-565. Reign of Justinian (reconquest Italy and of 568. Lombard invasion.

Africa).

FURTHER General Paragraphs 21, Reading,


:
"

STUDY
I. ; add Oman, Dark Ages.

see

listfor Chapter

In studying invasions

the general compare


; in

character
accounts

and
in for

consequences Bright,

of the German
or

the

Green,
; Adams,

Gardiner,
Duruy,
or

for England
Kitchin,

Henderson,

Germany

Vol,

I,, for France

; Burke,

for Spain

; Hodgkin,

nasty DyDill,

of

Theodosius

and

Theodoric

for

Italy.

See

also

pp. 237-318,

36
Paragraphs 22-23.
:
"

THE

GERMAN

INVASIONS

Gothic

Invasion,

Thatcher-McNeal, 159-167

in Eobinson, early accounts Hodgkin, Sieges of Rome, No. 3.

Nos.

11-13

Theodosius, Borne, Cli. 5.

; results of

sack,

Lanciani,

Destruction Theodosius,

of

Stilicho, Bury,
Invasions 24. The Goths

I., 74 ff.; Hodgkin,

Villari, Barbarian

of Italy.
and Burgundians in Southern Gaul
:

Kitchin,

I., 60 ;

Dill, 288 ff. 25.

Huns
14.

description Pull

by Ammianus of Priscus, 169-203

and

by Priscus, Robinson,
Vol.

Nos. 10,

narrative

Bury,

I., 21.3-22.3. Attila's I., 167 ff. Relation of

career,

Hodgkin,

; Aetius,

Bury,

Attila's invasion

to beginnings

of Venice, Bryce,

Hodgkin,

199.

26.

Nature No.

of "Fall

of Rome," Bury,

see

Ch. 3.

Thatcher-McNeal, Theodoric,

3.

Odovacar,
Dark

I., 276 ff.; Hodgkin,

Chs. 6,

7 ; Oman,
27.

Ages,

Ch. 1.
:

Coming

28.

5-14 ; Green, Making of England, I., Ch. 9 ; Colby, No. 5 ; Kendall, No. 3. Chs. 1-4 ; Ramsay, Chlodwig : (Clovis) Robinson, No. 17 ; importance of his conversion,
of the English

Green,

Lavisse,

18-21

; Kitchin,

I., 69-70

; Alzog,

II., 46-50. Thatcher-McNeal, in

29-30.

Ostrogoths
No. 24,

in Italy

Hodgkin,

Theodoric.

3.
see

Por 12

the and

owners

here and of the great estates referred to

13.
see
:

31. 32.

The

New

East,

The

Roman

Law

Ch. 11. Empire, Byzantine especially Oman's 158-163 ; Gibbon, Ch. 44 ; Bury, I., 365Morey, State, 167-174.
Bury, I., 381-398;

371 ; Wilson, 33.


Victories of

The

Justinian:

Oman,

Dark

Ages,

Chs. 5, 6.
34. 35. Lombards: The
Nika
:

Bury,

II., 145-158; Ch. 40 ; Bury,

Oman,

Dark

Ages,
; Munro

Ch. 11.
and

Gibbon,

I., 337-345

Sellery,

87-113. 36.
Results 44-49, of

Invasions

Robinson,

No.

12 ; Munro

and

Sellery,

50-59.

Additional

Reading

Green,

The

Making

of

England

; Ramsay,

Foundations History

of
Dark

Early Britain ; Blok, 2 vols. ; Church, Empire Byzantine 3 vols. ; Oman, ; the Netherlands,

of England,
Ages

Oman,

(476-918).

CHAPTER
THE

III.
THE

CHURCH

AND

MOHAMMEDANS

Borders of Christendom. At a becoming Greek the remnant time when of the Empire was ingulfed in the rising and when the western provinces were flood of barbarism, the task of guarding the Roman name

37. Work

of the Church

"

and something Even Church.

ideas and institutions passed to the of Roman Rome itselfwas to regain through the Church its position of capital as well as a new title to the name "Eternal City." The were persubdivisions of the Empire petuated

in ecclesiasticaldioceses and provinces. The Roman law was preserved not merely in its influence upon the laws kingdoms, but also in the laws of the Church, of the German
law. Priests and monks were the called the canon commonly from teachers and writers, and saved the books of the Romans by civilization mean utter destruction. Almost all that we took refuge within the protecting enclosure of church or monastery walls. In this way the Church rendered less disastrous

the wreck of the Empire and maintained a bond of union between peoples otherwise enemies. ( Furthermore, it took up a work which the Empire had long abandoned, and pushed the frontiers of civilization northward into Germany, the Peninsula, and Russia.-/ Meanwhile a power dinavian Scanarose

in the East which robbed the Empire than half the of more territory it still controlled, and which even the menaced Christian peoples of the West. Islam or MohamThis was

medanism. Justinian

The
saw

two
new

this

centuries which followed the death of invasion roll over Syria and Africa,
as

and penetrate

into Europe

far
37

as

the valley of the Loire.

38

THE

CHURCH

AND

THE

MOHAMMEDANS

38. Growth
invaders
put
an

of the Bishop's Power.


end to the imperial Eomans the conquered

"

AVherever
or

the

German

rule

it themselves,

undertook to direct naturally turned to their

Even before the invasions the bishops bishops for protection. They than rulers of the Church. had been something more
to it, especially the property given or bequeathed managed From the early days of after the reign of Constantine. putes Christianity the brethren had been taught to bring their dis-

before them

for settlement.

Constantine
a

the request of one of the parties to Although to the bishop's court. later, the priests
were

civil case

ordered that at it be transferred disappeared

this privilege

bishops

in which retained control of civil cases involved. When the invasions had interrupted

trade

of the wealth that could be seized and carried away, the only form of wealth land. Whoever fairly secure was that remained could keep for many because he could care large estates was a great man

and

commerce,

and

had

destroyed

much

and, if need be, could work landlord the Chiirch was fight for Such a powerful speedily coming to be, and it took advantage, as did all other together. great landlords, of the fact that property and power went Consequently the collapse of the imperial administration,

dependents,

and him.

these dependents

causes

instead of seriously crippling the Church, was If the bishop of increasing its influence.
to for protection, it was

one

was

of the to be

looked
chosen

also natural

were those who among men especially if they were who

from

that he should be ential, already rich and influhad experience in bishops of the fifth had

of the prominent affairs. Many from in Italy and Gaul were the senatorial chosen century Gradually the wealthiest nobles. class, that is, from among had once belonged they took into their hands matters which managing
to the imperial

officers. In Italy, after Justinian had restored the authority of the Empire, each city had its count or tribune the bishop rather than as well as its bishop, but often it was
the tribune who was the real ruler. Into his hands passed at " least the duties of the defender," the care of the poor, and

THE

PAPACY

39
soon as

As the maintenance of public works. their Arianism, the bishop abandoned


no

the

Germans
upon
"

could

be looked

by any of the enemy Lombard, Goth, Burgundian, or Greek,


as an same

longer

the

faith.

This

contending peoples, because all professed freed his position from the ordinary
"

dangers of rule in such times. Although there were was as good bishops, the increase in their power
a

bad
on

as

well

the whole
outside been

great advantage.

They

of Constantinople

better than any one understood had the way the old government

carried on. /C 39. The Papacy.

If the ordinary bishop gained in influence during these centuries of strife,the greatest gainer was the
"

bishop of Rome, coming who in Italy by the fifth century was The to be called "pope" to distinguish him from other bishops. the richest of all,possessing estates in Italy, Africa, and other parts of the West. Not only was the pope, by the end of the sixth century, superior to the representative Eoman Church
was

of the emperor a big parish.


each of which

but the city itself was organized like It was divided into quarters, at the head of The life of the whole was placed a deacon. in Rome,

community centred in the churches or basilicas. Outside of Rome to give the the magic of the Roman name was enough the bishops of the world. pope his unique position among

This had
whom

strengthened by the belief that the church at Rome been founded by Peter, the " Prince of the Apostles," to
was

" said, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church : and the gates of hell shall not prevail as against it.'" The popes urged that to Peter, and to them his successors, the care of guarding the doctrines of the Church

Christ had

had
as

been intrusted.

were

practical minds, not inclined, their brethren in Constantinople and the East, to stray They
were

into curious investigations upon the mystery of God's the divine in nature and of the union of the human and Christ's personality. bishops attended the Very few western
away

Church

councils where these questions the pope did interfere, it was rather as

were

debated.
or

When

an

arbiter

judgewho

40
came
over

THE

CHURCH

AND

THE

MOHAMMEDANS

to settle the

the
was

council

controversy. of Chalcedon, Gaul, and


were

Attila

ravaging
words

representative presided in 451, the year met which his letter to the council contained

His

in the Nicene creed embodied for right about the two natures of Christ. To this reputation teaching or orthodoxy, in which they had no rivals, the popes By the council of Nicgea (325) actual power. added much
the

which

they
was

had
no

been given
church

over jurisdiction

Italy.

In the West

there

prominence, Antioch, and


of Rome,
no

equal theirs in antiquity or in so of Constantinople, while the bishops Alexandria claimed an equality with the bishop which that could bishops in later days put of control beyond
forward such
a

western

the confines of To the papal claim claim. Valentinian III. gave the support West Italy over the whole that the imperial decree. The belief gained ground of an the successor Church was one, of Peter, and that its head was

Just how far the the Vicar of Christ, who presided at Eome. it would be carried out and in what idea would affect ways the actual administration of the Church depended stances, upon circumchiefly upon the patient persistence and skill with which, decade after decade, the popes urged their claims and into their hands. the affairs which came managed The work of the Church in stay40. Origin of Monasticism. ing
and
"

the ruin of ancient


men

whose

aim

might,

civilization was at first glance,

aided
seem

by companies
inconsistent

of

Avith

were the existence of society itself. These men monks, grouped in monasteries scattered all over under the direction of abbots Those who first led the way in this manner the West. of living

by a sense of the seriousness of the conflict within moved between them the desire to do right and to be pure and the if these were to seek their own temptation pleasures, even
were

ignoble
world

and
was

like an swept violence which the authority of the law as the Empire through epidemic Romans or less respected was of marauding and as bands the barbarians went and maltreating about attacking towns

vicious. increased

Their

decision

to

turn

away

from

the

by

the

BENEDICTINE

RULE

41

that in his Gospel Jesus convinced to a higher life,one which should be a closer imitation called some of the life of him who had no place where to lay his head, those who did the will of nor any brethren save and no mother

inhabitants.

They

became

Grod.
was

They

longed

to yield to him

possible to those who lands and to have to own with these feelings
there
was a

completer obedience than in the world and continued remained Obscurely comwives and'children. bined
a

was

taint

the belief that about earthly relationships to escape. seek which they must

looked at the of the early Christians of the East who sold their property, separated themselves world in this way from their families, and retired into the deserts to mortify the
Some flesh and to live wholly in thoughts of God. beset them, for the body, tortured by hunger, evil heats thirst, the
Even

here

of the desert, and utter loneliness, retaliated, vexing the mind or visions of the earthly of dreadful monsters with dreams in shapes irresistibly alluring. Bitter temptations embodied

They of the hermits a wiser plan. from the desert and gathered other like-minded men withdrew into houses or monasteries, where they lived under the direction
experience taught
some

to a rule. Similar houses were of a leader and according also founded for women. The great lawgiver of the monasteries of Benedict, who, in 528, while Justinian was the West ning beginwas

his work at Constantinople, built on the ruins of a pagan temple in southern Italy the famous monastery of Monte Casino. 41. Benedictine Eule. The Eule which Benedict drew up
"

for his monks


order named of its type.

imitated everywhere, or adopted and the Benedictine became influential of those the most Although Benedict had been a hermit, he marked
was a

out in his Eule

way

of living in strong contrast

to the hermit

life,which caused the monks to become useful path breakers for " the new Idleness," he declared, " is the enemy civilization. In consequence, to occupy themwere the monks selves of the soul." labor or in reading. Wherever a either with manual Benedictine was monastery placed, the forests were cleared land, which on account Much and the fields were cultivated.

42

THE

CHURCH

AND

THE

MOHAMMEDANS

wild, was reclaimed. The In order monks spread the tradition of good farming. that all the brethren might have books to read, some of them kept at work copying sacred writings, and even were the Roman
in It was writers, whose Latin was and imitated. stilladmired Roman this way that many books were The system preserved. in had to so great an extent not only dignified labor, which

of the

disorder

of the

times

had

become

Abbey

of

Montmajour. Part

In southeastern
the sixth century.

France.

of the
as

great

tower

made

Its position it virtually

ruins date from well as its walls and fortress. into a strong

ancient society been left to slaves, it also refused to distinguish Although was between the slave and the freeman. the monk come behe lived might in which to poverty, the monastery vowed rich and As
generous

he might of the enjoy some began to leave lands persons they became The

benefits of wealth.
or

money

to

these

establishments, through

landowners,

stewards.

estates

their estates managing of St. Germainof the Abbey

POPE

GREGORY,

AND

THE

MISSION

TO

ENGLAND

43
Paris,

des-Pres,

monastery

eventually covered Missionaries. 42. Monks as helped


to

outside mediaeval which stood just nearly 800 square miles.


"

The from from

redeem
were

the

country

not merely monasteries desolation and preserved

literature, they
sent
never

the centres

which

missionaries

were

to

extend the Christian During been reached.

and Angles Monasteries British Christianity took refuge in Ireland. industriously built everywhere. The monks and churches were So full of zeal and so learned were copied ancient books.
when the Saxons these that Ireland won monks Saints. Prom Saint Ireland the
name

had faith among tribes which the fifth and sixth centuries, driving the Britons westwere ward,

Coluraba

of the Isle of the crossed to Scotland

about 563, and at lona, an island not far from Pingal's cave, founded a centi*e for the spread a monastery of which became Christianity through Scotland and the northern part of the England of the Angles and the Saxons.

43. Pope
The

Gregory

(590-604), and
use

the Mission to England.

"

as missionaries was monks He was Gregory the Great. of noble birth and had risen to be he suddenly Afterward broke off his public prefect of Rome. career, turned his palace into a monastery, and became its abbot.

first pope

to make

of the

in 590, notwithstanding his protests, he was Italy was in a desperate condition. As he wrote When
letters
:
"

The

cities are
. .

destroyed, villages
are

fields laid waste,


some
...

chosen pope, in one of his the castles torn down, the how We see empty.
...

carried into captivity, others mutilated, others slain. If we love such a world, we love not our but our joys, " He deserved Great " because he did the name wounds." to lessen these miseries by holding the ruthless Lombards much
are

in check, by redeeming captives, and by using the income of Church His care estates to relieve the poor and the suffering. was the churches of the West, where, withalso extended over out
he as bishop of Rome, constantly asserting his supremacy to introduce he took While more sought order and justice. for the bishop of Rome dei the humble title servus servorum

44

THE

CHURCH

AND

THE

MOHAMMEDANS

(servant of

God's

servants),

bishop of Constantinople in dignity to the church

the pretensions rebuked Eome that the See of New was

he

of the

equal

all these labors he had time to improve the ritual of the Church and its He did not forget the ideals of his monastic life. music. The Rule of Benedict As pope he was by monks. surrounded
He confirmed through his influence by a Church council. This was to use the monks as also determined missionaries. to become a missionary. partly because he had himself wanted in the Roman One day while he was an abbot he saw slave
was

founded

by

Peter.

With

three fair-haired boys for sale. He inquired who they Angles. he exclaimed, "Angels," were and the reply was "yes, they have faces like angels, and they should become market

companions to England
monastery, themselves

Since he could not go of the angels in heaven." he became pope, he sent the prior of his when Augustine, and forty monks, who in 597 established in the kingdom at Canterbury of Kent. Roman
which

44. British and


southern
centre

Missionaries.
the work

"

Canterbury

was

the

of converting the heathen Anglo-Saxons There was was great pushed steadily on. between the Scottish and Irish missionaries and these jealousy from E-ome, for Ireland and Scotland had so long newcomers

from

been

off from Europe different from the customs


cut

spreading everywhere. bitter, but it was ended who, at the conference Roman keys
party because of heaven, might

were religious customs was which the influence of Rome The quarrel threatened to be long and

that

their

by King

Oswiu

of Whitby, he feared lest Peter, the


some

of Northumberland, in 664, decided for the

bearer

entrance refuse him It was fortunate disobedient to the commands of the Romans. decided, for otherwise England that the affair was so might have remained less open to influences from the Continent and

day

of the he were

to the

to grow civilization which was 45. Boniface, Apostle to the Germans.


new

"

up there. A little over


to convert

century

after Gregory

had

sent

Augustine found

the

Anglo-

Saxons,

another

Pope

Gregory

in

one

of these converted

GAINS

AND

LOSSES

OF

CHRISTENDOM

45

Anglo-Saxons
His
name
was

the Germans, and anxious took


an

beyond the Rhine. missionary to the Germans He was Boniface. not the first to work among from Ireland and Scotfor monks had come land over
a

Boniface was Unlike the way. them in all things to follow the leadership of the pope. He to have comno munion oath of obedience in 722, promising of Peter with those who did not do as the successors
prepared

had

taught

The work of who should resist their authority. is now Boniface lay in what Germany. and western southern he sought to root out pagan superstitions and subEverywhere stitute
or

Christian ceremonies
Before
an

awe-stricken

for the rites venerated he cut down multitude


a

by the people. the sacred


out

oak of Geismar He was wood. and

and constructed
so

Christian chapel

of the

those which Eegensburg, were


of Fulda. tel and Pepin,

him archthat the pope made bishop successful Among gave him power to establish bishoprics. centres of a better civilization afterward became Salzburg, and Wurzburg, Supported by the Prankish
he
tery also the monasrulers, Charles Mar-

and

sorely troubled passionate huntsmen people.

reformed by bishops
or

the

Prankish

Church,
were

which often

was

and

abbots Tvho

either

plunderers rather than shepherds of the men. Several bishoprics and abbeys had been seized by lay-

was

the end of his life the archbishopric of Mainz many. the Church created for him and became capital of GerBoniface longed to Notwithstanding these successes

Toward

return

to his missionary

work.

He

went

to Prisia, where

the

pagan

still strong, and there in 755 he was murdered. 46. Gains and Losses of Christendom. Through the work of like Augustine England, men becoming Britain, now and Boniface party
was
"

was

won

again

rude Christian Ehine. Scotland

Christianity, and civilization of the day was


to

the

frontier

and

Ireland had

Christendom
were some

south, by the victorious lems, Mostorn away where whole regions were and where for centuries Christianity had to defend itself.

since the for the losses in the east compensation made

pushed been territorial gains to also These collapse of the Empire. and

of the beyond the

46
47.
inland Mecca.

THE

CHURCH

AND

THE

MOHAMMEDANS

Religion in Arabia
from Here the eastern

Mohammed

(571-632). Somewhat
"

shore
was

Mohammed At

of the Red Sea lies the city of born six years after the death

of Justinian.

this time

the Arab

tribes

were

not

united

The At Mecca.

Kaaba

legend,

by

chief sanctuary of Islam. Abraham Form and Ishmael.

The

First erected, according to the 40 feet long, 33 feet : a cube,

la its walls is set the sacred black stone. This was wide, 50 feet high. broken by fire in 683, but its parts were in a setting of held together med's has been reconstructed silver. The Kaaba several times since Mohamday. The is covered building black a heavy with silk damask
"

the

sacred

carpet

"

which

is

replaced

by

new

one

each

year.

under
customs,

single rule, nor there although together. The

did they
were

all have of
a

the

same

religious

bring them
was

becoming

the centre

change which would Kaaba at Mecca, principal shrine, the of the religious life of the whole race.

signs

its walls were local gods and here

Within

than three hundred gathered more of the the stone which the Angel Gabriel had was

TEACHINGS

AND

TRIUMPHS

OF

MOHAMMED

47

which had lost its dazzling whiteness, blackened by the sins of those who touched it. Although the people were idolaters, there were declared that earlier there teachers who brought,
and had Allah, or God, alone was purer religion, in which Such men were especially open to the influence worshipped. in from the neighborof Jewish and Christian ideas which came ing Palestine. Before Mohammed became a religious teacher
a

been

he

regarded as fairly the disputes something

was

justman,
which
were

who could be trusted to settle to him. brought There was

him as of a nature different and also that marked He was fortunate in winning the love greater than his fellows. into whose service Kadijah, of a distant relative, the rich widow he had entered as a commercial After his marriage with agent. her, freed

from

the need
more

of earning
to the

livelihood, his thoughts which


were

turned

more

and

religious questions
He

troubling the minds of other Arabs. fasting. Soon he had the mountains
as

often wandered visions and heard first he


was

upon

voices,

it were
were

the

voices

demons

vexing reassured him, believing it was He gave himself who had spoken. It was long before even his
was a

of angels. him or that he

At

afraid that was jah going mad, but KadiGabriel truly the Angel
up
to this strange

ence. experi-

own

family
declared

was

that he

prophet.
to
scorn.

When

first he

convinced himself, they

laughed

As gradually the littleband of disciples increased, the guardians of the Kaaba began to look upon him He knew as a dangerous man and finally resolved to kill him.
24, 622, to a town where of their design and fled, September he already had adherents Medina. took the name and which This flight, or Hegira, was by his followers as the regarded

him

beginning

era. of a new 48. Teaching's and Triumphs MoWhat hammed of Mohammed. heard in his visions he recited to his disciples, who afterward gathered these sayings into a book called the Koran,
"

which

means

underlay and from

recitation. all his thought this


came

The
was

deep-seated submission Islam, which

conviction

which

to the will of God,

the

name

describes his reli-

48

THE

CHURCH

AND

THE

MOHAMMEDANS

gious

system.
and

Entire Mohammed
this

submission

implied
that

that

God

was

allone

the zealously that idolaters became He regarded himself as the special enemies of his followers. last and greatest of the prophets. Believers must not only accept his message, they must also pray, fast, give alms, and

powerful, God and

also taught
so

there

is but

taught

Since he recognized the Old Testament pilgrimages. hard for the ignorant worthies and Jesus also as prophets, it was in contact with his doctrines Christian peoples who first came
go
on

to regard

different from
come

he

not very Arianism, A change had a of vigorous Mohammed's temperament over mild and dreamy since had been bitterly ridiculed and persecuted. He to came

them

otherwise

than

as

some

new

heresy

kind

the enemies of Allah, and their property Kot long after he fled to Medina as the spoil of true believers. he began to offer them the plunder of the caravans of Mecca.
as

regard his enemies

fighting which the military ardor of his ensued followers, their love of plunder, and their burning faith were
the

In

hard

all welded

into

one

confused

send them to the conquest itself yielded eight years after the Hegira, and soon all Arabia Mohammed was submitted. preparing an expedition against Syria when he died.

to of feeling, which later was Roman Mecca of many provinces.


mass

49.

Conquests

Mohammed
who This

of the immediately take

Mohammedans. began
as

"

The
over

followers
the

of

to

quarrel

should

his place

religious and

question leader. national

quarrel Mohammedans

from the

led to murders, and was eventually to divide the into two hostile sects, but it did not keep them hastening to the spoil of the Empire and of its antagonist, kingdom. Their
march of conquest

Persian

led in two
to the Indus,

directions, to the east beyond

the Caspian

and along the northern coast of Africa and southern Gaul. Their eastern victories account for the fact that there in India fifty million Mohammedans. are Of the Empire, now Syria
was

and even into Spain

the

first to

Mohammed's

death,

suffer. Jerusalem

In
was

634, within
captured.

two In

years Egypt

of it

SAEACEN

CIVILIZATION

49

happened

looked upon by the that the native population was Greek bishops as heretics on the question of Christ's humanity. from persecution, as well as The natives had suffered so much

the imperial tax-gatherers, that they opened their cities to Alexandria the Arabian was taken by assault in 641. armies. Farther west, in north Africa, the Berbers had always been restless from
rule and readily joinedthe Mohammedans under Eoman The in the attacks upon Empire. the strongholds of the Berbers that early army made up the bulk of the Moslem The Visigothic eighth century crossed into Spain. had long been The were people poorer monarchy weak.

in the

these were crushed under the tyranny of the great, whether Visigoths or descendants provincials, of the ancient Roman no so that there was national resistance, and the whole peninsula The tide of conquest overrun. was soon except the northwest until it reached Poitiers, the Franks near under invader. 732, to withstand the
was

not

checked

Here, the plains of Tours. Charles Martel gathered, in

The

fierce

Moslem

cavalry could not break the ranks killed in The Moslem leader, Abd-er-Eahman, was spearmen. to When the fray. the next morning the Franks advanced battle, they found nothing but the deserted camp of the enemy. lated desoThis did not end the struggle. For years the south was by
north
source.

of the charges of the Frankish

Moslem

expeditions.
the
stream

Africa,

and

strife broke out in dried at its was of plunderers

Gradually

50.

Saracen

Civilization.

"

This

victory
as

generally

called the battle of Tours, was civilization as the triumph of Aetius

of the important

Franks,
to western

at Maurica

dred three hun-

The Moslems, years before. of the ancient seats of knowledge from their Greek much
carry the

it is true, after their conquest in Egypt and Syria, learned scholars


sought
to

Their subjects.

sciences of geography, and mathematics astronomy, had brought them. They stillfarther than the Greeks gave " " the race to the Arabic name plified numerals, which greatly simarithmetical calculation.

They

perfected

algebra

and

50

THE

CnURCn

AND

THE

MOHAMMEDANS

introduced
Greek

it in Europe.

philosopliers, translation from an Arabic

also studied entliusiastically the It was through a especially Aristotle.

They

studied Aristotle. to be called, had

The been

version that western scholars first Saracens, as the eastern Moslems came deeply
influenced

by the Persians,

Mosque
Begun

of

Cordova.

in 755 of the emirate I., founder Abd-er-Rahman of Cordova. its twelve hundred jasper,and rare marof porphyry, bles, of columns, Narbonne from Nimes were taken were ; others given by the and After Cordova by Ferdinand was at Constantinople. emperor captured by

Some

III. of Castile in 1236 the mosque

was

transformed

into

Christian

church.

but also people which had rivalled the Greeks not only in war Arab merchants in the arts of peace. traded with China, with Like the ancient Phoenicians, India, and the Spice Islands. they
were

quickly often

acquired able
to to

what

was

known

by each
so

surpass

their teachers, In the

people and that later they of Harun-al-

taught

much

western

peoples.

days

SUMMARY

51

the through 786 to 809, famous reigned from who the capital of a was Nights, Bagdad stories of the Arabian Europe and rivalled world superior in civilization to western better for the it was Nevertheless, only by Constantinople.

Eashid,

new

peoples

of the West

to control
a

their

own

future than

and

to

build slowly and the Saracens.

painfully

civilization sounder

that of

SUMMARY
I. The

Church.
methods
2.

"

1. Service
culture ;
:

to

civilization: extends
the
;

(a)
(")

perpetuates of

Roman

and

(h)

borders

civilization.
as a

Organization
as

(a)
(c)
;

power

of bishops

the pope
:

ruler
;

and

head

of the western
;

Church.
monastic
:

3. Monasticism life ;

(a) motive
of Benedict.

(")
4.

the

hermits

the

(d)

Rule

Missionary and

enterprises

{a)

in north

Britain ;

(h) among
career

the

Angles
II. Islam.
"

Saxons
:

1. Origin
;

(c) among (a) condition

the Germans.

of Arabia

(6)

of

Mohammed
west.

(c) Koran.

2. Mohammedan

conquests,

east and

3. Special

Saracen
Points

civilization. of View
:
"

1. Compare Empire

the frontiers of the Christendom

under had
on

Theodosius been
the

with by
south

the

Roman of the undivided boundaries of Christendom


missionaries Moslem but had been

after they
narrowed

extended and
"

the

east

by

great men Boniface,

of the period,

Benedict

victories. Nursia, Gregory the Great, of

2. The

Mohammed.

IMPORTANT
528.
590.

DATES

Benedict Gregory

founds

monastery
pope

I. becomes

Casino. of Monte lands ; (597,Augustine

in

Britain).

622.
732. 755.

September

24,

"

the Hegira.

Battle of Tours. Death of Boniface.

FURTHER
General Paragraphs Reading
:
"

STUDY

see

Ch. I.

38.

The

Bishops,

their influence,
; Cunningham,

see

Dill, 179-186

; Alzog,

I., 659-668,.
see

II., 125-137

20-23.

On

"Defender,"

10.

62
Pakagraphs

THE

CHURCH

AND

THE

MOHAMMEDANS

"

39.

The

Papacy:

Adams,
views

Ch. 6 ; Alzog,
of the

I., 663-677,

11., 138-141;
see

for

contemporary

origin of papal

power,

Kobinson,

Ch. 4.
40-41.
Monasticism
:

the Rule

Nos.

251-264

paragraphs, in Jones, ; a briefer selection

274-314, significant of Benedict, in Henderson, 23, 27, 33, 39, 48, 55, 58 ; Thatcher-McNeal,

No. 6 ; selections from Ch. 3 ;

monastic

Alzog, 42.

Nos. 32-34 ; see also Jessopp, writings, Robinson, I., 744-755 ; Munro and Sellery, 129-158 ; Emerton,
:

Ch. 11.
;

Missionaries
Alzog,

Munro

and

Sellery, 114-128

; Milman,

II., 236-259

II., 96-120.

43-44.

Conversion

of the

English, in Colby,

from
No.

Bede,

in Robinson,

Nos.

39-

42 ; briefer selections
45.

Letters

of the

Pope,

Boniface's
in Robinson,

6 ; Kendall, No. 4. from contemporary oath, accounts


Nos.
a

lives of Boniface,

43-47.

To

of the results of such

labors,

see

map

of Germany

one understand in the Middle

Ages

47-50.

the amount of territory ruled by bishops or abbots, showing Handatlas, especially Droysen's pp. 30-31. Selections from in Jones, No. 3 ; briefer in Robinson, Koran,

No. 48.

See, further, Muir,

Bury,

Vol. 2, 258-273
Byzantine

; Oilman,

Burke,

I., 121-132; The triumph

Lane-Poole;
of the Moslems

Oman's

Empire,

Ch.

12.

from European wrested civilization basin which those parts of the Mediterranean the Oreeks and the Romans had won, chiefly from the Phoenicians and Carthaginians.

See map

4.

Additional
The

Reading

Hatch,

Growth

of Church

Coming

of

the Friars;

Montalembert,

Institutions ; Jessopp, Monks the West,

of

7 vols. ; Muir, Mahomet, Goran, its Composition also The Teaching ; Lane, Lane-Poole, Selections from the Ku-an; Speeches and Table-Talk Mohammed the Prophet ; The

and The
Arabian

of

Nights'' Moors

Entertainment;
Milman,

Oilman,

Saracens;
Latin

Lane- Poole.

in Spain;

History

of

Christianity, 8 vole

CHAPTER
THE

IV.
OF
NEW

BEGINNINGS

PEOPLES

Nearly two centuries of Civilization. invasions and the Moslem lay between the later German defeat During this period the distinction the plains of Tours. on

51. The

New

Home

"

between

Koman was conquered slowly those differences of locality, disappearing, and in its place came dialect, customs, the beginnings of and feelings which marked

German

conqueror

and

The rights which nations. the weak in spite of the Eoman


new

the

strong

had

exercised

over

laws became

characteristic and

pointed to

a new

organization had

after a century, was In the East the Empire

of society called feudalism, which, Eoman to supersede society in the West.

become

more

Greek.

Many

of its

by the Moslems. The Danube provinces had been conquered frontier had by Slavic and Bulgarian also been overpassed invaders. The increasing weakness of the Empire and the loss
to Christendom

of the

southern

shore

of

the

Mediterranean

showed that the new not civilization,unlike the ancient, was to be centred about the Mediterranean, but was to lie farther north and west. 52. Quarrels
a

over

the Frankish

Heritage.
and

single nation composed hindered by the custom

territory, like ordinary After the death the heirs of the royal house. property, among bloody series of wars. a long and of Chlodwig, in 511, there was Each great-grandson wished a share of the heritage those of his brothers or of his cousins. When they were trying to not fighting for territory, they were capture one another's treasures, their hoarded gold, or their
son

of Franks of dividing

growth Gallo-Eomans
"

The

of
was

grandson larger than

or

or

53

54

THE

BEGINNINGS

OF

NEW

PEOPLES

jewels. It

is true they

really one, and was the kingdom


royal cities were

notion that their power was together. When often their capitals lay near divided between the four sons of Chlodwig, the
retained
a

Soissons, Paris, and Orleans. Occasionally one would arise who better understood the need of substituting for equal rights of inheritance the right of the eldest to the ideas of whole patrimony, and who desired to revive the Eoman Such a authority and to restore the Roman system of taxation.
one

Rheims,

was

Brunehaut,

to her Frankish

Visigothic princess, who, in 567, brought husband, King Sigebert, the traditions of Eoman
a

long life was Her civilization which still lingered in Spain. j"lled by terrible feuds either with her rival Fredegond, the low-born wife of Sigebert's brother Chilperic, or Avith her
In her old age the nobles triumphed nobles. and wreaked her a frightful vengeance. They tied her to the tails of upon wild horses, lashed these to fury, and so tore her limb from

limb.

Such

horrible

a Burgundian equally terrifying remorse. king, who, maddened by the suspicions with which his second wife filledhis mind against his first wife's son, caused the young he hastened to a to be strangled. by remorse Overcome man

crimes The

were

sometimes story is told of

followed

by

drove from the neighborhood monastery, all the inhabitants so that its devotions might not be disturbed by worldly sounds to plead night and day or temptations, and ordered the monks for his pardon.

Such

races

by

passion and

Franks

and violence. Gallo-Bomans Mayors


a

out at length worn of kings were They incapable were of uniting

for

a
"

53. The
there
was

of the Palace.
or overseer

great career. Among the

royal

steward

performed but eventually, because he stood his estates, he succeeded managed

mayor of the palace. important than those

At

called the major first his duties were scarcely by any


so

officers domus, or
more

steward, nobleman's the king's person and near into his own in gathering

hands

the command of the army. of power, even After a time the king lost the right of selecting his mayor of was the palace and the position was taken by the man who the reins

THE

FOUNDATIONS

OF

ENGLAND

55
kingdoms had
an

Each leader of the nobles. of official this sort. Pepin,


haut,

of the Frankish
one

of those

of the palace mayor The long civil wars Frankland. resulted in sowing Austrasia and the western country enmity between

became

overthrew in Austrasia, or
who

Bruneeastern

permanent
or

Neustria.
some

given rise to the tradition that there was difference between the peoples of the two regions.

This

has

real

In

their

rivalry Austrasia grandson, Neustrian


a

was

to triumph

through

second

Pepin,

who,

of the palace mayor nobles, conquered both kingdoms. at Testry, in 687, and gained firm control over From house, as the descendants this time on the Merovingian of Chlodwig power
were

with the Neustrian

the energy of Pepin's the aid of discontented

passed
no more

years

called, ceased to rule and merely reigned, for into the hands of Pepin. for many There were divisions made Pepin of the kingdom. recognized

It

was

the king who ruled in Neustria as sole king of the Franks. half a century before his family dared depose the over

Merovingians

and take the crown. 54. The Limits of Francia. During this period the Franks They ceased to look chiefly to the south for land to conquer. turned about and sought to bring under their rule the tribes
"

homes occupied the abandoned of the firstinvaders. included the Germans in the both sides of the Main on between the region later called Franco nia, and the Thuringians Weser They and the Saale. also attacked the Saxons whose which These haunts

had

lay farther northwest. On by the Bavarians acknowledged


This

the east their authority


on a

was

the

banks

tribe had

lived in Bohemia,

region

of the Lech. from the named forced the


name,

Celtic Boil, whom Caesar mentions. When before the advancing Slavs the tribe retained into Baiowarii, or Bavarians.

to

retire transformed

55. The Foundations


unity
were

of England. in Gaul.

"

In Britain hindrances tribes who

to

greater than
as

The

North

conquerors less influenced by Roman

Sea

no possessed unity. ideas than other Germans.

crossed the They had been Nor did

these

ideas reach

them

through

the

conquered

Britons, for

56

THE

BEGINNINGS

OF

NEW

PEOPLES

the British population was almost wholly swept away, especially Moreover, in the eastern part of the island. Christianity had
no converts made first settlements.

among The

them

until

over

century

after their

dreary other. mastery

catalogue

Now and

one

is a early history of these settlements of battles with Britons or conflicts with each tribal king and now another would gain the
the lead

take

against

the
names

stubborn

foe.

The

of several of these have been littlekingdoms preserved


county
names,

in
"

English Essex,

Norfolk,
Kent.

Suffolk, Gradually
along the

and the
ern east-

kingdoms

and southeastern shore became more tenting peaceful, conthemselves the lands they held. with

The

interminable
Ruins
of
the

task those

Roman

Wall

at

Leicester

passed
west
an

to

of war farther

In Roman

times
station

called Ratse,
on

portant im-

and

north.

Since

the

Fosse

road.

these tribes also were not in great need of land, they Britons

gradually sought
western

ceased

to drive

the

from

their homes

or only to conquer enslave them. belonged kingdoms supremacy

Among
to

and the fighting

Northumberland,

particularly in the first half of the seventh century, or Mercia, in the eighth century, but finally to Wessex, early in which to give to the English the ninth century their first real was king, Egbert. the After

Christianity

had

won

over

the

English,

did much to bring the scattered organized Church In Gaul the tendency toward peoples to a feeling of unity. held no division was so strong that, by and by, there were newly councils at which but in England, bishops could all the Frankish there were so partly because be present ; little many
gave

kingdoms,

the Church

triumphed

over

this obstacle, and

THE

OLD

ORDER

CHANGES

57

in its councils their first example of organized fortunate consequence This was another of the victory unity. the British party at the synod of of the Eoman party over Whitby. tlie English

56. The Lombards,


the Lombards
were

the Empire,
unable
to

and
conquer

the Papacy.
the

"

In

Italy

of the Empire and unite the peninsula under a single rule like that of Had Theodoric. they succeeded, the course of Italian history have been like that of Frankish English history. or would Italy would
"

domains

not

have

remained

for

more

than

thousand

years

Their failure was not expression." simply a geographical for this they abanto Arianism, due to their early conversion doned It was and became zealous protectors of the Church. towns ; but, due, at first, to the stout defence of the Roman

afterward,
master
so

to the

determination
so

of the

popes

not

to

have

Lombard

energetic, king. The


the

as the at hand ambitious, and so near had been distant and his repreemperor sentative, exarch, had been the pope's rival rather than

his ruler. 57. The West,

Old Order

Changes.

"

Meanwhile,

had of government methods The territorial city, especially in the northern abandoned. ing In both Gaul and Italy, includpart of Gaul, was subdivided. Greek as well as Lombard Italy, all the local governmental Eoman duke or of a count gradually put into the hands Occasionally in Gaul several of these divisions or tribune. duke. In eastern Gaul a were counts under united under duke of Alsace, and there came to be a duke of Champagne, a
powers
were a

the all through been generally

duke

of

Burgundy.
or

Beyond
kings.

the The

Rhine only

these

dukes king

were

really tribal chiefs


restrain called
serve

way

the

the

count

was as

by

sending

missi,

but

yet

they

or emissaries too infrequently appeared

could inspectors
to

When a the count tyrant, treating was the purpose. brutally those in his power, it often happened that the richer landowners in the region asked of the king the privilege of having
their estate free
or

immune

from

the

intrusion of the

58
or

THE

BEGINNINGS

OF

NEW

PEOPLES

nity, Ins officers. If the king made such a grant of immuthe one who received it administered justice and collected domain, and the king alone had the right taxes within his own the proceeds At first he turned over to interfere with him.
count

of the taxes

old system In this case

but a time came the when royal officers, forms. or lingered in other of taxation disappeared the landowner continued to collect from sometimes
to

the

the serfs or coloni on his estate the land tax as a yearly charge or due him personally. The same might be done by a count duke himself did he have estates in the locality. After the

beginning
choose them these
as

customary of the seventh century it was from the local landowners counts among
salary the
was use

in Gaul and

to

to give

of certain estates.
common as

The

result of all

things

that the had

people

could hardly

tell

what powers landowners.

the counts The

royal officers and what as rich two, land and power, began to go together.
"

58. The New


officers had German war

Nobility.
source

The

another

richer landlords Much of influence.


youths nobles

and the royal the early as ambitious


to seek

winning their families boys


or

chiefs gathered about them glory in fighting, so these new


or

places of power. faithfully to serve

young In return

men

wished for this favor

who

admitted honors

of into

they felt bound


sought

their

patron.

Others

the

same

either because the privileges for still more practical reasons, law gave them littleprotection against their enemies or because

they hoped
were

for

some

supported
a

by

privilege beyond To great name.

their reach be received

unless they in this way


as

by
case

noble of the

was

called recommendation, petty landowners of the


were

somewhat later Eoman

in

the

Empire.
they
were

Such

agreements

not

enforced

by

law,

but

supported

the next began names


The patron

by custom, day's law.

day may become of one and the custom So common that was this arrangement to be found for the patron and for his followers.

in France
was

called a senior, a word into the mediaeval seigneur.


a
vassus, or

was

which His

was
man

to
or

develop

follower

named

vassal,

in

England

gesitli,later

THE

PEOPLE

59
in sncli

tliegn. There

were

even

beginnings

of

gradation

be specially recommended to might patronage, for tlie count the duke, and he to the king. Before the middle of the eighth century another 59. Land. common, the new sothing became which also looked toward ciety
"

first came forming. into When was the Franks which land to their followers without Gaul, the kings had given much The Church, into whose of taking it again. any expectation it did not return, hands land also passed, but from which
losing the title way to use its surplus land without to it. A landless man would ask the bishop or abbot that the him as a favor or benefit use of a piece of land be granted This land was (jpereneficium). granted either for a definite b devised
a

of years number hereditary. it


was a

or

for
It
was

one

or

two

lifetimes.

It did not
a

come be-

real

favor.

quite naturally called later Merovingian The it


or

benefice, for
kings,
or

the

mayors

without finally, they began to make the same use of their and, lands. Such grants of benefices might own or not be might As yet to those who had themselves. made recommended Had between there was the no the two acts. connection

Church

of the palace, thought lands in this way with

good

plan to grant out the consent of the

Church,

acceptance of a piece of land as a benefice necessarily carried with it the performance of definite duties as a vassal, the feudal system already have been in existence. would

60. The
owned

People.
farms
on,

"

Although
was

the

number
as

of those who

still

small
went

decreasing
were

the process of recommendation

classes of men which still the same found in the later Empire, were freedmen, coloni, and slaves, free farmers, mechanics, In England the numor merchants. ber
"

there

was of freemen had been

relatively large exterminated


of

because

the

British

population

rather

than

enslaved,

because
Germans Gaul.

the
was

proportion smaller European

The

freemen among slaves and like than in an old Roman community ants cities had lost so many of their inhabit-

and the

that crops could

occasionally

be raised within

their walls.

60

TUB

BEGINNINGS

OF

NEW

PEOPLES

Other crops could be cultivated in lands lying


so

close

at hand,

that

town.

within

country and The villas or villages of the great landowners gathered limits the few simple industries that were their own This, in turn,
a

there

came

to

be

little traffic between

necessary.

the injured few towns

towns,

depriving

In only their market. succeed in maintaining

Italian cities were of them had been

did the greater a show of their former activity. The stronger than those in Gaul, although many forever ruined by the Lombard The wars.

of industries

them

could free themselves altogether nobility which grew up never from the influence of these towns. They became to a greater degree
than the Frankish

lords

61. The Byzantine

Empire

city nobility. from 565 to 717.

"

The

Empire's

losses had been great, but its lands were stillimposing in extent. back to the Although the northern frontier had been pushed Balkans
homes

by

the

Bulgarians,

everywhere

in
what

the

and Slavic settlers were Balkan peninsula, the Servia, Bosnia, and

finding imperial

domain

included

is

now

Herzegovina.

It extended around the northern end of the Adriatic westward Kavenna From the eastern coast of Italy. and halfway down it controlled
although The Eome strip leading toward Lombards this cut the southern
a

by way
from

of Perusia, those in the

north.

territory about Eome and Naples, the southern ends of the peninsula, and the three islands of Sicily, Sardinia, territories, while Greece, and and Corsica made up the western hold The formed Asia Minor those on the south and east.
have distant part of this Empire must always steadily moulded uncertain ; but the central regions were into a practically homogeneous people, which, in itssympathies,

upon been

the

more

its institutions, and its religious beliefs, was but religion. The bond of union was not race stillmore unifying than in the West,
force.
the Church

strongly Greek. In the Empire,


an

exerted
were

irresistible

regarded as the successors of Augustus and Constantine, the heirs of the Eoman They fast becoming simply Greek or Byzantine. they were name, Although
the emperors
to speak

forgot how

Latin.

Even

before Justinian's

century

NEW

INVADERS

61
in ordinances Greek added Empire

closed tliey liad ceased to publish their laws and To their titles were the old imperial tongue.

The divisions of the titles,like despotes and basileus. instead of provinces. were called themes

62. New

Invaders.

who robbed the directly attacked

In Syria and Africa it was the Moslems About Empire 673 they had of territory.
"

Constantinople.

years, but the Arab fleet was aid of swift fire-ships,which possibly used the deadly known G-reek fire. In Europe the Slavs had as

siege lasted for several finally beaten off, largely by the


compound taken the

The

foe. Before their earas the northern liest place of the Germans the Slavs lived along the Don, the Dnieper, emigrations stretching no and the Vistula, their settlements than the fifty-fifth degree of north latitude.
they
were

farther

north south Black

On

the

cut off by other


were

tribes from

the shores of the

Sea.
the

They

called by the they

Germans

Wends,

or

Serbs. themselves named is even Slavs, the original meaning took the name of which It was more not until the sixth uncertain than that of Serbs. had left the Danube century, after the Ostrogoths valley for the conquest of Italy, that great masses of Slavs moved ward, southprairie, and

people of Later they

had although many scattered groups already settled There was a tradition that the emperor within the Empire. descended from Justinian Slavic peasants. The lands was
from

they set out which At first, as they Rumania. they became


did
not

are

now

called

Transylvania

and

strong national organization, tributary to the Empire, so that their presence

had

no

They the line of the frontier. change penetrated farther and farther southward and westward until they reached the southern point of ancient Hellas, the slopes of the Alps, and the borders of southeastern Germany. In these new homes
they

remained,

not from

the people

and many of Herodotus

Greek is descended, modern Pericles, but from a race or

heard. The of barbarians of which the ancient Greeks never Servians, another group of Slavs, retained one of the race names. Still another came to be called Slovenian and dwelt

62

THE

BEGINNINGS

OF

NEW

PEOPLES

SUMMABY

63

in southern Hungary. were of the Danube


conquered

by

an

who settled immediately south in the last part of the seventh century Asiatic people called Bulgars Bulgarians, or Those

their conquerors, they were absorbed and, although they soon by them formed into a strong state which threw off the yoke of the Greeks at Constantinople.

Retreat. The Slavs and also directly westward from their early homes, and did not moved beyond the river Elbe. They stop until they had advanced
"

63.

Westward

Advance

expelled

the Germans farther At the

from
east

Bohemia. they
were

Czechs, while and Slovacs.

named Poles, Moravians, called this movement firm obstacle

There

they

were

stopped, for on by the Frankish of German advance organized Slowly the Slavs were forced backward toward the
They also lost
a

century end of the seventh its western it met the edges

leaders.

Vistula.
But the

part of the

conquests
not

in Bohemia.

vitality of the race was direction and marched took a new Thus to be called Great Russia. expanding
heathen. that them they It
were
a was

exhausted ; this simply into what came northward

far the
ninth

Slavs had

remained

not

until

converted

and tenth centuries Even to Christianity. then part of


was
no

the

accepted

with western

Christianity which Christendom.

longer in sympathy

SUMMARY I. The
West.
"

1. The

Franks:

Chlodwig,
palace
2.
;

personal

feuds

(c) the victory England : (a) results


for supremacy

(a) quarrels over ; (") rise to power of Pepin ; (d) extent of


manner

the

heritage

of

the mayors of Trankish


;

of the rule.

of the
the

of the conquest
;

(6) struggles
of the in

among

tribal kingdoms 3.
;

the

Church

toward
to conquer

unification.
the

Italy:

(c) influence (a) failure of

Lombards
the

peninsula

(6)

attitude of the popes

for civilization : (a) growing 4. Results power of struggle. local nobles ; (6) immunity from interference of royal officers ; followers or vassals ; {d) land granted (c)the new nobles and their
as a

benefice ;

(e) the

people

in the

country

grouped

about

the

noble, the towns

impoverished

with the decrease

of trade.

64
II. The

THE

BEGINNINGS

OF

NEW

PEOPLES

East.

Size of the Empire. language, 3. spirit. and


"

1.

2.

It becomes attacks
;
on

Greek

in customs,

New

its frontiers. zation organito

4.

The

Slavs
by

(a)

period
;

of their emigration

(6) given
westward

the the

Bulgars

(c)

their

movement

the

Elbe

{d)

different peoples

of Slavic origin.

FURTHEK General Paragraphs


52-53.
55.

STUDY
countries

Reading
:
"

Histories

of separate

mentioned

in Ch. 1.

Wars

Among of the 14-44.

the
English

Franks Nation

Kitchin,
:

I., 81-98 ; Emerton, 132-177


; Green,

68-72. Short

Growth
History,

Church,

56,

The

Lombards

and

the Papacy

Bury,

II., 439-449

; Oman,

Dark

Ages,

Ch. IG.
in order to note changes Empire. and society since the later Roman Bury, II., 167-174; Oman, Empire, character: paragraphs 7-13, in government

57-60.

Compare

61.

Byzantine

tine Byzan-

Empire,

Ch. 11.
:

62,

63.

The ed.

Slavs

Freeman,

Historical

Geography

of

Europe,

Bury

(seeIndex) ;
Reading
:

Rambaud,

Chs.

2, 3 ; Kovalevsky,

Ch. 1.

Additional

Rambaud,

History

of Bussia,

3 vols. ; Kovalevsky,

Bussian

Political

Institutions

; Morfill, Bussia

and

Poland.

For

Review,

Chs. 1-4

395-732,

the fall of the

Roman

Empire

and

the

transformation

of Europe. of Europe
:

Changes

1.

In the geography
at the end

(a)

boundaries
;

of the

Empire

in 395 and

of the seventh

century

(") boundaries
had
;

of

Christendom

at

these

dates ;

(c)

kingdoms
and

which north

supplanted
territory

the Empire,

particularly Empire by

in the west

(d)

lost to
2.

the
:

732 ;

(e) lands
within which

under

Slavic

rule.

In population

the invasions

began
within

(a) German element tribes ; (b) German


the boundaries
at first,afterward

the Empire

before nent perma-

had

found

homes

of the old Empire

tribes, conquerors within


the

Empire

and

the

exterminated Slavs, their contact independent

; (c) German ; (d) the Slavs

with

or as the the Germans ; (e) the Sai'acen invasion as an emigration 3. In govtribes to Mohammedanism. ernment conversion of conquered its officers, imperial government, between : contrast old

its system

of taxes,

its vast expenditures,

and

the

new

monarchies

SUMMARY

65

of the
taxes

West
for

with

nobles

hecoming
4. his
In
tenant

independent
society
:

and
the

collecting
with

the his

themselves. slaves ordinary and

(a)

noble,

villa, his

fanners,
town
on

his

increasing
;

power; the land of the

(6)
custom

the

freeman

in

and
the

country
estates,

(c)
growth
:

question,

effect of the of granting


the
state

invasions
as

great 5. In

land religion
;

benefices.

religion of the
;

(a)

tianity, Chrisin the


;

(6)

organization

Church

East

and

the

West work

(e) missionary
and
conquests.

of the papacy (c) growth ; (/) Mohammedanism,

(d)

monasticism

its origin, teachings,

CHAPTER
THE AGE

V.

OF

CHARLEMAGNE

64. What

Three Great Franks

the century which followed Tours all petty tribal conflicts,even the movements of emigrant by several events pressed into the background peoples, were influenced still more deeply the succeeding history of which
lose their the Greeks this century that saw hold on central Italy and the popes take their place as rulers. kingdom finally The dream of a united Lombard of Italy was dispelled and instead there was a crude revival of the Eoman

During accomplished, 714-814. the defeat of the Moslems at


"

Europe.

It

was

Empire

with

Erankish

king

as

emperor.

These

events
"

were

Franks, Charles about largely by three remarkable Martel, Pepin, and Charles the Great, who had supplanted the kings and had made Merovingian a close alliance with the brought

Church.
unique,

The

opportunity
men

which
were

the times

offered them

was

but only such


arms

equal to the emergency.


their subjection

Had

their strong

not

held

in

the ambitious chieftains of dependent on. of later days would have hastened
not
even

nobles and all tribes, the dark disorder When

they
new

were

gone
name

could
true

their example nor keep anarchy from


ages

the magic

of the

imperial

dark

from

overshadowing beginning.
"

all Europe

and the

the

65. Pepin becomes

King, 751.

Charles Martel
at Testry

was

son

monarchy. his way He to power. not only forced the rians nobles to obey, but also forced border peoples like the BavaWhen the and the Saxons to recognize his supremacy. he had
fought
66

of that mayor of the palace who both parts of the Erankish over

had

gained control Like his father

ENMITY

BETWEEN

EMPIRE

AND

PAPACY

67

flows, and which the Garonne was which pendence, called Aquitaine, tried to break away and establish its indehe subdued in order to gain the revolt. Although adherents he did not hesitate to grant to them as benefices the country through,
use

of Church
as

lands, he supported

organizer of churches Church, The reformer of the Frankish gave caused the pope to think he might

the

heartily the work of Boniface in Germany and as the valuable help that he be used to beat off the

Lombards,
was was

who

were

then just

more

left of the Empire

in Italy.

seriously threatening what Meantime, Charles though

for several years before his really sovereign and though king, he did not take the crown. death there was no His son Pepin also waited ten years more before he ventured to supplant Merovingian the phantom Finally, he sent monarchs.

embassy to the pope to ask whether bore the name but did not have who
an

they should
royal

be kings

pope
power

wisely

replied that it was should also have the name


in their assembly of his royal locks and

The authority. better that he who had the of

king.

The

Frankish

chiefs assented
was

and

so

the last Merovingian

shorn Pepin was little

crowned,
two

probably

shut up in a monastery, while by the great bishop Boniface.

the pope himself crossed afterward the Alps, solemnly anointed Pepin king, and obtained from him the promise to march into Italy to deliver the imperial cities,
over

years

had fallen into the hands which, with the exception of Rome, by the This consecration of the monarch of the Lombards. Henceforward Church a the the crown new sanctity. gave Frankish
was

kings
as

were

the
as

"

Lord's

sacrilege

well

treason

anointed," upon to lay violent hands.


"

whom

it

-^ not
some

66.

Enmity

between

to surrender
one

and Papacy. help must to the Lombards,

Empire

If Eome

was

be gained

from

besides the emperor.

the other effort to save to find fault with him. the Church of pictures and images of Christ and the saints. The ancient Greeks had not been content with a simple wor-

no made successful cities. The pope had another reason This was the dispute about the use in

He

had

68

THE

AGE

OF

CHARLEMAGNE

or river or the ancestral ship of those spirits of mountain hearth in wliom they trusted j they sought to portray their This artistic ideas of the gods in painting and sculpture. forms beauty impulse, had of such and which produced

strength, naturally of the


common

led them

to paint

pictures

or

carve

images The

saints who
people marvellous

the gods and heroes. replaced that such images of the day supposed After the rise of Mohammedanism powers.

had

sessed pos-

to explain the embarrassed A few of the difference between their religion and idolatry. bishops desired to restore worship to its earlier and simpler forms. A successful soldier, Leo the Isaurian, who, in 717,

the eastern

Christians

were

often

before he had

been
a

on

the throne attack


even

from
the
cause

new

six months, of the Arabs,

had

saved

stantinop Conup

eagerly

took

of reform zealous
was

and

attempted

to reduce
use
or

the

monks, he enemies policy


were was

advocates of the called the Iconoclast

the power of By his of images. His image-breaker.

continued
these

by his immediate
that they

successors.

So persistent

emperors

lost the

and Italian peoples, who were angry In Italy the papacy led the opposition. their patron saints. 67. States of the Church. Pepin did not find it easy to
"

Greek

of both at the dishonor done sympathy

keep

his promise, for his lords were loath to make war upon into He Lombards. lead two expeditions the was obliged to Italy, the second in 756, before Aistulf, the Lombard king, would
restore

finally surrender
to the

emperor.

his conquests. He took the

These

Pepin

did

not

keys

of the

laid them
drew

At the same upon the tomb of St. Peter. up a document, session called a donation, giving the pope posof these cities. Both king and pope felt instinctively when power

cities and time he

that in days and


strong

rested upon

control

of vast

estates

or cities the papacy extend its could not maintain influence unless it was This was lord of visible domains. the beginning a of the States of the Church, which remained Victor separate territory until the unification of Italy under

Emmanuel

in 1870.

CONQUEST
68. Pepin's Greatness.
Lombards
the most

OF

THE

SAXONS

69

"

Next

important

The of Aquitaine. conquest Eoman stock, were restless under listened to their duke, who urged
Pepin

against the the of Pepin was achievement people, chiefly the old GalloFrankish them rule and readily dence. to fight for indepen-

to his campaigns

resolved
year

to

subdue

them

thoroughly.

In

campaign, the power

resumed

of resistance. or of counties under Franks and placed the government done that So well was Aquitanians. this work trustworthy it taught his great son Charles how to subdue the Saxons and
how
so

after year from 760 to 768, he broke tresses he built forAs his army advanced

to organize

the Bavarians.

Indeed, had this counted

son

not

been
the

have been great, Pepin would famous most princes of Europe.

oftener

among

69. Charlemagne
Charlemagne, Charles the which Great.

in Italy.

"

Charles
form

is the French
From
the

is commonly called or of Carolus Magnus,

of his reign in 768 later, he was ceaselessly until his death, forty-six years of the kingdom, occupied, not only with the administration but with the extension of its frontiers. He was early called

beginning

into Italy
surrender donation.

to compel

the

new

Lombard had

king,

Desiderius,

to

the

cities which did Desiderius

he
not

seized in spite of Pepin's in the to resist him attempt

field,but shut himself up in Pavia. While the siege was being The pope a journeyto Eome. pushed forward Charles made have been better pleased had he recrossed the Alps would
to give up the cities. Charles had after forcing the Lombards He. renewed the donation other intentions. of Pepin and King Desiderius, many returned to capture Pavia. of whose

nobles had been

forced in 774 to surrender and to pass the remainder of his days in a monastery. Charles was king of the Lombards. He had also crowned been given the title "patrician of Eome" by the pope, but this honor which Pepin had also received. was a vague
won over

by Charles,

was

70.

Conquest

of the Saxons,

772-803.
begun

"

Even

before he

scended de-

into Italy, Charles

had

his efforts to subdue

70
and

THE

AGE

OF

CHABLEMAGNE

christianize the fierce Saxons, who had been attacked also by Charles Martel and Pepin. The lands of the Saxons commenced leagues beyond the right bank of the Rhine a few and

is now to the borders Denmark. northward of what Their boundary traced by a line southern could be roughly from Leipsic until it touched Cologne toward the running stretched

MANY

FRONTIERS

71

the lower eastern river Saale, which, with the Elbe formed Again and again Charles invaded the Saxon countryboundary. The gone revolt burst out. only to find that after he was Saxons were nor were they organized not united in a kingdom

fighting for their religion as The only chieftain who appears well as for their independence. to have exercised Widuthem was great influence over baptized no measures, kind. Until he surrendered and was
well for defence, they
were

but

however

savage,

subdued

the

spirit of

resistance.

At

one

by a new time Charles, exasperated revolt and unable to seize hundred of his followers to himself, ordered forty Widukind -five This massacre followed by a decree be beheaded. of Verden was death any one kept up the old threatened with who which did not observe the fasts or religious rites or refused baptism by the Church. Companies of missionary priests proclaimed As one part of Saxony went and monks about with the army. forced to submit, counts after another was administer the districts, and bishoprics were
of the
were

to appointed Many founded.

bishoprics, founded
were

like

Mlinster,

Bremen,

Hildesheim,
or

and after all

Halberstadt,
his death, southern

either

by Charlemagne the
centres
was

shortly
so

to

become

of towns,

that

eventually covered with lasted until the days of Napoleon. Where states which Charles could not break the spirit of the Saxons he compelled them to emigrate to the land of the Franks. Tradition says Church that from
the Capetian emigrants sprang kings who to rule France for nearly a thousand were years. Finally the conquest of Saxony was frontiers completed and the
a

and

western

Germany

family

of such

Christian people eastward to the Elbe. 71. Many Frontiers.


of the
"

"

"

pushed
Duke

as

far north

as

Denmark

and

Tassilo

of Aquitaine, to make but, unlike Pepin, Charles had merely force to compel his submission. The
as

had

the

duke

of Bavaria attempted, himself independent,


to make duke was
a

display of in deposed

788, and

was

shut

up

in
were

monastery, governed

his domains

usual in such cases, by counts. Still farther east.


as was

72
Charles crushed
invasion

THE

AGE

OF

CIIAELEMAGNE

the Avars,

people

which

were

always

ening threat-

The

Slavs

and beyond

his power, his rule.

though

of the earlier Huns. the Elbe were also forced to acknowledge he did not try to bring them directly under the remnants

included

chieftains in Spain the region immediately aided, in 778, in conquering south of There was a little Christian kingdom, the Pyrenees. already
the called Asturias, in the northwest, where the people had never been subdued Out of this kingdom by the Moslems. and of to grow the kingdoms were the new possessions of the Franks of Portugal, important an
the frontiers

Quarrels between

Moslem

Castile, Navarre,

and Aragon, which part in the building up of Spain. dominion there of the Prankish
it
was

were

to play
on

Since
was

all

constant

danger

of

war,

unsafe

to leave

these

border

lands

or

marches under ordinary counts, officers who at this time were frequently changed, arose of uniting the and so the custom whole of each border land under a count called the prefect of
the frontier, who Germany such a
was
man

left in command In years at a time. to be called a markgraf or came margrave,


a

and in England

count

72. Charlemagne
which Charles ruled

crowned
was
now

of the march. Emperor. The


"

territory

over

in extent than that under " His titlewas king of the government of the Greek emperors. the Franks, governing the Gauls, Germany, and Italy," but so his power that his peoples were great and so wisely used was
greater
not

simple title. They began to call him " lord of the earth," " whom the Creator in his mercy has given It was natural to think to peoples as a defender and a father." that he was once the true successor of the emperors who
content

with

such

Learned brought peace and order to the western men world. for had not St. Jerome still believed in the Empire, proved from the prophecy

of Daniel end
also

that this Empire


only with
came

was

the fourth

monarchy, Christ ?

which could Such thoughts


to have
"

coming second to the mind of Charles.

the

of He title

desired
"

the

vague

patrician

more

exactly

by the privileges suggested defined. It happened that

just

TBE

LAWS

73

before the close of the century Constantine VI., put emperor,


into
a

Irene, the mother of the young out her son's eyes, thrust him
to rule the Empire

dungeon,

and attempted

regarded as a usurper, and many had come to the Empire at Constantinople


was same

She

in his place. in the West thought


an

end.

About

the

time, Charles III., who had had fled even

was

Leo

been

to protect Pope obliged to go to Rome brutally treated by a Roman mob, and

who November,
were

into the
the

Saxon

country

to find Charles.

In

800,

cavalcade

to settle the needed Romans. Just what other questions know. On Christmas Charles Day

entered Rome. the trouble between


were

Some
pope
we

weeks and the


do not

discussed
the

entered

church
upon

knelt

at

the the

altar.

Suddenly

Leo

head

most cried out pious crowned of God, the great and peace-giving emperor, be life and victory." Apparently by Charles was surprised

and Augustus,

people

placed a crown Charles, the "To

and his

this act, for


wrote

his friend
"

that Charles

and declared

biographer,
that

Einhard,

in the have have

it was a church, although foreseen the design of the


of the
some

he would great feast day, if he could Many explanations pope."

afterward not have set foot

given Charles intended

been

strange

day

it is certain that to take the title. Possibly he did


fact, because

not wish
successors

to be crowned

unmake " Roman

by the pope in that way, lest the pope's should claim that they had a right to make and to Einhard in his account that the emperors. adds that is the G-reeks, took this coronation emperors," first Charles her
over

very ill. At
reigning

thought

with

The

into exile, he undertook to make a treaty the Greek be recognized. that his title might emperor, on affair dragged several years, but finally the Greek hailed
him
as

with and driven

both

of marrying After Empires.

Irene she
was

and

of

overthrown

envoys

basileus, though

the

treaty

was

not

ratified until after his death. 73. The Laws. Charles was
"

lawgiver
for

as
men

well

as

conqueror.

Although will openly, he did

he

was

too

powerful

to resist his

nothing

save

through

the

advice

of

his

74
nobles
named

THE

AGE

OF

CHARLEMAGNE

assemblies of the great Frankish " These laws were Fields of May." the called capitularies. Some of them were simple orders to his officers,others
and
the
consent

by

of his vast estates, and He did not attempt, still others additions to the ordinary laws. to work over like Justinian and, in modern times, Bonaparte, In his reign every man continued all the laws into a single code.
were

directions

for the

management

to live under

his

own

law, be it Roman

or

Salic

or

Bur-

into Many were also growing merely local customs gundian. laws. The divided into about Frankish territory was whole large and The three hundred counties, some others small. In managing duchies disappeared. not county affaii-sit was

easy to draw the line between the duties of count and of bishop, for an offence which disturbed the peace and therefore should be judged by the count the bishop also be a sin which might The punish. quarrels of counts In order to hold both troubled Charles.
must

and
to
a

bishops

often

strict account,
over

after 802 Empire.

he
Two

regularly
were were no

sent

emissaries,
sent

or

missi, all
a

the and
were a

generally

together,
see

count

bishop.
obeyed,

They and

commanded
one
"

to

that

the
the

laws

that

prevailed

against

God,
Some
was

or

the poor-, or
soon

of them

or widows, minors, or any discovered that in certain

of churches Christian man." counties

justice

openly sold. 74. Lords and Vassals.

"

The

rule justand fair to all were heavy burdens that the constant

efforts of Charles to make his less successful because of the


wars

laid upon the freemen. in the form of increased Nowadays come such burdens would peared. taxation, but the Roman system of taxation had almost disapAs Charles could it in borrow or not raise money the duty of order to hire men and equip them, it had become each individual who was and send a soldier rich enough to arm Poorer freemen at his own must expense. combine either to Often arm one or to send some one of their own else. number
a

rich

landowner

would

threaten

to have

sent

off to the

army

unless

he would

poorer neighbor give up his little farm,

THE

REVIVAL

OF

LEARNING

75
men of free-

holding
was

it henceforth
not
was

as

benefice.

Charles
of
a

large enough to obliged to demand


furnish
men

Since the number furnish the needed


that those

who

recruits, held benefices He

certain size should that these also commanded


"

man

or

go themselves.

go

to

the

or This their either the count senior." recognition in the law of the relation between held a benefice and him from whom it had been

rendezvous with Avas the first clear


the
man

prevent

these

"

"

seniors compelled
very
to

from

standing
man

who To received. between him and his


a

Charles subjects,
allegiance. of These The
men

every

to take

solemn that held


as

oath of the obligations sacred.


a
man

words
or

seniors

of the oath lords were

showed

"I promise were, words should be to his lord." The 75. The Church. notion
"

already to be faithful
...

that the

Church

should

be

left to manage He Charles.

have seemed to wrong affairs would dreamed that should be Christian, of an Empire the choice of bishops, and he thought it his duty to watch over for a better educated to provide clergy, and to see that no
own

its

heresies ordered

nor a

pagan
more

superstitions

accurate

Bible to be made because Alcuin, one prepared. of the


in the convents days

He crept into the Church. translation of the copy of Jerome's the copies in use had been carelessly scholars at his court, procured Italy several Bibles copied in the
accurate

of southern With the aid of these an of Theodoric. the Latin Bible was and became completed used in the West.

text

of

the

only

version

Anglo-Saxon, Alcuin was an of Learning^. ence trained in the school of York, which was still under the influhad died in 735. Bede, who of a great scholar named him Charles had found him in Italy and had brought to

76. The Revival

"

Aix-la-Chapelle
Here youths
were

in

782

to

taught

establish a school in the palace. all the learning that had survived

In such efforts Charles was Empire. the ruin of the Eoman free schools founded aided by several energetic bishops, who for the children living within their dioceses. For a time it

76
seemed revival
as

THE

AGE

OF

CHARLEMAGNE

if there

was

to

be

an

of

learning, and and


were

that

intellectual renaissance, or Frankish the new civilization


as

and of each of annals or brief statements generally But such a revival could not last long, for only year's events. the strong arms of the three great Franks kept western Europe Moreover, Latin had ceased from again falling into disorder.
written, in the form
to be the

would produce poets Several biographies

historians

did the

elder Empire. histories were begun,

language

region

of modern halfway something Spain

of the France was

common

taken

Its place in the people. " Roman language," by the

between

Latin

and

French.

In

Italy and
similarly

the beginnings

wrought

of Spanish and Along out in daily speech.

of Italian were the Rhine it was

German

that

was

taking

shape.
"

77.
we are

Charlemagne.
eager
to know

When
how

himself shown he lived, and he looked, how


a man

has

great what

Tradition pictures Charles flowing beard, and clad in garments with a massive heavy with jewels but Einhard ; gives a very different description. Charles was tall and broad, a little inclined to distinguished him from other head, a long
men.

His eyes were large and with a rather short neck. face laughing a little long, hair fair, and sparkling, his "nose He wore dress, "despised the ordinary Frankish and merry."
stoutness,

foreign

self and never allowed himto be robed in them except twice in Rome, when he donned Like all noble Franks the Roman tunic, chlamys, and shoes." hunting, but he delighted especially in swimming. he
costumes,

however

handsome,

enjoyed

Einhard Chapelle
was so

says that he built his principal palace at Aix-labecause of its baths. Although in his drinking he

temperate,

detesting

drunkenness,

he

was

hearty

eater,

fond

of roast urged listened


was

they

that he disliked his physicians venison instead. him While to eat boiled meat
to
or reading Augustine's

cause beat

table
most

he
to

music.

The

book
He

he

liked

hear

City of God.
he
he

astronomy with great interest, and he never learned to write, although

understood
"

studied Greek ; but tablets

used

to keep

CHARLEMAGNE'S

SUCCESSORS

77

and

blanks

in bed

might

accustom

under his pillow that at leisure hours he loved his He his hand to form the letters."
them always

children, keeping

about

him,

and

directing

their

Aix-la-Chapelle

(Aachen).
the

Cathedral,
Charlemagne

of which
as was a

the palace

round

at church In the chapel.

left
into

was

built by century
a

fourteenth
a

Gothic

choir

added

to transform

the whole

cathedral.

education,

but

he

did

not

in

all things

set

them

good

example. 78. His Successors. his


son

"

Charlemagne
the Pious

was

Louis, named

because
or

succeeded in 814 by of his humility and


he
required

religious zeal, and


was

the

Debonnair,

mild
a

and

easily influenced. stout heart and a strong

easy-going, because Unfortunately those days


arm

rather

than

sweet

78

THE

AGE

OF

CHABLEMAGNE

disposition and a pure character. Troubles arose Louis began to carry out the old ruinous policy his sons. Charles had been the territory among

as

soon

as

of dividing saved from

by the death of all his the consequences of a similar mistake Louis. The sons save sons of Louis again and again rose They into a monastery, even thrust him against him. and he was dead quarrelled among themselves over a division when
A great battle was fought at Fontenet, south of the Empire. in Finally at Verdun, not decisive. of Auxerre, but this was

According 843, peace was to the terms made. in Italy to the North country from Beneventiim
to Lothair, the

long

strip of

Sea

was

eldest, with
was

the

title of

''

the Alps
east

and

this strip the Ehone,


or

roughly outlined Saone, Meuse, and

emperor." by the Rhine

given Beyond
on

the

Scheldt

on

the west.

the second son, was given the territory, son, east of this strip, and to Charles, the youngest all that lay The Emperor Lothair had no effective control to the west. his brothers, so that the three parts of the " kingdom over of
the Franks," separate Louis had
eastern,

To

Louis,

Ludwig,

three and

western

Charles of the war recognized that the inhabitants of eastern and When they Francia were really distinct peoples.
course swore

middle, and Li the kingdoms.

western

Francia,

became

became

allies against Lothair, and Charles took the oath before


teudisca,
"

to

lingua

or

Tudesque,
"

and

army Louis before These

the

support of Louis the

one

another,

in the army of

Charles in the
monuments

Roman

tongue.

of French and German. therefore, for taking the Treaty of Verdun

oaths are the earliest There is a double reason,


as

the

historical

beginning

of France

and

Germany.

EMPIRE

OF

CHABLEMAGNE

79

80

THE

AGE

OF

CHARLEMAGNE

SUMMAEY
I. Charles
:

Martel.

"

1. Position

as

mayor

tanians

(a) Saracens [Ch. 3] ; (6) [Ch. .3]. ; (c) aids Boniface


1. Becomes

2. Conquests of the palace. Bavarians, Saxons, Aqui-

II. Pepin.

"

king.
popes
;

2.

In

Italy

(a)

cause

of enmity
against

tween bethe

Empire Lombards; of Aquitaine.

and

(h)

Pepin's 3.

expeditions

(c) his
"

"donation."

Conquest

and

organization
to
:

III. Charlemagne.

1.

In

Italy:

(a)

renews

donation Saxons

(6)

becomes

king of Lombards.
;

2.

Conquers
so

papacy; tion (") loca-

of Saxons
priests

(6)
:

why

they
as

resisted

stubbornly

(c) missionary
territory.

and

monks

organizers
Tassilo,

3. Other

conquests 4. Emperor

Bavarian
:

of conquered the the Avars, people


toward

Slavs, in Charles
;
;

Spain.

(")
;

attitude

of

C") expedition
of
the

to Rome

(c) circumstances
toward
;
new

of coronation
5.

(d) attitude
of
condition

Greeks
assemblies

emperor.

Lawgiver:

(a)

Prankish

(")

kinds

of law ;

(c) enforcement
wars on

law, especially through


of freemen
;

missi ;

(d)

effect of constant

(e) recognition
clergy. the palace

(/)

efforts to

improve and

of relation of lord and 6. Revival of learning :

vassal ;

(a)

Al-

IV.

school ; (") the writings of the day ; 7. Appearance (c) changes in language. and habits of Charles. The Carolingians. 1. Louis, his character and his misfortunes.
cuin, the Bible
"

2.

The

sons

of Louis

(a) their

wars

(6) treaty

of Verdun

and

its meaning. For

Comparison.
boundaries

"

1.

The

boundaries
Empire

of the empire in 395.

of Charles

and

the of

of the Roman

2. Size of the empire

Charles and size of Byzantine Empire about Charles compared government confronting
Roman
Empire.

700. with

3. DiiBculties those

of

of the later

IMPORTANT 717.
Accession of Leo the Isaurian

DATES
at Constantinople

; the image

controversy.

732. 751.

Defeat

of the Saracens

at Tours

by

Charles

Martel.

P4pin

becomes

king.

768. 774.
800. 814.
843.

Accession

of Charles.
becomes crowned

Charles Charles
Death

of the Lombards. Emperor at Rome.

king

of Charles.

Treaty

of Verdun.

SUMMARY

81

FURTHER
General
Reading:

STUDY

Eginhard
by Mombert,

Life of (Einhard),
Davis,

Charlemagne
; Adams,

biographies

Hodgkin

; modern Civilisation,
3-31 ;

Chs. Ch. 7 ; Bryce, Kitchin, I., 118-162


Paragraphs
:

4 and

5 ; Emerton,

Mediaeval

Europe,

; Henderson,

I., Ch. 2.

65. 66.

Pepin

Robinson,

Nos. 49-52. Nos. 41, 42; Bury, II., 428-438,


treatments

Iconoclasm:

Thatcher-McNeal, 494-498;
Byzantine

460-469,

Alzog,
Empire,

II., 206-218;

briefer

in

Oman's
67.

Ch.

15.

69.

States
Nos.

Church : compare of the Emerton, Introduction, 43-48 ;


; see
:

38-39
168-172,

; Thatcher-McNeal,

186-189

; Alzog,

II.,

141-147
70.

map

6. sections 7, 8 ; Robinson^ Nos. 54-55.

Saxon

War

Einhard, work of

pare Comsee

45 paragraph 72.

on

Boniface

for

duration

of bishoprics,

374. Emperor 5 ; Robinson,


in 476.
:

Charlemagne,
Bryce, "Fall

Thatcher-McNeal,
No.

Nos.

8, 13 ; especially
on

Ch.

56.

Compare

26

meaning

of

of Rome,"
:

73.

The

Laws

extracts

in Robinson,

No. 62 ; longer

selections in TV.

and Bp., Vol. VI., No. 6. In Tr. and Bp., Vol. III., No. 2, p. 2-5, is the capitulary " de villis,''^ith an inventory The w of an estate. 802 is also in Henderson, Documents, 189-201. capitulary of
74.

Government
Roman

and Empire,
:

Lords 7-13
;

Compare

57-60,

also condition

in later

see

selections in Robinson,

Nos.

58-60.

75.

The

Church

Emerton,
:

Introduction,

222-227

; Alzog,

II.,218-222. is
an
example

76.

Revival

of Learning of work
in

Einhard's

Life of Charlemagne
; Charlemagne's

biography
in Tr. and

attitude

appears

from

his

own

words

Bp., Vol.

VI., No.

5, p. 12-16,
or

and

in Robinson,
or

Nos.

63-64.

See further,

West,

Alcuin,

Mombert

Hodgkin.
of

77.

Description

Charlemagne
No.

in 53.

Einhard,

sections

21-27,

more

briefly in Robinson,
78.

Strasburg McNeal,

Oaths, No. 16.

in 'Emerton,

Mediaeval

Europe, division

Significance

of the

p. 27 ; Thatcherof 843, Emerton,

28-30.

Additional

Reading

Guizot, History

of France,

8 vols.

CHAPTER
BEGINNINGS

VI.
FEUDAL

OF

EUROPE

79. Origin
followed the

of Feudal
Treaty

Society.

"

Within

the century

which

the central government, (843) of Verdun Francia, lost its hold upon its particularly in western subjects. to be controlled They began by force or through the gift of lands and privileges the acceptance bound them to of which the giver. later Roman The

beginnings

of this change
was

reach
to

back

to the

in the completion struggles caused by the collapse of Charlemagne's empire and invasions. by the Norse Confusion and Hungarian and ruin Empire, hurried
were

but it

everywhere.

It is true

that territories like eastern

and

held together, mainly because of geographical Others, like the portion of Lothair, were tossed position. No that any man about, divided, and wonder subdivided.
western

Francia

strong
was

enough

to protect

or

to

menace

transformed

into their actual

his terrified neighbors ruler, either because they


they cared
more

could not help themselves, or because than for the form of government.

for safety

Of the three kingdoms of Lotharingia. marked out at Verdun, middle Francia, or Lotharingia, as it was named its ruler, fell to pieces in about a generation. In the valafter leys a new was of the Saone and the Rhone gradually formed
"

80. Fate

Burgundy,

which

included

except the northwestern duchy half was The of Burgundy. southern by itself called Provence because it included Provincia. It
more
was

kingdom all the older Burgundian to become This was the French part.
first a kingdom

from

the

natural that this region Francia. It was western separated


82

the old Roman should fall away


not

merely

LOTHARINGIA

liOTHARINGlA
NORTH
ACCORDING

or
TO OF

THE
THE S43

ALPS
DIVISION

Lotharingia
Lorraine, Dauphine with The by
a

is indicated
two

by dark

li

the

Burgundies,

Savoy,

their

Provence indicated are and boundaries at the time of


to France.
"

annexation

?--

Kiut^dom

heavy
a

is indicated of Provence broken line, bounded the on


dotted line. The Kingdom by

north by Burgundy,
Kingdom

(933 1032)
-

including

of the
a

of Provence,

is indicated

Longitude

East

0"

from

Greenwich

84

BEGINNINGS

OF

FEUDAL

EUROPE

but also by its civilization,which under the mild by mountains kings had retained more sway of the early Burgundian of the After less than two centuries the Roman laws and customs.
new
or

Burgundian German-Roman,

kingdom

was

Empire.

merged It was

into the restored Roman, its final destiny to be

for France the names slowly recovered under of Dauphine, Provence, Franche-Comte, and Savoy, a process not completed The was northern part of Lotharingia also at until 1860. There first united to east Francia. one was region which
remained
name was a
a

bone
is
a

which

of contention. form shortened

part. but it soon part down

Once
was

during

called Lorraine, a it of Lotharingia, of which the period it became a little kingdom,


was

This

ringia such a fate overtook the parts of Lothainevitable that Italy also north of the Alps, it was be separated from the rest of Charlemagne's empire. would Two Frankish descendants or three times east or of west When little conemperors, but they gained trol crowned for the throne. of affairs. Italian nobles also contended There was hope for a restoration of order until the German no down in 962 and restored the Empire. Otto came Charles
w^ere

of the to 1871.

united to east Francia. between story of the wars

Its later history is France and

Germany

81. East
fortunate

Francia.
of the that

"

East

Francia,

or

Germany,
there

was were

the most
no

three kingdoms. is, descendants

When
of

more

claim the forward throne, the families of the local nobles brought able kingdom leadership men, the German might whose under fairly boast of being the successor empire. of the Frankish
to

Carolingians,

Charles,

Bavaria Saxony under and placed Germans the as these peoples and the other counts, well Swabians, were the Franconians, not and the ThuringiansAlthough

Charles

had

"

"

absorbed
the master
rose

into
was

one

great whole.
some

As

soon

as

the strong
a

hand

of

withdrawn

to the
"

duchies,
of the

position of duke. Saxony, Swabia, Franconia,


kings of east Francia
was

noble, a count or In this way were

margrave, formed the

new

The first and Bavaria. Franconian, who vainly

WEST

FRANCIA

85

His sucthe power of the other dukes. cessor his rival, the duke of Saxony. Henry was the Fowler, hunting with a falcon as this king was named, because he was in 919 his election was to him, changed the when announced sought
The kingship policy and sought to conciliate the other dukes. the dukes to accept was not hereditary, but Henry persuaded king in 936. his son Otto as his successor. Otto became The the spent in trying to overcome early years of his reign were ducal rivals and bring their peoples more directly under his In the end the at first apparently rule. He was successful.

to break

down

local nobles creating


a

were

to

triumph

so

completely

that

the

united Germany The principal reason

strength in trying Roman Empire, where pope doing once peace and right into a disordered more

G-erman

remained unaccomplished for this failure was the waste of to realize the dream of a renewed and
emperor would unite to bring

task of for centuries.

world.
undertook crowned

This

task
he

Otto
was

when

emperor at Rome. 82. West Francia.


"

The

hardest for

fate
west

was

reserved

Francia,

or

France,

partly
over

because
ship the kingbetween
A

of disputes
or

contests

Ship

of

the

Northmen,
near

or

Vikings. Norway,

the kings

and

their great

Found buried 78
deep feet

in
on

1880 the

Gokstad,

nobles, but mostly because in expethe Northmen dition expedition desolation where. everySome
of the after

long,

seashore. 16 feet

Its dimensions:

pierced
a

amidships. for 16 oars


century

No
on

wide, deck, each

and
one

feet

mast,

side.

Owner,
Anlaif.

ninth

warrior

named

spread

kings would have been capable in other days of reigning worthily, but all the resources which able kings find at hand were The system of taxation which gone. would royal
have

furnished

money
venture

for
to

an

army

had

disappeared;

the

officers could

make

themselves

practically

86
independent privileges
so a

BEGINNINGS

OF

FEUDAL

EUROPE

in their counties;
to

the

treasure

of lands
was

and

of

attract with which that the last descendants

followers

city that they could call their own. house was set aside, lords of another throne. This
new

of Charles Even before their family

speedily exhausted had scarcely

had

twice

house

was

founded

by

occupied the Count Kobert,

rightly called the Strong, because he was and the Bretons against the Northmen Charles, the favorite
was a son

duchy,

including

of Louis the land

the hero of the fight during the reign of Robert's reward the Pious. between the

Seine and

the

king for ten years and sons was of Robert's another for a few months, but the time had not come when the family of Charles could be pushed so that aside permanently, Loire.

One

Robert's
of kings

grandson, and

Hugh

the Great,

was

content

to be

played

power

His son, Hugh the real ruler of France. pened the same part for thirty years, but in 987 there haphe who held the before once what had happened Thus the Capetian of king. also received the name
"

maker Capet,

family

mounted

the

until the Revokition back on Charles and Hugh was made king

to reign they were upon which The French have always looked of 1789. his family as French kings, so that before

throne

there had

five Louis.
namers,

Several

fared

been three named hard at the hands


as

Charles
of the
"

and

for Charles
as

II. is known

the

"

Bald

III.

the

"

Simple."

One

Louis

is called the

"

and Stammerer
was

nickCharles
"

" Outre-mer," or Over-sea, because he and another, from England to take the crown. over

brought

83.
from

England.

"

England

suffered

but otherwise the Continent, for the descendants

the Northmen,

sorely as did France less strife than on there was


as

were of Wessex The greatest of them, Alfred, who able and warlike kings. to the throne in 871, when the Northmen came triumphant, seemed is one of the noblest figures in the history of England
or

of Egbert

of

any and

nation.
to accept

After
the
own

he had

forced the
faith, he
He

peace

Christian
people.

make tried to improve

Danes

to

the condition

of his

brought

scholars

to his

DANES

IN

ENGLAND

87
In order
to

court

from

Wales

and from

Germany.

enrich, the people,

English

tongue,

he translated

the language of the common which was into it several important Latin books

world. known

the ideas of the Eomans and He also encouraged the monks to put together what in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, about the English

exwhich plained the earlier history of the was

the

firsthistorical work of any modern tongue. people in their own The Northmen first devas84. Danes in England. tated who
"

and

then

occupied

period Northmen into E-ussia and founded kingdom a also penetrated ; others in Greenland. to Iceland and formed settlements emigrated A littlelater they crossed the Atlantic and reached the shores
the
same

ninth and tenth Sweden, and Denmark.

parts of England and from what are centuries came During

France
now

in the Norway,

Some were also to found of America. Italy. But they accomplished most It was chiefly bands from the peninsula
to

principality in southern in France and England. of Denmark Danes them


was

that and small

came

these

lands.
Northmen.

The

English

called

the and

French,

Their

own

country

too

poor to offer all its restless warriors either food or adventures, in their long boats and out into the sea and so they pushed sailed for the rich shores far to the south. that the inhabitants were often so sudden and
to
ransom.

Their

coming was helpless. Monasteries

churches

were

destroyed,

towns

were

Emboldened

by their

successes,

sacked or put in larger they came

to attack the armies numbers of the English and ventured kings. They or Frankish the vassal kings to pay compelled itself. Alfred had Wessex tribute and pressed hard upon

not been long

on

the throne

in the fens of Somerset.

he was driven to take refuge when his war In 878 he gathered bands and peace
were

Guthrum again, fell upon the Danes, and forced King followers to be baptized as Christians and to make Wedmore. By the terms of the treaty, the Danes
control the country tp the Welsh them
to cede London
east of
a

his
at to

border.

from London line running Eight years later Alfred district.

west northforced

and the surrounding

Although

88
the kings England,

BEGINNINGS

OF

FEUDAL

EUROPE

of Wessex

had

for

actually gained obliged to give a better organization to the territories they kingdom As Danish The soon the crumbled. still held. the English, they were Danes as race were of the same ually gradThis facilitated by the English population. absorbed

they

lost the overlordship of strength, because they were time

by the successors England the reconquest of of northeastern Alfred, a task completed about fifty years after his death. in France. The Normans become 85. Danes peace of led those Danes Wedmore who did not wish to settle quietly
"

"

in England
anew

to seek
west

upon

other lands to plunder. Paris had often Francia.

The
seen

storm

broke

the Northmen,

Seine to the very walls. who rowed their ships up the winding In 885 their fleet stretched for six miles below the city. For to capture the fortified a over year they vainly attempted bridges that
to withFinally they were persuaded draw suburbs, or to plunder Burgundy, by offering them the chance and The hold of the Northmen by the gift of a large sum of money.

connected faubourgs.

the

"

City

"

with

the north

and

south

911

upon the lower Seine was did Charles the Simple he

fast becoming

hardly

more

In unshakable. than acknowledge

this fact when Like Gruthrum his followers,


great solemnity
now as

granted the whole region to Hrolf as duke. Hrolf pledged himself, with before Wedmore,

to

become

Christians. which became

He

was

baptized

with
was

at Rouen,

eager

to rebuild monasteries

his capital. He and villages as he had

viously pre-

been to destroy
so

them.

It

was

ring hung upon dared to cast a covetous eye upon three years and yet no one it. The Northmen forgot their own tongue or Normans soon
safe that
a

gold

said that property was the branch of a tree for

the most and became civilization. active leaders of French Such a peace should be remembered as evidence of the good sense of Charles, in the same way that the peace of Wedmore is credited to the statesmanship of Alfred.

86. Hungarians.

"

The

Hungarians, and the

or

Magyars, They

were came

a race

akin to the Finns, the Avars,

Huns.

into

IMMUNITY

89
had

western

Europe
were as

like them well hordes. raided duke.


on as

by the road bold horsemen


Francia

eastern

followed, and Western and fierce plunderers. devastated by their invading was
that the Huns

Just before Charles


Bavaria,

made

and destroyed Their first serious repulse came in 938, over twenty the Unstrut
years

his treaty with Hrolf they the Bavarian army, killing its
from

Henry

the Fowler

twenty

Bavaria. Otto passed and By this time they had occupied the plains about the Theiss they built up a kingdom, adopted where and the Danube, Christianity, and long afterward were the bulwark of Europe

years later. in defeated them

Another

against the Turkish

invader.
"

87. Consequences.
gave

It

was

such

dangers

and

disorders that

the nobles, great or small, chance after chance to seize for that properly belonged to the government. themselves powers to render more All they had to do was general the division,
into lords and vassals, and by of freemen to keep the officers of the central virtue of grants of immunity Both these steps had been out of their domains. government In 847, family ceased to rule. before Charlemagne's taken

already

common,

four years after the issued at Mersen was


man

Treaty

of Verdun,

choose a he wishes." About

may

by his grandson lord, from us or our


a

capitulary or decree Charles that " each free faithful, such a one as
a

century

later

in England.
over

Only
in
a

in this way

could
was

similar law was kings preserve

decreed
any
control into

men

society which At the

rapidly breaking kings

small local groups. 88. Immunity.


"

same

time

were

lavishly

to counts, abbots, bishops, and even giving grants of immunity to influential men who held less important positions or merely The ordinary formula declared that the recipigreat estates. ent
" should hold his estate, with all the men upon it, in entire immunity, and without the entrance of any one of the judges for the purpose of holding the pleas of any kind of causes." Great lords granted to their vassals similar freedom from their

own

or

any other

person's

control.

This

practice

in

effect

90
divided
were

BEGINNINGS

OF

FEUDAL

EUROPE

the

state

not

89.
was

under Land.
"

in which the direct obligations to the king. to hold If society was together, some
into

small

fragments

subjects
bond

more than solid than oaths and more permanent needed had become patrons fear. In the earlier period rich noblemen from their of ambitious youths or of persons who hoped much

protection. of land or

gain to the lords had been a few more pieces imposing The situaa more array of dependents. tion It was had changed. often er the nobleman who sought lord, for the noble a than the freeman sought who vassals could not save himself or his domains amid the wreck of society The

unless he had followers bound to bring him aid. As land was about the only stable property left, and as power and privileges at least with it, the acceptance of a domain generally went large enough to support a horseman would create an obligation
to unite permanently vassal and lord. These enough without expectation gifts of land or benefices had at firstbeen made Afterward be returned. that they would they were

strong

for a definite period. into grants for a lifetime or changed derived, curiously had come to be called fiefs,a term They from Frankish a meant cattle. Kings, enough, word which had begun to give such benefices to nobles, and monasteries to be, their vassals. or those who who wished already were, In this way the duties of vassalage were attached to pieces of land. The combination persisted, and after a time these duties
were

not

arranged

by

by the nature of the different duties. different fiefs went


have
a

special bargain, but fief which the vassal The

were

determined With toight

received.
same man

titles,and might stand in a variety of different for a certain lords. Even a king might relations to as many fief be vassal of one of his own vassals. dozen received for their work These as officialsthe use gradually came of certain estates. benefices, and, by a natural confusion to be looked upon as had been the cause of of thought, the office itself, which is, a part of the the grant was considered the consequence, that

90.

Offices.
"

Counts

and

dukes

had

DUTIES

OF

VASSALS

91
the which justice, furnish and through,

fief. Public

office ceased

to be

means

him State could guard the assure subject, for him with soine so well things which he could not procure into a piece of property managed It was himself. transformed Even abbeys and primarily for the benefit of the holder. bishoprics
to
were

considered

fiefs, because

upon

their election

positions the clergy received many privileges which In the end not only belonged to the government. originally laud but everything the State ordinarily does for the citizen,
such other things, were and many that the king held his crown

turned
as a

into fiefs. Some

declared

fief from

forfeit if he

did not rule of fiefs,commonly


a

justly.There

God, which he must division also took place a subso

county
quarters

the citadel of

called subinfeudation, town might belong to one


the bishop

that in

lord, several
a

to another, while

might

rule

quarter, and

stillother lords have the country-side. 91. Fief s Hereditary. When the notion grew strong that they all these governmental rights and the benefices to which were attached were property, the lords of high or low degree
"

to hand them down to their children. It was again endeavored Charles, the grandson of Charlemagne, who, by the Edict of Kiersy in 877, practically agreed that if a count died his county In doing this he did not start a new should go to his son. custom,

but

simply

recognized

as

legal what

ordinarily

took

place. 92. Duties of Vassals. The duties of all vassals, from the duke of half a kingdom to the baron of a village, were similar, When though they necessarily varied in number. the vassal was
"

invested

fore with his fief he knelt, unarmed and bareheaded, behis lord, placed his hands in his lord's hands, and declared
"

himself to be

been raised to his feet and kissed, he took an oath of fidelity,and then received a twig or a clod of earth in token was of the fiefitself. He now under
man."

his

After

he had

obligation to follow his lord upon his expeditions, or fight for him in his petty wars, or guard his castle, or if need be surrender his own castle for a time to his lord. If he had

92

BEGINNINGS

OF

FEUDAL

EUROPE

succeeded
sometimes

to

fief,he

was

obliged to pay

to a whole year's revenue amounted On three or he must bought the fief, pay three years' revenue. the lord's eldest four special occasions he paid an aid, when
"

relief," which ; and if he had

"

married, and for the when his daughter was He was to furnish ransom made prisoner. when the lord was his lord, and a certain number of followers, with food and his fief. He must through lodging they passed also when to give him advice attend the lord's court several times a year
son was

knighted,

or

assist him

in the settlement

of quarrels

or

in the punishment Such


as

of crimes.

93. General Character of Feudal Government.


system
was
on

"

was

the

of fiefs or the feudal concerned it seemed like


sort of cooperative

system.
an

So

far

government
a

attempt

to organize

country
sums

scheme,

without

collecting

large

of money

in taxes

to

brought army was in turn his vassals, who

judges,nd soldiers. The a pay officials, from the king to together by a summons
summoned
their

vassals, and they in came their retainers, and all at the expense of those who Justice was fulfilment of their feudal duties. not administered in tribunals maintained but in the rude courts
might
at

great

increase

their

of the income from


and

expense lords, and

by the government, in order that they


The lords also levied tolls on
to keep

the fees.

controlled many

of the roads

bridges, and
expending

passing merchants, often without in repair. the highways

any money

94. The

People.

"

Lords

and

vassals

made

up only

portion of the day, supported

They were population. by the unpaid labor, or

the
the

aristocracy dues in money

small of the
or

the descendants were produce, of the villains or serfs, who of the freemen, the coloni, and the slaves of the later Roman farmers or The Empire. most of the villains or serfs were

farm

laborers,

some

were

a the cities there were but their day of influence had

In merchants. artisans, a few were few freemen, tradesmen, or mechanics,


not
come.

It became

more

difficult to

cross

the broad

line that separated

and the lower

more

PEASANT

BURDENS

93

the nobles, great or of serfs, from classes, chiefly composed Almost the means small, who drew from them of livelihood.

the only method


son

was

through day
In

the Church,
a

where

even

ant's peasarchbishop,
to

might
or

some

rise to be

powerful

abbot,
the line

an were

develop below
were

pope. into the


to

the end, later aristocracies


the

those

above of Europe,

while

those

become

mercantile population, of the nineteenth century. Although 95. The Serfs. there
"

great laboring, manufacturing, and to grow the democracies out of which were

were

still many

freemen,

the

majorityof
nor

the people

were

serfs, who

their estate,

marry outside it without leave their land to any one They nor save their children. Their condition was were also obliged to pay a special tax. better than that of the ancient slaves, for they could not be

could not leave their lord's consent,

sold separate from the land, nor could their land be taken from If the fief was them. sold, they belonged to another lord, but Their marriages this change did not necessarily injure them.
were

be

really a part of the community beasts of burden. to If their lord happened and not mere man, just generous and peaceful, their lives might be quiet, recognized,
so
were

that they

prosperous,

and

happy.

Unfortunately

the

lords
upon

were

often

quarrelsome and harsh, waging petty wars lords. In this case the lot of the peasant

was

neighboring terrible, for the crops, burn

best way

to

starve

lord out

was

to

destroy the

the village, and

96.

Peasant

kill the peasants. Burdens. The ordinary


"

burdens
a

which

rested

upon Its nature

the peasants

appears the Abbey of

may in an

be

described

as

example

taken

rude sort of rent. from one of the villages


"

of Mont-Saint-Michel.

The

tenants

must

fetch stone, mix mortar, and serve the masons. last of June, on demand, they must mow and draw

Toward
t\irn hay

the
and

In August they must manor-house. reap the it in." They convent's grain, put it in sheaves, and draw from the convent one cannot put in their own grain until some has marked out its share, and this has also been carted to the

it to the

94

BEGINNINGS

OF

FEUDAL

EUROPE

convent
owes

barns,

"

On

the

his pork due, one October he pays the cens

eighth of pig in eight.

September
. . .

the
the

villain

On

he

owes

of ground his chicken due, also the grain On of barley and a quart of wheat. due. At his sheep Easter
owes
... ...

[a sort

rent].

ninth of At Christmas

due of two measures he Palm Sunday


he
must

plough,

Abbey

of

Mont-Saint-Michel.
the

Built

on

rocky and

isle

near

Normandy and were hundred


was

Brittany.

by only one pierced feet high. In the Hundred

by coast angle of the French made Its walls were strong, exceptionally The a gate. northern wall is over
Years War
success

besieged

by

the

English

without

from

this abbey-fortress 1428 to l'i44.

sow,

and harrow."

his bread
at

baked

His grain must at the lord's bake

be ground
oven,

at the lord's mill,

and his grapes

pressed

to the Originally it was an advantage winepress. bakery village that the lord built mill and and winepress, because the peasants were too poor to provide them, but after into the right to receive the a time the favor transformed was

his

profits of

monopoly.

The

lord also had

the right to sell his

FARMS

95

wine and other products first. He generally hired no laborers, for him, often several for the peasants were obliged to work Such days each week, or at least during certain seasons. work might be in the fields or about the castle, or upon the
At one time there had been no legal limit roads and bridges. to the amount of this work, but custom and the efforts of the

peasants themselves definite.

eventually

made

all rights and privileges

97. Farms.
Europe
American and
was

"

Outside

divided township.

the cities the land throughout western into great estates, often the size of an In England they were called manors, which
the word
" "

in France
an

Such

villas, from long estate might bepetty noble


or even
or

village

comes.

to to
a

count,

to the

king.

The

richest nobles
a

possessed
generally

great many, by managed

Each estate stewards. divided into two porwas tions, of which lord retained for his
one

the
own

immediate

use.

The

land
to
was

which

cultivated belonged

not

peasants divided into


Castle
of

the

Montlh6ry.

separate farms, but generally into three great fields,and each field into half-acre The strips. division into three fields
was

About fourteen miles south of Paris, built It is situated in the eleventh on century. a high hill above the village, and threatened
the road from Paris it
to Orleans.

The

barons

occasioned method

by of

the

were often at war with who possessed kings. In 1104 it came the early Capetian into possession of Philip I., and a littlelater

it

was

dismantled

by

his

son,

Louis

VI.

cultivation which allowed the land to rest or liefallow every third year, a method adopted because the peasants did not know how to fertilize the soil, or properly to vary the crops. Every

general

96
had

BEGINNINGS

OF

FEUDAL

EUROPE

peasant

several strips in each field,it might be sixty or it fewer. This curious system of dividing might be thirty or even the farms into a number the peasants of parcels compelled

to

do nowadays. together more than ordinary farmers work Sometimes the lord's land also lay about in the three fields.
peasants did not live in houses scattered over the countryside, but in a closely built village. The manor-house of the lord his steward might be in the midst of the village or at a little

The

or

hill, from a neighboring upon the country for miles strong walls and lofty towers overawed In addition to the cultivated fields there were around. ows, meadpastures, and

distance, surrounded it was often placed

by his lands.

If this house

was

castle, its which

for their pigs or woods, to the use of which cattle the peasants had some rights. 98. Duration of Feudalism. Feudal society reached its earliest in France, although the same and fullest development
"

customs

gradually

appeared

in

Germany

towns gave a continued existence of many It remained the form of social peculiar turn to its growth. Europe until the fourteenth century. order in western

Italy the

and Eoman

England.

In

SUMMARY
I. Anarchy Western
Europe.
so

in

"

1.

Lotharingia: and
what

(") situation;
separated it from

(6) why
West

it fell to pieces
;

quickly

(c)lands formed out of it and their final destiny. 2. East Francia : (a) boundaries ; (6) the great duchies ; (c) new houses ; (d) Hungarian of Empire, raids ; (e) dream reigning its monarchy Francia : (a) why 3. West was ; (h) the later weak Carolingians tion attacks and their relaand their rivals ; (c) Danish
Francia
to

Danish

invasions 4. England

of England
:

(d) origin
Alfred

of the

duchy

of

Normandy.
Danish

(a)
as

The

kingdom

of Wessex

the ; (fe)

peril ;

(c)

Alfred

king ;

(d)

and

the

Danes,

Wedmoi'e. II. Result,


Feudalism,
a

New

Organization

of

Society.

"

1. The

individual
himself

noble,

heir

of dying
to

vassals, pledged

him

(") gathering about government: by ties of honor and grants of


holds
as

benefices ;

(b) treating

the

offices he

hereditary

fiefs ;

SUMMABY

97
2. Duties
;
a

(c) independent
of vassalage

of royal officersby grants of immunity. obedience to law : (a) ceremony supersede toward
the

(6)

obligations
:

lord

which

result.
are

of homage 3. The people,


;

caste subject
as
a

(a) classes
of life ;
1. The

from
;

which

they dues

descended
by the

dom (6) serf;

form
manner
"

of slavery

(c) the

paid

peasants

(d)
For work

their

(e)their
by
war are

Comparison.

way

villages. in modern which


provided present

states

the

public
to the

and of government the feudal system. method of in town and country,

for, in contrast

2. The with

organization

of work

contrasted

the feudal method.

IMPORTANT
843.
877. Treaty of Verdun. of Kiersy.

DATES

Capitulary
Peace

878. 911.
936. 962.

of Wedmore.

Creation of the duchy of Normandy. Accession of Otto the Great. Otto becomes
Accession
emperor

of the Holy

Eoman

Empire.

987.

of Hugh

Capet.

FURTHER General
Reading
:

STUDY

Tout,

Europe

from

918

to

1272

{Empire
; Cheyney, Vikings in

and

Papacy)

; Seignobos

(Dow

and

Social History

ed.),Feudal of England;

Begime
Keary,

trial Indus-

Western

Christendom.
Paragraphs
:
"

80.

Fate

of Lotharingia history,

Emerton, map

Mediceval 8 and

Europe,

30-35

; for its

subsequent

see

paragraphs

134,

187,

212,

250, 81. 82.


East West

275. Francia
:
:

Emerton, Kitchin,

Ch. 3 ; Henderson,
I., 163-182
; Adams,

I., 38-46.

Francia

Growth

of the
Colby,

French

Nation,
83. Alfred
:

Ch. 5. Gardiner,

See below
60-62

for genealogy

of later Carolingians. No. 8 ;

; Hughes,

Alfred the Great;

Chronicle, Lee, No. 23 ; Kendall, selections from the Anglo-Saxon No. 8 ; Anglo-Saxon Laws, Kendall, No. 6 ; Lee, Ch. 6.
84. 85.
Danes

in England
Normans

Green,
:

44-61

; Church,

199-214

; Colby,

No. 9.

The

in France

Kitchin,

I., 171-179

; in Italy, Emerton,

223-229. 86.
The Hungarians
:

Emerton,

106-109,

130-133.
:

87-98.

Consequences,
age,
see

The

Feudal

System

The

distresses of the
see

Robinson,

Ch. 8 ; best general

description in Seignobos,

98

BEGINNINGS

OF

FEUDAL

EUROPE

also Emerton, from European

Ch. 4 ; Adams,
writers in Munro

Civilization, Ch.
and
phase
see

9 ; the selections Sellery, 159-211 ; Cheyney,


of feudal society including Vol. IV., No. 9 and
No.

Ch.

2 ; for illustrations of each

the edicts of Kiersy

and Nos.

Mersen,

Tr. and

Up.

3 ;

Thatcher-McNeal,

180-230

; Eobinson,

Ch.

157 ;

Jones, No. 5.

Additional plans

Reading:

Seebohm,
manor.

English

Village

Communities,

with

of the

mediaeval

Principal
Charlemagne, Louis,

Descendants

of

Charlemagne

1 814

814-840

I
Lothair Ludwig

E. 840-855

(K. of East Francia) 843-ST6 {The Fai)

Charles
K.

II.

(The Bald)

840-877 ; E. 875-87T
II.

Charles

Louis

{The Stammerer)
877-879 I Charles III.
K.

E. 881-888

K.

Louis

III

{The Simple)

879-882
Louis

898-929

IV.

I (Outre-Mer) I

K. 93t"-954 Lothair, 954-986

Louis

V.

Charles, duke of Lorraine

986-987

Hugh
Robert

Capet's

Family

( T/ie Strong), + 867


I

Eudes,
K.

Robert,
France,

duke

888-89

of t 928

(K.

few

months)
Emma,
m.

Hugh

{The Great), i
Duke of France

956

Rudolf

K. 923-936

Hugh
Duke

Capet

Eudes-Henry Duke of Burgundy

of France K. in 987

E.=Emperor

; K.=King

of West

Francia

or

France.

CHAPTER
THE
NEW

VII.
RULERS
AND

EUROPE,

ITS

ITS

FOES

99. From
down

936 to 1154.

"

The

years

that

saw

the breaking

saw also the extension of the old system of government to until almost all that was of the boundaries of Christendom, This Europe brought within its limits. become the new was

by the or either by direct missionary work accomplished increasing intercourse between the countries of the north and dalism The triumph of feueast with the older lands of the south.
was was

not lasting.

It had

hardly

become

system

of western

by

the

Church
became

society before it was The from below by the people. kings and mined its bishops and abbots when also felt the danger from hardly distinguishable tempted ordinary nobles, and atto

the recognized above attacked from

find

remedy

in withdrawing

the

ecclesiastics

wholly from the control to the rule of the pope. them of unity in the crusades, which almost enthusiasm
two
or

of princes and in Europe gained a


were

subjecting
new

sense

prompted and which


on

by

and

three
on

the love of adventure, centuries the Moslem

religious for checked and

attack

Europe,

particularly
the north
contact

Constantinople.
on of Charlemagne into rude brought the Christian Frank in which two ways Slav. There were
"

100. The Border-lands.


and
east had

The

conquests

with the pagan this half-barbarous Christendom driving back the Slav

might

be extended,

"

one

by

lands, another captured his tribes to exist by converting The as members family of Christian peoples. of the growing border-lands or marks had been Charlemagne which under
the and organizing the Slav and allowing
99

100
the

THE

NEW

EUROPE,

ITS

BULEES

AND

ITS

FOES

guard of Prankish civilization were reorganized advance The Elbe ceased to I., by his son, and his grandson. by Otto it lay parts of three great be the northern frontier. Beyond
was, as the mark of which, the Northmark, of marks, one Brandenburg, to become the nucleus of the later Prussian back toward Slavs were kingdom. The the steadily pushed

Oder.

the

partially resettled by German nists, colofounded bishoprics were the control of under and new Still farther east on the of Magdeburg. archbishopric
Their

lands

were

Danube
grow from

was old Eastmark strengthened. A solid bulwark into Austria. of marks

the

This

was

to

thus

stretched

northeastern

Italy to the Danish


"

lands.

101.

Conversion
that the

It was tianity Chrisonly through of the Slavs. Slavs could hope to strengthen themselves foes, for with

against
some

their western

Christianity would

come were
converted,

of those

indispensable
one

traditions of orderly government which in the struggle. Moreover, if the Slavs were for the interminable
wars

motive

would
were

be gone.
touched
the

They

vaguely

realized this, but their hearts and


more

not

by the rough missionary monks hosts and who seemed German


revenues

priests who
eager

followed lands

to gain

than

to

preach

the

gospel.

One

of the

and Moravian

in gathering chiefs who had succeeded nearly all the western in Slavs under his rule sent to the emperor at Constantinople 862 for missionaries of another sort. In response Cyril came

and
were

Methodius,
so

two

successful apostles to the Slavs, justas Boniface To Germans. them the Slavs owed

brothers, natives of Thessalonica. They that ever since they have been regarded as
was

the

apostle

to the

beginnings

of their literature. lessons in Christianity from Methodius.

their alphabet and the Bohemia also received its


The Moravian

empire influence of the two missionaries was soon collapsed, but the in its ruin, for many even strengthened of their Slavic converts fled eastward into Bulgaria this and assisted in converting
mixed

people

to

Christianity.
was

The
so

strongest named

German

advance

the Poles,

barrier against because they dwelt

ENGLAND'S

DANISH

KINGS

101
due
largely to
The

on

great plains.
strong

Their

power

the

organization

of resistance the Church which

was

gave

them.

popes also supported


encroachments,
so

them

when

they

were

exposed

to German

that, centuries

threw Poland. Latin


In

oif papal

mans the Gerafterward, when control, they found few imitators in


and first rivalry Boris long hesitated Greek

this

Christians

movement earlier missionary had worked Their together.

of worship, but in 870 he chose the Greek. The Russian Slavs received Christianity directly from Constantinople toward the year 1000. Their

of Bulgaria, and Prince appeared in the case between forms the Greek and the Roman

princes

were

Northmen
when

from

the Scandinavian

but about the time he determined

Prince

Vladimir
himself

decided Slavs.

peninsula, tized to be bapThe


new

to surround

with

between a bond Since it religion became prince and people. brought from Constantinople, where was more of the ancient civilization lingered than in the West, the civilization of Russia in the eleventh Europe. century
was more

advanced

than that of western the


Magyars, prince, in the

102.
or

The

Hungarians.

"

Hungarians,
was
so

Stephen, year founder


ever

accepted devoted to the him


a

this period Their Christianity.

During

great

Church

that the

pope
was

1000

sent

royal

crown.

Since he

of the Hungarian

been called the crown 103. The Northmen.

the crown monarchy, of St. Stephen.


"

the real has of Hungary

The

frontier

of

Christianity

was

pushed in the

the Danes among and their wilder kindred northward In Denmark Scandinavian the work was peninsula. during was the reign of Cnut, who completed also king of

England.
and

He

brought

over

many

English

a tried to make new of Denmark of the Northmen and their organization kingdoms put an end to their piratical raids.

priests to help him, England. The conversion

into Christian

104.
crown were

England's
to
a
new

Danish

Kings.

"

Cnut

had

series of Danish

invasions. of
a

owed his English At first the Danes

bought

off with the proceeds

tax

called the Danegeld.

102
It

TEE

NEW

EUROPE,

ITS

RULERS

AND

ITS

FOES

Alfred who had suggested such a scheme, but ^thelking the Rede-less, or unadvised, who became red, nicknamed he sought to terrify the invaders by orderAfterward in 978. ing
was
no

massacre

reign the great first called earls, a Danish lords, or earldermen, were title. They several counties. ruled territories often as large as dead and the English In 1042 when Cnut and his sons were
"

in the country. and had made 105. The English

of all their kindred who had recently settled Svend, Cnut's father, had avenged sacre this mas-

himself

king.
During

Earls.

Cnut's

chose

as

Edward fessor, the weak the Conof ^thelred, had been living in Normandy, longed bethe real power who Godwine's to the earls, and chiefly to Earl Godwine.
king
a son

lands Sussex
looked of who

included

the

and Kent. to his ISTorman

older kingdom To counteract friends,


was
one

together with of Wessex, his influence. King Edward


of whom he made archbishop duke of Normandy,

Canterbury.
a

Another visit and

William,

afterward asserted that Edward Although the crown the crown of England. to give, for the lords, bishops, abbots, and was not Edward's in the council, or Witenagemot, assembled other notable men

paid him him promised

who

had

the

right

to

choose

the

kings,
as

William
a

went

back
to

to

Normandy throne.

cherishing this promise Godwine Soon afterward


of Canterbury.

real

claim

the

archbishop to his son

When

the Norman away he died his earldom went

drove

Harold.
"

already As a child he had been men. shown in 1035 barons by his father, who left in the midst of jealous had finally subdued He to Jerusalem. went on a pilgrimage his enemies orderly than any At first he other region, at least within the limits of France. had had been helped by the Capetian kings, for his ancestors and made
more

106.

of Normandy. how to rule that he knew

The Duke

Duke

William

had

had

Normandy

faithfully served the Capetians hard But it was became king. lower
course

as

their lords
a

even

before Hugh

king at Paris to allow the a vassal. of the Seine to be held by so powerful for

THE

NORMAN

CONQUEST
the king before he seized dangerous rival.
"

103
a crown

Twice
which

William
made

had
an

defeated
even more

him

107. The

Norman

Conquest

In

1066

Edward

the

fessor Con-

died, and the Witenagemot determined to conquer the crown,

chose Harold king. William which he declared rightfully

Castle
The Duke birthplace, Robert

of

Falaise.

the Devil

in 1027, of William the Conqueror, son of daughter. and of Arlette a tanner's

belonged

to him.

From

every

side

share in the spoil. He received a pope, who had been offended by the English Norman thought that archbishop, and who would
get
no

warriors eager for a consecrated banner from the


came

treatment

of the
conquest

such

make

England

aid from

obedient to the papacy. Harold could brother took the the jealous earls. His own
more

opportunity

to invade

England

with

an

army

of Norwegians.

104

THE

NEW

EUROPE,

ITS

RULERS

ANB

ITS

FOES

Victorious
William, fought
army

over

who

he hastened this enemy, The had already landed.


near

to meet southward decisive battle was


was

at Senlac

Hastings. English

Harold
no

killed and
save

his

scattered. to William, the

The
"

had

choice

submission
cruel to to England,
which
was

Conqueror."
as

108.
all who

William

King.

"

Although

William

was

resisted him, his triumph vyas an advantage henceforward more closely united to the Continent,

already stirred by a Several of England's

new

religious, intellectual, and artistic life. imposing man most cathedrals, built by Nor-

to this influence. architects, still stand as witnesses the William a government. stronger country also gave his In Normandy there had been few great lords to thwart

He their fiefs directly of him. in England, breaking up the great system applied the same earldoms and scattering the lands of the richer earls, so that they could not easily bring together their followers to dispute

efforts and

all

men

had

held

his authority. power


swear

He

held them

sheriffs. Who fealty to him.


exact statement

of

the

in check also by increasing the He insisted that all landowners they


were

he

knew,

for he

had

caused an Domesday
no

more

in of all property to be set down Book, so named, perhaps, because its records could Day. be questioned than " dooms " of the Judgment

In his effort to check unruly nobles he was aided by the old gates lords, bishops, abbots, and deleEnglish county courts, where to be too important to settle cases from the towns met Here was decided by the manorial or town courts. administered

by the freemen
will of when
some

themselves

great noble.
same

the old English law, and Such meetings foreshadowed


men

not
a

the
day

the

classes

of

William's

successors

stronger

from unite to wrest for their laws and safeguards

would

their liberties.

kings of the German into Italy, and, like another before Otto had ventured to march had not The Charlemagne, papacy win the imperial crown. a of such protector, troublesome gained by the withdrawal

109. The Holy

Roman

Empire.

"

None

THE

HOLY

ROMAN

EMPIRE

105
him it might be lords

though degraded

he

for without occasionally was, into a local bishopric fought over


It
was

by the rude
at the

towns. or the neighboring of Eome pope for protection that Otto came

call of the

in 962.

He

was

crowned

"^\ Ifi^nw.e^

car -ffa.e^.in.

-r ^ut-U^cu.,,. uiO^V.Uitti

-t^* :"Jt!ly
-fp[.e
car-

\^artxnAz yy b"RMS"iC.Xja-cenutcclefMe.6,
7 Jninw ^tn/tafittt.

V;. car*

wtU* 7in.tot^c".ii.

^^. ib'-tt-icjXit-ymoUn'ic.^.rtftiJ'.Vmi.
W
Attg^(^t.WhXntmuxc CbcticitfeBgRifc ill tj!^4-

~\{i:

.^

ii
Domesday Reduced facsimile
Book.
a

of the population

and

of entries, the record of resources of England

survey in 1086.

the first of emperor, and was bear this title. The Empire German-Roman Empire.

a was

long

line of German kings to or called the Holy Eoman

ous gloriof its earlier days were lost that before was ; but it lingered so long after its power Napoleon gave it the coup de grdce in 1806, it had, as a witty Empire. or an writer remarked, ceased to be Holy, or Roman,

Some

Nearly

century

after Otto's coronation, Henry

III., the Fran-

106

THE

NEW

EUROPE,

ITS

RULERS

AND

ITS

FOES

Finding that papacy. men each claimed to be pope, he summoned deposed of Sutri in 1046, and at this they were and The two following bishop chosen pope. popes coniaii, again restored
the

three

unworthy

the synod
a

German
also

were

Never again selected by the emperor. to be so great or so useful at Rome. There were 110. Church and State.
"

was

the imperial

power

come that real betterment must The greatest enemy or kings. was rather than from emperors the anarchy which had resulted in the feudal system and which exposed rich abbeys and influential bishoprics to the schemes

lieved bechurchmen who from within the Church

When men. of covetous and unscrupulous ordinary hereditary, the shortest road to power lay through To obtain these, all that might be necessary positions. favor of
a

fiefs became

Church
was

the

king

or

of

some

might of
a

be purchased
of the granted annual
to the

Occasionally such supgreat noble. port for a sum or the promise of money,
revenues.

part

But
a

since it

was

believed

that God

bishops

Spirit, those than Simon

Zealous

bishops

their offence was called simony. thought that if the choice of abbots and churchiiien kept wholly in the hands of the clergy, this parwas ticular

who purchased Magus, and so

special gift of the Holy hardly better bishoprics seemed

To such a safeguard the kings sin would be prevented. that bishops and abbots were also lords, that they not objected dioceses, or the religious affairs of monasteries only managed

but also ruled


collect taxes,

over

extensive

lands, within

which

they

could

justice in other ; raise troops, and administer in whose words, that they were royal officers selection the had a deep interest. For this reason they were monarchy
obliged to do homage vassals like other lords. and become Even the payment put in possession of money when they were of their temporalities, as the rights of rule were called, did not from seem the king's point of view, since ordinary unreasonable
of under the name obliged to pay such sums Churchmen because the kings were reliefs. also scandalized in granting to bishops the temporalities chose as symbols the
were

lords

GREGORY

VII.

107

riage shepherd's crook, and the ring, which typified the marChurch. What, said they, had men of of Christ and the blood to do with these holy things ? staff or

111.
seemed of the

Celibacy
to threaten

of

the

Clergy.

"

Another

custom

which

clergy.
prevalent

the marriage the welfare of the Church was laws, but had This was contrary to Church throughout the

become

West.

There

was

danger

hereditary caste, and that an that the priesthood might become to bishoprics and abbeys certain might pass permanently it greatly Although families. was this danger still remote, in the celibacy of the clergy a requiretroubled men who saw ment
of the Christian law.

112.

The

Cluny

Eeformers.

"

The

leaders in the movement

celibacy of the clergy, to check simony, and to the free the Church from the control of the kings were under its walls monks Erom influence of the monastery of Cluny. to fill or monasteries, out to reform other Benedictine went
to enforce the

It was Cluny monk, Hildebishoprics and archbishoprics. a Bishop Bruno, sent by brand, who is said to have persuaded III. to Rome Henry as the name pope in 1048, not to assume

Once pope, as at Home. of pope until he had been chosen he vigorously by Hildebrand, Leo IX., and perhaps moved He out of the Church. undertook the work of rooting simony
held synods
were

in France,
to

Germany,

and

summoned
:

declare

whether
were

bishops Italy, at which they had paid this guilty

money

those
were

who

refused

confessed
same

A punished. party, in 1059, in order to diminish


the

those who excommunicated, few years after his death the


the emperor's

ence influ-

choice of the popes, transferred the right of were choice to a body of clergy who either bishops of sees itself. Rome held offices in the churches near or of Rome This body was called the College of Cardinals.
over

113. Gregory
between
France chosen

VII.

"

Sooner

or

later

struggle
even

was

inevitable
of

this party and the It began and England. pope as Gregory VII.

emperor, and in 1073, when Gregory was

the kings

Hildebrand
determined

was

not

108

THE

NEW

EUROPE,

ITS

EULERS

AND

ITS

FOES

and to enforce celibacy, but also stop to simony by princes with the symto forbid the investiture of bishops bols of the ring and the staff. Gregory's ambitions went even only
to put
a

farther, for he
spiritual

held

that the pope


set
over

as

judge of

the world,
to plant.

the vicar of Christ was it to pluck up and to destroy,


to wield

to build and
must

If he
over

be through
them
sense.

control feudal

his control if they held

of

such power, it the bishops, and he could not ordinary princes in the strict
was

Accordingly
by laymen. It
was

Gregory His

issued

decree

forbidding
was

investiture well choseuo even the more


of Germany,

antagonist

in this conflict

not

William

the

Conqueror,
but it
was

it

was

not

feeble Philip

of France;

Henry

IV.

headstrong, involved in a bitter quarrel young, the control in Italy endangered with the Saxons, and whose independence itself. see of the Eoman

114.
papal

Investiture Struggle.

"

Henry

decree, and continued to his offence was In this case abbots and bishops. but simply the accepting money, of conferring The him with excommunication. pope threatened by summoning
a

paid no attention to the invest German and Italian


that of investiture.
not

Henry

retaliate

German

council at which

the bishops

their allegiance to the pope and charged him renounced with Church being himself guilty of simony and with ruining the in Germany had too many to by his violence. Henry enemies
carry things When with such a high hand. him, every rebellious heart found the pope
an excuse

excommunicated for no

longer recognizing him as king. Pious churchmen also believed no that so long as he lay under the ban of excommunication Christian intercourse found Henry could hold with him.

hopelessly that the only chance so of slipping away recovering it lay through obtaining at least formal pardon from Although it was the pope. winter he crossed the Alps, with power
in Italy, for the pope Gregory only a few attendants, to meet had announced his intention to hold a council in Germany, and Henry ignominy to spare himself the wished of a public

humiliation

in

his

own

kingdom.

In

January,

1077,

just a

THE

MOSLEM

PERIL

109
attacked the at Canossa, clad in For three days the
out
was

year from pope, he

the time
was

when

he

and

his bishops

had

in the courtyard standing the penitent's garb, begging absolution. his own listen. Even not supporters cried pope woidd Once the ban of excommunication against his cruelty.

and crushed his enemies. returned to Germany removed, Henry did not hesitate Gregory again tried to interfere, Henry When from E-ome. to set up a rival pope and to drive Gregory

Gregory

found
a

building up

refuge kingdom

among

the

Norman

He died in 1085, and ruins of the Greek and " I have loved righteousness his last words were, and hated to iniquity, therefore I die in exile." Soon the papacy was in this struggle, for it stood forth gain a new point of vantage real leader Mohammedans.
as

in southern Lombard lands.

princes who Italy and Sicily, on

were

the

the

of

Christendom

in the

conflict with

the

medans of the Mohamhad failed, and in the eleventh Constantinople upon Empire as century the Byzantine controlled all Asia Minor before Charlemagne's territories. Even well as its European to fall day the Mohammedan empire or caliphate had begun

115.

The

Moslem

Peril.

"

The

early attacks

to pieces.

separate

caliphate was The caliphs of Bagdad finally at Cairo. established in Egypt In to Turkish succumbed chieftains of the Seljukfamily. Spain the caliphate of Cordova was into petty Mohambroken medan capital
at

Cordova.

caliphate Sometime

was

formed

in Spain, with its

later

another

states,

so

that for

time

the Christians

from

the north

pushed their frontiers farther and farther south, and enlarged the little kingdoms denly, Sudof Castile, Aragon, and Portugal.
toward the The

changed.
the

close of Turks overran


of Rum.

sultanate

century, the scene eleventh Asia Minor and established there They captured Antioch, which for a

the

Jerusalem, stronghold. under the mild rule of the Egyptian caliphs, had also The Sepulchre, their hands. pilgrims to the Holy
century
a

had

been

Greek

hitherto
come

into had perse-

who

been well treated by the Egyptians,

were

plundered

and

110

TH"

NEW

EUROPE,

ITS

RULERS

AND

ITS

FOES

THE

CALL

^OR

CRUSADE

111
sent

cuted

by the

Seljuks. The
appeals Bands

Emperor

Alexius

from

stantinop Con-

urgent
was

to the pope

still

nearer.

of

for aid. But the danger fanatical Mohammedans from

Africa

poured The at Zalacca. from Mohammedan


ever

into Spain

and, in 1087, defeated the Castilians Frenchmen who had once suffered southern So was the pope, for alarmed. raids were
in

since

the

Saracens Sicily

had
the

occupied ninth

had

Italy century been harried by their and


some

bands
towns

occupied.

of It

its
was

clearly necessary to act if the new assault of Asia to be beaten back. was

116.

The
"

Call
The

for

Crusade.
of western ready for

warriors Europe were


some

grand

enterprise.

The of settling down into the framework

gradual society of the

feudal
lessened

system

constantly opportunities for the glory and the hope of with The merchants France and
to turn

adventure, of warfare plunder.

Church

of

the

Holy

Sepulchre.
site of Our
was

Situated
Lord's here by fourth

on

the

traditional
A

of southern Italy were eager their ships the East.

tomb.

church in 336. Constantine

erected
is the

This

structure

and

was

begun

in 1810.

again The

toward
religious

revival
men

which

Cluny

reforms

the attempt Lord. It was head of such inclined than

also made to wrest from

ready the Saracens

the suggested to sacrifice their lives in the Sepulchre of the

had

natural that the pope should put himself at the less II. had been even Pope Urban movement.

Gregory

to

make

any

compromise

in the matter

112

THE

NE]V

EUROPE,

ITS

RULERS

AND

ITS

FOES

He had an open quarrel not and lay investiture. IV. of Germany, but with Philip I. of France only with Henry Although Eufvis of England. these contests were and William by no means the new settled in his favor, he boldly undertook He went to France, and in difficult enterprise. and still more of simony

burning

at the council of Clermont words Thousands to irresistible enthusiasm.

aroused
of
men

the multitude cried out,

little cloth cross a wills it, God to enlist for the their shoulders, pledged themselves upon A monkish so sucpreacher, Peter the Hermit, was cessful crusade, in spreading this enthuhe went through the country as siasm
"

God

wills it," and, affixing

that after generations for the hero of the crusade.

took him, rather than


The

Pope

Urban,

117.
held
as

The

Crusaders

Start.

"

council named

in November, time
men

the

1095, and for the departure take the


cross,

the pope

was of Clermont August 15, 1096,

to

In order to perof the armies. suade he had publicly promised those

who

set out

who

in penitence remission of all their sins, and those into paradise. immediate Their an entrance perished their property were It is not Church. put under the special protection

families and
of the such holy

strange

different kinds
war.

acting upon them Multitudes women, of men,


wish, the the
were

motives of soldiers gathered for the the and children, whom to have a share in these
came,

that

with

leaders

did not
Before Peter
Most

impatient for the and

benefits.
under Penniless. and
out

day

start
a

great

bands

set

Hermit

knight

of them
cut

perished

Walter the named in Hungary and Bulgaria,


the Turks

the others

were

to pieces by

in Asia Minor.

Finally the four regularly organized armies started by different The routes to meet at Constantinople at the end of the year. Godfrey most notable leaders were of Bouillon and Bohemond of Tarentum. 118. In Syria and at Jerusalem. the hosts gathering under saw though
he had
sent

"

When

the Emperor

Alexius

messengers

assistance.

His

chief

fear

was

his walls he was alarmed, into the West asking for such his recover that they would

THE

KINGBOM

OF

JERUSALEM

113
finally persuaded transported Antioch
over

lost lands only to hold them themselves. homage to him the leaders to swear
across

He

and

them
the

to

Asia

Minor.

The

march

toward

Only deadly to thousands of the army. plains was in the service of the the treachery of an Armenian through Turks were the crusaders able, in June, 1098, to take Antioch.
burning
Dazzled

by the spoils of the city, they became as ruthless pillagers They also and as cruel enemies as the rudest barbarians. terthe conquered to quarrelling over fell ritory. themselves among
Already

Godfrey's
a

brother

had

made

his

claimed The to abandon as his share. temptin all idea of atthe capture of Jerusalem, but their followers insisted that all their toils and sufferings should not be in vain. When the crusaders arrived before the Holy City, in July, 1099, they principality. leaders began
were

Edessa

to build up

Bohemond

to way Antioch

reduced
men.

to

an

army only

of thirty

or
a

forty thousand bold


assault.

half-

starved

Their

chance

was

This

succeeded.
"
"

Once

in the

men,

women,

you
were

desire
found
our

to

and know

their enemies, city they massacred They to the pope, " If wrote children. done with the enemy was what who
that in Solomon's porch

there, know
men

and

in his

rode in the blood of the Saracens up to the knees of their horses." 119. The Kingdom This newly of Jerusalem, 1099-1244. into a kingdom, territory was the conquered organized and temple
"

crown

was

offered to Godfrey. the task, calling himself


This
was

Sepulchre. Jerusalem, Godfrey


not

refused the title but accepted the Protector of the Holy the beginning of the Latin kingdom of
nearly
two
came

He

lasted which died, his brother


wear

hundred from
and the

Baldwin
crown.

When years. Edessa and did


other princes

hesitate to
on

the
manners,

He

speedily took the language,

of them even and some adopted East. The by its own of the crusade, judged ideals, had been a failure, but it did delay the advance of the Turk and gave to the eastern lease of life. It Empire a new

the

also must

have

encouraged

the

Spaniards

in their

age-long

114

THE

NEW

EUROPE,

ITS

RULERS

AND

ITS

FOES

crusade called.

against the Moors,


The
a

as

the western

Mohammedans

were

to organize

Italian merchants took advantage of the conquest flourishing trade in the eastern Mediterranean.

120. The
"

ftuarrel between

Not

long the
each Ive

between
on

and State Compromised. after the end of this first crusade the conflict papacy settled by a little yieldand the kings was ing There were bishops in France, esside. several peciall of Chartres, who argued that it was possible to
the goods
or

Church

that the clergy The form held as royal vassals and their religious authority. of the investiture might be changed, although kings must insist

distinguish

between

temporalities

that the clergy should recognize their obligations when they William the Conqueror's wise son received lands and power.

Henry

I. was

the Church.
with Anselm,

to reach such an the first monarch He had long been in controversy

agreement
over

with

the matter

saintly and
that

archbishop learned men

of Canterbury, of the
time.

and one of the most Finally it was agreed

the clergy should elect their bishops and abbots freely, do it in the king's court, and that when but that they must for their temporalities. elected these churchmen should do homage
This
was

in 1106.
ceased
to

Somewhere

about
the

the

same

time

the

king

churchmen, apparently believing that he could care for the royal interests suflBciently formal homage. Fifteen years without receiving from them IV., later, in 1122, Henry V. of Germany, the son of Henry

of France

invest

was which called the Concordat of Worms, made a compromise, in to be made The like the English choices were settlement. to invest with a touch of the sceptre, his presence, and he was instead of with the ring and the staff. When put in possession

to do homage as vaswere sals. churchmen This ended the first conflict between the papacy and the Empire, but their struggle for supremacy, German-Roman

of their lands

the

especially as rivals in Italy, 121. The King of France. had France began
become king

was
"

yet to be settled. Shortly after the duke


the

mandy of Norkings
of

of England

Capetian

their

slow

advance

toward

real monarchical

THE

KING

OF

FRANCE

115

power,

Hugh

Capet had
as

because,
any of the

duke

magne, pushed aside the last heir of Charleof France, he was richer in lands than
Carolingian him.
house,

later rulers of the


supported
to prepare

and

because

influential churchmen
adherents and

privileges and king he was became

the way fiefs upon his followers,

In the struggle to gain for his triumph, he had lavished


so

than he had been weaker did scarcely anything his grandson, and his great-grandson son, hardly to be distinguish They were to recover more effective power. from other great

that after he His duke. as

nobles
over

save

in the rights which they possessed This abbeys outside their domain.
of territory extending miles

in their title and bishoprics and many


was
a

domain

narrow

strip

from

East of Orleans. of the count of Champagne, and west those of the count The king could raise of Blois and of the duke of jSTormandy. laws. taxes, he had no no regular army, he could not make

south

little north of Paris to some lay the possessions of the domain

His

income,

like that

produce of his estates. he could administer the property and collect the revenues until filled. Even belonged to this right, which the vacancy was him as king, could not be used in the case in of bishoprics Normandy. In spite of his weak
as

the of other lords, came chiefly from When bishoprics or abbeys fell vacant

him

the order, they supported The people also vaguely turbulent vassals. felt that the king might become a bulwark against oppression, worked king against the and occasionally whole parishes destroying the stronghold of some the saved Each king his
son

anointed of instinctively for peace and

the

nized position the Church recogSince churchmen the Lord.

joined the

king's

forces

in

early Capetians
was

from

One thing robber baron. losing the little they had.


to associate
no

with

able several years before his death him in the government. Accordingly

bargains

had to be made

tary with the nobles to obtain the crown, and herediThe the rule. succession rather than election became first important by was addition to the king's domain made

Philip I., Hugh's

great-grandson,

who

purchased

the viscounty

116

THE

NEW

EUROPE,

ITS

RULERS

AND

ITS

FOES

of Bourges, enough barons


to

south
see

His son, Louis VI., was of the Loire. wise first beat down that he must the troublesome

of the

domain

in order

whicli to extend the royal All his life, until he had vassals.

find standing-ground from influence among the greater feudal


to

too stout to ride, he grown was constantly in the saddle, fighting the petty barons whose donjons lay almost at the gates of Paris. His efforts were Suger of St. Denis, who had great influence supported by the Abbot
over

the

Church.

Just

before

Louis

died in 1137

he

between his son, Louis VII., and Eleanor, a marriage arranged Had the heiress of Aquitaine. this marriage been successful, king would have been extended over the power of the French all the region between the Loire and the Pyrenees. Unfortunately for France, of Anjou. failure, and the marriage was a of Louis VII. and Eleanor Louis had it annulled by the Church upon the ground that he So rich a prize was too near and Eleanor were of kin. eagerly

122.

Henry,

Count

"

coveted William

by

who was the Conqueror's


own

man

more son,

far-sighted. Henry, lost his

It happened
son

that

before his

death, and his daughter Matilda

attempted
as

by shipwreck to bind his barons to support

to the count

lower

Loire.

He then married Matilda queen. lands lay on both sides of the of Anjou, whose A grandson of William, Stephen of Blois, upset

this arrangement the two parties by Matilda's son

himself king, but the struggle of made By and almost to anarchy. reduced England
and Henry
grew

old enough
to agree

to fight his mother's

battles, and next king.

compelled

Stephen

that he

should be the

the repudiated married duchess of Aquitaine and had added that duchy to his other French held more possessions, Normandy and Anjou. He now land than his lord, the king of France. he became king When
at Paris seemed of England, in 1154, the Capetian monarch But there was force insignificant in comparison. at least one had not been taken on the side of the Capetian kings which account

Just

before this he

had

It of, and that was geography. which kept the English-Norman-Angevin


a

was

the English empire

nel Chanever

from

becoming

really united

country.

SUMMARY

117

SUMMARY
I. Advance

of

Christendom.

"

1. Conquest

of Slavs:

(a) by
2.

force, and

lands; of conquered organization Methodius of Eussia ; (c) cases 3. Conversion of Danes Denmark. and

(6)
and

by

missionaries,

Cyril

of Bulgaria. partly

Hungary, union of

Northmen,

through

England II, Empire


and

and

Church.

"

1.

Holy

Roman

Empire

(a)

origin ;

III. ; (c) the Otto I. and Henry under relation to papacy bishops and abbots, conflict of interests between Church choice of

(6)

and

Empire.

2.

Reform

in

Church

(a)

question
the papacy.

of

celibacy
3.

(6) reformers
VII. and

under
Henry

Hildebrand
IV.:

strengthen

ory Greg-

(a)

Gregory's
;

theory
the

of his

power;
;

(6) (e) compromise


III. Christian
and

his decrees

; (c) his antagonist

{d)
and

conflict, Canossa

in England, Moslem.
2.
"

France,

Germany. peril
:

1. The First

Moslem
:

(6)

in Spain.
;

The

Crusade
;

(a) from Turks (a) call ; (6) motives


the

of of

crusaders

(c)

the

expedition

(d)

results, kingdom

Jerusalem. IV,
England
and

France.

"

1,

The

Capetians: people

power
2,

(") attitude
Conquest
invasions
to

of Church
:

and

(a) nature ; (c) policy of


crown

of their
Louis

VI.

Norman

(a)
throne

succession

to English

since the

Danish

recommenced
;

his claim

English

(5) (c) the


;

William

of Normandy and

and

Conquest
and

its results ; II.

(d)

Eleanor

of Aquitaine,

Louis

VII.,

Henry

IMPORTANT

DATES

862.
962.

Beginning
Restoration Hugh

of conversion

of Slavs. by Otto of the Empire.

987.
1000. 1059. 1066. 1077. 1095. 1099.
1122.

Capet, king of France. Conversion and of Hungarians


Creation
Norman of College

Russians.

of Cardinals.

Conquest.

Canossa.
First Crusade. Kingdom of Jerusalem. of Worms. of Henry of England.

Concordat
Accession throne

1154.

II., count

of

Anjou

and

duke

of Normandy,

to

118

THE

NEW

EUROPE,

ITS

RULERS

AND

ITS

FOES

FURTHER

STUDY
History

General

Reading
Tout, Macy, Empire

Freeman, and Papacy

Short

of the

Norman

Conquest

; Stephens,

Hildebrand

(Gregory VII.) ;
Kingsford,
The

The

English

Constitution;

Archer

and

Crusades.

Pabagraphs
100. 101.
The

"

Marks

Emerton,

146-148. Slavs: Schaff,


History

Conversion

of
IV.,

the

of

the

Christian

Church,
102. The

124-142
:

; Rambaud,

I., Ch. 5.

Hungarians
Danish

Schaff, 135-138.
:

103-104.

England 10.

Gardiner,

81-86

; Kendall,

Nos.

11, 12 ;

Colby,
106-108.

No.

Norman

Conquest
II., 24-36;

Freeman

; battle of Hastings

or

Senlac, 13-16;
Nos.

Ramsay,

from

contemporaries, Nos.

Kendall,

Nos.

Colby, Nos.
53 ;

12, 13, 15, 16 ; Robinson,

97, 98 ; Lee, survey,

44and

documents
Nos.

illustrating 2-4 ; character

Domesday
of English

Adams

Stephens,
Macy,

feudalism

under

"William,

Ch. 10. Empire


and

109-114,

120.

Papacy

Bryce,

Ch. 10 ; Adams,

tion, Civiliza-

Ch.

10 ; Emerton,

letters, contemporary

7 ; Alzog, II., 481-510 ; documents, illustrating each phase, Henderson, accounts Ch.
Nos.

Documents,

351-409
case

; Thatcher-McNeal,

60-80
in Lee,

; Robinson,

Chs.

12, 13 ;

of William For 110


see

the

Conqueror,
88,

Nos.
see

50-51

Colby,
115. The

No.

14.

38,

90.

For Burke,

111

40.
; advance

Moslem

Peril:

condition

in Spain,

I., 201-204

of Pilgrims,
338-403

Seljuks,Oman,
Jusserand,

Byzantine

Empire,

Ch.

20 ; 3Iediceval Ages,

English

Wayfaring Life in
and L, 216-224;

the Middle

; Byzantine
a

Civilization, Munro
Ivitchin, and

Sellery, 212-223.
Emerton,

116.

Call

for

Crusade:

358-364;

longer

account

in Archer

Kingsford Nos.

; documents,

Rp., I., No.

2 ; Thatcher-McNeal, No.

278-281

in Tr. and Nos. ; Robinson,

123, 124 ; Colby,


117. The March In
:

17.

Emerton, and

364-365
:

; Thatcher-McNeal,

Nos.

282, 283.

118.

119.

Syria

Jerusalem

Emerton,

365-374

; letters of the

crusaders,

etc., Tr. and

Rp., I., No. 4 ; Robinson, settlements


:

Nos. England, 408-409

126-127. Gardiner,
; Thatcher-

120.

The

Investiture

Question,
83-86
; Emerton,
:

in

125-126 McNeal,
121.

; in Germany,

Henderson,

Doctcments, 269. I., 188-214

Nos.

The

Early

Capetians Robinson, of 20. the

Kitchin, 93,
or

; from

Suger's

Life of
Ship,"

Louis 122.
The

VL, Heirs No.

No.

Jones, wreck

No.

5. of the

Conqueror:

"White

Colby,

BEVIEW

119.

The

Family

of

William

(the Conqueror)

Henry

II., 1154-1189

For

Review,

authority, collapse Charlemagne's ; the feudal substitute for a strong State ; empire of Period, 714-1154. beginnings of the new national monarchies.
:

Chs.

5-7

attempt

to restore

imperial

I. Geography.

"

1. Size of

Charlemagne's
;

empire
the Holy

compared Eoman

with

(a)the
Otto.

old Roman
2.

Empire
:

(") with (5)

Empire

of

Christendom
empire

(a)
in

Christian states
direction

and

Charlemagne's
advance Cnut, Methodius
;

814 ;

peoples outside of Christendom's

(c) agencies
Vladimir
Moslem
counter-

of advance,

monarchs

like Charlemagne, Cyril, and in eleventh ;

Stephen,
;

; missionaries

like Boniface, century and

(d)
as
"

peril in eighth stroke.


to preserve ;
a

(e) Crusades
II. Government.
down
case

1. Struggle

united

State:
strong

(a) by
to

putting

local insurrections Charlemagne


wars

(6) by justand
missi. 2. the freemen

government,
success
:

of

and

the

Obstacles
and
;

(a)

continual

impoverish

bring

them

under

control of nobles ; (6) grants descendants of Charlemagne ; III. Feudal System, Substitute a
1: In time of
war.

of immunity

(d)
for

(c) quarrels Northmen or Danes, raids of


a

between

General

Government.
3.

"

2.

In

management
Royal
2. Policy

of local affairs.

In

method IV.
Monarchs

of meeting
begin to

expenses
restore

of government.
Authority.
"

1. Policy

William
3. Effort

the

Conqueror. the popes


to

of

keep
the

early of the from feudalism controlling

of Capetians.
the

Church:
forbidding

(a) by
the

establishing

College and

of

Cardinals; by

(6) by
and

investiture' of bishops punishing


and

abbots

kings

nobles ; (c) by Special


Review: donations toward plan

simony.
Papacy.
"

Empire

1. Papacy
; ;

and

the Franks: of
the

(a)

of

Pepin

popes

emperors
to

Charlemagne and at Constantinople king


and

(5) (c)

attitude

toward

magne's Charleand VII.


the

become

of Lombards.
Henry III.

2. Papacy

German Henry

emperors. IV. 4. The

Otto

3.

Gregory

and

compromises

of the early twelfth century.

CHAPTER
THE

VIII.
THE

RISE

OF

PEOPLE

123.
taken

The People.
of the
were common

"

In feudal

society little account


and

had
The

been
countrymen

people

in town

country.

kings the
them only

to compel rarely united enough either lords or to listen to their grievances, but the time had come when

towns
to to

could
grow,

make with

themselves

heard.

Trade

had

caused
not

and
new

gain
a

had come this growth the power privileges for trade, but also to secure in the
management of their the kings in the struggle
own

for

themselves
In France

share

they

helped

affairs. against the

feudal

lords.

to prevent

they

were

allied themselves with the papacy In England the restoration of imperial authority. later to unite with the barons to restrain headstrong
to

In Italy they

kings and prosperity

lay the stock

foundations

kings were of money ing freeable to collect taxes, to hire soldiers, and to pay officials, from their dependence In such themselves on the nobles. was the doom ways the rise of the towns of feudalism, the

of parliament. increased, so that

Witli

their

124.

The

Townsmen.

"

few

in the eleventh century had once of these had been ruined by the invasions

of the towns been Roman


or

existed but most cities,


which

in the long

wars

which
and

followed.
were

Here

and

there

other

towns,

like St. Denis

the protection of monastery up under Still others, like Bruges walls. and Ghent, had been built beside the castle of some had the noble family which growing reputation
of dealing

Miinster,

justly with
a

of all, except

possibly of

The inhabitits peasants. ants few in the south or in Italy,

120

THE

TOWNSMEN

121
they could their direct heirs, nor them Like

"were

hardly freer than


leave their property

the peasants.
to any
save

not

outside the territory of their lord without could they marry They his consent. were also at first forced to pay to the The he chose to demand. the lord whatever only limit was necessity
of allowing them enough
to

live

on.

Since

every-

Carcassonne.
A

Gallo-Roman

followed.
son

city which In 1247 it came

up

extended to the

survived the invasions and the wars which He and his into the possession of Louis IX. ing leadThis view its fortifications. the causeway shows Another the Aude. the city on page 23. view gate of of

thing
lords ask.

tends
were

to

settle into

fixed custom,

the demands had

of the
to

and peasants called bad customs, After a while townsmen to be relieved of them. and clamored Such a writing or some were of the customs written down. like an tween beor contract charter looked very much agreement
were

New

gradually demands

restricted to what

they

been wont

the lord and

his people.

Hitherto

contracts

had

been

122

THE

RISE

OF

THE

PEOPLE

made

only by freemen,
But here
was

that is, lords


a

or

vassals, with which and that

one

another.

step

in

advance,

made
not

the

people a despised

part

of the

nnderlings. prosperity depended They townspeople.

recognized social order lords perceived Many


upon the

merely their own

welfare
town

of

their

trade. fairs.
to the

Merchants Money lords.


was

encouraged travelled from


even

agriculture,
to town

or peasants industry, and or

used Since the

by peasants artisans found a


the towns

gathered at in paying their dues sale for their wares


centres

their numbers life.

increased, and

became

of busy

125.

Peace.

"

Churchmen,

partly

under
an

the leadership

of

the Cluny
wars men,

to put reforniers, attempted of the lords or at least to protect

end to the petty from harm peaceful

as and merchants well as priests and monks. frequent These efforts became toward the end of the tenth To a curse this they proclaimed upon century. accomplish

peasants

plunderers of churches and upOn those who of the peasant or of other poor, his sheep
one who and upon any Since the rude robber priest. into goodness, the frightened ass,"

stole his or
a

"

the goods his cow or


or a

should barons

strike
were

deacon thus

not

to

be

lords
not

as

well

as

to

plunder
one

places every those


who because it
to
war

to compel sought churchmen people, gathered in great assemblies, to swear In some or merchants. priests or peasants fifteen was to march to promise over against

broke
was

this

agreement,

This commanded of God. be undisturbed when not merely that certain classes of men during the fighting, but that fighting should cease there was
was

ordain by what

that God supposed it. A little later the

of God, called the Peace his clergy had commanded churchmen

tried to

check

called the Truce

holier days morning. days, and Monarchs


of the

night until Monday of the week, from Wednesday to all other holy The Truce was also extended
thus
was

made

to

cover

to enforce the sought Land. Although the quarrelsome

good part Peace, King's

of the year. the Peace or defied

lords often

INFLUENCE

OF

ARABIAN

CIVILIZATION

123
that

both
men

Church
had

and become

monarch, convinced
wars

these that

efforts showed
an

wise
to

end

should
the

be

put

ruinous

126.
a

neighborhood The Crusades Mediterranean

and

and pkxndering Before Trade.


"

expeditions. crusades Genoa, had only been

few

the East. a and able to maintain To them the conquest of Syria and Palestine offered new opportuni from It also attracted thither merchants other acbrought back wonderful The- crusaders towns. counts westerh

and cities,like Venice trade with Constantinople

Antioch, of the wealth and luxury of Constantinople and for sale in eastern markets. and of the beautiful fabrics offered have eagerly desired such things Both lords and ladies must Songs the halls of their rude castles less dreary. make " the rich stuffs of Syria, the tapestries of began to desmbe Persia, the pearls, the precious stones, the perfumes of Arabia
to

and Palestine." Western Europeans 127.1 Influence of Arabian Civilization. in contact with Arabian civilization in Spain, had earlier come but not until this time did they realize its magnificence.
"

Merchants taffeta, and

now

brought

from
Here

the East

carpets.

making similar goods, so For example, the Venetians

and that

silk, satin, velvet, gauze, in there artisans succeeded industries how


to
were

new

created.

and cut the culture of hemp and glass. ! Others learned paper-making, flax and sugar cane. The older industries improved when the greater artistic skill of the East put to shame crude workmanship. make

learned

was

pagne, Those held in the county of Chammultiplied. east of Paris, were particularly successful because it from by waterways to reach them easy for merchants
Fairs
In England Boston. the greatest fairs were fairs lasted about Such

north, west, or south. near at Stourbridge days and


new

held
forty The

brought

commerce

together merchants and industry which


also.

from
made

all the world. them


so

successful

helped
were

the

towns

Those

the first to gain wealth and life passed southern France the new

along the great trade routes From importance. Italy and


to the Rhine

country

and

124
northern France. the Norman

THE

EISE

OF

THE

PEOPLE

English

towns

were

Conquest
cities.

had

cause stirred by it,partly becloser their relations made

with the Continental

"

Kt

"

s,".

The

Alcazar

at

Seville.

This portion A palace built by the Moors in the twelfth century. the beauty and sculpture. shows and grace of their architecture

128.
towns

Towns
which

and
had
were

Self-government.
had

"

In

Italy those

Roman

survived ruled

and but had

lost their ancient form of government lords did The other by the bishops. Alps, dwell in isolated castles,

not, like the lords north

of the

their houses

within

the town

walls.

They

were

all

THE

FRENCH

COMMUNES

125

the

in any ready to cast in their lot with the townsmen If such an to throw off the yoke of the bishop. attempt century attempt succeeded, as it often did after the eleventh or artisans chose consuls opened, the lords and the merchants them, a name to rule over recalling the glorious days of the
more

Eoman Milan
new

Republic. and
Florence.

The

most

important
all
were

of
to

these

Nearly

Henry pope and emperor. struggle between had insisted that in such a border counthe Fowler (919-936) try live in a fortified place, Saxony every ninth man as should had His reason should be established. where, also, markets

play a In Germany,

cities were part in the

been

and necessities of defence against the Hungarians to do with the growth Trade had still more other marauders. the Italian cities they did not at cities. Unlike of German the

firstgain the right to govern


strong

themselves,
attempt French

enough

to

prevent

an

for the emperor was to set aside his direct


was

rule.

or

power much any upon its situation. Within the dukes of Normandy granted

How

town
own

their

pended obtain dedomain the kings


to

valuable

privileges, but not


was

the right of self-government, unless a town The and needed a strong local power.

exposed to attack king encouraged of his lords, enabled him France

such independence in the towns within the domains for this helped him hold the lords in check, and
to acquire
some

129. The

these very tOAvns. control over in northern It was Communes. French


"

frequently, Belgium that the towns most and in what is now in the later years of the eleventh and in the early part of the to themselves or twelfth century, gained the right to govern

become

"communes."

Generally
the townsmen.

the lead in organizing


were

to do enough for the lord granted without a fight the privilege demanded, usuwere ally merchants ready to pay well, and his treasury was It might happen in sore that he wished need of money. not

yet

strong

took guild of merchants The unions of artisans the cases this. In most

to go upon
a
ransom,

a
or

it might be necessary for him to obtain help in some war. neighborhood

crusade,

or

to pay

Such

126

THE

EISE

OF

THE

PEOPLE

needs gave the townsmen did not obtain control


even a

their opportunity. all the town in the remained of what It


was

Sometimes
the

they

; and

whole
not

quarter

citadel or lord's power. If he

would

sell the townsmen seized it by force.

they wanted, they occasionally however, that such a rare,

quarrel broke out as stained the old Carolingian town fighting bishop who lord of the town a The was of Laon. displeased his black slave in torturing those who employed him. Once while he was absent the people bribed his agents

bloody

to permit

and on his return they paid the bishop They a friend of to confirm the grant. also sought to make Soon this money was the king by paying him. gone and the
a commune,

bishop
and

absolved

both the king

the commune. suppressed When the bishop was warned he

and himself from The climax


of

their promises in 1112. came mood

the

angry

townsmen,

grunt
next

retorted that they would roughly by the if his negro John them tweaked
the
streets

of the dare not


The
mune," com-

nose.

day

had

and hidden

the in
a

resounded people burst

Commune, cry, into the bishop's house.


to the

''

He

The on the townsmen. murdered. The king finally interfered and a few years later reestablished the commune of Institute of Peace. under the significant name from distinguished a The a commune principal thing which
town
swore

barrel in his cellar, but other lords took vengeance

he

was

found

and

with

much
town,

another, and that together they like a lord, doing homage to their lord, ruling and able as a body to acquire other fiefs.

privileges to stand by one

was

that

in

commune

the

men

all became their

130.
were

Towns

with

Privileges.

"

Many

of

the

towns

not allowed
were

to turn
as

themselves

into monster

which lords of this

kind

quite

well off, for they

protecting them against of the king or of their lord, often I'educing the sums of money fines which they owed, and granting and the amount of the Sometimes them the charter many valuable rights of trade. granted
to
one

charters of privileges, by the agents unjust exactions

received

town

was

so

popular

that it

was

given to other

ITALIAN

CITIES

127

of Lorris charter of the little town The Normanto about three hundred was others. granted English kings gave a charter to Rouen, which they also copied
towns.

In

this way

the

for other towns Such a charter

throughout
was

their domains

on a

the

Continent.
to

build up
promise trade, and all claims

town

often the means his domain. on

by which
He

lord sought open,


a

could

valuable

privileges to those who

could secure did not claim them


or

against offer to protect any who Even be made serfs against them. which might by resorting thither, if their lords their freedom The Villeneuves within a year and a day. France a reminder are of of this mode of modern The Italy

would come settled in his town

market, there to

IsTewtowns making.

town

131.
had

Italian Cities.
"

cities of

northern

been

the first to free themselves

were

threatened

with the loss of this freedom. defence to the struggle between the emperors

which also the first to be its sucThey owed cessful and


the

between to the conflict in Germany rivals for papacy, and had apparently settled The Concordat the crown. of Worms the controversy about investiture, 'but the strife of rival claimants for the
There
were

margrave

to break forth from time to time. continued lords that had to be reckoned The with. also new duke, and Austria, was a or now of the Eastmark,
crown or of the old Northmark, steadily driving the Slavs

the margrave

mark

of Brandenburg,
was

who
enough Proud,

was

to take ancestor

part

in the

quarrels

eastward, of the day.

strong Henry the

and Hohenstaufen
was

Saxony

held both rulers of England, of the Guelph After the conflict was Bavaria. settled and the

Conrad

was

chosen

king,

interference

in Italy

rendered impossible by a new crusade, upon which Conrad to go, in 1147, by the and Louis VII. of France were persuaded famous The crusade was mal disa of Clairvaux. monk, Bernard
failure, and in 1152 Conrad died his nephew, Frederick the Redbeard, the situation
to monarchical

and
or

by succeeded Meantime Barbarossa.


was

in Italy had

become

still more

threatening spread

power.

The

desire for self-government

128
to Rome

THE

RISE

OF

THE

PEOPLE

itself, and they


were

from
about

1143

for twelve

years

the Romans

imagined

to act

played hundreds by the preaching

the evils of the Most of the exile.

of years before. of Arnold of Brescia, who day in the worldly power time

had the part their ancestors Their enthusiasm was stirred


found the secret of

wielded

by churchmen.
was an

during

these

years

the pope

132. Frederick
to help

I. and
when

the Cities.
"

Two

things

were

likely

Frederick
that

The

first was

he should find time to go into Italy. like Milan tyrannized big towns over their

smaller that
men,

neighbors
to study

and

were

hated

particularly
more

in the great

Another accordingly. school at Bologna, were

was

ginning be-

had had

codified and been when there

law which carefully the Roman better organized to see how much
was
one

ian Justinsociety rule for of


some

uniform

and
or

reasonable

all, rather than lord. This law

many

local customs

the
had

will

certain welldefined rights, especially the appointment of officialsand the When Frederick descended into Italy, he collection of taxes.
a commission to such teachings and formed readily hearkened He helped the pope to to draw up a list of imperial rights. to him the in 1155, and turned over recover control of Rome

also taught

that emperors

ever, heretic. The pope, howrevolutionist Arnold to be burned as a did not relish Frederick's own pretensions, and a bitter their claims two years later over quarrel broke out between them
to superiority.

This

led the pope

to

become
own

of city independence

outside his

pion zealous chamFrederick domain.


a

LomThe cities formed a bard retorted by setting up a rival pope. had sought to destroy Milan, which the emperor League. his Guelph Just at this moment in 1162, rose from its ruins. rivals could
were

making
muster

so

much

trouble for him

at

home

that he

He to conquer the League. soldiers enough in 1176, and was decisively defeated at Legnano obliged was to reconcile himself with the pope and to leave to the cities kept the privileges of self-government which they had actually
not

in their hands.

HENRY

II.

OF

ENGLAND

129
Frederick
save

133. Frederick in Germany.

"

Upon

the Guelphs

by depriving them took revenge in the which about Brunswick, into the electorate of Hanover. the

of all their fiefs distant future were This marked Germany was

those
to

grow

the

older division into duchies. Frederick perdivided in the manner ished usual in feudal lands. So glorious did in the Third Crusade. soon afterward he appear to the Germans of his day that for generations the
to say that he and his knights were wont people were in the mountains, whence they would only sleeping in a cave day return to rule. some
common

end of henceforth

134. France
Lombard
Paris, who
two

hard-pressed, 1137-1180.
of the pope
once

"

The

triumph

cities and
more

helped

the Capetian

of the Louis at

than

as such monarchs king of England. Angevin-Norman

seemed Frederick

about to be crushed between Barbarossa and Henry, the

of the

Empire and
never

over

the

than

name,

it seemed
cross
now

the control made more of Burgundy old kingdom if the influence of the Capeas
the

Frederick

tians could
The than

the Meuse, the second

Saone,

or

the Ehone.

city of Lyons,
ever

city of the

his territories to within France, in the quarrels the therefore,


cause were

more city of France, was On the west Henry Empire. pushed for Fortunately forty miles of Paris.

with

the

Church,
was

Louis

VII.

had

fended de-

of that ]3ope who

to triumph.

Churchmen,
little
was a

real power. France, and

he had when ready to support him even to feel that there Moreover, began men and then this the feudal tie or
II.
new even

now

feeling of loyalty proved the vigorous


measures

stronger than a king like Henry

of

II. is generally of England, 1154-1189. "Henry had territories in thought of as a king of England who for this, although he is good reason France. There western

135.

Henry

IL

was

far
an

more

Frenchman, There
as

of the
was
no

Norman-Angevin dwelling-place
the

than
that

Englishman.

stock, in England the Loire. in


one

he

liked
was

so

well

some

of

castles
to

on

But

he

too

restless and

energetic

remain

long

130
He
was

THE

RISE

OF

THE

PEOPLE

place. borders him

almost

of Scotland

ceaselessly to the Pyrenees.


or on

on

the

march

from

the
saw

seated except at table Continent is less remembered


unite permanently independent of one
under another, Such

courtiers rarely His work on horseback. it


was a

His

the
to

because
one
"

vain attempt

to be rule peoples who wished Englishmen, Normans, Angevins,

and Aquitanians. as so long the king


In England had the
to
case

domain

could

hold

together

only

had
was

to compel enough obedience. different. Even the Norman nobles

power

Englishmen as and to of themselves language. If Henry speak the English could bring peace to his mother between the country ruined by the civil war and King Stephen, and could keep the barons from plundering the

learned

think

a real kiiig of the whole country. people, he would' become he worked This he did with to characteristic vigor. Next improve the laws and to see that they were justly carried out.

the counties to try all involved. The the king's own cases rights were judgessucceeded often in getting into their hands cases that to the manor courts of the lords or to the really belonged grandfather in which
sent

His

had

judges into

county

to the people under advantage such a king, because it resulted in the spread of the same Henry troduce also inprinciples of law to all parts of the country. by which to be discovered a system were guilty men
courts.
was
an

This

of groups of men selected in the subdivisions like our of each county, a body something grand jury. The same plan was used to find out who owned property or what Other measures the ancient customs were. of a community

by the inquiry

led toward had

the formation been


more

recently lords became

of the petit controlled in many


distinctly the
"

jury.

The

counties king's representatives.

sheriffs who by the great

King Henry's chief trouble and the Church. was with the Church, which by this time in England, as on the Continent, had built up a system tried of courts where were in which involved. were civil and criminal cases clergymen

136. Henry

The

Church

claimed

the right to settle all cases

growing

out of

HENRY

AND

THE

CHUBCH

131
by
an

marriages, of wills, and of contracts


cases

sanctioned

oath, and

concerned which widows, orphans, crusaders, and students. Moreover, as most offences against good order were hard to see where the Church also sins, it was would stop in its efforts to bring matters After consulting under its control.

with

his Great

Council

at Clarendon

in 1164,

Henry

issued

Canterbury
Here,
to
east

Cathedral.

erected.

which from Europe.


was

Altar, Becket's was shrine, or tomb, of the High it was Until the Reformation a place of pilgrimage England from but also came thousands not only
It in
was one

despoiled of
the

by

Henry of

VIII.
the

Becket

murdered

transepts

cathedral.

the

"

Constitutions of Clarendon,"

guilty of certain crimes king's courts, that no one the


royal consent, and that

ordered that clergymen which in be tried and punished should out should appeal to the pope withcate should not excommuniIt happened his knowledge. Thomas
a

the Church

the king's vassals without that the archbishop of Canterbury, opposed these decrees
as

Becket,

bitterly

contrary

to the rights of the Church.

132
Although
the

THE

RISE

OF

THE

PEOPLE

had once been close archbishop friends, a terrible quarrel broke out, which ended in the murder of the king's followers. of the archbishop, in 1170, by some declared to be a saint, and the king was Thomas was obliged
king and the
to
''

humiliate

himself

at

his tomb,
end

as

well

as

to

enforced to crowd him out of his proper Church and the attempt of the thing the Church was grateful to him, work failed. For one

Constitutions."

In the

Henry

give up his his principles,

and this last days


wife. young Angevin

was were

the

of king, had power.

Louis

His of Ireland in 1171. partial conquest and his embittered by conflicts with his sons had died, and Philip II., a vigorous France

already

begun

to

turn

the

tide against

the

SUMMAKY
I. Rise
of the

People.

"

1. Their

situation improved

by

(a) growth

and of custom interest nobles peace,


towns

of privileges, (6) thg grant of written promises to eshad in their prosperity, (c) the movement tablish 2. Their importance of trade. (d) the increasing

to strong: (a) relation of this prosperity men townswhich feel the revival first ; (c) how crusades ; (") towns became and self-governing in Italy ; (d) attitude of German

grow

rich

and

French created
charter

kings
;

toward

towns

(e) how
a commune

French

commune
a

was

(/)

difference

between

and

town

with

II.

(g) Italian cities take advantage of rivalry commune. of pope and emperor ; (h) the Roman France, Germany, England. tween 1. Quarrels in Germany : (a) beducal houses ; (b) effect of these quarrels in hampering I. in his Italian campaigns Frederick ; (c) Frederick's notion of his imperial rights in Italy ; (d) combination he was by which defeated. 2. France dangerous I. and : (a) neighbors, Frederick Henry II. ; (6) support of the Church of sentiment ; (e) growing loyalty. 3. England, II. : (a) efforts to hold his territory Henry together ; (fc) as a lawgiver ; (c) his conflict with the Church.
of privileges ;
"

Special
The

Point
:

of View
1. Influence

"

Church
to

town

in promoting liberties. 3. Struggle Roman


commune.

peace.

2.

Relation

with

Frederick

of bishops I. for control in Henry


11.

Italy.
over

4. The

5. Conflict with

jurisdiction of

royal

judges.

SUMMARY

133

IMPORTANT Eleventh
1176.

DATES

and twelfth centuries, rise of the cities.


of Legnano, defeat of Frederick I. in his struggle with the

Battle
towns.

1180. 1189.

Accession Death

of Philip II. in France. II. of England. of Henry

FURTHER General
Reading: Henry Paragraphs
:
"

STUDY Plantagenets

Stubbs,

Early

Mrs.

J. R.

Green,

11. ; Gibbins,

History

of Commerce

in Europe.

123-132.

The

Adams,

in general : Emerton, Civilization, Cb. 12; Cheyney, Towns


:

MedicBval

Europe,

Ch. 15 ; Ch. 2 ;

Ch. 3 ; Cunningham,

Commerce,
125. Peace
:

Gibbins,

34-40.
; for documents,

Emerton,

568-571

No. 2, pp. 6-9 ; Robinson, 127. Arab

No.

Tr. and Bp., Vol. I., 90 ; Henderson, 208-215.


see

Civilization Ch.

see

49

Munro
:

and

Sellery, 224-239
92-95, 193-201

; Lane-

Poole,

8 ; English
1

Towns

Green,
and

; Tr.

and 23

Bp., Yo\. II., No.

{English
:

Towns

Gilds);Kendall,
; Colby,

No.

o (Picturef London)

; Robinson,

Nos. 161-165 8, 9

25-28. Trades

129-130.
in

French

Towns

Jones,

Nos.

{Bise of

Cities and

Paris).
Crusade and Bp.,
:

131.

Second
Tr.

Emerton, I., No. No.

374-376
2, pp.

; Privileges

of

Crusaders,
333-336;

Vol.

9-10;

Henderson,
No.

Thatcher-McNeal, blamed
132. Frederick for the I. and
the

284;

Robinson,

129

(St. Bernard
II., 547410-430
;

disaster).
the Pope
:

Emerton,
are

282-312 in

; Alzog,

563 ;

principal Nos.
:

documents 98-109.

Henderson,

Thatcher-McNeal, 135-136.
Henry
II.

Macy,

Ch.

12 ; longer

in Stubbs
see

; for the

of the
and Nos.

legal development
Nos.

of England,
a more

documents

study In Adams

Stephens,
58-63
;
see

12-20;

also Kendall,

Nos.

general selection in Lee, 21 ; Colby, No. 23. 20,

Additional
and

Reading: the

Ramsay,

Angevin

Empire;

Balzani,

Tlie Popes

Hohenstaufen.

CHAPTER
THE

IX.
THE

RUIN

OF

THE

EMPIRE: AND

GROWTH

OF

LAND ENG-

FRANCE

struggle for the supremacy of the Church, which Gregory VII. had begun iu the controversy in the twelfth century by the reopened about investitures, was I. to establish imperial control over the attempt of Frederick
"

137. Europe,

1180-1273.

The

cities. A Frederick's family Italian


consequence and France. and
stronger

century and the

later

it led to the

of the was that the centre of interest passed to England These kingdoms becoming better organized were than the Empire. Their peoples

humiliation

extinction of Empire. One

began

to have

part in general

bought

or

won

felt that they


country. the towns
sums

The
as

In the earlier days the townsmen had they charters for their particular towns ; now also for the interests of the whole should care kings saw the need of gaining the support of
affairs.
as

well

of compelling

them

to contribute

greater

in taxes.

138.

The

Early

Career of Philip Augustus.

"

came Philip II. be-

in 1180, nine years before the death of France. Henry II. of England, his vassal for all western Since he was only fifteen years old, his uncles of the great Champagne family or their rival, the count of Flanders, hoped king
of France
to manage
was

his affairs.

He

soon

taught

them

lesson, for he

to thwart skilful in using one ambitious man he had When over, the schemes the conflict was of another. He succeeded added several rich fiefs to the royal domain. sons ening also in setting Henry's against their father and in strength-

remarkably

his

own

influence

in their lands.
134

When

Eichard

the

PHILIP

CONQUERS
king, Philip
more

N OEM

ANDY

135

Lion-hearted
loved
a

became
even

grew

battle

than

he.

cautious, for Eichard Both had another reason

had been captured Jerusalem why they should be at peace. in 1187 by Saladin, sultan of Egypt, Crusade and a Third for its recovery. It would have been had been proclaimed dishonorable for Philip and E-ichard to refuse their aid, and they agreed
them,
to

go
was

together.

Frederick

Barbarossa
to
so cross

had
a a

ceded pre-

but

drowned Third

in attempting

in Asia Minor.
as

This

Crusade

was was

not

dismal

river ure fail-

the

Second
of

had
arms

been, for it and

brilliant deeds
; but

glorified by Richard's by the chivalrous conduct of Saladin recaptured,


and

Jerusalem
a

was

not

the

Christians

retained only Jerusalem 1192

the coast with the privilege of visiting Long before it came to an end in as pilgrims. had quarrelled and Philip had hastPhilip and Richard ened strip along home
to do his
new

harm as as enemy much possible in his absence. his return, was Richard, on captured and held for ransom by the German thirteen months emperor, Henry

Philip vainly tried to persuade of Frederick. he and in prison, while Henry to keep Richard's Richard divided his lands between brother John them.
son

VI., the

139. Philip conquers


died
in 1199

Normandy

and Anjou.
"

When

ard Rich-

John came. a was opportunity for him neither in war in negotiation. Moreover, nor match John was so treacherous trusted him. and wicked that nobody Arthur of Brittany, the nephew, had a good claim to all the son of John's elder brother, who inheritance. Philip firstsupported Arthur and then abandoned
a

Philip's

It happened

that John

had

him, when he found it convenient to make peace with John. As soon for a final struggle, as he thought the time had come Philip 'found in John's oppression of several of his own vassals for reopening Philip as overlord an excuse the quarrel.
summoned

John

to Paris

to be

judged by
his lands

the barons, and


on

when

John

did not appear declared Again Arthur was and murdered him,

the Continent

confiscated

Philip's

Arthur

but

John ally. this only helped

captured Philip by

136

THE

GROWTH

OF

ENGLAND

AND

FRANCE

of all justmen against the wicked king. The result was that in 1204 John lost all the lands north royal of the Loire and part of those south of it. The French doubled in size,and no single nobleman was domain was almost

arousing

the

indignation

henceforward

dangerous

rival.

little while

afterward,

Chateau
This Chateau

Gaillard.
"saucy

Gaillard, "gay"

or

"castle,

was

built by Richard

I.

Paris in 1197, to control the river Seine and the road from of England It was the on a chalk into Normandy. spur projectingfrom placed it defied the A masterpiece engineering, of mediaeval plateau above. attacks

of Philip
to

attempt the outworks

relieve it.

of the picture.

King five months, John no although made by taking Its capture was effected successively the slope, toward the foreground up which extended Dismantled by royal order in the seventeenth century. Augustus

when

John

had

been

excommunicated

by Pope

Innocent

III.,

because he
archbishop

to become not allow the pope's candidate would Innocent declared John deposed of Canterbury,

Philip actually to Philip. crown and offered the English kings, but hoped to turn the tables completely on the Angevin John by making parried the blow peace with the pope and of Engpromising to become his vassal for the whole kingdom

THE

GREAT

CHARTER

137

land.
Philip
won

John
and

made
to
recover

final attempt to stir up enemies against the lost possessions, but in 1214 Philip

over the invading army, and great victory at Bouvines to him forced to content himself with what remained John was south of the Loire. lish John was distrusted by his Eng140. The Great Charter. a
"

final The by the pope and by Philip. defeat of his alliesat Bouvines gave the barons a chance to put In 1215 they compelled him to meet an end to his tyrannies. Castle, and sign them at Runnymede, within sight of Windsor
as subjects

well

as

Magna
a

Cliarta, or the Great Charter.


of the
as or

This

Charter

was

confirmation

vassals them

claimed
were

rights privileges which their heritage, but the rights conceded

the

mainly king's
to

they
were

later, and

men concede to their tenants, so that all freeMoreover, to be benefited. some of the rights were in English law and bein a broader form, embodied came
to

the heritage of Englishmen wherever in Australia. in England or or in America

they dwelt, whether No free man to was

be seized

except by the lawful judgment of his law was The known each peers or by the law of the land." had a man bulwark even man's against the king, and whether like himself by other men to be decided broken the law was
or

imprisoned

"

and made

not

what

was another promise officers. There into the right of the taxed to decide grow might which This declared that sums they should pay to the king.

by

the

king's

the king would

for any but the ordinary "' aids " without " As Great Council." the consent of all his barons in the the barons John was the pope's friend, the pope denounced now
not ask to keep such not bound rebels, and declared that John was The barons, supported by the citizens of London, a promise. to depose paid no attention to the papal threats, and attempted John for breaking his word, but his sudden death in 1216 put
as an

end to the struggle. 141. The Albigensian had

Crusade, 1209.
affairs

"

Pope much

Innocent

III., John's

who

interfered in English everywhere

so

during

reign, attempted

to carry out the theory of Gregory

138

THE

GROWTH

OF

ENGLAND

AND

FRANCE

VII., that

as

God's

representative

on

1198 all great moral questions. He interfered in the affairs of France, of Germany, to 1216. In southern France of the smaller countries. and of many the Waldenses two religious sects had arisen, and the Albido the God Waldenses The as much worshipped genses.

judge in

earth the pope was His reign lasted from

final

"

Protestants

now

; but

the

Albigenses

held

strange

about the world as a battle-ground between God and to withover believing that the only way to triumph evil was draw Innocent was wholly from the gross life of the senses.
alarmed against army and spread the Albigensian

notions the Devil,

by the

of northern eager for plunder,

a crusade of such ideas and preached heretics. The result was that a great barons and churchmen, zealous for the faith

descended murdered
was

on

the

south, burned of
men,

some

of its fairest towns, and Innocent and children.

thousands by

women,

troubled

these

horrors

and

by

the

cruel
was

covetousness

this army
of the

richest

leader of The of- the conquerors. Simon His reward was de Montfort. several fiefs in the south, taken from the possessions

was accused of protecting the who of the count of Toulouse, finally profited by the king who It was heretics. the French his claims to the king. because Simon's heir turned over war,

Another
orders

consequence

was

of

monks,

the

creation of two great preaching Dominicans and tlie Franciscans, who the

in monasteries instead of shutting themselves went bating about comThe punishment heresy by preaching and teaching. of heresy
of
a was

made

more

special court,

by the establishment and severe called the Inquisition, for the trial of these
prompt

cases.

142.

The

Fourth

Crusade, 1202-1204.

"

Innocent

was

still

less to be congratulated the exploits of another band of upon crusaders which he got together for the recovery of Jerusalem.
This army
was

persuaded,

the restoration Empire.

chiefly by the Venetians, to attempt antine of an exiled prince to the throne of the ByzWhen this prince was unable to satisfy his and sacked

greedy

friends, they captured

Constantinople.

The

BUIN

OF

THE

EMPIRE

139
the
Empire

imperial
Venice

territory also

was

divided
a

took the obtained three-eighths, and fifty years. for a littleover place of the old Greek Empire Innocent had been saved from 143. Ruin of the Empire.
"

among Latin

conquerors.

by the sudden death in 1197 serious quarrel with the Empire had married VI., a dangerous the antagonist who of Henry heiress of the kingdom of Naples and Sicily and whose lands
a

in the papacy on the south as well as on the It was only after Innocent's death in 1216 that Henry's north. II., became the brilliant Frederick son, equally formidable.
therefore His way

hemmed

stronghold

was

his Sicilian kingdom, he had

where
more

for the feudal

of governing

substituted

modern

method,

an raised army, and a navy paid for with money with officials, In northern Italy he was by taxation. more successful than he did his grandfather in managing the cities ; but in Germany to try such plans, for the nobles were constantly not venture The at his power and stronger. popes, alarmed growing

their commands, family. the entire Hohenstaufen exterminate him crusade and his sons, preached
angered

by his disobedience

to

determined They

to

excommunicated

after crusade them, and sought in the royal houses of England and against In the midst of France for rivals who might seize his lands. died. Nearly twenty the conflict Frederick years later his his Conradin, perished miserably at Naples,, and grandson, Sicilian kingdom
of Frederick's

Charles

into the hands passed of his executioner, Anjou, brother of Louis IX. of France. From death in 1250 until 1273 the Empire was cally practia

without

ruler, and

the time

is called the Great

regnum. Inter-

conflicts between Empire dangerous had grown The to both. Church and papacy were up within the framework of the old Empire, and the bishop of Rome had claimed a jurisdiction wide as that of the emperor. as
on
"

144.

Effect

the Church.

These

Christians, from
Empire
must

St. Jerome's

time, had

been

taught

that the

ever Whatended. endure until the world itself was its counterpart, the papacy. The crippled it would injure

140

THE

GROWTH

OF

ENGLAND

AND

FRANCE

kings, who were inclined to only gainers would be the western deny the superiority of the emperors, and who did not hesitate to interfere in the affairs of their to resist the pope's attempts
own

kingdoms.

time

might

come

when

would break away from papal rule much as become independent of the emperor, Meanwhile 145. End of the Crusades.
"

national churches nations had already

the

which had
along

the had

popes
come

had

a appeared marshalling inglorious conclusion. to an

crusades, in tendom, united ChrisFrederick


a

II.

made

treaty
was

by

Avhich

Jerusalem,

surrendered to him into the hands city, in 1244, again passed of the Egyptian the petty Christian principalities sultan, and soon afterward Louis IX. of France were also obliged to give up the contest.
the coast,

small strip for ten years ; but the

with

by attacks on to restore the fortunes of the war attempted Egypt, in 1249, and upon Tunis, in 1270; but the first led to The his capture, and in the second he perished of the plague. for a time from the islands of Rhodes struggle was maintained
of military monks, like the Hospitallers The Teutonic Knights, a similar order, and the Templars. for the Church in sought, after 1226, another field of warfare Prussians. What conthe Knights the lands of the pagan quered
and

Cyprus

by bands

German
shores of the

farmers Baltic have

occupied,

so

that

the

remained
"In
a

German
Philip
as

southeastern to this day.

146.
France

St. Louis, 1226-1270.


had
a

II., called Augustus,


as

earlier days who

looked

in their principal interests quite out for their own

king who the kings

was

ruler

well

conqueror.
towns
as

In

had

provosts, for as much effectively been,

Partly to control them, partly to royal rights. more than double what the domain, now Philip

manage

it had

districts large bailiffs and seneschals over appointed to include several provostships, and held them all to enough He to make the royal power was a man strict account. his grandson, It was dreaded rather than loved or revered. Louis
IX.,
or

St, Louis,
sacred

the monarchy

is ordinarily called, who made in the eyes of the people, because, above
as

he

MISRULE

Ilsr ENGLAND,

HENRY

IIL

141

He was to be justthat so anxious all things, lie prized justice. he even some abandoned of the lands which his less scrupulous had taken from his English grandfather vassal south of the

Loire.

When

he

was

sure

that his

cause

was

he just,

did

not

hesitate to strike hard blows in its defence. Though a devoted he stoutly resisted the attempts churchman, of the popes, in II., to exact money the midst of their struggle with Frederick Later he ceased to oppose papal clergy. because he wished the pope's aid in compelling He sought to put an clergy to contribute for his crusades. from the French
taxation,

the

end

Fight

between

Akmed

and

Mounted

Knights

of

the

Time

of

Henry

III.

to neighborhood

the nobles and to bring their disputes before his courts. Among best the people he was as remembered sitting at the foot of an oak, in his forest of Vincennes, administering to justice all, rich and poor, great
wars

between

barons

or

147.

citizens. Misrule in England, Henry


was
no

defenceless

III., 1216-1272.

"

In England

there

St. Louis

to protect the rights of the people

and to give of John, was

justjudgments to
a

all.

The

king, Henry
the country

IIL,
to be

son run over-

weak

man,

who

allowed

with papal

many

the pope to appoint Italians and other foreigners to positions in the English
collectors, and

permitted

142
Church.

THE

GROWTH

OF

ENGLAND

AND

FliANCE

But

forgotten barons
Simon
genses.
was

in the Charter had not been the promises made The leader of the by the barons and the people. de Montfort, earl of Leicester, son of that Simon
who

de Montfort Edward,

had led the crusaders


son,

the king's
were

against the Albithe barons tried to weaken


to have

by showing
respected,

that they

anxious

their

own

privileges

they cared very little for the rest of the while Simon, after he had defeated the king and his son at nation. from all classes of to obtain support Lewes, in 1264, sought people by convening or be represented.
a

great council in which

It will be remembered selected in each county used the plan of having men who
were

all should appear II. had that Henry


to declare
or

criminals,
customs

as

well

as

who

owned
were.

the

ancient

a carry this method of the counties

of a community little farther, and


or

property, It was

what

easy to

to

summon

of the

towns

to say how

tives representathese much

coiild pay toward the king which

decisions the public expenses, or to approve The had made. leader like Simon some or

great council of the barons had

meanwhile received the name is now spelled, a word which of parlement, or parliament, as it in 1265, Simon When called a parliament suggests speaking. he summoned not only the barons of his party personally, but
directed that four knights

be sent

from

representatives
called
a

from

certain towns.

each Although

county

and this body

two
was

it contained representatives represented in an English parliament, it of all the classes now laws or to argue about governmental was not asked to make Simon had already to agree to what Its business was expenses. parliament, and
although thought example

best to he had

do.
set
was

He

was

not

speedily forgotten.

overthrown,

but

the

148.

Edward

I., 1272-1309,
Henry
was

the weak when Edward, who the people of his

was

had
sons

anxious felt in Henry

Fortunately, and Parliament. dead he was succeeded by his son to win back the confidence which
"

II. in the

days

before

the misrule
generally

asked

At first Edward and of his grandson. from assemblies of the barons and money

clergy.

PHILIP

IV.

OF

FRANCE

143

or

from

towns,

Montfort's.

rather This was

that he must
was

like Simon de parliaments ing a dangerous practice, for only by insistdeal with all classes in a general parliament than

from

likely to check Separate the old tyrannies. In 1295 assemblies could be played off against one another. a great danger threatened the king and forced him to seek the There had been a dispute in of the whole support country. the nation

Scotland about
of Balliol,
the
a

the kingship.

Edward

had

decided

it in favor

member

opportunity into actual treated in this way;

of the Scottish royal house ; but he seized to turn certain vague rights of lordship over control.
The

to be mind they revolted, and made a treaty with Edward's To gain strength for enemy, Philip IV. of France. the contest Edward has a called together parliament which
no

Scotland

Scots

had

been named

the Model

Parliament,
men,
"

because

it had

tives representa-

the barons, bishops, and abbots, of all classes of knights representing the counties, and two citizens from each This did not mean that Edward of the towns. gave up all idea of obtaining money from he groups

asking parliament, The grumbling and him


taxes

for
open

attempted

of his it the

w subjectsithout
following year.

resistance

to promise

which

king, such a kings. After


from
more

another parliament it had not granted. than more promise meant

which compelled that he would not demand As Edward honest an was it would
have from
some

he found

this, English

kings

occasionally

their

and
was

asking parliament dangerous to do so because the right of parliamore ment by barons, clergy, and towns. steadily maintained
without subjects
treatment

money but it became ;

took

Edward's

failure. They a soon of the Scots was recovered their independence, under Robert Bruce, like Balliol a descendant Edward more was sucof the old royal house. cessful he conquered with the Welsh, whom and whose giance allehe his
son

by granting them wise to them as Prince of Wales.


won

laws and

by presenting Philip IV.

149.

Philip

rv.

France, with whom

1285-1314. of France, Edward often quarrelled,


"

of

was

grandson

144:

THE

GEOWTH

OF

ENGLAND

AND

FRANCE

of St. Louis, but he did not inherit any great love of justice. his law supreme. to make This was He meant not altogether frequently lawless and bad in a country where the nobles were French The royal courts, like the English courts, oppressive. grew
out of the

gradually affixed to the assembly of the barons, the clergy, and the citizens. In Philip's reign it became 150. France and the Papacy. Hohenstaufens had by no clear that the death of the German
name was
"

enough England this

king's council of barons or of clergy. ously Curito be called " parlements," they came while in

kings, for established the superiority of the popes over far more erick Freddangerous Philip became a than antagonist Philip II. had been. When broke out between the war
means

and

Edward,

both

kings

their other subjects. because Pope Boniface VIII.


or

wished In England

to tax

their clergy

as

well

as

and France the clergy refused, had, in 1296, issued a papal bull
not

decree

without

clergymen from permission

that

were

the

pope.

pay Edward
no

to

taxes

to princes

immediately
they

clared denot

that

if the

be protected them
or

clergy would in his courts, and

pay that

taxes,
one

should

any

brought
as

seized them to terms


He

their property
at
once.

would go Philip chose


or

maltreated This unpunished.


a

who

method

effective. France into Italy.

forbade This

the papal treasury, upon face Bonithe French since it collected heavy taxes from clergy. was obliged to yield and to allow the king to take money from the clergy in case meant of great need, which any time it badly. that Philip wanted 151. The States General. the

any gold bore hard

silver to be sent

quite from

"

few

quarrel broke out again more justwhat Edward had done a few
himself in danger
:

years afterward, fiercely. Philip

in 1302,
now

did

from
or
"

the towns
states
or

he gathered about him in what The

he found years before when his barons, clergy, and citizens


were were

general."

clergy

called the deemed the

"

"

estates

first " estate"

now

social class, the nobles the second, and The formed a third. meeting of 1302 was

the townsmen

probably

not

THE

PAPACY

HUMILIATED

145
but
it
was

the first assembly of this kind notable, and has been taken as general.

in France, the

more

beginning parliament

of the
was

states

Still less than


to

the

English

it called

to approve the give advice ; it was simply what king had decided upon, in order that his letters to the pope have Instead greater weight. of yielding, the pope might bull, in which he declared that the superiority i^ublished a new

together

a doctrine of the of the pope, as God's vicar, over princes was Church, to disbelieve which imperilled a man's salvation. Papacy lawyers persuaded Humiliated. Philip's 152. The him to appeal from Boniface to a general council of the Church.
"

Meanwhile personal

one

of

them

went

into Italy,

joinedthe
town,

pope's

enemies, and attacked planning to carry him This plot failed, but the pope off to France. Two died shortly after of chagrin. years later a pope was influence and who, thoroughly elected who was under French in 1309, took up his residence at Avignon on the eastern borders of France.
and Avignon remained the papal years

him

in his

own

this period
captivity

of nearly seventy of the Church.


"

residence until 1377, is called the Babylonian

only person who suffered from the violence of Philip's rvile. The crusades had ended and the Templars, had been a military order which in France, their headquarters organized in Palestine, had made
pope
was

153. The

Templars.

The

not

the

where
were

possessed accused by the took advantage

they

great

estates.

As they

were

envious

of heinous

crimes.

rich, they Philip's advisers

The members of these rumors. of the were conorder were all arrested in 1307, and many demned of them Their riches went and burnt as sorcerers and heretics.
to the king.

In this affair Philip had compelled the pope to It assist him in procuring the formal dissolution of the order. had was the Hohenstaufen evident that although emperors

been destroyed, the papacy Gregory VII.

had

not yet

realized the dream

of

146

THE

GROWTH

OF

ENGLAND

AND

FRANCE

SUMMARY I. Government.
"

1. Consequences

of strong rule in France

torial (a) terri-

gains under after Albigensian

Philip II. ; cru.sade

fountain
courts

of

justiceafter
2.

(6) establishment of control in south more as ; (c) king regarded and more Louis IX. ; (d) Philip IV. organizes
by states general,
:

(e) Philip
western

IV., backed

triumphs

over

the

papacy. in

Results France tyranny of

of misrule
;

in England

(a)
Magna

territorial

losses
to

check

royal

Montfort, wise

beginnings

Charta (6) efforts through de Simon ; (c) revolt of barons under a parliament ; (d) insistence that even
I. shall have subsidies only by grant of

king

like Edward

French parliament. and situations : of English ing (a) need in France, strong power to keep the nobles from bringback feudal anarchy in England of union between ; (6) need

3. Comparison

barons

and

townsmen

to control

king

and

guard

against

misrule

(c) similar
and
in Italy
:

institutions, courts,
states

representative

bodies by

like parliament

general.

4.

Germany

ruined

entanglements VI. and the


;

(a)

consequences

of the marriage
of Frederick

of Henry

heiress of Sicily ;

(") struggle
(a)

II. against the popes

(c) the
II. End
or

Great

Interregnum.
"

Crusades.
I.
on

effects of
;

the

Richard
;

success

of Third

(b)

of Philip II. and sults objectof Fourth and its rerivalry


;

by Frederick

(c) character II. ; (e) attempts


relations

of Albigensian

crusade

of St. Louis and

(d) agreement made (/) general results.


between 1073 and

Special

Review: 1268.
"

of

papacy

empire

IMPORTANT
1204.

DATES

Conquest
Crusade.

by Philip II., of France,

of Normandy

and

Anjou; Fourth

1215. 1265. 1270. 1295.

The

Great

Charter

of England. parliament.

Simon
Death

de Montfort's

of Louis IX. I. calls the Model Edward


summons

Parliament.

1302.

Philip IV.

the states general.

FURTHER

STUDY

General

Reading:

Lodge,
Perry,

End

of

the

Middle

Ages;

Hutton, de

Philip

Augustus;
Tout,

St. Louis;

Creighton,

Simon

Edimrd

Original

History English L ; Frazer, Hill, Liberty Documents. Sources, 1307-1399;

Montfort; illustrated from

SUMMARY

147

Paragraphs

"

138.

Philip

II.

Adams,

Growth

of

the French

Nation,
No.

pp. 81-88 the

see

selections

in Eobinson,
see

No.

94 ; Colby,

27 ; for

Third

Crusade,
selections No. 285.

Archer's

Crusade

of

Richard

I., containing

many

from

contemporary

writings;

Thatcher-McNeal,

139.

Conquest
94
a,

account contemporary Gaillard, the most the capture of the Chateau See Kitchin, I., 296-804.
a

of Normandy:

in Robinson,

cident. interesting in-

140.

The

Great

Charter

Green,

122-132

Macy,

Ch.

13 ; Roger

Wendover's account of the struggle, in Kendall, pp. 72-78; briefer No. 99 ; see also Hill, Ch. 2 ; Colby, 29 ; text of in Robinson, Charter, in Tr. and Rp., Vol. I., No. 6 ; Adams and Stephens,
Henderson
; principal

142.

No. 110. provisions in Robinson, Ville-Hardouin Crusade : selections from temporaries Fourth and other conin Tr. and Rp., Vol. III., No. 1. For the history of the crusade see Pears.

143,

144.

Ruin

of the

Empire

and

its effect upon

the

Church

see

Ch. 13 ; Emerton, particularly Bryce, Nos. 134-145. Thatcher-McNeal,


145.

350-356

; documents

in

Results St.

of the

Crusades

Munro

and

Sellery, 248-256.

146.

Louis:

Joinville's life, in

Chronicles

of .the Crusades,

also

published

No. 95 ; Munro and separately ; selections in Robinson, For the development Sellery, 366-375. of France, see Emerton, Civilization, Ch. 13. Ch. 12, and Adams, Mediaeval Europe, in

147.

Misrule

England

Gardiner,

193-204

; selections

from

contemporary

writings, in W. in J. Hutton's

H. Hutton's

Misrule

of Henry
more

Simon
25-27.

de

Montfort and
Macy,

his Cause;

III. , and briefly in

Kendall, 148. The


Model

Nos.

See also Creighton.


176-181;
in
wars

Parliament:

Tout,

Edward
source

the
;
'

First ; specimen Scotland, Hume Nos. 5-8,


Philip

writs Brown,

of summons I., 133 ff.;

all the with the

books

Scots, Frazer,

19-21, IV.
are

23-25.

149-152.

papal

bulls

Kitchin, I., 364-393; the Pope Boniface: and in Henderson, pp. 432-437, Tr. and Rp., Vol. III., Nos. 162, 164.

No. 6 ; Thatcher-McNeal, 153. The

Templars:

Guizot, II., 190-196.

Additional

Reading:

Pears,

Fall

of Constantinople;

Hume

Brown,

Ristory

of Scotland, Vol. I.

CHAPTER
WARS OF
NATIONS
AND IN THE

X.
THE

RACES CHURCH

CRY

OF

REFORM

154. Two
begun

Centuries of Conflict. to be better organized

"

Hardly than they

had
were

tlie new

doms kingin

involved

or terrible struggles with one another with Asiatic invaders across that pressed into Europe the ruins of the old Greek In the confusion the larger interests of Christendom Empire.

The German Empire suffered. The dragged down papacy was

became
from
or

weak

the

majestic
III.

confederation. position it

occupied under began to rage within


churchmen
were

had

Gregory
the

VII.

Innocent

Conflicts

sinister warnings later.

of good in the midst of discordant cries, sorely vexed to come of the greater divisions which were In Holy
an

Church

and

the consciences

155. The
Empire

Hapsburgs,

1273-1453.
was

"

the
to

Eoman

the Great

by the choice as long afterward


Erom

end in 1273 Not emperor of Eudolph, count of Hapsburg. he took Austria from the king of Bohemia.
Interregnum

brought

this time forth his family became it was

although
not

It was still called the mains. to extend its doalways equally fortunate in attempting by the Swiss It was twice disastrously defeated
at Morgarten

associated with House of Hapsburg.

Austria,

in 1386, which About thus laid the foundations this of their independence. struggle cluster the legends of William Tell.
cantons,

in 1315

and

at Sempach

156.
emperors

The
were

Imperial
usually

Electors.

"

Although

after

time

the
at to

first the

crown

chosen from the House from to Hapsburg passed


148

of Hapsburg, Nassau, back

THE

CITIES

OF

THE

EMPIRE

149

Hapsburg, Luxemburg.

next

to Luxemburg,
was

then due

This
to

partly

again to to the efforts of the German and

to Bavaria,

to some one give the crown who was ready to make them liberal promises at the expense of imperial rights. These princes came There were to be called electors. seven of

princes

them

or of Mainz, Treves, and Koln Cologne, the count palatine, the king of Bohemia, the margrave Although these and the duke of Saxony. of Brandenburg,
:

the

three

archbishops

did not intend to grant the reigning emperor much power, they were ready to defend his dignity against papal attacks. in 1338 Louis of Bavaria was When almost ready to humble
men

in any way the pope wished, if only the pope would his title,the electors drew up a declaration that acknowledge the choice of the emperor rested with them and that this choice
himself

needed

no

confirmation

control of elections was Golden Bull, issued by


some

else. Their anybody in a charter or expressly confirmed Charles IV. in 1356, and which, with

by

the pope

or

the law of imperial changes, remained beginning The of the nineteenth century.

elections until the Bull also Golden within


was

made
own

electoral princes practically sovereign domains. Thus while the royal power
over

the

their

gaining

victories in France
were

the feudal

lords, the German rulers.


same

nobles

transforming

themselves

into independent
"

157. The

Cities of the Empire.

During

of the German
emperor
or

freed from cities were by the great lords. They


communes

time many direct rule either by the independent were more

the

than that

the French

; for the French

lawyers
a

the grant of a communal charter king's whether it had been his before or had of his vassals.

by

understood became the city belonged to one

In order to render their trade safe from searovers barons, the cities united in leagues like or plundering League. In its best the Swabian League and the Hanseatic days
over seventy towns, and numbered its ships carried all the trade of the north. Its " Steelyard " or colony, at London one was of the greatest centres of English commerce. In Italy, also, the Empire had practically lost its

the Hanseatic

League

150
The power. longer had no
one

WARS

OF

NATIONS

AND

RACES

another.

Since they cities had been left to themselves. libertiesto fight for, they quarrelled with common Gradually they fell into the hands of their most
and Genoa, became what

ambitious

citizens, and, like Venice

Copyri^lit

by Underwood

and

Underwood,

N.T.

LtJBECK. The Holstenthor,


the

Liibeck,

of the mediaeval capital of the Hauseatic


one

gates of League.

are

called oligarchic

military adventurers their neighbors.

republics, or, like Milan, were ruled by they had called in to fight against whom

158.

The Salie Law.


as
over

it seemed quarrels three second


sons

the death of Philip IV., in 1314, "After if the French monarchy be nuned by also might for each of Philip's oldest died the

the succession to the crown, had only daughters. When made

the

brother got himself

king, excluding

his niece from

THE

SEVEN

ELECTORATES

151

152
the throne.
same

WARS

OF

NATIONS

AND

BACES

few When

thing.
the three

the third brother did the years afterward he died in 1328, there were the daughters

of

brothers had
a

living,

as

III., who

become
cousin,

king

well as a of England

ward Edsister's son, the year before.


did done

There

was

also

Philip

Philip of Valois. what his cousins had


:

just
fore be-

he seized the crown and left the lawyers to discover a


reason

why

women

could
crown,

nol^
nor

inherit the French


even

whose only title was their mothers. received from Eventually the lawyers brought
men

forward

they which called the Salic Law, although law of or the real Salic Law
a

reason

the Salian Pranks


declared

had
woman

merely could land.

that

no

inherit Salic Since


ViNCENNES.
The
cennes,

or

Prankish

women was no

there
of Vindistance

could inherit fiefs reason why they inherit the


crown,

donjon

of the
a

chateau
short

should
except

not

east

by

situated of the walls of Paris, begun is This great tower Philip VI. 10 feet its walls are is 40 feet deep. the moat

the political reason marriage


crown

that

through

they

170 feet high,

transfer the prince. down handed

might eign forto some this time

thick, and

Prom

forAvard the Prench

crown

was

159.

The

Hundred

Years'

War.

"

Edward

in the male line. III. did not at

There good his claim to the Prench crown. the for a quarrel, disputes about Guyenne, were other grounds held of Philip, and troubles in the wool fief which Edward English wool was necPlanders and England. trade between essary

first seek to make

for the

Plemish

weavers.

In order supply
of wool. England
to

to harass

Philip,

Edward,
were

in 1336, cut

off the

The
were assume

Plemings

ruined Under Van

if their relations with

broken

off.

Artevelde

they urged

Edward

the title

PARIS

AND

THE

PEASANTS

153

king

The from Philip. away and take the crown of France Years' War, because it that followed is called the Hundred war driven from all the English were did not end until 1453, when tervals inThere were from the town the Continent save of Calais. of peace, but
soon

as

the

causes

of
cannon

war

remained
were

the fighting

In this war again. The the first time in Europe.

began

used

probably
was

for

English

longbow

the most

so were yeomen and the English skilful in effective weapon, battles they were rious victoshooting that in the three most famous larger than their own. The first of over armies much

these

battles

was

by commanded Black Prince, won


prince Philip's son,
same

in 1346, where the English were his oldest son, III., and where Edward the Ten years later at Poitiers this his spurs.
at

Crecy

defeated

the

Erench

army

France

and took during these

the king
wars were

prisoner. terrible.

under The

King

John, of of

sufferings Eoving bands

the peasants. the country and murdered soldiers plundered Just at this time, Whole districts were turned into deserts. also, Europe,

from

Italy to England, Black Death.

was

swept

by

frightful
was

called the pestilence brought from the East southern


France

The

contagion

to the Italian ports and

to the ports of

in

1347.

It gradually

spread

sometimes
towns.

destroying
From

whole

villages

and

thousands

northward, in the
of France

one-third to one-half of the population

and England

perished. 160. Paris and the Peasants.

"

After
were were

the in
an

battle of Poitiers

the peasants and the townsmen townsmen declared that the lords of the country, the king manage

that the states general

The ugly mood. unfit to fight the battles help of the north must

missing his affairs by appointing a council and by disalso see states general must worthless officers. The that the money and not which they raised be spent on the war
upon

the king's

these reformers the merchants.


met

The leader of friends and their pleasures. Etienne Marcel, a draper, and provost of was For two years after 1356 the states general and seemed

frequently

able to compel

the

dauphin,

the

154
king's wished.
peasants

WARS

OF

NATIONS

AND

RACES

son,

"

for the the

king of

was

In

midst
west

prisoner, these troubles

"

to do what

they

the long-suffering

by the of Paris, driven to madness soldiers and the scarcely less ruthless lords, rose plundering As the ordinary peasant their enemies. on and took vengeance Bonhomme, Jacques this insurredtion was was nicknamed north
and

called

the

Jacquerie.

The

peasants

burnt

and

plundered

their wandering castles, but killed very few persons, although For a time bands frightened the nobles into the walled towns. " it seemed form a league, Jacques " would as if Paris and the

but

soon

peasants to decrease.

the nobles recovered their courage and murdered the by thousands. Marcel's friends and supporters began
His

enemies
and
soon

declared

he

was

ready

to betray the

city to the English peace claim

him. In 1360 afterward murdered Although Edward was at Bretigny. gave up his made he was to the French to hold many liefs south, crown, few north, of the Loire entirely free from king. toward the French
"

and

any

duties of

of English Peasants. not suffer directly from the ravages its expenses, to pay war and when
treaty of Bretigny,
taxes, which

vassalage 161. Revolt

The of the
was

English
war,

people did but they had

the government

was

after the renewed, forced to invent new

touched

The

Black

men. townsor peasant as well as landowners Death the also led to troubles between

peasants and the lords. In the first place the income of the lords had been decreased because whole families of peasants

had work

disappeared
or

and the

there
sums

was

no

one

to

do

the

to

pay

ordinarily

Again, as either idle or could not pay as much the lord had agreed with many of the peasants to accept money in place of the work which their ancestors had been obliged to do each week, he found that this money did not hire as many laborers as formerly, especially because the laborers, seeing To that they were few in number, higher wages. demanded
save

collected. rent as before.

customar}'Mills were

themselves,
a

the landowners should

king

law

which

in parliament obtained compel the laborers to work

of the
at the

THE

CHURCH

155
for it

old wages.

Apparently

it

was

not

obeyed,

was
no

often sentatives repre-

laws angered the peasants, who had repeated. in parliament. Their anger increased when in 1379. decided npon Strange ideas were tax was

Snch

the poll-

through

people's minds.
"

Many

of them

passing asked, like John Ball,

the strolling preacher,


"

When Who,

Adam then,

delved
was

and

Eve

span,
?
"

the gentleman

Two

years
out

later in

an

insurrection,

broke Eevolt.
because records

England. because
to

Partly

like the Jacquerie, much It has been called the Peasants' they hated the king's advisers, partly be rid of serfdom the lords, the
upon they
were or

they desired
of what and

to

destroy

the

they

owed
or

monasteries they
were

castles,

marched

peasants attacked London. For a time


were

successful,

but

the king's officers,and they had gained

afterward many of them


nothing,

dispersed
to death.

by
though Alservices

put

the custom

of replacing

their position gradually improved to that of freemen, until they rose 162. The Church. As if the Hundred Years' War, the

with money

payments

"

Black
enough,

Death,

the revolt of the peasants were not troubles factions. In many the Church was rent into warring and monks

places the priests and

had

and reformers So far as Prance them. was concerned, the principal reason was the great war with England, which ruined the country, it impossible for many reducing priests to beggary and making

which

the

Cluny

fallen away from the ideal Gregory VII. had set before

It was to support their monks. of the monasteries not strange that often here and there the clergy became as rude and ignorant as the lowest of their parishioners. Such evils might have

been vigorously repressed had the bishops done their duty, but longer resided within their dioceses. The no many of them war for this : first, dangerous because it was offered an excuse
for
a

bishop,

faithful

party, to reside within

the English or either the French territory held by the other ; and second,
to

156

THE

CRY

OF

REFORM

IN

THE

CHURCH

because the

revenue no

that it the bishop.

But

creased of a single bishopric or abbey had so delonger was sufficient to support the abbot or did they nor these were not the only reasons,
existed elsewhere. evils which eager to increase their power and

explain

similar

Ambitious

were wealth by clergymen A certain cardinal, who resided holding several offices at once. held several bishoprics there, had also in in Italy, and who France three bishoprics, one abbot or archbishopric, and was These and evils of non-residence prior of six monasteries.

pluralities could not the popes, and even

have

been

so

prevalent

had

not

attempted

to obtain

supporters

princes, in their

such conflicts by granting 163. The Papal Power.


"

privileges. With the outcry

over

such evils

were

mingled control and


to

protests
over

against

the Church
at

the efforts of the popes to make their in different lands more thoroughgoing,
a

should be the actual which In their struggle with the capital of Church administration. they had partially succeeded in freeing the elections emperors As of bishops and abbots from the interference of princes. the election of the pope had been put into the hands of the
create

Kome

court

intrusted to the canons the election of bishops was But by the middle of the thirteenth century of each cathedral. this very right, the popes had begun to take from the canons

cardinals,

so

claiming

the privilege of providing


or

the

vacant

of reserving The same appointment.

sees

not yet vacant

cumbent with an into be filled by their


see

made upon various abbeys claim was The method was and upon many minor offices in each diocese. In England and "provisions." called papal ''reservations" in this way was the attempt to gain the right of appointment during partially thwarted by the Statute of Provisors, passed Another III.'s reign and reenacted in 1390. Edward grievance, felt especially by princes, was their courts to the pope cases
or

the

practice

of carrying

from

Church
a

appointments
court

in which the rights of churchmen involved, making the Eoman were in many important matters. by the Statute of Prsemunire.

court

supreme This the English

of appeal

sought to check

THE

SCHISM

AND

WYGLIFFE

157

164.

Papal
and The

Taxation.

"

The

judicial system

of the papal increasing necessitated extension

trative administures. expendicould be Like


"

more than pope, no other princes, to live from the revenues his own domains. of expected he began to levy taxes, but with this difference them

that

fell upon his the clergy everywhere rather than upon in States of the Church. The most obnoxious own subjects the tax was the annat or one year's revenue of a bishopric or abbey these

filled. This was like the feudal was much vacancy they entered obliged to pay when relief which the lords were by a relative. As bishops and abbots fief left them a upon
when
a
were men often mature be paid frequently

and
and

served
was

must

short time, the tax considered a great burden.

only

165.
Church

The
was

Schism

which For many Avignon,


a

rendered in 1378. began

Wycliffe. The and situation tragically serious by the Great


"

in

the

Schism election.

This
one

was

disputed
at Rome

papal

years there was each denouncing

against him. the pope at Avignon king of France. Other peoples

crusade

and another at the other as Antichrist and preaching The English king refused to recognize because he was defended by the also took sides in the quarrel, John Wycliffe, a troubled.

pope

and

all

men's

consciences

were

teacher at the university of Oxford, thinking much upon the ills from which to the concluthe Church was suffering, came sion by the pope were that many of the claims made wrong. studied the Bible carefully and refused to accept teachings for which he could find no warrant In order that the there. people might read the Bible he and his friends translated it
into

He

English.
he

He
sent

had

no

intention

to

withdraw

from

the

Church, but
teaching

his Oxford
to

scholars through

what

he

believed

be true

the country lowers Christianity. His fol-

called Lollards, and a few years later the government threatened with death any who taught such doctrines. 166. The Hundred In the second period Years' War again. Years' War, the French of the Hundred recovered part of the
were
"

lands

which

had

been lost at the peace of Bretigny.

They

had

158
been
great

THE

CBY

OF

REFORM

IN

TEE

CHURCH

tauglit by battles, to

the

disasters of Crecy themselves

and

Poitiers

to avoid

strong castles and within to march unopposed walled towns, and to allow the English bold leaders like Du GuesUnder through the open country. clin they cut off stragglers and laid siege to places held by the

shut

English.

Before

the

dauphin,

now

become

Charles the Wise,

\ maOe oftiouit-liranic' 'pplngytmjmg-:^i) ink vc ]kv^ Co^ove crydfeasiM t \)o\b'r\ crpc/ "pve^/fttiO (^nrjrt' of vc Jttcfl"8^ujemtonpeffl"E

jofi;c1()^^a8boiuotivetBatiiS/fttt
and

'ttiBflSffooD^iIicttparti"l^el^frobcclm
Dcrbucf"S^: attD);e ijiT^depttr^eb^Oavny^/

ftrmamctttbc maflDtnvcti^'Dins^of ttftfe: ^CnO^yc


I

froveataSlaaOsvd icpartEtoattis nmi^c ftr

VVycliffe's Facsimile Wycliffe's and


the

Biblk.

Hereford by Nicholas under of first verses of Qenesis, translated Wycliffe the Old Testament direction. a part translated of only The Testament. in the New Gospels and St. Mark of St. Matthew
was

remainder

done

under

his direction.

It

was

completed

in

138"-1384.

was

dead
or

in 1380,

they
towns.

had

won

from

the

English

all

save

four much the

five coast

occupied
war

with

and lately duke

effectively. He unpopular.

too countries were to carry on the strife of factions at home Richard II., was Edward's son, tyrannical

After

this both

was

deposed

and

murdered

by Henry

lY.,

French

The and a grandson of EdAvard. of Lancaster, king, Charles VI., the son of Charles the Wise, became

JEANNE

D'ARG

159

fell into tlie hands of his uncles. insane, and tlie government his brother, the duke After a while a furious quarrel between

led to civil of Orleans, and his cousin, the duke of Burgundy, Both the duke of Orleans and the duke war. of Burgundy king, Henry The English V., had seized the were murdered.
and in 1415 had gained another The duke of Burgundy, new crushing victory at Agincourt. believing that the king's son had had a hand in the murder of

occasion to invade

the country

the King

late duke, went Henry

over

to

the

English

side.

With

made which ceed

possession of the poor mad obtained in 1420, according with him the Treaty of Troyes Henry Charles's daughter, and was to to marry was
as

his aid king and


to
svtc-

both Henry Shortly afterward of France. left an infant son, Henry YI., and Henry and Charles died. the French people did not know whether to submit to him or Charles. Nearly to be loyal to the Dauphin all the country

him

king

north of the Loire the Burgundians.

either of the English or Charles lacked energy, and, Unfortunately his instead of fighting for his kingdom, wasted his days among Here and there brave men favorites at the castle of Chinon.
was
were j)laces which wrested from the English but such deeds seemed vain, because there

in the

hands

thought
was
no

secure

leader

to

unite all loyal

men

167. Jeanne
Loire
were

against the invader. In 1429 even d'Arc. the


"

lands

south

of the

in peril. An

English

and the town was because at last

threatened
a

army had with famine.


"

leader

appeared,

laid siege to Orleans, Orleans was saved, Jeanne d'Arc, a peasant


a

She was girl,scarcely nineteen years old. remy, a village on the borders of Lorraine.
miseries of the her to

of Domby the Troubled native

had combelieved that God manded people, Jeanne Orleans and to conduct the dauphin to save Rheims When Charles VII. to as she first told .be crowned but the comher story, the rough soldiers laughed her to scorn, mon

people abandoned

permitted

her, believing that God had not gladly welcomed She was them. sent to the dauphin, and he finally an army to go with her to raise the siege of Orleans.

160
The her

THE

CRY

OF

REFORM

IN

THE

CHURCH

English
a sorceress.

were

frightened, at her approach, for they thought Her presence and eager faith breathed a new French

enthusiasm
to

into the

retreat.

Jeanne

soldiers, and the conducted

lish they forced the Engdauphin


to

Rheims,

he was where crowned. He and. his advisers were loath to be saved fashion, and when
was

in this

Jeanne
a

mish skirnorth of Paris he did her. to ransom nothing

captured

in

The their

English,

enraged defeats, were

by
resolved

to put her to death


as a

heretic.

At

their

command

and
was

men churchtried her at Rouen, there in 1431 she


at the stake.
not
cause.

learned

burned did

This

help

the
Even

English

the
La
The Tour

duke

of

Burgundy In

Jeanne

d'Arc.

forsook when

them. the
was war

1453,

of the castle of Boubuilt by Philip Augustus after vreuil, in 1204. the conquest of Normandy

donjon

Here

Jeanne

d'Arc

was

imprisoned.

nothing in France

ended, left to them

except the town

168.
not been

The

Pope

and

the Council.

"

of Calais. Great The

Schism
had

had urged

healed remedy

until after 1415.


was a

Some

theologians
a

that

the

Church, of the whole The first attempt bow. because the still worse,

general council, for to its decision


to

kind of convention
the popes
must
matters

even

apply

this remedy
a new

made pope

council ordered before the two existing popes had agreed there were three popes instead of two.

elected
so

to withdraw,

that

more

determined which
was

effort

was

made

by

the

council

of Constance

in

THE

EAST

161

It brought the Schism to an end, session from 1414 to 1418. to reform but in its attempt in " head and memthe Church bers," that is, the papacy as well as the clergy and people, it to prove that its decisions were superior to those of undertook
If the council had established such a claim, councils the pope. in England, would have become in the Church what parliaments were

be consulted upon assemblies which must representative The for occasion. council had no fondness every important It sent to the stake John Huss, a popular other novelties. had taught several of Bohemian preacher and theologian who Wycliffe's
clergy. views

and

had

denounced

the evil conduct

of the

stance neither the council of Connor the council of Basel, which followed it, succeeded in reforming little hope of betterment the Church, there was

169.

Popes and Princes.

"

Since

unless

the

protected Praemunire. the


same

rulers took up the matter. its rights by the statutes In

England

had

already

1438
for

Charles
Prance

VII. by
the of

of Provisors and of Prance of accomplished

thing

Pragmatic the

Sanction the

of

Bourges,

restoring to the to choose the bishops, and The German princes were
or

canons

cathedral

right

forbidding
not
ten
so

the payment

of annats.

concordat pope

of

Vienna

all that he When it was was a halfunheeded. raised again, a little over into a call to revolution. transformed century later, it was
the nearly

By the treaty successful. later they to years conceded The cry for reform asked.

and disputes, great changes were in the East. Poland by making its reunion with the duchy of Lithuania in 1386 ruled over territories from the Oder to the Dnieper, and as far south as the
"

170. The East.

While

the West

was

troubled

by

wars

Black

Sea.

The
a

Mongols
century
was

did

not

loosen

their hold upon


a

the
new

Russians

until

Russian

monarchy

later, but vmder their shadow founded, as a with Moscow

centre.

This region, called Muscovy, was extended gradually, and, like the royal domain to include the great of the Capetians, came Russian fiefs. In southeastern Europe the Bulgarian kingdom

162
had

TUE

(JEY

OF

BE

FORM

IN

THE

CUURCII

sometimes

Empire

and greatest it inclnded between contention


overrun

of the Greek gained territory at the expense At its been forced to draw back. again had part of Macedonia,

by
more

new

Greeks modern horde of invaders

which is stilla bone of It was and Bulgarians.


whose

domination

was

to

be far

lasting than
"

171.
They

The Turks.

that of the Mongols. These invaders were the Ottoman


a

Turks.

of nomads which had entered the to fight against the Mongols. service of the Seljuk Turks from had They received their name the emir Othman, who for his peoples on the borders carved out a domain of the
were

originally

band

Greek
they

Empire had been


new

in Asia

Minor.

It

was

in Othman's and

day

that

converted

to Mohammedanism,
same

they

fought

for their and

his

sons

religion with the for the showed


they

sort of zeal that Chlodwig

Christian

faith.

As

the

mans Otto-

grew

in power

they peoples with which Rumanians, Magyars. Albanians, and A few the bond religion was of union. died, in 1330, they

gathered new recruits from all the into contact, Greeks, Slavs, came
"

The years

Mohammedan
after Othman

Nicsea, one of the old capitals of captured the Greek Empire and famous as the place Avhere the first great held in Constantine's day. In a little Church council was twenty-five more than crossed the narrow years they had straits which separate Europe and Asia and had begun It was the Balkan their European peninsula. that made emirs
were

to plunder
successes

them

the leaders among

the Mohammedans.

Soon the

" foothold With a firm able to take the title sultan." in Europe they began to conquer the other emirs in Asia This alarmed Minor. By 1391 Bulgaria had been overrun. German king Sigismund, the the of Hungary, afterward

emperor. call of the result was the French

The

other pope for

princes of the West


a

were

aroused the Turks.

at the

new

disastrous knights

crusade against defeat at Nikopolis

The

in 1396, because

headlong rushed forward with the same folly as at Crecy and at Poitiers. This was the end of hope for Bulgaria. It would have hastened the fall of Constanti-

SUMMARY

163
Tamerlane,

nople but for a new the Turkish which


Minor

Mongol

invasion under

during

Greek

defeated in Asia at Angora sultan was For about fifty years the shattered. and his dominion lived on, Empire confined to the lands immediately and a few points on final assault in 1453. it
was

about Constantinople The Turks the made

the

Greek
the

coast.

been
agony

founded another

by

Constantine,

city had fitting that in its death

As

should Turks. against the onset of the In the Spanish 172. The Moors.
"

Constantine

die

defending

its walls

peninsula
since the

ism Mohammedantwelfth

was

not

so

triumphant.

Ever

century

in the east, Castile in the centre, and Portugal on the Aragon west had been steadily driving the Moors southward. increased its power by conquering the Balearic Islands and Sardinia.
Aragon

seized after the failure of Charles of Anjou It was to hold this portion of the Hohenstaufen possessions. Portugal, however, Castile and that recovered most of the Before the end of the fourteenth century Castile peninsula.

Sicily

was

and sides of the Guadalquivir reached the Mediterranean about Carthagena, enclosing within kingdom these outstretched arms the little Moorish of Granada.
touched the
on

Atlantic

both

Portugal

already driven the Moors held the territory it stillretains.

had

out

of the

West

and

SUMMARY
I. The
Empire.

"

1. The
Austria

ruling
;

house:
wars

(a)

connection
the

of the

Hapsperial (c) im-

burgs

with
crown

(6) their
an

with

Swiss ;
2. The

at first not

continuously emperor
:

theirs.

electors: electoral
and.

(a) method
princes.

of choosing

(6) power

of the

3.

The

Eree

cities

(a) their

relation to emperor

lords ; League.

(") their
and

leagues ;

(c) the
1.

trade privileges of the Hanseatic Hundred


;

II. England

Erance.
over

"

Origin
to Erench

of

Years' trouble of

War about

(a) quarrel
trade
with

succession 2. ;

crown

(6)

Elanders.
;

War

until

the

Peace

Br^tigny general

(a) weapons

(b) battles

(c) defeat

causes

states

to

164

THE

CRY

OF

REFOBM

IN

THE

CHURCH

attempt

to manage
on
an

the kingdom,

and

(d) the

ruin of the peasants

brings
war
:

insurrection.

3.

Second

phase

(a) uprising of peasants, of for the English in crown ; (h) contest ; (c) turmoil Erance ; {d) Agincourt 4. Last period and the Treaty of Troyes. : (a) situation of France after death of Charles VI. ; of the war d'Arc ; (fZ) English of Jeanne (p) crisis of Orleans ; (c) career
taxation driven from
in

tlie English

period of partly because

of

the

France.
the

III. Trouble
toward
upon claims

Church. claims,

"

1. Attitude

of the

imperial

electors War

papal

2.

Effect

of

the
:

Hundred

Years'
;

the clergy.
to

3. Causes
power

of conflict
;

(a) pluralities
mode
; ;

(6) papal
;

appointing chosen
the
to

(c) English
to

of

resistance disputed

(d) methods
election the and councils

by

popes

raise money Wy

Great
end
the

Schism
Schism

e cliff (/) ; (7i) attitude

(e) a {g) attempts

of

Constance

toward

the pope's

power.

4.

of the council of Settlement of the questions

in France

and

Germany. and
Lithuania.
2.

IV.

The

East.

"

1. Poland

The

Mongols
Turks
a
:

and

covy. Mus-

3. Bulgaria. early victories ;

4. Advance

of the Ottoman them by

(6) attempt
5. The

to check

crusade

{a) their ; (c)fall


in the

of

Constantinople.
peninsula.

Moors

driven

southward

Spanish

IMPOKTANT
1273.
1328. f 1346.

DATES
"

Rudolph

chosen emperor. of Hapsburg Philip VI., first of Valois kings, ascends

French

throne,

Battle of Cr^cy

(connectBlack

Death).
by

\ I

1356.

Battle
states

of Poitiers ; followed
general.
; end

efforts of

l^tienne Marcel

and

1378.
1396. 1414. 1420.

Great Schism
Battle

of Babylonian

Captivity

Wycliffe). (connect

of Nikopolis. of Constance of Troyes,


meets,

Council
Treaty

preceded

in 1415

by

battle of Agincourt

and

1431. 1453.

of duke of Burgundy. murder Jeanne d'Arc burned at Rouen.

English

driven from

France

; fall of Constantinople,

FURTHER General Reading


states,
:

STUDY
of separate

in addition to Lodge and to histories Whitman, Towns Austria ; Zimmern, Hanse

; Durham,

English

History

from Original Sources, 1399-14S5.

SUMMABT

165

Paragraphs
155, 157.

"

156.
The

The

Empire
:

Bryce,

Ch. 14.
:

Cities

Hanseatic

League 60-69

Munro

and

Sellery, 358-365

see

159.

Gibbins, also Zimmern, Years' War Hundred

; Cheyney,
:

81-94.

selected from Frolssart Nos. 197-198 ; Frazer,

: first period ; Kendall, No.

many

4, pp. 63-69 ; 30 ; Colby, No. 39 ; Robinson, Death Black (in selections. Jones,
No. 40 ; Lee, No. 94 ;

England)
161.
Peasants'

Kendall,

No.

33 ; Colby,

ence), (in Flor;


see

Whitcomb,
War
:

Italian Benaissance,

pp. 15-18.
see source

Statute

of Laborers,

books

also

Cheyney, 162-165.
The

99-125 Church:

; selections in Frazer.

Adams,

Civilization, Ch.
Ch.
Nos.
:

16;

Pastor,

L,

57-

116 ; Walker, and

Reformation,
in Robinson,
Praemunire

I. ; many

illustrative writings

documents
and

207-213.
source

See

164.

Provisors Trevelyan

see

books.
in Kendall,

also 110-114. For Wycliffe, Colby,


son, Robin-

; selection from

documents

Tr. and

Bp.,
:

and

Frazer.

167.

Jeanne

d'Arc

Kitchin,

I., 536-553

; biographies

by

Mrs.

Oliphant

168.

and Percival Lowell ; selections in Durham. 254-261 ; Creighton, I., : Fisher, The Papacy the Councils and 200 ff.,261 ff.,II., 61 ff. ; Pastor, L, 174-207, 287 ff. ; documents
in Tr. and Bp., III., No. 6, pp. 25-33
; Robinson,

214-216. II., 197-199,

169.

Settlement 282-285;

in France Pastor,
:

Germany: and I., 335-336, II., 38-40.

Creighton,

170.
171. 172.

The The The

East Turks Moors:

Lodge
:

; Morfill, Bussia, ; Creasy,

Ch. 4.

Lodge Burke,

Ch. 5. Lane-Poole,

II., 26-42;

Ch. 12,
from
the Great the Popes, Froissart,
; Lanier's

Additional

Reading

Creighton,

History

of the

Papacy,

Schism
6

to the sack of Rome,

England vols. ; Trevelyan, G. C. Macaulay's Chronicles; Boy''s Froissart Genealogy


to illustrate

6 vols. ; Pastor, in the Age ed. of

of Wycliffe ; of
trans.

History

Berner's

; Creasy, History
the

of the Ottoman
about
the

Turks.
French

Dispute
IN

Crown

1328

Philip III., 1 1285

Philip IV., 1 1314

Charles, Count of Valois


Isabelle

Louis

X., 1 1316

Philip v., 1322

I
Jeanne, Navarre,

I
Jeanne Margaret

Charles IV. + 1328

Philip VI.
+ 1350 House

Queen of
132S-1349

III., Edward of England

of

Valois

166
Revie-w
:

THE

CRY

OF

BEFOBM

IN

THE

CHURCH

Chs. 8-10 ; period 1100 to 1453 : gradual disappearance of serfdom, increasing importance the townsmen of of ; strengthening of territory in France, with ruin royal power and consolidation
of English- Angevin confederation, thrown
on

empire popes

; the
at

German-Roman

Empire but

loose

the

first triumphant,

afterward

the
:

defensive.
The people trade
or

Special

Reviews

1.

or

middle

class

their privileges ; cities, French leagues

(")

brings

townsmen towns,

(a) beginnings of power ; (c) Italian


Free

communes

privileged

German Hanseatic

cities;

; (d) of cities, to parliament towns states and summoned (e) representatives of like Etienne temporary of great townsmen power general ; (/) Marcel in Paris ; {g) services of peasants in England and France

Lombard

League,

League

changed
power

into money
in France:

payments.

2.

Downfall empire;

of English-Angevin

(a)

origin of this successful and of

(6)

geographical attack
Years'

difficulties an
by

obstacle

of

rule ; France

(c)

first great

Philip II. ;
;

(d) drags

England

into Hundred

War
made

(e) change
by Peace
V. ;

in the

relation
;

these

fiefs to French of French develops

king

of Br^tigny

(/)

resumption

conquests

by Charles

{g)

English

attack
by

nearly 1420 ; 3.

into successful

seizure

of French

kingdom
except into
a

(h)

national

uprising man-Roman of Gererick Fredof the

destroys

this empire
Empire

Calais.
loose

Transformation

confederation nobles
;
;

I.

was

hampered

by

German family

(a) how (6) result


: :

downfall
4.

of the Hohenstaufen Conflict between State and


in original

(c) power (6)

of the electors.

Church

changes

its nature

(a)aim

of popes

investiture

conflict ;
;

struggle with conflict with


taxation

the Hohenstaufens Edward of I. and of

Philip IV. ;

and

seizure

(c) object (rZ)complaints of papal to power ; (e) attempts appointing


councils of the Church.
II., Innocent

papal aims in the VIII. in of Boniface

resist by legislation and Great


Men Louis

in general Henry

of

the

Period:

II., Philip IV., Edward

III.,

IX., Edward

I., Philip V.

III., Etienne

Marcel,

Wycliffe,

Henry

CHAPTER
THE

XI.

RENAISSANCE

dle early part of the MidAges much the facts that the Greeks had discovered among been forgotten. we call science had which make up what Sometimes a truth like the roundness of the earth lingered as
^

173. The Renaissance.

During

the

tradition cherished by a few scholars Even by most the knowledge men.


a

but denied
how
to

or

ridiculed
things of the crude.

make

decreased

and

with

it the desire

an workshop Not knowing men were

artistic form. how to observe

give the products itself became Language


was

to

carefully what
to crowd

about

them,
strange

led by their fancy


stranger

a certain spirits. Their full of incoherent and unreasonable youthful vigor, but they were to increase bound Such a state of things was notions.

beasts and

the world with minds did not lose

until the feudal system had given to society a little steadiness men could and security, until trade had revived, and western
compare

their thoughts

with

the

thoughts

of

the

Byzantine

Here began the long, slow climb and of the Saracens. to the level where had stood. In the the Greeks and Eomans last half of the fifteenth and the first part of the sixteenth England century the men and of Italy, German^'", France,

Greeks

had the ancient world caught glimpses of what They were filled with a noble enthusiasm to emulate The time of this enthusiasm and Roman masters. the Renaissance, or the Revival of Learning.

achieved. the Greek is called

174. The

Earlier

Revivals.
the

"

There

were

two

or

three

''renaissances'"' before

Charlemagne's

great revival of the fifteenth century. influence had brought about a revival of
167

168

THE

RENAISSANCE

learning at the Frankish A scholar, Alcuin.

court

under

still more useful revival originated in the splendid Its centre by the successors of Mohammed.

the guidance brilliant and

lish of the Engmore

empire
was

nently permabuilt up

at Bagdad,

but its influence

was

felt in distant Spain.

Another

sance renais-

resulted in the establishment in the organization and of a

of the European system


of

universities thought called

New The

College,

Oxford.

chapel and hell tower, with a portion of the medifeval citybishop College was huilt by William New of Wykeham, wall. in the last years the fourteenth Winchester, century. of of

law had The who students of the Eoman scholasticism. Barbarossa about his rights as an emperor advised Frederick

created devoted

at Bologna
to

the

study

school or university, especially great In France the monastery and of law.

cathedral school

also growing schools were Paris, grouped at about Notre century,

into universities. Dame early in the


much
same

The teenth thira

became
or

guild

of artisans

body, self-governing in the Later merchants.


a

like

Oxford

university

was

founded.

In

both

Oxford

century and Paris

THE

SCHOOLMEN

169

the

teachers

lectured

in hired

the students were gathered in their management. there


were

halls called "schools," while like monasin colleges, somewhat teries Before the fifteenth century commenced
some

nearly

thirty universities,

devoted

to

The students law, others to medicine, stillothers to theology. At no by thousands. in Paris and in Oxford were numbered time

For the more eager to learn. seemed become institution might perilous, in spite at first loyal to the pope, from whom of the fact that it was came of its privileges, and that its early teachers were many since have Church this new
men or

Since it was a body partly separate from monks. the ordinary life of the Church, inclined to be jealous the of felt an esjjritde corps, interference of the bishops, its members priests
protect its men might university spirit, which they refused to follow the teachings of the Church. was at the at Oxford, and Huss stoutly defended
or even

when

Wycliffe

rise of the universities was beginning to leave its churchly shelter that civilized life was of its own. and to breathe an atmosphere have hastened These 175. The Schoolmen. schools would
"

of Prague.

The

university therefore a sign

the

great

Renaissance

of the

fifteenth century
was

had

they

covered dis-

that their
eyes the

special task

to

study

system
were

world of things and to bring The universities of knowledge.

wdth instructed into a all they saw which, like Bologna,

to law had the advantage that in the chiefly devoted legal works the rights and of Justinian they could compare duties of men in later Roman society with the cruder customary

Europe. This was a of mediaeval study of facts. Unfortunately the ordinary sciences were made up of a patchwork knowledge handed down by learned men of of past

laws

generations bordered hand


a

and
or

not

corrected and
the
or

supplemented
in

by

new

servati obthat their

experiments.

Moreover,

upon

theology
of teachings

students

every matter found ready to

body

by the authority they accepted the task of showing

conclusions consecrated as true of the Church, and, like faithful children, that all this
was

perfectly

170

THE

RENAISSANCE

In their painstaking fully wonderwork they became following, as they supposed, the method acute reasoners, of the Greek philosopher Aristotle, whose works they studied in a Latin version of an Arabic translation from the Greek.

reasonable.

One
many their

monk, things
own.

Roger for The

Bacon, granted,

saw

that

they

should

not

take

so

but

should

make

observations

of

that, after

the

called scholastic, was result of their method, like Thomas Aquinas, Duns greater minds,

Scotus, and William all the truth they of Occam, had arranged had little to do but to discuss knew in systems, their successors
the
same

things
on

over

and

over

again, seeking

gloriou to gain inIt is not

victories

surprising
were

that

at

consequence. questions of no later time the schoolmen and

cism scholasti-

with scant respect. The architects of this mediaeval Renaissance 176. Architecture. in winning more were successful than the schoolmen Their town halls, castles, the lasting admiration of mankind. regarded
"

as models and churches still serve French 'architects devised a new

in the art of building. The form of construction, called

Gothic, in which the arches were of pointed and the weight by flying borne chiefly upon the roof was pillars supported less massive, buttresses. The result was that the walls became
so

that the interior could


in the Romanesque

be better lighted than


or

Norman

manner.

buildings constructed The Moorish

out a modification of the Byzantine architects of Spain worked famous for the beauty of their form of structure and were decorative carvings.

177. Literature.
language

"

Although

Latin

maintained

itself

as

the

of the Church and of the universities, books were Several also written in English, French, German, and Italian. of them were works of genius, like Chaucer's Canterbury Tales,

Froissart's Chronicles, Dante's

Divine

Comedy,

and

Petrarch's

Sonnets,

composed the work

in
of

the

fourteenth
the the

raising

century. languages of

They
the

commenced

common

people

to the

level of Latin,

traditional language

of religion

and

of science.

PETRARCH

171

that his supposed "Petrarch be immortal. Latin works, rather than his sonnets, would In his devotion to Latin is his chief claim to greatness. one sense He was the first to search for the works of the Romans, among

178.

Petrarch,

1304-1374.

Cathedral Style, Gothic ; built 1220-1288


from of
west
nave,

of

Amiens.

end of transepts,

nave,

which choir

; total length, 470 feet. View The vaulting is 147 feet high. is supported upon 126 columns.

and

to study their style with

appreciation, and to cultivate in others a similar love. Though born in Italy of Florentine parents, he brought up at Avignon. was his earliest visit to Rome Upon he was its mediaeval buildings surprised at the contrast between

and

the beautiful though

broken

monuments

which

sur-

172
from ruins

THE

RENAISSANCE

vived these

the ancient
as

city.

Many from

Eoinans which

had
to

looked obtain

upon
stone

useful

quarries

of already cut, or as a storehouse Petrarch. Not for lime. burned so and


more

be might which marble His mind turned more


eager

to

the

reverence.
one

To

ancient world find the lost works

with

The search of his passions. taken up by princes and popes, and gathered in libraries, where

of Eoman he which

curiosity and writers became


was
were

commenced the recovered books

they

could

be studied

by enthusiastic

scholars.

^ J^-^r'

S. GiMIGNANO. Situated southwest halfway of Florence, dissensions between families occupying Of to Florence in 1353. was
by
to the

coast.
tower

Weakened
fortresses, it existing

subjected

such the fifty towers

in the Middle

Ages,

thirteen

(one

160 feet

high) are

still standing.

179. Renaissance
sance.

in Italy.

"

Italy

was

partly due to the Italy were men that reminded monuments of the their race ; it was also due to a city life as active Most ancient Athens. of the Italian cities had This
was

the land of the Eenaisin fact that everywhere glories of


as

of lost their

that

HUMANISTS

AND

THE

PAPACY

173

fallen under the rule of freedom dearly purchased and had they had the leading families or of successful soldiers whom in wars Milan now another. with one employed Venice firsta Visconti and afterward a Sforza.
a

had
was

duke, by

ruled

Council of Ten.
nominally
a

Florence,

the most
was

though

republic,

of them all, remarkable controlled by the Medici, a

greatest of this family was who, in the later part of the him fifteenth century, gathered about poets, philosophers, He collected manuscripts architects, sculptors, and painters.

family

of wealthy merchants. Lorenzo the Magnificent,

The

followed by many was and antiquities. His example noble Florentines, by the rulers of other cities, and by the popes. The study of ancient literature 180. The Study of Greek. had ceased to be the study of what the Eomans alone had produced.
"

Petrarch

had

knowledge

of Greek.

capable teachers, nor firstteacher of Greek

vainly, to gain a good In his day the West could furnish no The any grammars, of the language. who could explain skilfully the Greek tried, though

Manuel Chrysoloras, who to came poets and philosophers was Italy on an embassy from Constantinople, asking for aid against by The cultured men were the Turks. of Florence charmed him to lecture there. This was his learning and persuaded

In order to assist his eager pupils he year 1397. His suctimes. cess a Greek the first in modern made grammar, led other Greeks to visit Italy, particularly because the in the shadow
way, of approaching ruin lay the last, fateful day when
a
over

Constantinople.

In this

already found invader.

refuge

arrived, Greek learning had far from the reach of the Turkish
The

181.
devoted

Humanists
to the
new

and

the Papacy.
were

"

men

who and
was

were

studies

acted upon

the noble old motto the circle of their interests. should remain artistic life. To make
ancient

called Humanists, human that nothing


The

they
,

outside

that Florence and

at the

not content popes were head of this intellectual

Eome

its capital they


new

began

to to

restore

churches, to undertake

buildings, and

174

THE

RENAISSANCE

They call painters and sculptors to their aid. also brought together a library, which, under Nicholas V., contained between five and ten thousand manuscripts.

182.
landers

North
were

of the Alps. the first peoples


"

admiration cities had been


town

for ancient

and the Nethernorth of the Alps to feel a similar literature and art. Many of their
commerce

The

Germans

enriched

by

halls and almost

had

become

churches. independent
Erom

found
one

universities.
was

1450

tiful and adorned with beauIn Germany the princes, who eager to of the emperor, were to 1506 nine were established,

of which Germans w^ere

admiration

sympathy Several of them were Life, an the Common

The university of Wittenberg. Italians, to carry their not inclined, like many to the extent of losing of the Greeks and Romans Christianity and becoming pagans. modern with
the trained in the schools of the Brethren
to educate

Saxon

of

and they

order whose task was Guided to distribute devotional books. sought


to rid their

children by such influences,


and
superstitious

Christian

beliefs of crude

the management additions, and to reform of Church were not their heritage, affairs. Since the glories of Home love of the past upon ancient they bestowed a part of their new The Emperor Maximilian Germany. and his friends searched for the chronicles everywhere Inventions. 183. German
"

inventors.

They

improved

kingdom. of the early German The Germans were also practical instruments. The astronomical

best

compasses and There, also, Martin

in Nuremberg. made astrolabes were in 1491, a Behaim globe constructed,

knowledge of the earth, including which all the new embodied The discoveries. the latest Portuguese art of printing with devised about the middle types was of the century, movable by John Gutenberg,
the process, hitherto Before the century closed Twenty native of Mainz. kept secret, was carried all
a

years
over

later

Europe.
presses in

there

were

thousand

Germany 184.

alone. Printing.

"

The

art

favor among

churchmen,

at first in high of printing was because Bibles, psalters, devotional

FEINTING

175

be multiplied for the use of the and theological works, could or Vulgate editions of the Jerome clergy. Nearly oue hundred The printingprinted before 1500. version of the Bible were found the newly equally useful in publishing presses were Romans, the poems or and tales of works of the Greeks and
French, English, that
came

books

One Italian writers. of the earliest and William from the press of the English

Nuremberg.
In the Middle

Ages

1806.

Still surrounded

rich and influential Free city. by its mediaeval walls, with

Annexed
100

to Bavaria

in

of the

365 towers.

Caxton,
was

equally famous printer, Aldus Minutiits beautiful editions of of Venice, published Aristotle, Thucydides, The writers. and other Greek plication multiimportant books had many consequences. of such Tales. Learning

who Chaucer's

had

learned

the

art

of

printing

at

Cologne,

Canterbury

An

became
It
was see

less than

scholars. student

could

before the privilege of a few favored easier to collect libraries. The ordinary that the Greeks not only exand Romans pressed
more

themselves

clearly and

artistically than

the

men

176
of the Middle
was

THE

EENAISSANCE

Ages^ but that they had

better worth

reading.

The

also written much which that he ceased to result was

had taught the schoolmen as repeat slavishly what Such and became anxious to investigate for himself. formed
were an

science,
students

army

of modern science. It was 185. Voyages. not from books alone that new and learned. Voyages had begun, which things were wonderful covered were not to end until America and farthest Asia had been dis"

laying

of workers the foundations

organized

by

the

scholars

who

Asia

and explored. from the Travels

Europeans
of Marco

had Polo,

visited the court

of the Mongol returned

emperors
sea
as

much about Venetian, who had in the thirteenth century,


as

learned

and
Persian the

who Gulf.

had

by

far

the

head

of the

Greeks

Meanwhile,

searched the recovered writings of Romans for information and about the earth. By the the art of navigation had been improved.

Scholars

had come end of the thirteenth century the mariner's compass into general use, so that it was far safer to undertake voyages from the shores of Europe. Portuguese ships, with Genoese discovered The the Madeiras the Azores. pilots, had and
" in Africa, after desire of the Portuguese to fight the " infidel they had driven him from the borders of their little kingdom, in the fifteenth century, led to still more important voyages

to This prince wished under the direction of Prince Henry. form the rich lands colonies in the Azores, and to conquer To meet lay south of the Sahara. the expenses which he thought of his expeditions, he ordered his captains to engage in

voyage carried the knowledge geography stillfarther, and gave scholars a deeper the questions which had been discussed by Ptolemy
the slave trade.

Each

of African interest in

and

other

Greek

or

Eoman

186.

The
Prance

geographers. French Monarchy.


or

"

Before

the

Renaissance from

England,

they had

emerged

fected aftheir long

wars

stronger

broken.

the power with of the nobles Charles VII. of France began to reorganize his government in 1439, as soon Jeanne d'Arc's heroic efforts had as
monarchies,

THE

FRENCH

INVADE

ITALY

177
of Burgundy could no longer

driven the English had broken

toward

the coast and

the duke

He off his alliance with them. in the days before hope to live, as did his ancestors domain from his own Augustus, chiefly on the income Nor

Philip lands.

did he wish to be obliged to ask continually for grants of he followed the Accordingly, money from the states general. to change example of his grandfather, Charles V., and worked temporary
the grants

into taxes, which

he

express enabled, him


wars,
or

of the states permission to keep a strong army ready

collect without His success general.

could

for service in foreign In

in defeating the conspiracies of restless nobles. 187. The Unification of France, Louis XI., 1461-1483. of Louis XI.
the monarchy
was

"

the reign the duke

of Burgundy,

Charles

the

by again threatened held, besides Bold, who

included in Holland and nearly all that is now to enlarge his territory at the Charles was Belgium. anxious king in the region where of Louis and to become expense for Fortunately Charlemagne's grandson, Lothair, had ruled. Burgundy, France killed in battle with the Swiss in 1477, and Picardy, Artois, Louis was able to seize the duchy of Burgundy, of the heritage was remainder and several other fiefs. The by Maximilian of Austria, saved for the duke's daughter, Mary, vence, In Louis's reign France also gained Proshe married. whom before, a Dauphine, century purchased with which His son, Charles to the Alps. carried the southeastern frontier VIII. , married Anne of Brittany and added her duchy, the last The feudal lords, who of the great fiefs,to the royal domain. the Middle Ages, had disputed power with the kings through
he
was

sank

to the position of

nobility

or

aristocracy in

strongly

organized kingdom. 188. The French invade Italy. Provence


to

"

The

bequest

which

brought

the also a claim upon held by Charles of Anjou, kingdom of Naples and Sicily, once With brother of Louis IX. the expedition into Italy in 1494, foreign wars to make of good this claim, began the distinctly France. by the rivalries of Milan, Venice, torn Italy was the French
crown

brought

178
Florence,

THE

RENAISSANCE

emperor, the king of Naples, and the of the German The great Florentine l)Opes. preacher, Savonarola, welcomed intrusted with the vengeance king as if he were the French of After a moment God men. of triumph, the exupon wicked peditio

failed disastrously, and Ferdinand of Aragon eventuallyLouis XII., who succeeded Charles got possession of Naples. VIII. in 1498, also claimed the duchy the of Milan, because grandmother Louis were
of Louis
more

XII.

was

Visconti.
than for
a

predecessor's Milan seemed

successful in the north had been in the south, and


secure.

armies of either his or his time his hold on

The

the nobles had seen beauties of Italy, and they carried back to France a taste new for its art and a love for the ancient authors which the Italians had found so interesting.
Both

kings

and

189.
driven civil wax
two

shortly after her armies had been from France by Charles VII., had been plunged into a between rival claimants for the crown. There were

England.

"

England,

had which III. from the families of sons taken their names of Edward have been called the Wars Their struggles for the crown of the Eoses, because the favorite flower of the was the red rose
parties, the

Yorkists

and

the

Lancastrians,

Lancastrians,

The

the white rose was chosen by the Yorkists. Yorkists under Edward IV. held the throne almost continuousl from 1461 to 1483. Edward's death his sons Upon
while murdered

were

by

his brother, Richard,

duke

He was who seized the crown. overthrown battle of Bos worth in 1485 by Henry Tudor, the Lancastrian made days claims.
more

of Gloucester, and killed at the who had inherited of the Henrys,

This

the monarchy of the Norman

king, the seventh absolute than it had rulers. the House

and

Angevin

been since the lords had So many

been

that slain in the wars of Lords could not his will, and the House too weak. was oppose of Commons With peace and strong government prosperity increased and began to journey the sons to Italy to acquire of Englishmen
new

the

learning.
on

The

enthusiasm
was so

which

their

teachings

stirred

their return

great that when

Henry

VII.

SPAIN

179
the

died in 1509, his

son,

Henry

VIII., took

Humanists
to be
one

under his protection ; indeed, he strove himself. leading Humanists

especially of the

190.

Spain.

to play

century, was and Aragon


uncertain Portugal. of Castile

tined of the kingdom of Spain, desduring the sixteenth the foremost part in Europe Until 1474 Castile at this time. also completed
"

The

formation

had

been

separate

kingdoms,

and

it had

long been

be Castile would whether The marriage of Ferdinand


a

few

years

before had

to or united to Aragon and Isabella of Aragon The settled this question.


were

difficult,for the nobles was task of the two monarchs was and the country suffering from almost independent, ills which troubled France the royal authority same when
weak.

the
was

union of the towns, Ferdinand and Isabella succeeded In the administration in putting down lawlessness. of public affairs they thrust the great nobles into the background, from the middle class or petty nobles who had men employing By
a

law to believe that study of the Roman have the force of law. After order had a king's will should been reestablished they completed the conquest of Moorish Spain, in 1492, by overthrowing the littlekingdom of Granada.

been

trained

by the

They

their victory by the cruel injustice with which had been promised they treated the industrious Moors who freedom In order to save to continue their Moslem worship. stained declared that of these Moors they would become Christians. To compel them to keep this pledge, those who showed signs of falling into their old ways dreds were to the court called the Inquisition, and hunturned over themselves from
exile, multitudes

of them were method of forcing


been

burned
men

at the stake

as

heretics.

to become

loyal Spaniards
It
was

This rude had already

tried with the conquest of Granada

Spanish

Jews.

that Ferdinand

added

shortly after the ISTaples to Sardinia

Early in and Sicily, his other possessions outside of Aragon. the next century his possessions and those of Isabella passed to their grandson Charles, who was of Mary also the grandson of Burgundy and Maximilian.

180
191.

THE

RENAISSANCE

The Indies.

"

the Portuguese

Indies.

In

and 1471 the

fifteenth century drew to a close the Spaniards entered upon a race for the
the Portuguese

As

to discover

that the coast which southward Columbus,

turned Christopher

surprised Guinea ran eastat the gulf of ward again and stretched away interminably. a Genoese sailor who had been in their easier to reach the had He the Atlantic. the West
carry out

captains

had

been

that it would was employ, convinced Indies by sailing directly west across calculated that the eastern India islands actually lie. his plans, Cape
a

be

lay where In 1487, before he could


coast

of Asia

Portuguese,

Hope of Good Since the Portuguese


coast

the rounded and had sailed a certain distance I)eyond. had reliable information ern about the eastas

Bartholomew

Diaz,

had

far south as Zanzibar, the problem of East Indies by sailing around Africa was solved. reaching the knowlThey had not been able to take advantage edge of their new

of Africa

before had

Columbus,

obtaining

fleet from

Queen Isabella,

Asia by sailing directly west. tried his plan of reaching In October, 1492, he reached the islands which he believed lay learned that he Many years later, men off the coast of Asia.

simply run upon a great barrier continent, and that it was difficult to reach Asia by sailing west than by sailing more In 1498 the Portuguese under Vasco da Gam a around Africa. had reached in the India, and
in 1511

had

begun

to establish themselves two

much-coveted Spaniard, Balboa, had


that

1520

Magellan,
who

years before the It was seen the Pacific Ocean. only in had been in Portuguese a sailor, who Spice
Islands,

Malacca,

but

had

in sailing westward bear his name. now

entered the Spanish into the Pacific through


In March,

service, succeeded

the straits which for Spain 1521, he discovered the Spaniards The

the Philippine Islands.


in America lands far
more

Nevertheless, important.

had found

conquests of Cortez Peru. and Pizarro opened to them the rich mines of Mexico and to dispossess The English, who, later, were them of of much in a the coast this territory, in 1497 touched of America

voyage

conducted

by

an

Italian named

John

Cabot.

SUMMARY

181
the of the day

192. An

Era

of Change.

"

Had

men

been

able to group together and understand it would happening, things that were sixteenth century its predecessors.
was

fully all the wonderful have seemed that the

opening with greater promise than any of At last the veil that had shrouded the " Sea " had been lifted ; the Indies had been reached, and of Darkness directly to the their rich spices and fabrics could be brought
ports of Europe. its treasures

and hidden

had been rediscovered ancient world longer and of literature, no of knowledge in forgotten piles of manuscripts, could be placed in
The

printed volumes busy were each passage,


and
were

upon

the student's table. these writings,

Scholars

like Erasmus carefully sculptors, da Vinci,

exploring

and editing correct architects, like Michelangelo,

explaining editions. Painters,


Raphael,

Leonardo
was

beairtifying Rome

and

Italy, and

their fame

to quicken the genius of Germans, northward Unhappily Frenchmen, other things also were and Spaniards. The filling taking place. rivalries of princes or cities were

ing spreadEnglishmen,

Europe
The
a

with

wars

as

disastrous Church

as were

those

of the Middle

Ages.

evil customs

in the

by the new when, emboldened likely to question the teachings were find its moral discipline burdensome. time

uncorrected, and this at spirit of inquiry, men


of the

Church

and

to

SUMMARY
I. Renaissance.

"

1.

Earlier

revivals

(a)

at

Charlemagne's

court

(6)
the 2.

Saracen
schoolmen

civilization ;
as

(c) rise
;
:

of universities ;

(d)

failure of
builders.

investigators students

(e) success
great books

of church
of the

Writers
;

and

(a)
;

fourteenth

(c) influence of Italian princes interest and popes ; (d) renewed of Greek ; (e) German study in religious studies. 3. Inventors discoverers: and (a) astronomical instruments ; (b) art of printing ; (c) famous printers, influence of books ; (d) Marco Polo's travels ; (e) voyagers of Prince Henry to the ; (/) the Portuguese and Spanish voyages
century

(6) work

of Petrarch

Indies.

182
II. Triumph
OF

THE

BENAISSANCE

Monarchy

IN

France,
to

England,

AND

Spain.

"

1. France-.
a

kings gain right (rt) ; (h) Louis XI. army


to France.

levy regular

taxes,

organize

standing

and
:

2. England

of Burgundy (") rivalries for the crown


3. Spain
:

Charles

; (c) fiefs added ;

(") reasons

for

power
;

of Henry

VII.

(a)

union by

Aragon

Isabella ;

of (h) reorganization Granada (c) conquest of

government
;

of Castile and Ferdinand and of Naples.

(d)

acquisition

IMPORTANT 1374. End


1397.
1419.

DATES

of Petrarch's career. begins to teach Chrysoloras


Prince
Henry

Greek
as

at Florence.

begins

his work

organizer

of voyages.
''

1474.
1477.
'

Union Death

of Castile and of Charles of Henry

Aragon.

the Bold,

1485.
f

Accession
Diaz

ruin of Burgundian VII., first of the Tudors.


of Good
Hope.

scheme.

1487. 1492.
1511. 1519.

sails around

Cape

Conquest
The

of Granada

; discovery

of America.

Portuguese

in the Spice Islands.


his voyage

Magellan

begins

round

the world.

FURTHER General
Reading
:

STUDY

Adams,

Civilization,

Ch.

15 ;

Bryce,

Ch.

17 ;

Symonds,

Short History
Pearson

of

the Italian

Benaissance

tion (a condensa-

by Alfred Modern and Paragraphs 174. The

of Symonds's

seven

volumes) ; Cambridge
Books

History,

Vol. I. ; Whitcomb,

Source

of the

Italian

German
:
"

Benaissance.

Universities and
the

Laurie,

Compayr^,
of Bologna,

and
see

Rashdall.

For

erick Fredand

university 168.
:

132

; for Wycliffe

Huss, 175. The

see

165,

Schoolmen

Robinson,

pp.

455-461

; Emerton,

Mediaeval

Europe,

Ch. 13.
:

176. 178.

richly illustrated. by his writings in Petrarch, Petrarch : selections from many Italian Rolfe ; a brief selection in "Whitcomb, Robinson and Benaissance, pp. 8-15.
Architecture

Sturgis, 365-473,

179.

Renaissance

in Italy

Symonds,
in

Short History,
selections

characteristics

illustrated

Chs. 1, 7 ; general in by Robinson given

Ch.

22.

See

also selections in Whitcomb,

181.

Papal

Library:

Whitcomb,

63-64.

SUMMARY
Paragraphs 182.
:
"

183
Beard, Luther, Vol.

Renaissance Modern History


see

in History,

Germany Ch.

Ch.

3 ; Cambridge

of Germany,
Whitcomb,

Short I. ; Henderson, for selections from Ch. 10; Muuroe writings, ; Select Colloquies Benaissance German and
I. ; Jannsen,

of
183-184.

Erasmus.
Printing:
see

Camb.

Mod.

Hist.,

Vol.

I., pp.

633-634,

639-

641. 185,

191.

Voyages:

Camb.

Mod.

Hist., Ch. I. ; Bourne;

Fiske,

Vol. I.;

Avery, 187.

Vol. I. ; Beazley. of France:


Roses
:

Unification
"War

Camb. Gardiner,

3Iod. Hist., Vol. I., Ch. 320-343


see

12.

189.

of

the

; selections

in Kendall,

Ch.
190.

7 ; iu Durham

; for genealogy,

below.

Spain:

Cheyney

or

Burke,

II., 26-42.

Additional

Reading

Laurie,

Eise

of

the

Universities ; Compayrd,

Abelard Ayes,

The ; Rashdall, 3 vols. ; Jannsen,

Universities
History

of
the

Europe

in

the

Middle
at

of

German

People

the

Thomas Platter and Close of the Middle Ages, 6 vols. ; Munroe, the Ediicational Benaissance of the Sixteenth Century ; Fiske,

Discovery
Avery,

of America, 2 vols. ; Bourne (E. G.), Spain in History TorJc of the United States ; Ramsay,
The The Eui-opean French BacJcground Monarchy,
;' Hume,

America;
and
caster Lan-

; Cheyney,

Spain,
2 vols.;

1479-178S;
Burckhardt,

Grant,

U94--1789,
The

Benaissance MaJcers

in Italy ; Brown,

Venetian
Prince

Bepubthe

lic ; Oliphant, Navigator.

of

Florence

; Beazley,

Henry

To

ILLUSTRATE

DISPUTE
THE

ABOUT

THE

ENGLISH and

CROWN
Lancaster,

AND

THE

WARS

OF

Roses

(York, White,
Edward

Red)

III., 1 137T

Edward (The

V.

Eichard

Elizabeth,

married

to

Henry

VII.

1485-1509

murdered

|
Henry VIII., 1 1547

princes)

CHAPTER
THE

XII.
REVOLUTION

PROTESTANT

193. A Greater Schism.


another about the Church was
more

Christians to differ with one matters of belief or about the organization of For thing in the sixteenth century. not a new
"

For

tians Chrisand Roman years the Greek eight hundred had looked upon each other as schismatics and heretics. In the East there were agreed with several Churches which
than
neither. and the Even
in the Eoman

Church
grouped

there had

kings summarily or cut off parliaments The English parliahad acquired. the popes ment privileges which had done this by the statutes of Pro visors and Praemunire, West
seen

nations had also

had

been

behind

schism, The rival popes.

been

and

the French

king, Charles

VII., had

thing
of

by the Pragmatic
great

Sanction

the three

nations, had power


to the

the same accomplished Only Germany, of Bourges. failed to restrain the papal
emperor of the
was

demands
gone.

because

the

of the

Nevertheless,
were

Christians
They

day

practically heresy and how

schism

hateful

wrongs. than
one

there could
came,

be

more even

could true Church.

not

imagine

When

the revolutionists, shrank from dividing the Church and from countenancing of permanently the thought that Christians could rightly differ upon important

all

men,

revolution the danger

doctrines.
that
a

It

was

only after compromise

a was

long and

irreconcilable conflict certain in to worship

temporary
or

agreed upon, whereby


were

countries

allowed by custom, to refuse allegiance to the pope, ways not approved heretical. This as and to hold beliefs that had been branded had taken place in all western Europe north of the Alps and
certain classes of
184

men

THE

CHURCH

IN

PERIL

185
the ruin of the

the Pyrenees

by

1561, and

tlie event

marked
the

mediaeval Church. 194. The Church


"

in Peril

"

Neither

decisions

of

the

reforming

had

going councils of Constance and Basel nor the thoroughfashion in which the English and the French governments the papacy that the cut off its privileges had convinced
come

"

time had

ing reorganization of its system of administerIt was the affairs of the Church. not easy to distinguish insist as necessary between things upon which the popes must
for
a

to the exercise of

upon

wise authority and things which encroached The Roman the rights of others. administered officialswho the affairs of the papacy did not have a reputation for
a

justice and

Many of them were accused of charging economy. fees and of taking bribes. To make the matter extortionate VI., in the latter part of the worse, the popes, like Alexander

fifteenth century, in their struggle to defend their power over the States of the Church, acted with the same unscrupulous violence as did other Italian princes.

195.

The

Concordat.

"

Upon

still unconscious papacy seemed instance ignored the convictions The


Marignano French

the of revolution of the danger, and in a startling


the
eve

king, Francis with

of many I., had won

earnest

men. churchthe battle of

of recovered the duchy Milan. was at his feet. In order to strengthen his influence in Italian politics Francis needed the pope as his

in 1515, and Italy Northern

it had

ally, and Pope the Pragmatic authority

Leo

was

determined
of Bourges,

to obtain the revocation

of

Sanction

in France.

of Bologna
once

by by
the

championed

the papal which checked or agreethe Concordat The result was ment the freedom of Church elections, which was taken away, the popes themselves,
was

thereafter and bishoprics, and

king

to nominate

to archbishoprics,

install the

to institute or was abbeys, while the pope the king perImmediately mitted afterward candidates.

the pope to begin again the collection of the annats. North of the Alps several influential church196. Erasmus. men,
"

who

were

also lovers of the

new

learning, attempted

by

186

THE

PROTESTANT

REVOLUTION

their writings and the Church

teachings

to correct

and to strengthen Erasmus, The most famous intelligent men. of the group was Greek at Cambridge, a native who had taught of Eotterdam, England, but who lived much at
Paris, and whose to be spent in

ened the evils which threatthe religious feeling of

later years Basel,


near

were

his

mus Erasfriend, the printer Eroben. wrote a book called the Pndse

of

Folly, in which

Folly

herself

argued

for

all the

unreasonable in such a way

wrong and things in the world


as

to

set everybody

to laughing

at them.

Lazy

and luxury-loving bishops got their full share of such shafts and found it difficult to join in had But Erasmus the laughter. monks
Erasmus.
more

The
mau

foremost

scholar and literary dam Boru at Rotterof his day. he beThough came 1467. about
a

monk,

he

was

permitted

good text of the the Greek edition of in Hitherto, Testament. New


most

to do. serious work important a task was

His

reside outside the monastery sity after 1490. Studied at the university of Paris, taught at the univerto

their studies, scholars

had

been

of Cambridge. influential patrons,

Had
even

many

at Rome.

gate, chiefly the Vulobliged to use the translation into Latin by St. Jerome.
In

Died

at Basel

in 1536.
his

to his work on New Testament,

In addition the Greek text of the best known

order
might

that have
text

the Adages writings are selected from quies classical writers, the Collodialogues or on various sub-

Biblical scholarship basis, the a sound


must

Greek
a

be corrected by

son compari-

jects,

and

the

Praise

of

Folhj.

of all the ancient manuscripts Erasmus that could be found.

published his first edition in 1516, the year of the Concordat. Among his other tasks was the publication of the writings of early teachers of the Church like St. Augustine and Origen. Through had
these

been

ual possible to gain a clearer idea how gradChurch, the formation of the doctrines of the
it
was

INDULGENCES

187

Christianity with the Christianity early One of Erasmus's English had taught. the schoolmen friends, John Colet, who had studied in Italy, was at this time St. Paul's Epistles, alarming lecturing at Oxford some on of his hearers by his manner of explaining passages with a vigor
and that
to contrast

and freshness quite unlike Lefevre, Jacques a great eagerly


to the

the

scholastic

study

of

mathematician, the Bible, in which,

In Paris, method. had also turned rather than in he said, the true

to be found, theological works, was cumbrous In his commentary tles, doctrine of Christ. upon St. Paul's Episin 1512, he declared that pilgrimages and pen-, published ances merit before Grod, and that the true could not give men

through the union of the trusting soul to Christ. How way was far such scholars could carry peaceful reform there was little a revolution broke opportunity to see, for almost immediately
out

in Germany

197.

which threw their work into the background. Indulgences. Had this revolution been brought on
"

by the old trouble about taxes and appointments it would not have been surprising. Whatever the underlying the causes, a controversy over the way the wrong-doer must occasion was
be restored to good standing A hearty repentance God. in the Church
had
not

and to the favor of it was enough; seemed

" do works meet for repentnecessary that the contrite sinner ance." In the early Church men had been compelled ble to humto wear themselves, a penitent's robe, or do something

which

should for one


a

show
reason

the
or

majesty of
another,

the

broken
were
"

law.

ally, Gradu"

penitents

indulged

or

freed from

ances Penor penance. punishment that fines in money, were so also changed, after the manner of German penalties for crimes, were substituted for gences, Such fines were the old, humiliating penances. really indul-

portion

of such

or the time of penance took its shortened After Christians came to believe in purgatory, a place place. for souls finally to be received into of purifying punishment

for they

paradise, it shortened

was

thought
an

through

that the period of suffering might be indulgence or pardon, and that the letter

188
of the law

THE

PROTESTANT

BEVOLUTION

of penalties souls
some

might

be satisfied by

credit of needy had and women

Although

of the good works in excess of the law's requirements. performed held that repentthe greater teachers of the Church ance,

placing to the which holy men

confession, and the priest's formal


or

absolution

must

precede if this

declaration of forgiveness the purchase of an indulgence,


to

efficacious, others argued that the merit of the indulgence itself could make up for a lack of real for sin and sorrow the could remove Sensitive souls were tormented guilt. by the fear that they had not purchased The a practice sufficient indulgence.
was

were

be

fast becoming
on

scandal

and at last
rent

brought

quarrel

which

the

Church. 198.
"

Luther

(1483-1546)and
in this way.
begun

gences. IndulPope

It happened
II. had

Martin Born Entered


1508
at

Luthek. Eisleben,
1483.
monastery In

Julius

St. Peter's

church

the rebuilding of the at Kome upon

Augustinian
at

became

philosophy

When plans of the architect Bramante. Julius died in 1513, the work languished. of professor Leo, in order to procure the at university Pope money,
Erfurt.

Visited

Wittenberg. of in 1510. Rome


his translation

provided

for
The

Completed

gences. special issue of indulvided diGerman states were

in Testament of the New ble Bi1522 and of the whole in 1532. Died, 1546.

into three fields, and the disposal conceded of the indulgences in one was to the archbishop when of Mainz, who

he had

become

thirty thousand

fee of archbishop had paid the papal court a from an Augsburg ducats, borrowing the sum He

banking

half of the received permission to retain repay the loan. proceeds of the issue in order that he might Frederick, the elector of Saxony, refused to allow Tetzel, the
house.

Tetzel, however, chief of the preachers, to enter his domains. preached on the borders of Saxony, so that the elector's people This led Dr. Martin flocked thither to purchase indulgences.

LUTHER

AND

THE

POPE

189

Luther,

monk

of Wittenberg, five theses or


to show

iiniversity and professor of philosophy in the new in October, 1517, ninetyto post conspicaously,

had
He

no

he offered to prove, tending propositions which Luther dangerous. that confidence in indulgences was intention of attacking the pope or of teaching heresy.

said other good churchmen many expressed what to believe Like Colet and Lefevre he had come more quietly. by that the heavy consciousness of guilt could not be removed " itself clear by a good works," and that the soul could shake bold act of faith in God's promises.

boldly

199. Luther
controversy Luther was
was

Leo thought At first Pope and the Pope. kinds of monks, two an affair between
"

the for

an

Augustinian,

while
more

Tetzel excited

was

Dominican.
own

As

the

controversy

became

Luther's

ions opin-

changed Church and


that there
was

to criticise the teachings of the and he began He denied to find fault with its organization. the priest and the ordinary any difference between
save

the office he held, and called upon " Christian Nobles of the German to take the reform Nation A little later he declared hands. of the Church into their own

Christian

the

"

that the

Church

was

in bondage those

to Rome,

new

"

Babylonian

Captivity," and
which
gave

attacked

the

priesthood
mass,

beliefs and forms of worship their power, that is to say, the


of the priest, the substance into the body and blood of
as

belief that in the


of the bread

at the word

and wine is changed Christ and is offered in sacrifice Conservative looked upon men now

renewed Luther as a Germans


saw

atonement.

drew

back,

but

thousands

of

other

heretic and in him a

dauntless

champion of German sion. rights against foreign oppresWhether he would be arrested and punished a heretic as depended upon the German princes, and partly, also, upon how busy men His defiant attitude was were with other matters. clear, for when the pope

publicly burned the papal 200. Under the Ban. In 1519, before the controversy had died, and his grandreached its height, the emperor Maximilian
"

excommunicated bull.

him

in 1520,

he

190
son,
was

THE

PROTESTANT

REVOLUTION

Charles, already
chosen emperor. of Francis

duke
This I. of

of Burguudy

antagonist in the

choice made France, chiefly because in

and kiug of Spain, Charles the lifelong in many, Ger-

Netherlands,

Burgundy, thwarted
power

in Italy, in Spain,

the

of Francis ambitions Charles possessed so

were

by
that

Charles.
it seemed

over, More-

much

likely

he would make man of the Holy RoEmpire a Roman reality of For the time the ancient type. Pope Leo feared the French
more

than he did Charles, for Francis


was

strong

"/:^%

and Charles Meanwhile, summoned


the

in northern Italy, only desired to be.


in 1521,
a

Charles
diet of

at Worms

electors, the

princes,

and

the representatives of the cities. Luther was called before it and to recant his errors. commanded refused to do so unless what he had written should be proved from the Scriptures and wrong He

Charles
Born
at Ghent

V. the king
of in
at

by clear reasoning.
in 1500, inherited in 1506, hecame in 151fi, emperor Empire 1556. Netherlands of

Although

this

Spain

the 1519. tlie

German-Roman
Abdicated
monastery

in

Died

the appeal from and of authority of the Church imperial assemblies to his own
was an

of Yuste,

Spain, in 1558.

individual of the

the judgment,

members

diet
a

to condemn

him, for his


It
was
was

name

had after

become
a

reluctant battle-cry among

were

the
gone

Germans.
that he

only

part

the ban placed under had given him a safe-conduct the emperor On the road to Wittenberg to go unmolested. away
so was

princes had As of the Empire. he had been allowed


of the he
was

spirited

to Wartburg

Castle by order

of the

that he might be safe until the storm too busy to enforce the ban, for his first war

elector of Saxony, Charles blew over.

with

Francis

REVOLT

OF

THE

PEASANTS

191

had

Pope Leo lived only long enough to know already begun. that the French broken. power in northern Italy was 201. After the Diet. It would have been difficult for
"

Charles to carry
and

out

the

decree

of the

diet, for the

princes

the Free and

or

independent
not

cities were

jealous of

would

have

endured

done to restrain vigorous act of imperial power. Luther had the sooner and his followers until 1529, for no first war Luther with France ended than another broke out. had more to fear from the violence of his own partisans than He from had not been in the Wartburg long the emperor. before
friends rudely replaced the customary forms of worship by others more in accord with what to them to teach in his writings and speeches. had seemed left his retreat, hurried back to Wittenberg, and restored
some

anything Little was

their privileges that looked like a

of his Wittenberg

he
He

the Church gradually that he reorganized notions of Christian worservice in agreement with his new ship. his translation of the Bible he completed Meanwhile

order.

It

was

only

into German,
read

which,

multiplied

upon

hundred

presses,

was

202.
ended.

everywhere. Revolt of the Peasants. His defiance of Church


were

"

Luther's

troubles

were

not

all Christians

authority, his declaration that brothers, resounded the among ominously

down Germany, the French as peasants of southern ground in the eleventh had been century. and English peasants From had revolted, and in 1524 time to time, groups of them In their one of these revolts grew into a general insurrection.
formal
''

demands
as
"

Gospel
with

dom asked that they be released from serffrom true Christians unless it could be proved the had littlereal sympathy that they were serfs. Luther they

He born. he was saw the peasants, although peasant that his cause was rebellion against ruined if he countenanced he denounced Consequently the nobles. the unhappy peasants, down urging the princes to cut them insurrection was in blood as drowned like mad had been Revolt.

dogs. the

The

French

Jacquerie

and

the English

Peasants'

The

condition

192

THE

PROTESTANT

REVOLUTION

of the peasants
ness

became
from

worse

than

they

turned

Luther.

before, and in their bitterlike Nuremberg, In the towns

among princes like the elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse, the triumph by the cases, certain. In some of Luther's views became more forms of worthe princes, the newer or ship act of the magistrates it was Almost the clergy everywhere replaced the old.

Strasburg,

Magdeburg,

and

Liibeck, and

themselves

who

took
was

the

lead.

Monasteries

were

closed

administered Order master of the Teutonic grand lands into a duchy, which two centuries
property

Church

by the

government.

and The

its Prussian changed dom later became the kingseemed


to to show

the

Although of Prussia. Lutherans not would

such changes be reconciled


was

that
none

the

Church,

believed that another

Church

to be created, and

that western

Christendom

M'as

to be rent

by schism.
"

203. Reform
stop
at

in Other

Lands.

Luther's His

influence did
were

not
soon

the borders

accepted
was

He
as

of Lefevre work hindered than helped by the controversy. more probably looked for a peaceful change in the Church itself. As soon

in

of Germany. Denmark and Sweden.

teachings

The

his

friends

saw

how

far

Luther

was

going,

some

of them

drew
change

back

fear, others became eager such partisans of The Lefevre too timid a reformer. that they thought in

theologians

of the university of Paris, in alarm, united with heresies, and to punish the new the judges in the parlement In England to be burned at the stake. caused several men there
nor

were

few

Lollards

left,but

had

Wycliffe's views himself a

teachings
a

was their memory not dead, forgotten. This been wholly

gave

Luther's

chance
great

to

be heard.

Henry

VIII.

who

esteemed Luther's

theologian,

and the pope " In the Netherlands, Defender also, Lutherans of the Paith." seized and hurried appeared, and by order of Charles they were
errors,

to refute undertook him the title, conferred upon

to the stake.

204.

Switzerland.
as

"

In

Switzerland This

reform
was

found

almost

great

as

Luther.

Ulrich

champion Zwingli, who

THE

HUMANISTS

193
in

became
He
text

priest in tlie catliedral cliurcli of Zurich


been
an

1518.

had

eager

he had of which Almost convenient form. might have it in more he based his preaching wholly on the Scriptures.

student of Paul's Epistles, the Greek Erasmus's copied from edition that he from As the first his views with him, so

gradually changed, he carried the town magistrates He went that a new order of things was quietly introduced. farther than Luther. Although Luther did not believe much in transubstantiation or the change of the substance of the bread and blood of Christ, he did believe wine into the body that the body of Christ was present in the consecrated bread and Zwingli, on the contrary, taught that the Lord's Supper vdne.
and
was
so

feast. Luther thought this view commemorative hardly recognize Zwingli as a unchristian that he would

only

Christian brother.

205.

The

Humanists.

confusion of all these nearly lost sight of. Many

It is not surprising that in the discordant were cries the Humanists


"

like that advocated his work of editing, refusing to take The more violent reformers called him while the theologians
at

of them were Erasmus by Lef evre.

in favor of

reform

steadily continued sides in the conflict. timorous time


server,

Paris

accused

his writings

of being

the root of all the ill. 206. Charles, Francis,


war

the Pope,
I. had

the Protestants.

"

In

the

with

taken
sign
a

been captured in Italy and At Madrid, early in 1526, he was to Spaiu. forced to humiliating treaty in order to procure his release. As
was
now

Charles

V., Francis

Charles

pope, Clement Leo had to oppose

powerful in northern Italy, the new to oppose VII., had the same reason

Medicean him that


to be
were

Erancis.
was was one

The

peace

only
not

truce.

This

reason

of Madrid proved why the Lutherans

disturbed.

There

Hungary

the Turks

had

In an invasion of still another. justkilled the king of Hungary and

Bohemia

at the battle of Mohacs.

Eerdinand,

the brother

of

Charles, had
the throne.

married

the

Charles had

sister of the late king and claimed teralready given him the Hapsburg

194

THE

PEOTESTANT

REVOLUTION

Ferdinand was ritories of their grandfather, Maximilian. for the diets of both Hungary chose and Bohemia king. forward From the group this time of possessions formed. still rule was permanently which the Hapsburgs

successful, him
over

In

his

new

war

Charles

was

more

triumphant
a

for his army, under the constable Bourbon, stormed Rome and put it to a sack worse before by the Goths and the Vandals. Francis
were

wished, traitor to Francis,


that centuries

than

he

than Pope

Clement

and

obliged

to make

peace.

Charles

seized the opportuni


the spread

to check

of

opinions and to cause suits to be made in the imperial to recover courts Church

Lutheran

had which property been taken by the princes and cities. This attempt led to a vigorous protest at the diet of by the Spires in 1529, made the and elector of Saxony

of Hesse, supported by fourteen Free cities,an act which


Henry

landgrave

gave

the

name

tant Protes-

to the Lutheran
VIII.

207.
VII. and of Elizabeth, of Henry Born Edward IV. daughter at of

Henry

party. VIII. breaks


"

Son

with
was

the

Papacy.

Charles culty. diffi-

Greenwich,
1547.

Given

ster, 1491 ; died at Westminthe title "Defender

troubled
His

by another
aunt,

Catherine,

" by Leo X. for his book of the Faith in 1521. Declared Luther against

was

by

act

in 1534 of parliament head" the English Church. of

"supreme

of

VIII. the wife of Henry England. Unfortunately


her

all

daughter, had

died.

Henry

was

about the succession to the crown He demanded no sons. that Pope


as

one children, save afraid that the old quarrel begin again if he had would

Clement

unlawful,
was

because

Catherine

had been
as

annul the marriage his brother's widow. become

He

of

one

about the matter, of the court ladies. The


urgent

he had

pope

enamoured did not dare to comply,

FEANCIS

AND

THE

BEFOBMERS

195
lose their
crowns

for Charles and


rather allow than

Ferdinand

swore

they

would
Henry's

endure such an parliament, from 1529

insult.
to

1534, to pass

to was revenge laws cutting off

Church
and did

privileges, the annats, the right of appeal to Eome, He himself head of the English Church. Henry making
not

intend

to

destroy the
"

he had
to

become
on

the

Defender

unity of the " ; but it was

"

Faith,"

of which difficult for him

carry

who
some

his quarrel with the pope without the aid of men In to Lutheran inclined more were opinions. and more had the German as far as went princes. respects Henry
"

He

abolished all the monasteries,


ones,
"

the larger whom

and

either gave
In 1530

first the smaller and then or sold their lands to men

he favored.

208.
strong

Diet of Augsburg.

"

Charles

thought

himself
this the

to compel and, with enough obedience in Germany, diet at Augsburg. in view, he summoned There another

Lutherans Melanchthon

were

allowed had drawn

to read

creed,

or

possible offence to the


to
no

up in such a way leaders. Charles Church

confession, which as to give the least


would

listen

to six months compromise, and gave the Protestants It was years before he found leisure submit. nearly seventeen The to carry out this threat. same old troubles, the Turks

and the French, constantly thwarted him. Francis I. had protected 209. Francis and the Reformers. the disciples of Lefevre from the attacks of the university and him from the courts, but the disasters of his wars so weakened
"

that it would have been dangerous far. he sympathized Moreover,


they
were

to

carry them

such

policy too

with

for their notions also Humanists, When for monarchs too severe the were of his type. images and to placard partisans of reform began to tear down denunciations Francis was enraged, and joined of the mass, heartily in the work of suppression. Finally, about the time

chiefly because of Christian morality

when

Henry

VIII.

had

broken

to parley with the reformers.

with It was

the papacy,

Francis

ceased

at just this time, also, that

the French

reformers

were

to receive a leader and

organizer.

196 210.

THE

PROTESTANT

REVOLUTION

Calvin, 1509-1564.

"

John

Calvin

leader to whom the French reformers guidance, he was also to exert a more France than any other Frenchman the founder in Holland.
of the
"

only the looked for instruction and influence outpermanent side


was

not

that

ever

lived. He

was

Eeformed

"

Churches

Through

his influence with

along the Rhine and the English religious

Chateau
Oue of the Renaissance.
near

of

Chenonceaux.

Tours.

beautiful most It is situated The principal

on

built in France during the of the chateaux flows into the Loire the Cher, a river which in 1517. structure at the left was completed

leaders, the English

regarded him 1509, he was echoes of the Lutheran revolt still a boy when As a student at Paris and other French began to stir France. to believe like Lefevre and his universities, he gradually came friends. It was about this time that the placards against the
fanatics even on the posted by hot-headed king's bedchamber, drew down the royal vengeance
mass,

EngPuritans, and their children in New land, Since he was born in* as their teacher.

doors
on

of the_

the Church

branded

as

heretics.

Calvin took

refuge

all whom in Basel,

CALVIN

197

by one persuaded of Lefevre's disciples, in reforming to aid him Geneva, an now ardent Protestant, which had driven away its bishop and had abolished the mass. Calvin had already in 1535 published his Institutes tian of the Chris-

and

afterward

was

and

Religion, in which he interpreted explained how the Church should


at Geneva

anew

the Christian faith

be ruled.

After

bitter

struggle his power

unassailable, and he transformed the city into the

became

"Rome He

of Protestantism."

declared, Luther,
a man

did

strongly as that in God's


is

as

sight

justonly

cause be-

received from God the gift of faith, but he a also held that whether man shall receive this divine
gift the
was

he

has

determined foundation
Those

before of the felt assured

very

world.

who that they had

been
this

so a

chosen

gained

from

dignity and

courage

in comparison
Born
1509.
at

John
Noyon,

Calvin.
"

with which ordinary tle earthly dignities were of litimportance. It was natural

Picardy,
at the

France,

in

Educated
in

Paris, Orleans,
to

Basel

that such think themselves managing


was

men

should

1538.

persecuescape tion. 1536First residence in Geneva, in 1541 ; died in 1564. Returned

and 1534 to

universities of Bourges. Retired

capable of the Church, and even


a

the

State.

for democracy making Calvin himself would allow no liberty to those who although differed with him. He had occupied his commanding position in Geneva had thoroughly established about twenty years, and

force

vinism In this way Caland for liberty,

his system

the first attempt of Church administration, when into a was churches made in Prance to organize the reformed In spite of the dangers, for Henry II., who had single body.

198

THE

PROTESTANT

REVOLUTION

a greater persecutor succeeded his father Francis in 1547, was his father had been, the delegates of fifty churches than met in Paris, in 1559, and drew up a confession of faith and a plan

the situation in Henry had greatly changed. VIII. Germany and in England VI., only ten years had died in 1547, leaving a son, Edward

of management. 211. Reformation

in England.

"

Meanwhile

king, and among them councillors of the young old. The the policy of Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, abandoned pendent Henry, King that the English Church was so not only indein its creed of the pope but became also Protestant
its forms and Book Prayer with which, Articles. of
was

worship. arranged, changes,

It

was

at

this

time
was

that drawn

the

and
was

the
to

creed

slight

become

the

up Thirty-nine

212.

War

and

Compromise

in Germany.

"

In

Germany

the

hopelessly ruined. Charles V. had never seemed heresy, to put down the Lutheran given up his determination Luther had died the year but he could do nothing until 1547. reformers before. landgrave
Lutherans

John

Frederick,
were

of Hesse, united

the elector of Saxony, and Philip, the the still the political leaders among League.

in the Schmalkaldic

Charles

took

the elector and his relative advantage of the enmity between Maurice Maurice, duke of Saxony, and promised the position The campaign was the League of elector in case conquered.
was

decided

in

one

battle, but the matter

did not

end

there.

Charles

to arrange a compromise attempted until everything be settled in a general council of the Church. This should least of all Maurice, one, was who compromise suited no

embittered by the way Charles had treated his father-in-law, The result was the landgrave an of Hesse. uprising in 1552, led by Maurice II. of France, who did and assisted by Henry
not

hate the Lutherans

in crippling to occupy Metz, Toul, and Verdun, cities which Empire, although the inhabitants the German

them

that he much his father's old enemy.


so

was

reluctant Henry was


were

to assist

allowed then in French.

spoke

BEACTION

IN

ENGLAND

199

successful, and Charles himself barely escaped His defeat led first to the Peace capture. of Passau and a " little later, in 1555, to the Religious Settlement," or the
The

allies were

Peace

of the right to settle whether they and or should their should be Lutherans adhere to the old subjects If a Church Church. prince, bishop or abbot, should become cities,to the government,
It was also decided resign his position. that all Church property that had been taken by princes before 1552 should not be reclaimed by the Church, but that no more
a

of Angsburg.

This

gave

to the princes,

or,

in the

case

Lutheran,

he

must

should

ever

Evidently seized or secularized. such a settlement more than they had gave to the princes much power Some had before. said that instead of a pope persons
so

be

" Csesar-pope." a got themselves of the old sort they had now The next year Charles V., aged before his time, withdrew to leaving nearly all his lands to his son Spanish monastery, a

emperor. England also it depended upon the prince what the religion should be. After six years died and his sister Mary, daughter Edward the young of the To her the reformers to the throne. Catherine, came unhappy

Philip.

His

brother

Ferdinand
"

became

213.

Reaction

in England.

In

were

doubly
also

hateful, first because it


was

but

because

mother's

As marriage. to introduce the found


a

attacked her faith, had helped her they who annul Edward's councillors found a parliament
they

had

new

beliefs and

forms

of worship,

so

Mary

heresy

to undo another parliament In 1554 she took Philip crime.

all this and of Spain, the


was

make
son

of

Charles,
to the

as

her husband.

It seemed

as

if England

added

fighting against the reformers everywhere, and for the emperor's disastrous defeat in this partly compensated Germany. But Mary disgusted Englishmen by causing such distinguished
and
men as

forces

Archbishop
be

Cranmer,
at
was

Bishop

Latimer,

Bishop

Eidley

to

burned

the

personal

liberty protected by law Mary's burnings were elsewhere.

love of The stake. than greater in England with the but they

holocausts

in Spain, France,

and

in comparison the Netherlands;


few

200

TUB

PROTESTANT

REVOLUTION

fixed upon her the hateful title of the "Bloody Queen." had changed her brother's death the State religion, so it back, for her sister Elizabeth, death in 1558, changed
daughter
of Anne

As her
the

Henry lady for whom had Catherine, was bound to support as the much repudiated Upon Mary as the older Church. the rightfulness reformers of the divorce rested her claim to be lawful daughter of the

Boleyn, that court

king.

No

sooner
"

had

she mounted
"

the throne

than

Elizabeth

effected a please both

of religion. Although she tried to the reformers and those who still believed in the declared her supreme in Church older worship, her parliament legal form of worship to a as well as in State, and provided
settlement which

must conform. everybody Even in France it had 214. The End of the Middle Ages. II. to allow the rebecome necessary after the death of Henry formers In Italy and Spain to meet outside the walled towns.
"

alone

was

the Church

the great commonwealth, directed by the emperor ordinary affairs of which were while From the pope guided its spiritual interests. the failure of Emto defend the Hohenstaufens their imperial rights the pire
men

of the western all Christian

able to preserve its unity. The divisions fatal to the mediaeval notion that Church were
were

united

in

one

Kingdoms once considered hardly recovered. were than vassal states had become strong. Men more grouped kingdoms In one distinct nations. a as of these national itself ceased to be wholly founded, and the Empire Church was had
never

loyal to the Hitherto


men

These divisions meant thing. another papacy. had authority to had agreed that the Church

as of the guide the thoughts Avell as discipline the conduct individual. The Humanists had discovered a method of study, like that of the ancient Greeks, but they had tried to use much

it in harmony
set

with

the

teachings

of each

the

Church.

The

reformers

up

other

Churches,

claiming
more

teach, the

but

each

judgment

more appealing of the individual

and
was men.

authority to to reason, that so


a

fast becoming

rival of
un-

Church

authority

in

controlling

What

remained

SUMMARY

201
in Europe who
were

the boundaries should be drawn where those faithful to the papacy and those reorganizing their religious life.

settled between

was

SUMMARY
I. Causes
of
of
the

Reformation.
not

"

1. Underlying

causes:

(a) need
of previous
of

reforms
;

secured

by

"reforming"

councils

century Bologna

teaching

(6) attitude ; (c)Erasmus ; (d) greater

revealed reform Humanists undermine and other Testament on the New emphasis 2.

toward

in Concordat

traditional
as

source

penitential system (6) danger of abuses ; (c) sale of indulgences in Germany. 1. Luther: Revolt. II. Lutheran (a) his criticism of indulgences
:
"

of religious knowledge.

Occasion

(a)

(6) gradual change (d) his refusal to


cause

from
and

cause

in his religious views ; (c) excommunicated ; detaches his Church to authority ; (e) submit of his ideas among of peasants ; (/) spread
cities.
:

princes
Lutherans

in

Free

2.

Things

which

helped

save

from

destruction and

(a)
and

protection

of princes

cities at Spires ; V.
;

(c) League
French
on

of princes ; (6) attitude Schmalkald of ;


kings ; part

(d) rivalries
of Charles
any strong
in

of

Charles
the

the

(e) quarrel
to

and

pope

(/)

opposition power.

of princes

assertion

of imperial
"

III. Reform

Other

Lands. 2.

1. Lutheranism

in Sweden
Zurich

and

mark, Den-

in

Prussia.
:

Zwingli

and

the

Reformation.
;

3. England Church

(") quarrel
separated

of Henry
from

VIII.

and of

the pope Rome.

lish (") Eng:

Church

4. France meaning

(a)
IV.

attitude

of Francis

I. ;

(6)
"

Calvin ;
L

(c) social

of

his teachings. Beginnings


of

New

Churches.

Lutheran:

(a)

Luther's

changes

in

manner

(c) Augsburg
and property in France.
Book, V. Defence in

of worship ; (6) his ideas on the Eucharist; Confession ; (c?) disposition of Church territories
2. Organization of Reformed

in Germany.

Churches
VI., Prayer

3. Reforms

in England

under

Edward

and
of

Thirty-nine
the

Articles.
"

Church.
2.

1. Attitude V.
over

of Francis

I. and

Henry

II.
:

France. victory

Charles

in

the the

Netherlands.
Lutherans
;
:

3. Germany

(a)

of

Charles

(")

his

use

of

victory ;

(c) revolt
Catholic
by

of Maurice
restoration

4,

of Saxony in England

(d) religious settlement. credited means (a) ; (6) dis-

severity ;

(c) disappears

with

Mary.

202

TUE

PROTESTANT

REVOLUTION

IMPORTANT 1516.
1517. 1519. 1521. 1524. 1529.

DATES
publishes his Greek

Concordat
Protest

of Bologna.

Erasmus

Testament.

of Luther

against sale of indulgences.


emperor,

Charles
Diet

V. becomes

at Worms

; Luther

Outbreak
Protest

of Peasants'

defies authority. Revolt in southern

Germany.

of Spires.

1530. 1534.
1535. 1547.

Augsburg
English

Confession
Church

read at diet of Augsburg. separated from Church of Rome.

Calvin publishes his Institutes. by Charles Defeat of the Lutherans


Francis I.

V.

Death

of Henry

VIIL

and

1555. 1556.
1558.

Religious Abdication
Elizabeth,

Settlement
of Charles
queen

in Germany
V.

by Peace

of Augsburg.

1559.

Organization

of England. Churches of Reformed

in France.

FURTHER
General Reading
:

STUDY
to

in addition

Johnson's

Europe

histories of the different states, tant Protesin the Sixteenth Century ; Seebohm's
the Walker's

Revolution

; Fisher's or in Schaff's Christian


Vols.

Reformation ; longer
Vols. VI. and Modern

ments treat-

Church,

VII, ; Alzog, History, in Bryce,

Vol.

III. ; Jannsen,

III.- VI. in Adams,

; Cambridge

Vol. II. ; special chapters Holy Roman


:
"

Civilization, and

Empire.

Paragraphs
194.

Condition
205. Erasmus

of the
:

Church

see

162-165,

168,
Erasmus,

and

196.

Emerton's

or

Froude's

references. including many

selections

from
on
:

vrritings

and

letters ;

Seebohm's
Ch.
11.

Oxford Reformers
; Alzog,

;
197. Indulgences

Greek

Testament,

Seebohm,

Cambridge
1056-1058.
the

Modern

History,

II., 124-128

II., 795-799,

198.

Luther's

Protest:

occasion,

Creighton,

V.,

56

ff.; Jannsen,

III., 78 ff. ; Luther's the Theses,

early experience,

Beard,

Ch. 4 ; the text of


; Creighton,

Tr. and
the

Rp., II., No. 6, 5-12.


:

199.

Luther
v.,

and 69

Pope

Fisher,

Reformation, 96-102
ff.; Luther's

ff.; Jannsen,

III., 97

early

writings

in

Bucheim,

Lrither''s Primary
V.
; the

Works.
and
see

200.

Charles
158-160

diet of

Worms

its consequences,

Johnson,

; Armstrong,

I., Ch. 4 ;

genealogy

below.

SUMMARY

203

Paragraphs 201, 202.

"

Revolution
; Gamb.

in Germany Mod.

Seebohra,

Protestant

Bevolution,

135-154 203.
Reform

Hist., II., 177-192,

in

Other

Lands:

in the

north,

Haiisser, Baird,

Chs.

11, 12;

Camb.
204.

Mod.

Hist., II., Ch.


:

17 ; in France,
;

I., Ch. 2. 10 ;

Switzerland
Jackson,

Fisher,

136-156

Camb.

Mod.

Hist., II., Ch.

Zivingli.
Wars:
:

206, 207.

208. Henry Ch.

The

Johnson, Gardiner,

172-176,

181-200.

VIII.

13 in Camb.

209,
211,

210. 213.

Calvin Reform

Chs. 25, 26 ; Gairdner, Chs. 7-12, or his Mod. Hist. ; Colby, Nos. 56-58 ; Kendall, 47, 48. Baird, I., Ch. 6 ; Camb. Mod. Hist., Ch. 11.
and

Reaction

in

England

Camb.

Mod.

Hist.,

212.

Chs. 14, 15 ; Gairdner ; Kendall, Nos. 49-50. Settlement Johnson, in Germany 242-252 :
Jannsen,
VI., 520 ff.

Bryce,

Ch.

18 ;

214.

France

Kitchin,

II., 310.

Additional

of the Popes ; Baird, Bise of the 12 vols. ; Gairdner, Huguenots History ; Froude, of England, VIII. to Mary ; SeeHistory of the English Church from Henry bohm, Oxford Beformers ; Gasquet, The Eve of the Beformation; Haiisser, Period of the Beformation ; biographies of Luther, by
Reading
:

Kanke,

History

Beard,

Kostlin,

Jacobs

; of Zwingli,

by

Jackson

; of Charles

V.,

by Armstrong.

Hapsburg,

Burgundian,

Spanish

Relationships

Charles, the Bold, 1 147T Duke of Burgundy Maximilian


=

Mary

Ferdinand

Isabella

(Aragon) 1 1516
1 Philip; 1506
=

{OasUle)
+ 1504

Joan

Charles V., king and emperor,


abdicated
1556

Philip II.

Ferdinand

(Spain)

(The Empire)

CHAPTER
THE

XIII.
OF
THE

STRUGGLE

FAITHS

Although the Church. the within German religious peace of 1555 and the French edicts in favor longer possible to keep no of the Calvinists implied that it was Church the western united under the control of the papacy,
or
"

215.

Peace

War

these

religious conflicts did little more than mark were the distance the filling the Protestants with confidence revolt had advanced, that they could do still more, and revealing to the Church leaders the extent of the ground that must be recovered. The England papal party had not given up hope of bringing even " back to obedience. In the terms of the German settlement" ambition and to Catholic zeal. If the religion of the State must be that of the prince, it was The fate of southern to win the princes. all-important and Austria, Styria, and Carniola, was Germany, western and of there
was

agreements They over.

did

not

mean

that

the

spur

to Lutheran

at stake in the

contest.

In

France

it

was

impossible
might and
win
a

for the
secure

Calvinists to control the State, but became position within it. England

they
more

the champion Protestantism, while Spain attempted not only to destroy of all heresies within her borders but sought to crush the French Calvinists and to conquer England. With her defeat came the
more

loss of her Dutch provinces. 216. The Council of Trent.


from

"

The

Church
driven

had by

already the
sense

recovered

its early defeats, and,

of

danger, members"

had

seriously undertaken Christians had which been opened


204

that

"reform

in head

hitherto
on

A council

had

at Trent,

vainly the borders of Italy,

and demanded.

DIVISION

OF

TERRITORY

205

206

THE

STRUGGLE

OF

THE

FAITHS

in 1545, but because


pope
it
was

of quarrels between interrupted constantly and

the princes

For the first time only in 1563. of the Church were set forth briefly and plainly and were sanctioned A sharp line was drawn between by the pope. Church orthodoxy heresy. At the same time evils which and Protestant

completed all the doctrines

and the its work

had

crept into the Church offices were

manner

of obtaining or holding important The corrected. council tried to check

abuses
A

in the practice of granting indulgences, though it insisted back to the time of the apostles. that the custom went little later Pope Pius V. applied a more by effective remedy
the
grant

forbidding

of indulgences

for raising
or

money,

and

their distribution

pardoners. the princes demanded that the council should reform the " head," that is, the papacy, itself. This to the papacy the council referred the matter

by

217.

The Papal

special preachers Reformation. When


"

meant
were

no

postponement

of the

task, for after 1555

the

popes

in reform as any of the members quite as earnest of the They corrected abuses, making Protestant reproaches council. lose point, and to check took measures the beginnings of heresy or to destroy it where it had not gained strength enough
to

be successfully defiant. Inquisition, or special court before this court

One

of their instruments for the trial of heretics.


sent

was

the

tion Convic-

the accused to the stake. Another was lengthening list of books which the Index, an ever Furthermore, forbidden to read. no obedient Catholics were matters obedient Catholic could publish a book touching of generally
religion

a new was of counter-reformation gious relihad at This order order, called the Society of Jesus. first been a little group of young men, gathered about Ignatius

the without successful instrument

permission

of the

Church.

The

most

Loyola,

wounds in battle only to enlist in a war It heresy. received against The members was sanctioned by the papacy in 1540. obeyed recovered

Spanish

soldier, who

had

from

their leaders and the pope the most formidable body

so

unhesitatingly that they became had ever the Church of defenders

THE

COUNCIL

OF

TBENT

207

The

Council

of

Trent. ascribed
to Titian.

From

painting

in the Louvre

208
had.
went

THE

STRUGGLE

OF

THE

FAITHS

They about

up in monasteries, but shut themselves schools, and teaching in the preaching, founding

did not
It

universities. Church was ground.

was

largely

due

to

successful

in winning

their efforts that the back a part of its lost

218.

Philip II., 1556-1598.


of Spain,

"

the king
who

Philip
was

II.

In this warfare the leader was Charles's brother, Ferdinand, tant to conciliate his ProtesPhilip did not of
put
interests

became

emperor, play

too anxious

to subjects

the part.

Although the

the

Church

before those
the
cause

of his kingdom, he was for which

fighting

was,

oftener than
case,

in of

his father's
the Church.

the

cause

all the rectly territories that Charles had dicontrolled, Naples, Milan,
"

He

held

Spain, Sicily,
the county Netherthe lands.

and of Burgundy, He also inherited from his father Americas,


a

vast empire

in the already

which

had

been conquered and organized by Cortez, Pizarro, and their lands were These followers.
Philip Born
at Valladolid,

II.

treated

as

if they

belonged

to

Escorial, miles Became


of

the

1527 ; died at the 27 monastery-palace

1598. northwest of Madrid, duke Milan in 1540, king of

himself, and their the monarch tribute in gold and silver could his armies. to pay be used tugal except PorBrazil owned which could send its traders or coloto profit by the riches of the No
rival nation
" "

Sicily in 1554, ruler and Netherlands in 1555, king of the of Spain and its dependencies in 1556.

Naples

nists into the American To new world. rule


customs
was a

seas
over

so

task

too

great

states many for Philip.

different with No king ever

worked

harder

for the welfare

of his states.

Unfortunately,

BEACTION

IN

GERMANY

209
were

he

to rule them attempted all as he returned After to Spain from

if they
the

like Spain.
in 1559

Netherlands
spent many his agents

he
at

never

his

left the country. desk the reading

Every

day he

hours

despatches

of his councillors, and He hated heresy the margins. reports

or the of on comments writing his own deeply that he declared he so

would

were

prefer to lose all his provinces rather than leave it unpunished His arrival in Spain and a little later his marriage fittingly celebrated by autos da fe,or '' acts of faith," at

heretics were His most burned. many pitiful victims were the Moriscoes or Moors of Granada, who since their forced had turned out to be conversion to Christianity by Ferdinand which
neither them
to

good

Christians

nor

good

Spaniards.

Philip

ordered

their national dress, cllange their customs, drove them and learn to speak only Castilian. Such measures to revolt, and for this the survivors of the new war of conquest If were through the other provinces scattered of Spain. abandon
Philip

unlikely to be considerate of the privileges of the burghers of Planders and Holland they fell into heresy. when 219. Reaction in Germany. Immediately after the council
"

could Spain, he was

so

treat

an

industrious

people

living quietly in

of Trent vigor.

was closed, the struggle for Germany The Lutheran had been protected cause

the elector of Saxony and the landgrave in the duke found a champion now

renewed with by princes like lics of Hesse ; the CathoHe trusted inof Bavaria.

of the j^oung to the Jesuits, caused education Protestant books to be burned, literally in heaps, and drove Protestants from his lands. Immediate action was necessary,

the

for the

assemblies or diets had recently demanded to priests to marry, and the the abolition of fasts, permission right of the laity to receive both the bread and the wine at the in much the the territories of the bishops of Bamberg filled with Lutherans. of Bavaria, were
communion.
was

Bavarian

Austria

same

Even condition. and Wurzburg, north later, in Some years

1582, the archbishop of Cologne, who had determined to marry, declared himself a Lutheran, in order to retain his position.

210
Had

THE

STRUGGLE

OF

THE

FAITHS

princes given him timely support, he might Since three of for the Protestant have held Cologne party. Saxony, Brandenburg, the seven and electors of the Empire Protestants, Palatinate were the Rhenish such a change the Protestant
"

"

have and might given a majorityto the Protestants would have led to the choice of a Lutheran emperor or to stillgreater Calvinists. The vigorous to the Lutherans and concessions

of the duke of Bavaria, of the archbishop of Mainz, the bishop of Wurzburg, and other princes, followed by similar acts in Austria, threw a barrier
measures

before

was

extension, southward Baden of Lutheranism. version regained through the conof its young prince. As

the

the Lutherans

failed to obtain

Cologne, that territory and the bishoprics of Paderborn and Mtinster held the west for the
Catholics. With
the exception

Calof the Palatinate, where held, the vinistic views were


Protestants
were

gradually

south, and drawn lines of division were

driven

from

the

which

were

to become

nent. perma-

Queen
Daughter Anne of Boleyn.

Elizabeth.

220. The
and

Struggle
this

farther
German

Henry Born

VIII.
at

West.
battle

"

While
was

at

wich, Greendied 7, 1533; September 24, 1603. March Richmond,

slowly fought out, chiefly by Jesuit teachers and Calvinistic or their Lutheran

France, dreadful struggle convulsed adversaries, a far more Elizabeth Scotland, and Spain. England, the Netherlands, in 1558, just before English throne had the ascended Scotland, the old ally of II. of France. the death of Henry France,
was

ruled

by

regent,

Mary

of

Guise,

widow

of

CIVIL

WAB

IN

FRANCE

211
was

James
French looked

V.

Her

daughter,
Francis.

Mary
For

Stuart,
this

married
Philip done

to

the

dauphin,
on

reason

and by the pope

when Queen Mary

Elizabeth

in England. would

the work undid to restore the authority of of England Any to keep Elizabeth from attempt

quietly by him

the throne

heir, Mary Stuart, only other near VII., and if she became queen of Henry great-granddaughter as and Scotland, France, the well as of France of England, to become strong enough enemy of his father's house, would help the upon the oSTetherlands. The danger became' II. died, for the new Henry king, Francis all the greater when II., was Stuart's control. completely under Mary hands

lay covetous

221.

Scotland.

"

So far

as

Scotland

changed, the Scots were


and

for, led by strong


eager
to

concerned the situation Calvinists like John Knox,


was

throw

off the

control

of the

Church

The nobles did not care organize a Church of their own. for the new doctrines ; but, like the English nobles, they much lands, and readily supto be enriched hoped with monastery ported Knox, In defiance of the regent they threw off the pope's authority
them

and

forbade

The third offence. with death regent could not hope to quell the rebels unless she received help from France. This the French beth readily sent, but Elizathreatening

persons for the

to

attend

the

mass,

immediately which used Mary

interfered. down
from

It

was

too

should put to drive her

the the

Scottish English

likely that the army Protestants be would


and seat Queen tish sent help to the Scot-

throne

Stuart upon it. She, accordingly, lords in 1560, and, with them, compelled Scotland

the French

to

leave

and

to acknowledge

her

as

queen

Shortly

afterward

Francis

II.

died, and
an

Mary

of England. Stuart was

obliged to return 222. Civil War brother

to Scotland

to govern
"

in France.
too

When

unruly kingdom. Francis II. died, his his mother, Catherine not possible to treat

Charles

was

young
regent.

to rule, and

de' Medici, became


the Calvinists, who
as

It

was

severely

as

nots, about this time began to be called Hugueher husband, Henry II., had treated them,

212
for many

THE

STRUGGLE

OF

THE

FAITHS

nobles powerful Among tliese were the queen Gradually


a

were

the

adopting duke of

reformed Bourbon who


the

the

trines. dochad
of to be

married Conde. Coligny, with


"

of Navarre, and the real leader

his brother

prince

his

of the member two brothers, one

noble
of

of the party came family, Montmorency

them

The chiefs of the reformers." Stuart, the duke of uncles of Mary


the

cardinal, had Catholic party were


a

who become the

Guise

and

his

brother

to Queen Catherine attempted of Lorraine. cardinal preserve her control of affairs by playing one party off against nor their the other, but she satisfied neither the Huguenots

enemies.

The

government

was

parties justlyand with The trouble began inevitable.


some

both

strong firmness, and


not

enough
so

to

treat
was

in 1562

with

civil war the massacre

of

gathered for worship in a granary As the news the spread through at the little town of Vassy. rose everywhere and organized armies. country the Huguenots
Huguenots
who
were

Queen
Guises. but
party

Elizabeth

sent

them
were

The

Huguenots against the

assistance, and Philip not fighting against

aided the the king,


this

simply

Guise

controlled the government nobles joinedthem rebels. Many


from power when
or

party, although the Huguenots

because
were

Guises

in the

hope

themselves

peace was made. The firstand second each lasted about six series of short wars. Each the third nearly two years. much peace was months, Huguenots like its predecessors, and gave the the right to

nally nomiin order to drive the for of gaining something This was the first of a

in one town worship the they held when

well as in the towns The last peace, made peace was signed. in 1570, gave them at St. Germain also four fortified cities in and the garrisons should be under their which the governors of each bailiwick,
as

control. 223. Trouble


were
a

in the

Netherlands.

"

While

the

Huguenots

fighting for toleration in France,

similar struggle provinces

in the which

they anxiously Netherlands. This name

watched

seventeen

Charles

V.

had

covered inherited either

REVOLT

OF

THE

NETHERLANDS

213
he

from during

his Burgundian his long

or grandmother They included reign.

which what

had

is

now

added Holland

some and and Belgium, Charles had attempted

to France. territory since annexed to give them a single administration

the Circle of Burgundy. provinces were stubborn in the defence of their ancient Charles demanded privileges, especially when and men money for his interminable wars. What ment aroused still greater resentand The
to attach

them

to the

Empire

as

was

Edict

in stamping the terrible zeal he showed out heresy. " sands after edict, written in blood, not in ink," caused thouto be beheaded, burned, buried alive. The or early
were

Lutherans
or

decimated.

Many

of

them

fled to England
again

to

Germany.

Somewhat

later Protestantism

began

headway, make leadership. When


to

from France Calvinistic coming under Charles abdicated in 1556 he left a heavy burden At the stately ceremony by of trouble for his son. his crown self himat Brussels he supported which he laid down William, prince of Orange, upon the shoulder of the young
to be his son's greatest enemy, chiefly because Philip who was faithfully tried to continue Charles's cruel intolerance. 224. Revolt of the Netherlands. Philip the lot of Under for he undertook to govern the the Netherlanders grew worse,
"

country divided

through

favorites. dioceses

When
and

the

older

bishoprics

were

into smaller

they suspected that this would The dangerous. nobles were

given a better organization, make the Inquisition only more irritated that their places of When
a

influence had
were

been

taken

by

upstarts. made

remonstrances

not

enough,
one

in 1566, they

solemn

agreement

to

another, and presented their grievances to the regent, Philip's sister. Shortly afterward popular fury burst all bounds and mobs rushed into the churches, destroying windows, stand of saints, sculptures, everything which symbolized temthe power porarily responsible for their sufferings. Order was a withdrawal of the hated edicts. restored through Philip's vengeance duke of Alva, who
was

by

images

terrible. He

sent

pitiless soldier, the

executed

distinguished

noblemen

and

cov-

214

THE

STRUGGLE

OF

THE

FAITHS

gibbets. At first this reign of terror was of Orange, failed; effective. A revolt, led by William but Alva increased the number of his enemies by establishing

ered the country

with

tax, called the

business

tenth penny," impossible and drove nobles. The

"

upon

all sales.

This rendered

discontented
some

to support the the merchants general in 1572 when revolt became

themselves on the sea with refugees, who had maintained Queen Elizabeth's aid, seized Brill and held it against Philip's The provinces of Holland troops. and Zeeland declared for His brother, had raised another army. Prince William, who
who

had

of them

led an aided the Huguenots, into the southern Netherlands.

seemed bright when 225. St. Bartholomew, Germain, Coligny


had

terrible

news

army partly composed The chances of success from Paris. came

1572.
been

since the Peace of St. trying to persuade Charles IX. to


"

Ever

take advantage of King in order to win back

Philip's difficultiesin the Netherlands


some

had once Artois which not forgiven the Spaniards


Fort

and of the territory in Flanders had Coligny also belonged to France.

for the destruction


a

Caroline in Florida
to this advice

few years

before.

of his colony at tened Charles IX. lis-

but hesitated prepared ships and men, foe. Everything a to begin the struggle with so formidable done was that was reported to Philip by persons in his pay at
and

the French

Catherine, feared that queen-mother, Coligny would control the king, and, aided by the Guises, The attempt was a failure ; Coligny plotted his assassination. likely that the king would was and it seemed only wounded,
court.

The

avenge

the blow.

It happened had
come

Huguenots

who
son

Navarre,

of Anthony

in Paris many to attend the marriage of of Henry and the king's sister. of Bourbon,

that there

were

Catherine
him
men.

and In

him

murder nots a moment of passion he cried out that all the Huguemight live to reproach should be killed in order that none St. Bartholomew's for the deed. The next morning was
Between
two

the king persuaded urged him to consent

that they
to

were

the

plotting against of their leading

day, the 24th of August.

and

three o'clock the

THE

BISE

OF

THE

DUTCH

REPUBLIC

215

tocsin

by the church bells, and Catholic nobles, fell upon the unsuspecting royal troops, and Paris militia in their houses or as they fled Huguenots and slew them
was

sounded

through

the streets
was over

or

tried to swim

the

Seine.

Before

the

killing
two

at least

thousand

had

been

slain. In the provinces, more victims six thousand added to the blood-stained list. This
were was a

terrible blow, not

only to the Huguenots but also to the Netherbeth landers. Queen Elizaher court went It was into mourning.

and

triumph

for the king

of Spain. 226. The

Rise
"

Dutch
triumph

Republic.

of the This

brief.

to be proved The violence of


Gaspard
Born
db

Alva and the cruelties of his soldiers had brought


estants both Catholics and Prottogether
the
to
save

Coligny.

Paris, August
Anne

1517 ; killed at at Chatillon-sur-Loing, Nephew 24, 1572. of the constable de Montmorency. in 1552. colony
on

Knighted
the

in

By

from ruin. country the Pacification of

1544, admiral of France of the ill-fated Ribault of the Florida. This

Organizer
coast

monument

is built

into

Ghent

in 1576 both
agreed
to

ties parfurnish

of the Oratoire and apse of the church from the orders faces the Louvre which St. Bartholomew came. for the massacre of

to expel the soldiers The Calvinists of Holland and Zeeland Spanish troops. William freedom of Orange of worship, and promised that they lieutenant of the king, for all assumed made

were

was
were

loyal Alva

simply subjects,
had been

defending

their privileges.

Meanwhile
one

recalled and

other generals

came,

after

216

THE

STRUGGLE

OF

THE

FAITHS

another, to take his place. feeling among the southern


use

Their

chance

of

success

lay in the

provinces

to overthrow the agreement Within three years these southern

that the Calvinists would the Church in the Netherlands. provinces had been united the The

in

league,

leadership
northern and
or or

while of Holland, Dutch

the

more

made

provinces, under the "Union of Utrecht."

northern

sought in England.

provinces finally declared Philip II. deposed to find a king elsewhere, in France, in Germany, Their
real ruler
was

William

shortly after the massacre of St. Bartholomew himself a Calvinist. King Philip offered twenty golden rid him
crowns

of Orange, who had declared

thousand

title of nobility to any one who would The lure proved irresistible of so obstinate an enemy. to fanatical minds, and William This blow was shot in 1584,
and
a

seemed

even

more

fatal than
"

St. Bartholomew.
By compassing

227. Elizal)eth and Mary.

the

the prince of Orange, Philip only strengthened had at first felt little sympathy Elizabeth for the Netherlanders, but the triumph her own of Philip might mean ruin.
Ever since

of murder his enemies.

1568

own Queen and really a Mary had been the centre of a network of plots. She had been band. accused of being privy to the assassination of her second husLord Darnley, and she gave color to the charge by marrying

rival, Mary prisoner in England.

her

Stuart, had In her

been

refugee

kingdom

his murderer, had been deposed


king. back Elizabeth
to

For this reason earl of Bothwell. she her infant son had been made James and her, to send her hesitated whether to keep the
or

Scotland, had

to

allow

her

to

cross,

over

to France.

her claim to the English throne, her friends plotted to kill Elizabeth in order that she might become queen and restore the old faith. The danger increased
not abandoned

Since Mary

when her

the pope
were subjects

excommunicated released from

Elizabeth

and

declared

that

informed

the government to the conspirators.

Spies their oath of obedience. his assistthat Philip had promised ance Parliament retaliated by declaring
and who

those who

remained

faithful to the pope

worshipped

THE

INVINCIBLE

ARMADA

217
They

after the ancient

Catholic

manner

to be traitors.

were

because they refused to take an oath acknowled called "recusants," in the English Church. the queen's supremacy England, "When the news of William's all murder reached Englishmen, queen. They Catholics
formed
as
an

well

as

Protestants,

association and swore done should be murdered, she in whose interest this deed was live to mount A little later another the throne. should never believed that plot against Elizabeth was unearthed, and it was Mary the conspirators. was encouraged but Elizabeth hesitated to allow the tried and condemned, Her firm, to be carried out. more sentence councillors were
Mary
was and Mary executed Spain inevitable.

rallied about the that if Elizabeth

Stuart

had

early in 1587.

This

made

war

with had

228.
not

The

Invincible

Armada,
the

1588.

"

English

seamen

In of war approach with Spain. defiance of the Spaniards they had repeatedly sought to trade along the coast of America, attracted by tales of the wealth in from Philip was drawing the mines of gold and silver which Peru. Mexico Erancis Drake, one and of the boldest of

been

terrified at

them, of God

declared
to

to
some

Spaniard,
of the

"

am

reap

got out of the

earth

and

golden to Spain sent


the

by the resolved harvest which you


to

help
have

trouble

In
the

1577

Drake

sailed

through

Straits of
treasure

earth." into Magellan

the

Pacific, plundered the home by the Cape of Good


a

Spanish
Hope. the

When

ships, and sailed Philip had gathered Armada, Drake

great fleet,which

he

called

Invincible

ing sailed into his ports and "singed the king's beard" by burnhis store-ships. Philip's plan was to proceed to the Netherlands, embark an army, and force a landing in England.
His ships
were

larger than But

victory certain.
were

and drove them northward. A great tempest from the English the prevented continuing Spaniards attempted to reach home by sailing pursuit. The
them

As soon swifter. harassed the English

ships, and he believed the English ships had heavier guns and nel as the Spaniards appeared in the Chan-

the

English

218

THE

STRUGGLE

OF

THE

FAITHS

Scotland and Ireland, but many around ships were wrecked. Although lost were the ships which were chiefly transports or to reorganize the attack. store-ships, Philip' did not attempt England was safe. 229.
only
one

The Age

of Elizabeth.
things

"

The

defeat of the

Armada

is

of the many

for which

the reign of Elizabeth

Armada

Ship.

The 1000;

fleet were lilce the Triumph: tonnage, strongest ships of the English four masts. Armament: 3 demi-cannon, 4 cannon, 8 in., 60 pounders;

6|

in., 33 pounders; 17 culverins, 5^ in., 18 pounders; 8 demi-culverins, 4 in., 9 pounders; besides 36 smaller sakers, falconets, and serpenguns, tines. The 700 seamen, was complement of men gunners, and soldiers.
"

is remembered. prose and


open
were

and

architects and builders, her writers of Houses became more of poetry, added to her glory. Some comfortable, with larger windows. of them Her

constructed

in the shape of the letter E, in order to compliment It was the queen. Spenser this time that Edmund at that Shakespeare Queene, that Francis
the stage, and

wrote

his Faerie
on

plays

began to put his great Bacon advocated basing


of nature.

scientific knowledge

upon

the careful study

Eliza-

HEN

BY

IV.

219

beth died in 1603 and

by King James of Scotland, succeeded Stuart. the son of the ill-fated Mary Ever 230. New in France. Wars since the massacre of had been raging intermittently in St. Bartholomew, civil war
was
"

Prance.

Charles

IX. had As

died he had

and
no

was

brother, Henry
League
was

III.

by his succeeded children, the Catholic


the the
was

already plotting to exclude from the throne Between Henry next of kin, the Huguenot of Navarre. Huguenots hand and the League the one on on the other body of patriotic Frenchmen, themselves growing the political interests of France more who deemed
a

Catholics, important

than quarrels about religion, and who III. tried for Henry or Politicians. the

were a

called the Politiques,


one

while to play

other, according off against plan. this failed, in 1588, he caused the assassination of the leader of the League, another duke of Guise, and of his brother, the

to his mother's

party When

cardinal and
he

He joinedHenry of Navarre of Lorraine. he reached the upon Paris, but when marched
was

in 1589

hood neighborcome

by a fanatical priest who murdered of the city for this purpose. If the ordinary 231. Henry IV., 1589-1610.
"

had

out

must of Navarre obeyed, Henry Leaguers, backed by the king of Spain,


was

now

law of succession be king; but the that they


never

swore

Although of the Politicians rallied recognize him. many to him, Henry's too great, for the Spanish task was almost king ordered his ablest general, Alexander of Parma, to break would in the Netherlands off his campaign This relieved the Netherlanders, who Maurice. in Prince William's son, twice deprived Henry
Henry

and help had found


Parma's

the League.
a new

genius
won

general in war by

of Navarre

of advantages

hard

to bring all that the only way concluded to his side and to defeat the schemes of Philip men moderate to the old Church, renouncing to return and the Leaguers was his Huguenot heresies. In 1593 he took this " great plunge,"

fighting.

that called it. The result was Paris opened her gates. melted away,
as

he

all serious opposition He soon felt himself

220

THE

STRUGGLE

OF

THE

FAITHS

strong

enough

to

make

been

meddling

in the

Spain, which upon troubles of Frenchmen.


war

had
He

so

long
a

formed

triple alliance with independence whose


was

England

forced

to make

with the United Provinces, he recognized. After three years, Spain towns peace and give up all the French

and

she held.

Henry

1Y.

of

France.
near

bas-relief
IV.
as

on

the

Henry

victor

wall of the castle of Arques, by, near at the battle fought


on

Dieppe,

September

21, 1589.

representing The
21, 1845.

bas-relief

was

unveiled

the anniversary

of the victory,

September

232.

The
had

Edict of Nantes.
watched him

"

Meanwhile

Henry's
were

Huguenot

followers defend

suspiciously and

prepared

to

It was time to settle the privileges by force. This he did in the Edict of Nantes. In a religious question. sense the Edict was a compromise with a minority too strong their
to be coerced, but it

the first made could dwell

tion, nevertheless, a noble grant of toleraguenots by any modern State. Henceforth the Huwas,

with

peaceably in all parts of France ; equally in all civil the Catholics they had a right to be employed

THE

END

OF

PHILIP

11.

221

and

military

and hold

volved inin which their interests were offices; cases tried in special courts in which they were were represented Although they could not worship in Paris on the bench. in the few other towns, they could build their "temples" The

suburbs.

also granted them the dangerous right to in which to the government memorials political assemblies be drawn up and to maintain garrisons in certain might king

fortresses at his expense.

A few months of Philip II., 1598." after His between France and Spain Philip died; made peace was laid upon in ruins, crushed under the burdens kingdom was it by him and by his father in order that they might control

233.

The

End

Europe drawn
wars.

and from
The
sums

check

the

the mines Spaniards,

Millions had been spread of heresy. of America, only to be spent in endless thinking themselves rich because such

large

poured

Even

try. into their country, learned to disdain indusfell into the hands of their trade with America
acting through

foreign
was

merchants

Spanish

agents.

ture Agricul-

had to be neglected and large quantities of wheat The riches belonged to the Church and imported from France. There was no to a few great nobles. middle class between clergy

living in luxury and the people noblemen The population was eking out a bare existence. The same an miseries threatened alarming rate. by had been reconquered the Netherlands which
or

wretchedly declining at
that part of the Spanish

Whole stood streets in Bruges, Ghent, and Antwerp generals. to had fled to Holland or empty, for artisans and merchants In the England to escape the terrors of the Inquisition. fields packs of wolves wandered undisturbed. becoming United Provinces in the north were Amsterdam was three times as large strong.
the

Meanwhile

the

and prosperous been at as it had

beginning

sign a Twelve independence.

In 1609 Spain was obliged to of the troubles. Years' Truce, practically acknowledging their

222

THE

STRUGGLE

OF

THE

FAITHS

SUMMARY I. Reorganization
belief;
popes. II. Means
of of the

Church.

"

1. Council
2.

of Trent

(")

defines

(6) removes
"

abuses.

Reforms

undertaken

by

Recovery.
2.

1. Society

of Jesus 3. Index.

(a) founder
4. Support

ture (6) na-

of work.

Inquisition.
the duke
in

of princes

like Philip II. and Battle III. Tide of


Lutheranism. 2.

of Bavaria.
"

Germany.

1.

Southward
of western 4.

extension and

of

Strategic importance
of Bavarian West.
"

southern

bishoprics.

3, Action
farther

duke.

Results.
of the affairs

IV.

The

Struggle of
2. of

1. Close connection

England,

Scotland,
in France

France,
:

and

Spain
and

from

1558

to

1560.

Civil
war

wars

(a)

Huguenots

Guises ;

(6) causes

(c) character

(e) St. Bartholomew Netherlands the were : (a) what (") severities of ; to local liberties ; (d) policy of Alva ; Charles V. ; (c) danger guenot (e) seizure of Brill ; (/) relation between struggle and the Huin France cause southern ; (g) northern provinces and 4. England separated ; (/i) origin of Dutch republic. and Spain : (a) Philip's early attitude toward Elizabeth ; (6) danger
from partisans
of Mary excommunicated of William
;

nature of struggle ; (cZ) of peace terms ; later character of struggle. 3. Netherlands ; (/)

by pope

Stuart, especially after Elizabeth was Englishmen ; (c)effect upon of assassination


;

of Orange

(d) consequences
failed.

of Mary's

execution

(e) why
"

Philip's Armada
became

V.

Results.

1. England

bulwark

Edict of Nantes. 4. The northern to will of princes. lost to Spain. 5. Exhaustion of Spain.

in France,

2. Compromise of Protestantism. 3. Germany divided according

half of the

Netherlands

IMPORTANT 1556. 1558.


1562.

DATES
of Spain. of England.
in France.

Philip II., king


Elizabeth, queen

Beginning
End

of civil wars of Trent.


massacre

1563.
1572.

of council

Capture
Union

1579.
1584,

of Brill ; of Utrecht.

of St. Bartholomew.

Assassination

of William

of Orange.

1587. Execution 1588. Armada.

of Mary

Stuart.

SUMMARY

223
faith.

1593.

Henry Edict Death

IV.

abjuresReformed
Death

1598. 1603.

of Nantes. of Elizabeth.

of Philip II.

FURTHER
General

STUDY
Johnson,

Reading Century

histories

of

separate

states ;

Sixteenth

; Creighton,

Age

of

Elizabeth

; Halisser, Period

of

the

Beformation.
Pakagraphs
:
"

216,

217.

The

Papal

Reformation

Johnson,
III., 340

261-276

; Camh.

Mod.

Hist., II., 33-34,

Ch.

18;

Alzog,

ff.; Hughes,
Tr. and

Loyola;
Pp., II.,

Ranke,
No.
218.

History

of

the Popes

; decrees

of Trent,

6. II.
:

Philip Reaction
221.

brief biography
:

by

Hume

; Kendall,

No.

60.

219. 220.

in Germany
:

Haiisser,

Chs. 30, 31.


; Camb.

Scotland

Hume

Brown,

II., 1-126

Mod.

Hist., II.,

Ch. 16.
222, 225.

Civil "War

in France

Kitchin,

II., 311 ff. ;

massacre

of St. 18 ; Tr.

Bartholomew,
and

Baird,

Pise

of

the

Hugxienots,

II., Ch.

Pp., III., No.


The

3, 16 ff.

224,

226.

Netherlands

Harrison,

William
and

Ch. VIII. ; Hume, Philip the Silent; Blok, III., 1 ff.; Motley.
:

Johnson,

II.;

227.

Elizabeth
Henderson,
"

Mary:

Colby, groups
see

No. 1 and

63;

Kendall,
a

Nos.

53-58;
of the

Side Lights,
the

2 ; for

specimen

laws

against

Catholics,
14: ff. ;

Prothero, also Lingard,


see

Statutes and
History

tional ConstituEngland, and

Documents, VII., 316

see

of

ff., VIIL,

59, 77, 147 ;

genealogy

of Tudors

Stuarts below. 228. The


Armada
:

Kendall,

No.

59 ; Lee,

Nos. group

140-141,
3.

144-147

Colby, No. 61 ; Henderson,


230, 232.
France

Side Lights,
IV.
:

and

Henry

Adams,

Growth of Nantes,

of

the

French Pp.,

Nation;
III., No.

biography

by

"Willert; Edict

Tr. and

3, pp. 30 ff.

Additional
Latin

Reading and

Ranke,

History

of

the

Popes,

3 vols. ; Ranke,

Teutonic

of

Navarre,

in chapter English

; Baird, The Huguenots and Henry 2 vols. ; Symonds, Tlie Catholic Peaction (abridged Henderson, Side Lights on of Pearson's ;

Nations

edition)

History.

224

THE

STRUGGLE

OF

THE

FAITHS

The

Heirs
Henry

of

Henry

VII.

VII., t 1509

I
Henry VIII., + 154T 1. Catherine ( I2= =

Margaret

Marriages

of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane 3.


=

Seymour

IV. of ScotJames land, + 1513 V. Mary James of I Guise


=

I
Philip

1(^French)

II.

(ofSpain)

jSIarv, queen 1553-1558 Elizabeth,

Edward VI., king, 1547-1553

LordDarnley

(Grandson
Margaretby her third

of

queen 1558-1603

mar-

Mary, Queen of Scots, 15421567. 1587 Executed

riage) VI. of Scotland, 1567-1625 James (I.of England, 1608-1625)

To

ILLUSTRATE
THROUGH
THE

THE

ClAIM
YOUNGEST

OF

HeNRY

IV.
LOUIS

TO

THE

CrOWN
TO
THE

OF

FRANCE
OF

SON

OF

IX.,
of

AND

CrOWN

Navarre,

through

Jeanne,

Daughter

Louis

X.

Eighth from Jeanne, Q. of Navarre

I Margaret
-{

Eighth through

from

Louis

IX.
son

(Sister of Francis I.)


=

youngest

I
duke of Bourbon

Jeanne, Q. of Navarre

Antony,

Louis,

prince

(Ancestor of

of Cond6 the Condes)

Henry IV., 1.589-1610

{Tlou.se of Bourhon-Navarre)

CHAPTER
THE LAST WARS

XIV.
OF
RELIGION

234. The Expansion


had
seen

and firstchiefly in the Americas, the other chiefly empires, the to see the in Africa and Asia, so the seventeenth century was establish colonies either and the French in lands or on the ruins of Spanish and Portuguese ventures Settlements hitherto unexplored. and trading stations were English, the Dutch,

of Europe. the acquisition by Spain

"

As

the sixteenth century Portugal of vast colonial

the rivers of North America, on HenceforIslands. ward the shores of India, and among the Malay yond Europe to have constantly increasing interests bewas made
on

the

coast

or

along

borders, and, instead of being barely able to defend terranean itself upon the narrow peninsula stretching between the Medito push back steadily and the northern seas, it was
the confines of barbarism it should dominate when
or

its own

of rival civilizations until the day done the earth. As this work was

by piecemeal, and by different peoples at different times, its importance European The was at first little understood.
states

had their In

own

tion.

England
over

troubles, which often took all their attenking and a there was struggle between
privileges parliamentary In Germany the old the stronger.
a

parliament
or

the question whether


were

royal

prerogatives

religious question provoked finally settled. France was

quarrels of her neighbors She was bent upon humbling whether in Spain or in Austria.
225

before it was terrible civil war chiefly interested in using the tory. to increase her own power and terriher

Hapsburg

enemies,

226
235.
English, beginning

THE

LAST

WARS

OF

RELIGION

Trading
the

Companies.
and

"

None the

French,

of the three nations Dutch was able before


"
"

the

the part
the

of the seventeenth

generally in the hands of In the sixteenth century Englishmen foreign merchants. took hold of it themselves. The merchants into were organized granted the privilege or of conducting all the trade monopoly with certain Adventurers, The Merchant the richest of them, countries. western controlled the export of cloth to the Netherlands and to north-

in the struggle Middle Ages English

century to take for possessions beyond the

an

important During

seas.

trade had

been

companies,

to each

of which

the government

Germany.
the Dutch They
were

Until the latter part of the sixteenth century trade. content with the ordinary European

had sailed to Lisbon for the spices which the Portuguese from the East, and carried them brought to the other ports in 1580, Lisbon When, was of Europe. seized by Philip II., fighting, they were forced to make they were against whom
the voyage seventeenth
to the

Indies

themselves.

At

the

both the English century and were organizing East India companies, which After a time the Dutch empires for them. Spice Islands not Batavia in Java

opening the Dutch


to win

of the
were

drove

from

splendid the

With only the Portuguese, but the English. as their headquarters, they built up a rich trade, chiefly by exacting from- the natives coffee and spices as long before tribute. The English turned to India, but it was into centres for the government Both the English the of the native peoples. and Dutch formed American coast. companies to settle the North The Virginia Company, in 1607, sent out a colony to Jamestown
their trading stations
were

changed

was

and laid the foundations in the service of the Dutch the


a

Henry of Virginia. East India Company


his
name.

Hudson
when
was

he
to

explored discover

river which

bears

His

errand

trade with that a separate French

to the Indies. passage the Indians for furs. The

voyage trade became


was

The

resulted
so

in

valuable
The first

West

India
an

Company
India

formed.

efforts to form

East

Company

failed, because

TAXATION

IN

ENGLAND

227

the Prench Henry

King possessed few merchant ships of their own. IV., however, to the St. Lawrence. sent Champlain

Quebec was year after the English settled at Jamestown, For years founded by the Erench, and a littlelater Montreal. the greatest rivals in Europe the English and the Dutch were
The for trade
on

the

seas.

236.
Spanish

Industry. America

of the sixteenth

So much gold and silver from the mines of found a way out of Spain after the middle century that the European stock of gold was
"

doubled began

manufacturers and grew that the old rich. Many persons had capital to lend, now dice prejudying out. About the same against taking interest was were time the way in which workmen organized in industries
was or

the stock of silver was Merchants to rise rapidly. and

increased

tenfold.

Prices

partially changed.

In England,

were of craftsmen fault, for in many own trades the richer craftsmen had succeeded in obtaining control of the industry and in keeping others out, in order to obtain higher prices for their

companies largely their

especially, the old guilds becoming This was weak.

own

wares.

One
from
wares

moved make

away their

was that workmen of the consequences to villages, where the towns they could

of the guilds. This was the case particularly with cloth weaving, important industry, because England had ceased to export an its wool to Flanders and was its own Many making cloth.
weavers

without

being

disturbed

by the masters

had

time

to

take

care

of

little farm.
came

Since their
be called the

was work " domestic

done
system

at home,
"

the

method

to

the guild system. the guild system, few master craftsmen

It gradually replaced of manufacture. In France the king endeavored to maintain time checking the attempts at the same of a
to monopolize
"

its advantages. the


growth of English It rapidly increased.

237.
trade had

Taxation
the
revenue

in England.
from

With duties
.

import

since the fifteenth century to grant the at the beginning monarch of each reign the right to collect duties called tonnage Later the kings had and poundage.
customary

been

228
begun

THE

LAST

WARS

OF

BELJGION

additional duties, under guise of regulating impositions. James I. claimed the These were trade. named The merones. right to raise their rate and to establish new chants There resisted, but the judges decided for the king.
to impose
was

danger
his

that if the king


from

took

revenues

imports

full advantage sion, of this decibecome so large that he would


ask

would
taxes.

no

longer be compelled In this way he would

himself absolute, like make instinctively felt the danger and constantly haggled with him It would so over not have distrusted him grants of money.

for ordinaryparliament escape its control and might king. Parliament the French
to

above the repeatedly declared that he was law and need obey it only in order to set a good example to He also declared that the privileges which his parliament subjects. had been allowed by his predecessors, and deeply
had

he not

enjoyed

were

not

possessions

beyond

repeatedly

parliament warned of the Church and the marriage of State, like the management Queen Elizabeth had also done this of the prince of Wales. petitioned her to marry, or tried to advise when parliament affairs,but she had done it in a different both Lords and Commons she seemed the heroine of for independence the struggle of England against the pope and her They could beg her to change against Philip of Spain.

his power He to take away. not to interfere in deep matters

her about To way.

Church

plans, but they James

never

ceased
never

to love

her and

to

revere

her

authority

their respect consisted of address mainly in a scrupulous use of the ancient formulas The marriage to sovereigns. sidered of the prince of Wales they conthey

loved, and

James

they learned that King their affair,particularly when When had asked the king of Spain for his daughter. them that this did not concern energetically that he dissolved parliament

the king told them


so

they protested and


tore

their protest from the records. had no France 238. France under Henry IV., 1589-1610. like parliament could refuse the king grants assembly which of money careful of the rights of his subjects. unless he was
"

FRANCE

UNDER

HENRY

IV.

229

The

principal

tax,

called the

taille

wholly upon hundred two

the

common

people, had

years

The general. such a king as

without any new however, to look upon people had good reason, But for him the Henry IV. as their protector.

tallage, which rested been collected for nearly the states grant from
or

nobles would

have

taken
as

their power

as they and townsmen declared that every peasant should have chicken dinner ; but through his minister, the duke

to reesof the civil wars advantage tablish feudal lords, free to do with peasants It may not be true that Henry chose.

for his Sunday of

Sully, he
the

succeeded

in reducing

the

burdensome

taille and

forbade

He also put nobles to collect any taxes without his consent. bands of an end to the pillage of the country by wandering soldiers. Since the states general had sided with the Leaguers against him he had no desire to He the judges in the allowed
see

it meet

during
of

parlement

his reign. in Paris and

him if they to remonstrate provincial parlements with his acts as contrary to the interests of the kingdom. regarded These the people, for they judges in no sense represented the

by him. appointed the most intelligent men


were

Since they

were

chosen

from

among

of the third estate, they at least gave Henry depende intheir position more made voice to public opinion. to pay an annual tax for them of him by allowing
as was

the privilege of holding their offices be bequeathed to their sons. This

property

which

might

nobles

robe." the House

of them, and they were In foreign politics Henry


of Hapsburg

practically to make called "nobles of the long


the opponent in Austria.
of By

in 1608, he forced the king of a treaty with making Spain to make Years' Truce the Twelve the year with them following. Although as a Catholic he supported the interests in many man of the Church places, he did not intend that the GerProtestants
should

whether the Dutch

remained in Spain or

be

crushed

by

the
these

emperor

or

the

king of Spain, for this would strengthen 1610 he was on the point of leading an

In monarchs. ern expedition into westelector of Branden-

Germany

to

protect the claims

of the

230

THE

LAST

WARS

OF

RELIGION

burg to the duchies


by
a

of Cleves and Juliers when Ravaillac. fanatic named


"

he

was

assassinated

239.
XIII.,
as

The
was
a

Last States General, 1614.

Henry's

son,

Louis

regent.

Marie de' Medici, ruled child, and his mother, her incapable advisers the money Through which
soon war men

saved was be kept from making

Sully had

expended,
upon

the great nobles could the government only by splendid and turned It
was

presents.
which three
estate.
was

In despair

summoned
or

again in 1614.

to the

states
as

divided
commons

general, usual into


or

bodies
The

orders,

"

speakers

clergy, lords, and for the third estate

third
vigorously
to the

king
which

of the oppression of the peasants, lords protested to stop this. The permitted the into
not

complained but they looked against the

system

judges to
a

own

themselves should

nobility. permitted

form their officesand to transThey moners even urged that comto


use

be

for

their

garments

the nobility used, in order that the distinction cloths which The assembly between the two might be plainer. accomplished hundred It was and not summoned again for one nothing.

seventy-four years. Conflicts in 240. Religious

England.

"

In

England

the

Catholics
heavily

were

still denied

unless They by law. persecution

they
had

fined the right to worship and were the Church services established attended
that

hoped

King

James

; but he could not, because

relax this would the most influential men

were really traitors, ready to protested that the ''recusants" by to the pope betray England and his allies. Maddened a of Catholics, aided by an adventurer group such treatment,

named with
was

Guy

Fawkes,

harsher. Gradually, only became lost sight of in the struggle however, the Catholics were between the Puritans and the king, a quarrel which became The Puritans fierce in the reign of the king's son, Charles. more Church that the English thought services had retained the laws
too many customs

gunpowder, betrayed, and

plotted to blow up king and parliament Plot This Gunpowder 5, 1605. November

characteristic of the

Church

of Rome.

In

DUTCH

POLITICS

231
to

Elizabeth's

time

some

of them

had

wished

decrease

the
more now

clergy of the bishops and to give the ordinary power James influence in the management of affairs. King to force a presbytery of attempting accused them upon and
no

him

expelled king," was

of them from many his motto, learned

their livings. during


his

"

No

bishop,

bitter struggles
also in the had won their
strong
a

with the Scottish Presbyterians. 241. Dutch Politics. There


"

were

troubles
which
a

United

Provinces. from There


a

The

seven

provinces
never

independence
government.
state, and

Spain
was

had
a

organized general

federal of

states

with

council

commander

general
the

and

of the army and navy called captainrested with admiral-general ; but the real power whose delegates

provinces

in

the

states

obliged to vote according to their instructions. had its president or stadtholder. As long as the war with It was Spain was continued, unity of action necessary. natural, too, that the victorious leader in the struggle, Maurice,
son

were general Each province

of William

of Orange, provinces

should

out

of
was

the

seven

he

many This

captain-general and in the council votes

Five possess great power. him their stadtholder, and made admiral-general, besides having as
as

rich province, which to preserve its provincial meant

Holland. save any province paid fifty-eight per cent of the taxes, privileges and
the
at the
same

time

to play

the

leading

part

in

began

to oppose

the cordial ally of in the conflict with Spain, became Maurice his personal enemy. Barneveldt had excited the hatred of the strong Calvinists, because, like many he had and Englishmen, other Dutchmen
statesman,
once

the prince of Orange, Barneveldt, the pensionary

It therefore union. influential and its most

given up the special teachings of Calvin about predestination. Barneveldt's position was and in 1619, when Maurice weakened Eor a time tried and executed. accused him of treason, he was himself Holland Maurice's chances of making quailed, and supreme

seemed

to increase.

242. Origin of the Thirty

Years' War.

"

On

the Continent,

232
Protestantism exulting
to

THE

LAST

WARS

OF

BELIGION

was

in

danger.

In

Germany

the

Catholics,

that

they

win

secularized or peace of Augsburg would


restore

lost ground, determined so regained much back all the Church territories that had been by Protestant states administered since the in 1555. Had they

had

accomplished Many The

this they thus

have been tempted the unity of


the
to

to conquer

these states also and

Church

in Germany. their danger.

of the

princes were of Brandenburg

elector to secure the duchy was planning of Prussia, should be his. He which at the death of the reigning duke was anxious also about his claims to the duchies of Cleves About this time that their ruler had died. and Juliers, now Protestants German several south under Frederick, the elector palatine, formed an the leadership of

slow

perceive

Evangelical of Bavaria League.

Union with

for their

own

defence, and

the

Catholic

duke

the prince-bishops united against it in a Holy Begins, 1618. Trouble was brewing 243. War
"

in Bohemia,

Bohemia Huss. a was of John separate kingdom, it had been in the hands of the Austrian Hapsburgs though a determined They that its religious privileges were century. and its ancient liberties should both be decreased, and that it

the

land

should
was a

become
strong

much

like

Catholic

the

had

When enterprise. been pulled down,


to protest.

There other Austrian provinces. party in the country ready to assist in " in 1618 Protestant two temples "

the
a

Bohemian
of

estates

were

called

together hurled Prague.


the act
not have

In

moment

passion

their leaders

two

of the castle at royal councillors from the windows These men were not killed by their terrible fall,but
taken the signal for civil war. involved had not the Bohemians
as

was

Germany

been

might the persuaded

was the king, who when elector palatine to accept the crown The new emperor, died, shortly afterward. also the German king, and, to become of Styria, expected emperor, Ferdinand to assist him, the king of Spain attacked the domains of the

Union and the Holy elector palatine. Soon the Evangelical drawn into the fight, and the Thirty Years' War League were

began.

THE

ATTITUDE

OF

FRANCE

233

For a few months The Fate of Bohemia. the situation desperate, but with the aid Ferdinand seemed of the Emperor of Tilly, the general of the Holy League, he utterly overthrew

244.

"

the Bohemians Ferdinand Many


a new

in 1620

at

the

battle of the White their victory used kingdom were taken

Mountain.

his advisers and of the privileges of the

pitilessly.
away

and

constitution granted, which into a province. turning Bohemia


were

the work commenced of landowners The Protestant

their estates, and these were given to the leaders of the Catholic party. The confiscations amounted to two hundred over millions of dollars, according to the present Three-quarters hands. value of money. of the soil changed The fate of Bohemia to Germany. was a warning The 245. The Palatinate. elector palatine not only lost he was lands by the coveted crown, also chased from his own
"

driven

from

the
were

Spaniards, who were because they them eager to occupy Franche-Comte situated between and the Spanish provinces in the Netherlands. The for aid from elector hoped
James

his father-in-law. King

was of England ; but James still king of Spain for his daughter and a negotiating with the handsome dowry. He hoped to persuade the Spaniards to

leave the
matter.

Palatinate,

for he

did not

mean

to

fight

over

the

In 1621, by the expiration of the Twelve brought into the war. the Dutch were

Years'

Truce,

246. The

a valley through attempted which troops from Milan directly into Austria, and so could be marched into Germany. This aroused the French, who would not permit their whole eastern and northern frontier to become a Spanish

Attitude of France. to hold the Valtelline,

"

From

1621

the

Spaniards

highway.

the king's was years later Eichelieu made As a bishop and a cardinal he would have principal minister. preferred to form a league of Catholic princes which should Three

have

in check all disturbers of the peace, whether Hapsburg Catholics or south German Protestants. At first he was by the civil wars weakened which the old quarrel between the Huguenots and their Catholic enemies occasionally pro-

held

234
In
La

THE

LAST

WyiRS

OF

RELIGION

voked.
capture

1628

he

took
the

Rochelle, the

advantage Huguenot
their

of

of these wars stronghold, in order


one

to
to

take

from

Huguenots

dangerous

political power.

Eichelieu in the hold

the religious privileges granted expressly confirmed Edict of Nantes, but did not allow the Huguenots to

to gather in political assemblies. or any fortified towns His hands free, and he effectually defeated now were the Spanish attempt to control northern Italy.

247.
against

Triumph
those

of the Emperor. Protestant princes


of the League.

"

The who

war

had

steadily gone
to withstand

had

attempted the

the depended

armies

Hitherto

chiefly upon the army of the League; had been enriched a noble the spoils of Bohemia, who with for the emperor's service. This an army offered to maintain it marched the country through army lived upon which and

had emperor but Wallenstein,

left

trail of
as

desolation.
to gather

Wallenstein
a

knew

how

to

win

victories fortune.
emperor.

well as By 1626

about him all Germany seemed Disappointed.

horde

of soldiers of

prostrate The

before the

248.
an

Imperial

Hopes

"

emperor

issued

in accordance of Restitution all Church with which lands which had been taken from the Catholics since 1555 were to be restored. On these territories the Catholic religion was
to be required.

Edict

If the edict were successfully carried out, two archbishoprics, twelve bishoprics, and many monasteries would pass from the control of princely families which had held them In the emperor's lay the two. or triumph generation Even causes the princes of the Holy of his final defeat. League ignored their rights saw with chagrin that Wallenstein
a

for

They susrights of the Protestants. pected to substitute the emperor of using Wallen stein's army a highly empire for a Germany organized Hapsburg which Avas hardly more This than a group states. of half-independent almost
as

much

as

the

to listen to Richelieu them prepared when' he urged them to insist, at the diet of Ratisbon in 1630, upon the dismissal of Wallenstein. The emperor granted their demand only to find

NEW

PROTESTANT

CHAMPION

235
It
was

the defeat of the Spaniards his efforts that another in Italy. It was also partly through Gustavus This was Protestant took the field. champion Adolphus. completed

as that tliey remained that Richelieu juncture

distrustful

as

before.

at this

249. A

New

Protestant
since

Champion.
had

"

Gustavus

Adolphus,

king of Sweden

already been It was against the Danes and the Poles. lake. If the Baltic a Swedish
he
save

1611,

fighting successfully his aim to jnake

marched
the

into

Germany
he

to

Protestants,

intended

also to win for Sweden important lands upon the northern


coast.
a

Although

treaty

with

the

he made French, he

did not mean lieu's tool.

to become

Eichein

He

persisted

ally, regarding himself as an to be treated as an equal in to be all settlements that were He landed in Germany made. in 1630, the year the emperor dismissed Wallenstein. Many of the Protestant princes were at firstdistrustful or timid, and
at

Gustavus
Born
at

II., Adolphus.
1594;

Stockholm, November

killed

Liitzen,

16, 1632.

held sack

aloof. They of Magdeburg

were

afterward roused soon by Tilly's army, during

by the terrible which


twenty

thousand

and into Bavaria,


struggle

Gustavus persons perished. He defeated Tilly near Leipsic.


making

marched
now

southward

battle
turned
the

on

they which the Lech.


to

carried the war the Catholic princes feel the curse of Tilly perished in had brought on. In his desperate situation obeyed,
quite
as

a a

the

emperor

Wallenstein.
to
serve

Wallenstein
himself triumphant
a

though much
as

with the

determination
He
was

emperor.

but this

checked In all.

the

1632

great

march battle

of Gustavus, fought was at

236
Lutzen. As
was

THE

LAST

WARS

OF

RELIGION

the

tide

was

turning

in favor The death,

of

the

Swedes,

Gustavus

struck
to

down

by

ball.

Swedes

boldly forward
remained
not

avenge

their king's
The

in their hands.
to

death

and of Gustavus

charged ground the battledid

put

an

end

the

Swedish

campaign.

Richelieu

encourage

them

with

entered
against

the

struggle

subsidies, and three directly by a more

years later France declaration of war

Spain.

250.
for

The

Peace

of Westphalia,
more.

1648.
was

"

The hardly

war
a

dragged
pretence

on
on

years either side that it It had degenerated


not
a

thirteen

There
a

was

struggle
a

for the

triumph

into

scramble

for territory

of religion. it even when

was

succession

would

have

been

Germany of plundering expeditions. into a desert but for the stubborn turned
population

The endurance of the inhabitants. half, in some places, three-quarters.

decreased

one-

so great that ruin was At last exhaustion a century was needed to repair the ravages. the caused the leaders to conclude the Peace of .Westphalia, first of the great treaties which were to reconstruct the map of Pomerania Europe. France received Alsace. and several cities

The

in northern

Germany Bavaria

were

divided

between

Sweden

and

Brandenburg.

retained the Upper electorate


was

Palatinate

toral and the elecof the Palatinate,


son

title. A elector palatine The independence question


was

new

created

for the

received back the Rhenish The religious of the Dutch was recognized. decided in favor of the Protestants. Princes were
who

stillto determine princes If


as

the

well as did subjects not wish The Protestants


"

but Calvinist religion of their subjects, Lutherans to possess this privilege. were
to conform,

they
"

were

allowed

to emigrate.

agreed
no

to that

vation Ecclesiastical Reserstate should

according

to which

Church

pass out

of the control of the Church by the conversion of its ruler to Protestantism. The than was authority weaker emperor's in lay in his increased power His only compensation ever. Wallenstein Bohemia and Hungary, and in the army which had
created for him.

THE

WOBK

OF

RICHELIEU

237

Eichelieu died in 1642, six of Richelieu. made, but not until the conquest of years before the Peace was He had been one Alsace was of the greatest minissecured. ters

251. The

Work

"

For eighteen years he had ruled for the king. of France. The queen, the queen-mother, and many of the most influential again and again to drive him from power. nobles attempted

Once

they

nearly

succeeded,'
was so

but their triumph


turned
the occasion
was

to

defeat

denly sudthat

remembered He as the "Day of Dupes." did not distinguish always


conspiracies against

between
himself
against

and
the

conspiracies he king. Both

punished nobles others


were

Many ruthlessly. sent to the block, and

still others driven into exile. He taught them that to levy war upon The

imprisoned,

the

king

was

treason.
Richelieu.

judgesin

forbidden

were parlement in affairs to meddle were

Armand

Jean

du

Plessis,

duke

of State and

ordered to duties. attend to their judicial More than his predecessors he

Born of Richelieu and cardinal. 1585 ; died 1642. Entered the royal for a in 1616, but only council

year.

Cardinal
from

in 1622.

Principal

minister

1624 until his death.

lawyers to carry out employed in different parts of France the decisions of the " These men intendants," and they were called reduce

government.
were soon

to

local still lower the influence the nobles exercised over at the structure affairs. In such ways Eichelieu was working it ready for Louis XIV., the of absolute monarchy, making

typical Bourbon

king.

238

THE

LAST

WARS

OF

BELIGION

SUMMARY
I. Industry,

Commerce,

Colonies.
Ages

Englisli trade in Middle

(c)reasons
and French 2. Doinestic and silver ;

for Dutch trading


system

1. Trading (") companies: business of early Dutch traders ; ; (6) to Indies; {d) English, Dutch, voyages
"

companies

of manufacture
upon

(ft) effect

princes

(e) settlements in America. : (a) increase in stock of gold and capital ; (c) guild system (a) James
I. and royal the liament par-

gives way
II. Government

to domestic
AND

system.
"

Religion.
over

1.

England:

dispute

taxes;

(c)

cause
:

of

Gunpowder
order and

(6) James's theory of Plot ; (d) James and


prosperity

power;

Puritans.

2. France

(a)
in

(6)
(d)

increase Richelieu methods

influence

of

judges;
3. The

IV. ; restored by Henry last states (c) general;


;

destroys

political power

of Huguenots
Dutch
:

lieu's (e) Riche-

of government.
;

of the

republic

(6)
"

power

of province Maurice and


causes:

of Holland Barnevelt.

(a) organization quences ; (c)conseof Catholic

of rivalry between III. Thirty


Years'
;

War.

1. General

{a)

aim

Catholics and (6) measures of defence by south German Protestants ; (c) connection between troubles in Bohemia and war in Palatinate ; (d) war becomes ists 2. Defeat general. of imperialdiscord in : (a) Edict of Restitution ; (6) Richelieu sows Catholic party ; (c) victories of Gustavus ; (d) French period of Peace of Westphalia. war ; (e)settlements at
princes

IMPORTANT
1603.
1610.

DATES

Accession
Death

I. of England. of James IV. of France. of Henry

1614.
1618. 1624. 1632. 1648.

Last

states

Beginning
Accession

of France. of Thirty Years' War. general


of Richelieu
to power.

Victory Peace

death of Gustavus Westphalia. of


and

Adolphus

at Liitzen.

FURTHER
General Reading Thirty
:

STUDY

Wakeman,

Years'' War

of

the Commerce

of

from 1598 to 1715; Gardiner, j^wrope Colonies; Gibbins, History ; Payne, European E^irope ; Cunningham, Western Civilization,

Vol. II.

SUMMARY
Paragraphs
235. Trading
:
"

239

Companies
: :

Cheyney,

161 ff. ;

see

also Payne.

236.
237.

Industry Taxation

Cheyney,
An

185 ff. summary of the system


m

excellent

Prothero's

troducti in-

pp. 69-84
may be found

; illustrations of every

phase

versy of the contro-

in the

source

books

of English
states

history.

238.

239.

Henry

IV.:

Grant,

I., 176-188;

general

of

1614,

Grant,
240. Religious
No. 69;

192-193.

Controversies
Henderson, Blok,
Years'

See

particularly Colby,
6.

69 ; Kendall,

Side Lights, group


III., Ch.
War
:

241. 242-250

Barneveldt:
:

15. Gindely, Perkins,


more

Thirty

briefly, Gardiner Ch. 7 ;

derson, ; Hen-

I., Chs.

17, 18 ;

Bichelieu, 218 ff.

Fletcher,

Gustavus
Additional

Adolphus

; Hume,

Spain,

Reading

Gardiner,
under
the

History

of England,
and

1603-1649, ;

Perkins, Huguenots

France and

Bichelieu

Mazarin Edict

14 vols. ; Baird, The


2 vols. ;

Bevocation
Years'' War,

of

the

of

Nantes,

Gindely,
Review,

TJie Thirty
; period,

2 vols.

Chs. 11-14 and

1453-1648
new

rediscovery

of ancient

literature
western

art, discovery

of

world

; religious conflicts

rend

Christendom.
Special
I. New Reviews Interests
:
"

of

the

World.

"

1. Revival

of ancient

(c)study
Portuguese voyages

writers and formation text of New of Greek teachers.


;

of learning : (a) study of libraries ; (6) study of Greek ; Testament and the writings of
of known his world
;
:

the early Church

2. Enlargement

voyages

(6)

Columbus
Magellan and

around

the world,

and

and Drake.

successors

(a) (c)

3. Settlements
of trade,

and

trading

stations in America
new

India,

4. Increase

growth II. Eeligious

of capital,

methods

of organizing

labor.
"

Union changes

in

Western
revolution

Christendom
:

Destroyed. Luther's
at Worms

1. Reform against

to

(a) from
of the
;

protest
; to

indulgences from
forcing Henry

to his defiance

of authority

(6) England
Henry VIII. I. protecting
repressing

VIII.,

"Defender
Rome

Faith," from I. and

separation the Humanist

from

(c) France
to Francis

Francis

reformers severity.

his

son

the reformers

with

2. Political motives

which

made any

revolt safe assertion

(a)

in Germany, authority,

cities and

princes
"

jealousof

of

imperial League,

illustrations,

Schmalkaldic War
;

(h) French

combination desire to cripple

protest of Spires, of princes during Thirty Years'


the

Hapsburgs,

both

Spanish

240

THE

LAST

WARS

OF

RELIGION

I., intervention wars of Francis of and Austrian, illustrations, II., efforts of Richelieu ; (c) personal Henry policy of Henry 3. Extent VIII., political motives tory of Queen Elizabeth. of terri"

withdrawn Dutch

from

obedience

to

pope

republic, Denmark, principalities ;

Sweden,

Prussia of the

(a) wholly ; (") many


population
in

England,

German
in other
with

cities and

(c)portions

the principalities ; ((?) the Edict of Nantes.

Huguenots

in Erance

accordance

III. Matters

of

Interest power which

to

Students
which
France

of

American
out

History. early while


over

"

1. Relative
2. Troubles

of states

sent

the

voyagers.

absorbed

and

England

Spain

was

organizing
navy,
the

her American
reason

empire.

3. English

triumph

Spanish

why

England

could undertake religious 5.

safely colonization which existed

in America. among

4. Origin of the

differences Dutch

early

settlers of America.

struggle

for independence.

'

CHAPTER

XV.
REVOLUTION

THE

PURITAN

of Henry had been part of the battleground VIII. and his children, England in the conflict between the Church and the Protestants.

252. England

from

1625

to 1660.

"

In the days

to had been politic enough eventually years of peace, but she was By Philip 11. against the pope and

Elizabeth

assure

to the land

thirty

drawn

into the struggle the time of Charles I.


were

the situation had stand aloof from


no

changed
the

and

Englishmen

affairs of the

Continent.

compelled to They exerted

influence upon the course and had of the Thirty Years' War no of Westphalia. share in the gains or losses of the Peace Their attention was absorbed by the conflict of parliament and The king for supremacy. prevented victory of parliament future kings and Commons.
was

from

governing During the

contrary
same

to the will of the Lords

period upon

the French

organizing

by Richelieu

its arbitrary power IV. and Henry

monarchy laid the foundations

253. Charles I. (1625-1649) and Parliament.


inherited
The House from of

"

Charles I. had

his

father

Commons

had

fatal quarrel been guided

with parliament. by the wishes of


were

Henry

VIII.

and

Elizabeth,

because

they

leaders

in

struggle for national independence. had attempted to send help to the the

When

James

Continent

or

to

attack

struggling Spain, they had failed.

and Charles Protestants on This


was

essary who would not grant the necpartly the fanlt of the Commons, but it was the fault of the duke of mainly money, to mismanage Buckingham, the royal favorite, who seemed
241

242

THE

PURITAN

REVOLUTION

everything.
vote

After

the first failure the

Commons

declined to

trustwas worthy put into more unless its expenditure money They also refused to grant the king the collechands. tion for more than a year. They of tonnage and poundage
reason

had

another the married

for their

distrust.

When

Charles

had

French

Maria, both he and princess, Henrietta his father had promised Louis XIII. to allow the Catholics
greater

freedom

England.

of worship in If he did not keep


France

this promise,

to war; provoked all fervent Protestants

would be if he did, in England against

him.

would Even
the

cry

out

after he

enforced

actually laws recusancy of


was

the war and so hastened 1627-1629 with France, he

stillsuspected of favoring what Englishmen called "popery,"

because

several

clergymen,

Charles Born 1600,


at Duufermline,

I.

Scotland, in
before

set prerogatives who royal higher than the privileges of he rewarded parliament, and whom

his fayears throne. the English tlier ascended Married Henrietta Maria, daughter three of Henry Executed

with

trying
usages

to

promotion, were Church enforce

IV.
at

of France, Whitehall

in 1625.

which

Elizabeth

had

Westminster,

January

palace, 30, 1649.

wished to preserve, but which had ceased to be everywhere

particularly desired that the communion table should be kept at the eastern end of the chancel, where liked like an altar. They it seemed to zealous Puritans also disthe teachings of Calvin about predestination, which supported
customary.

They

the idea that the real Church

was

invisible, made
a

up of great

God's

chosen,

rather

than
over

the Catholic idea that it was


the

organization

ruled

by

bishops, the

successors

of the

THE

GREAT

EMIGRATION

243
William Laud,

apostles.

The

most

famous

obtain to collect tonnage he continued from the Commons, no money after the first year was up, because he thought and poundage to carry on the war that he had a right to the means against France. In order to help the Huguenots Spain at La and
"

of Canterbury archbishop Dismissed. 254. Parliament

of these after 1633. When

men

was

Charles

could

Those money. people to loan him without stating the reason. Avho refused to pay he imprisoned This was believed, to many contrary, so the Commons charters They drew up a Petition of Right in 1628, protesting and laws. forced loans and arbitrary imprisonment, but they against Eochelle, he also

forced

did not

mention

tonnage

and

quarrel Charles signed the until his judgeshad told him

In order to end the poundage. Petition, making it a law, but not

prison Almost

could still be kept in his order, if the security of the State demanded it. on immediately the Commons took up the afterward that
men

question

of tonnage

with them,
to

adjourn.
adopted

The king tried to bargain and poundage. and when this failed in March, 1629, he ordered them They obeyed only after a stormy session, in which
three resolutions, declaring those
to

they
who

be traitors

or advised paid tonnage and poundage, and those who " " introduced innovations in religion. Charles did not permit to meet this parliament the authors again, and he imprisoned

Their leader, Sir John Eliot, died three resolutions. years later in the Tower, from which he had not been released. As time passed Charles became determined more not and more
of the
to call another

parliament.

255.

The

Great
with

Emigration.
the king

"

One

of the

consequences

of

this quarrel
the
"

"

great
"

group of for several Plymouth.


a

emigration Separatists

was triumph and of his apparent Already in 1620 to Massachusetts.

"

or

Congregationalists,
formed Bay
a

who

had

lived

in Holland, had years In 1629 the Massachusetts


the

settlement at Company procured

charter

from
as

government

king, authorizing it to make such rules of should not be inconsistent with the English

244
laws.
was

THE

PUIUTAN

REVOLUTION

The

Puritans

littleprospect

controlled the Company, and, since there of liberty for them in England, they resolved and emigrate
to New

to sell their property

England,

taking

the

charter with them so that they could legally govern themselves. In 1630 a thousand Winthrop, people sailed with John and before 1640 nearly twenty thousand This others had gone.
not checked emigration was until the Puritans hand in tlie struggle with King Charles.

gained in

the upper

256.
money
was

Arbitrary
to meet

Taxation.

"

After of

1629, the

order

to

the expenditures

government,

the

raise king

The most obliged to resort to expedients. notorious was In time of invasion the ports had the levy of ship-money. been obliged to furnish ships. Since the Dutch and the French fleets,Charles wished to establish were engaged in building war
a

permanent

navy

for

England. the people Wentworth,


was

This

was a

reasonable.
tax
not

He

also wished parliament.


thought for

to accustom

to pay
one

voted

by

Sir Thomas

that if the scheme


an

pay
the

army

as

well

as

for

of Charles's advisers, successful it could be used to Charles in 1634 ordered navy.

levy

extended declined

from the seaports, but a year later of ship-money it to the inland counties. John Hampden boldly
to pay

shillings assessed upon his estate, his case in the royal courts that defended and so vigorously like Disout of the twelve judgesdecided against him. only seven was of the king's way of governing evidently increasing, the twenty his only chance of success lay in avoiding new difficulties free from extraordinary and in keeping expenditures. 257. Troubles in Scotland. While the ship-money controversy and
"

was

going
to armed

on

Charles

was

provoking

his kingdom

of

Scotland
service Puritan
whose

rebellion by attempting to establish a Church like that of England, much only more offensive to the power notions, and to strengthen of the bishops

had been partially restored by his father. authority The Scots hated anything that savored of " popery," and they despised their bishops whose principal work had been to collect the tithes, a large part of which they then turned
over

to the

THE

LONG

PARLIAMENT

245

In 1637, the day on whicli the new Prayer Book was nobles. firstread in Edinburgh, there was a riot. All through Scotland began to sign the National Covenant, which pledged them men
" their of popery and to defend Charles Although the new religious privileges. withdrew Prayer Book, a general assembly, in which the ordinary clergy formed to abolish episcopacy the voted and to re-^

to resist

the introduction

"

majority,

Upon this Charles resolved establish the Presbyterian system. He had only a little to reduce the Scots to obedience by force. money, which had been voluntarily given, and the army which
he led north melted as soon away Meanwhile Sir Thomas Wentworth
strong
as

the treasury

was

empty.

had

in Ireland government and had He at Dublin. about as he pleased with an Irish parliament advised the king to try the expedient of calling an English

establishing a in doing succeeded

been

parliament

in the hope

that

in the

contest

with the

the Scots

it
at

would promise Dublin. When, found

its support loyally as as in 1640, Charles followed


dearly
was

parliament

the suggestion,

he

that he must pay the House of Commons

for any

help

resolved

that

granted the king

him, since first must

Accordingly his arbitrary ways of collecting money. abandon he dissolved parliament before it had been in session more than three weeks.

258.

The Long

Parliament,

1640-1660.

"

Since

Charles

was

unable to settle his difficulties with the Scots by negotiation, disastrously than turned out more and because a second war
the first,he
was

obliged to

summon

was parliament, which Parliament twenty nearlj'years, has been called the Long its predecessor was Charles called the Short Parliament.

year.

This

later the same parliament not finally dissolved for


as

was

helpless before the demands


was

of parliament,

for

Scottish army

English on not withdraw until encamped soil and would the dispute with the king had been settled and its expenses The leaders of the House particularly paid. of Commons, to prevent a return John Pym, to use the opportunity resolved

of the government

from

which

England

had

been

suffering for

246
ten

TUE

PUlUrAN

REVOLUTION

or

twelve

They visers, struck at the king's principal adyears. Wentworth, Archbishop ford. StrafLaud now earl of and Both were shut up in the Tower, charged with treason.

Strafford had
the king that

raised
war

an

army

in Ireland

for the
was

with

the Scots.

he had offered which The Commons believed against

this army

to be used

in England
When
treason

parliament. the of

they could not prove


to the

satisfaction
as

the they

Lords

sitting

judges,
trial for

the abandoned treason and brought

in

bill

a attainder, declaring him traitor. This the Lords passed, in May, Charles signed and

of

1641, although he had promised Strafford that not a hair of his ford Strafhead should be touched.
was

immediately
not

executed.

Laud
William Born Laud.

was

in 1573 ; executed at London in January, 1645. A graduate of College, Oxford, St. John's of
which 1611.
he

until Meanwhile,
forced the

tried and executed four years later.


had
a

parliament king to sign

bill

became bishop

Made

in president of St. David's


1628, and in 1633.

that it should meet providing in three years and at least once


to agree

in 1621, bishop archbishop

of London,

of Canterbury

without

its

own

consent.

the present parliament should not be dissolved illegal the collecOther bills made tion impositions,
of Star for a century

that

of tonnage and abolished

and the

poundage,
courts

special

and ship-money, Chamber and High


or more, or

Commission,
which who

which Charles had

had used

existed The
not

to punish
one

those

in Church which

and State

opposed

his rule.
were

thing
was

upon

agreed in the management of the Church. introduced the innovations with


some

of parliament

the changes They wished Archbishop

the members to be made


to do away

by

Laud,
as

but

of them

wanted

also to cut

the evil out, "root"

well

CIVIL

WAR

247
and by governing of Scottish Presby-

as

"branch," Church

by

abolishing

the bishoprics
manner

the

somewhat

after the

terianism.

259.
had

The Irish Uprising.

"

Before

these important

questions sands of thouIn King

been settled England was roused by the massacre of English and Scottish settlers in Ireland.

James's
from

day all the land in Ulster had been wrongfully taken from England the Irish tribes and given to emigrants
more

Wentworth and Scotland. the land in Connaught.

recently
to

had

Catholics had
which insurrection.

such the prospect of being ruled by the Puritan held Charles in its grasp. The result Although

Added

confiscated all the Irish wrongs


ment, parliawas
an

rebels, it did not it to bring the session unceremoniously In the to an end. in November, Grand Remonstrance 1641, thej'' demanded, adopted therefore, that he select ministers in whom they had confidence
an

was the eager to punish parliament dare intrust an army to the king, lest he use

and

leave the settlement

of the Church

question

to

assembly
a

of clergymen. only king

Since

this passed
was
recover

the Commons if he acted

by

majorityof
the

eleven, it

clear that

wisely 260. from

might
"

Civil War.
more

gradually The parliamentary


than

control of affairs. leaders had wrested he


meant to

Charles

of his power
this way he

part
to

with

permanently.

In
a

they had
was

tempted
not
a

him

assume
or

the role of

conspirator, and

statesman

even

politician enough
new

to refuse to play

such
on

supporters

to the violent attack

his part. He owed the Church rather than


was

to any

House

confidence of Lords,

they felt in him.

He

strongest

in the of the

Commons

feared

sat the bishops. where to leave him this even

The
source

leaders

of strength,
worse

especially when

the

news

from

Ireland

grew

necessity

Charles
high

an thither increased. manded dearmy sending that the bishops should be deprived of their seats. to arrest, on the charge retorted by attempting of

of

and They

the

treason,

in January, had

Commons

who

1642, five members of the House of negotiated with the Scots at the opening

248
the

THE

PURITAN

REVOLUTION

of

war.

They

which did not then Westminster and sent the queen crown jewels and buy military formed were and preparations
the king

by taking escaped include Westminster.


to the

in refuge Charles

London
now

left

Continent
Two
war.

to

sell the

supplies. for made the


war

parties were In August


He
was

strong in the large more southeast, and especially prosperous His followers were towns. called Cavaliers, because many of or them were country gentlemen, while his opponents noblemen Soundheads, because some were of the often dubbed in the Puritans clipped their hair
"

strong

and raised his standard in the north and west, while

began.

was

the parliament

261.
an

First Years
upon

advance

of War. London, which


He then in which

short. Charles would

began have
to

operations with succeeded but for


and

the city militia.


another campaign the eastern

withdreAv
a

Oxford
army

planned
march

northern

should

through

the counties and a western army through southern counties, both to unite below London and to cut off its supplies by way of the Thames, while Charles advanced This northwest. plan bade fair to become that their soldiers, successful, but the king's generals found reluctant to leave recruited mostly in the north and west, were their homes still held by parliamentary exposed to attacks from towns again from

the

garrisons.

In the east for

the

Puritans

formed
spirit
was

an
a

association member

mutual

of five counties Its leading protection.


named

of parliament

Oliver
troop

Cromwell,

a at the outset of the war commanded who had Cromwell to his cousin, John explained an

of horse. Hampden, also


were so

officer,that
successful

the
was

reason

the they there He

king's troopers
were were

that

moved
too

by honor,

generally while in

the

army parliamentary decayed serving-men."

spirit,

men

spirit that For his will go." who believed in the

"

of

urged is likely to
own

many Hampden
go
on as

"tapsters
to

and of

get far as

men

men gentlechosen trained

cause.

regiment It was
was

Cromwell
so

had

thoroughly named

and

so

irresistible in battle that if

"Ironsides."

THE

DIVISION

OF

ENGLAND

IN

1643
MAP

249
MO.
16

THE

DIVISION
OF

JANUARY,

1G43

(After
Supporters

Gardiner)
Charles

of King

Supporters

of Parliament

4"

Longltudo

West

from

Greenwich

0^

250
Although

THE

PURITAN

REVOLUTION

Association the parliawith the aid of the Eastern mentary forces began to gain ground, parliament concluded To that victory was uncertain without the help of the Scots.

obtain this it was forced practically to promise, in September, 1643, that the English Church should become Presbyterian. 262.
Two

Decisive Battles.
was

"

The

Scottish army

border, but it
than

Cromwell's

this army
Moor,

Marston
war

which in 1644.

ability as a cavalry brought the first decisive

crossed the leader rather victory,


at

Cromwell

was

so vigorously until the king was For this reason would be ready to sign a permanent peace. he carried through for a New Model a parliament scheme

in favor of pushing the soundly beaten that he

Army, who New

by soldiers, rather commanded feared to press the king too hard.


Model
came

than
The

by

great

nobles,

at

Naseby,

in

June,
won

first test of the Again it was 1645. decisive victory.


an

Cromwell's

skill and energy that for a time Charles hoped of Scotch inevitable.
or
"

Although

Irish

Catholics
was

the aid of Highlanders under had

for

army of Montrose,

surrender

263.

The King's Fate.


The

Divisions
were

sprung

u]d among

the

king's enemies. parliament


was

parliament were " " Independents the army the number of Congregationalists or felt that if the English was steadily increasing, because men

parliament and the Model. Many afraid of the New members of willing to introduce Presbyterianism, while in

Scots

jealous of

Church Cromwell
he had

became

Presbyterian
In

it would

held this view.


an

intolerant. also become these divisions Charles thought

opportunity to snatch victory out of the Accordingly, he surrendered to the Scots in midst of defeat. 1646 and talked with them about establishing Presbyterianism

discovered

At the more. until the kingdom could be put in order once from When same time he listened to proposals parliament. the Scots became convinced that he never would port sincerely supPresbyterianism ary, they gave him up to parliament, in Janureceived pay for their back to Scotland. Parliament now 1647,
war

expenses, willing

was

marched to restore him

and

THE

king's

fate

251

on

almost any terms,

so

great

was

the people. were of the war army in March, but failed, because it would them their pay, nor would it guarantee

weary

its fear of the army and so It undertook to disband the


not give the soldiers

in question
but when

for acts
a

done

during

the

war.

against being called Cromwell ored endeav-

to arrange

settlement between the army and parliament, his efforts were futile he threw in his lot with the

Westminster Eebuilt,
II.

Hall.
roof, in the reign of Richard 1649. It tried in January,

including

walls and then,


to

timbered I.
was

(1377-1399). Here
now, as

Charles
the

belongs

group

of

parliament

buildings.

army,

army, Scots
upon

he remained The leader. the most of which popular hearing that parliament intended to bring back the to compel it to disband, seized the king and marched London,
most

frightening
active

into

army

made

an

against offer, called The


more

exile several members of parliament it. Influenced by Cromwell, the

of which

were

far

of Proposals, the terms favorable to the king and to the Church Scots
or

Heads

than anything

either the

parliament

had

suggested.

252
These

THE

PURITAN

REVOLUTION

except religious liberty for everybody Roman Catholics. Charles refused, because he still hoped to win by getting his enemies to destroy one For another.

Proposals

included

he persuaded into this purpose the Scots, in 1648, to march England. This sealed his fate. The army, led by Cromwell, to have was again victorious and returned, vowing vengeance

upon

"Charles

Stuart, that

man

of

blood,"

who were opposed to the punishment by troops, the others transformed into themselves excluded high court of justice, him to a speedily condemned which death. He was 30, 1649, in front of his own executed January palace of Whitehall.

in parliament the king were of

Those

264.

The

Commonwealth.

to recover had been the undertaken They carried far beyond their true purpose. could not safely back, and if they went defend turn on they must themselves,

in who, lost liberties of England


"

The

men

1640,

had

not

merely

against

their personal

all the

traditions

execution

of the country. the House of Commons without


was

opponents, Shortly

but also against after the king's


England
House
to

declared
or

be

Commonwealth
The
government

either a king put in the hands

a
a

of Lords. of The
state.

of

council

could muster scarcely fifty members. army have been glad to replace it by a new would parliament, elected not by the old constituencies, which were unequal in size, but

Parliament

in accordance with a more equal distribution of seats, granting to the larger towns to than they were a better representation
century. receive until the nineteenth 265. Ireland and Scotland. Meanwhile
"

Cromwell
crush

had
the

been

sent

to

Ireland

to

suppress

the

rebels and

king's

tion This he did with savage zeal, in which the determinafor the blood shed in the massacre to have vengeance of 1641 was for the Irish and by English contempt embittered party. Puritan

hatred
as

treated driven

the

The Irish landowners of the Catholics. They Protestants had been. Bohemian of Connaught and After his return

were

were

into the wilds Protestant emigrants.

their lands
from

taken

by

Ireland,

Crom-

HOLLAND

253

sent into Scotland, where general of the army, was well, now king. When Charles II. had been proclaimed a hrst victory September 3, 1650, did not end the war at Dunbar, and the Scots

invaded

England,

Cromwell

justa
266.
at

year later.

crushed them Henceforth there was

utterly at Worcester,
no

armed

resistance

to the Commonwealth

in the three kingdoms.


In Europe with the execution of Charles I. was horror. In the United Provinces the of

Holland.

"

first looked

upon of

all the partisans indignant, because


son-in-law of in
a

House

Orange

were

especially the
was

II., was the prince of Orange, William At Charles. William the time. Prince

struggle against the province of Holland similar led his uncle Maurice to that which Barneveldt to overthrow He won in 1650 but dubious success a twenty years before. immediately, his ambitions died almost bequeathing to an

absorbed

infant destined to become

as

William

III. not

Holland but also king of England. recovered John under the leadership of the Pensionary

only stadtholder all its influence De

Witt.

This

the peace between the provinces and would have strengthened England had not the English in 1651, struck a parliament, blow at Dutch business by passing the first of the Navigation Ever since the latter part of the sixteenth century the Acts. porting excelled their English rivals in the business of transfrom one the products of Europe country to another. The Act ordered that the goods of all countries Navigation should be brought to England and her colonies either in English
ships, or in ships of the country where the goods were produced. to carry to England This meant cease that the Dutch must wares of other peoples, like the French, the Italians, or the Dutch had

Germans. America,
ships. Armada

Incidentally
to whom

this bore
goods

hard
were

upon

the

English

in

European

often carried in Dutch

The
no

the English mastery with


a

Since the days war. reply was of the been in the waters seen such fighting had about At one time the Dutch to gain the coast. seemed
Dutch

and broom

Admiral
at

Van

Tromp
He

sailed
was

down

the

his masthead.

afterward

channel defeated

254
killed in

THE

PURITAN

BEVOLUTION

and

battle with
France

Admiral

Blake,

an

equally

great

commander. 267. France.


were

game

They also had her civil struggles. as petty as a child's called the Fronde, because they were Louis XIII. stones with a fronde or sling. of throwing
"

died in 1643, and country She was

only five years old, the since Louis XIV. was Anne by the queen-mother, was of Austria. governed under the influence of Cardinal Mazarin, an Italian,
successor

llichelieu's continue
upstart.

Eichelieu's The

Mazarin royal council. hated as policy, but he was in the the


taxes
war

tried to
a

foreign

the expenses

country groaned under of the Thirty Years' War The and


government

and the

levied to pay with Spain,


ready money

which stillcontinued. from the tax-gatherers

obtained

allowed

them

to plunder

that it seemed unpopular disapprove or would establish its right to approve parlement Paris took the side of the taxes. of decrees ordering new judgesin 1648, the citizens barricaded their streets, and defied

Mazarin

became

so

the people. for a time as if

Many discontented the royal troops. into a hoping to turn the civil war

nobles
means

hastened

to Paris,

the of compelling to grant them important places and large pensions. government When the citizens and the judgesdiscovered how selfish these

nobles Fronde

were,

they

made

terms

or war of princes upon ended, while a New In this struggle the two greatest commanders Mazarin, began. took first one of the age, the Prince of Conde and Turenne,

with Fronde,

the

court,

and

the

Old

ceased, because Avere weary of the selfish strife. Six years all sensible men Spain to make later France compelled peace and to cede lands chiefly along the frontier of the Netherlands. had Since 1653 England 268. Cromwell and Parliament. side and
then

the

other.

In

1653

the

war

"

been

her among remembered thought that the The members of parliament was best way to guard against a restoration of the monarchy to pass a law that they should sit in the new parliament, for disgusted the This scheme being made. which plans were governed greatest kings. by
a man

fit to

be

CROMWELL'S

POLICY

255
into the House

and having stained their the members out, accusing them of injusticend self-interest. He and his officers a acts with by an assembly to replace parliament of nominees, attempted but this assembly, called Barebone's parliament, because one army. drove

General

Cromwell

led

soldiers

Praise-God was of its members than the old parliament. ever, howA group of its members,
framed
a new

Barebone,

proved

less competent

in December, they voted the early

constitution 1653, which day

one

fore be-

arrived. well CromThis constitution made He was Lord Protector.

majority

to

govern

with

the

aid of
there
to
was

council of state and to be a parliament Cromwell the laws.

make

accepted

the power him.

thus conferred upon

269.

Cromwell's

Policy."
was

Oliver
Born

Cromwell.
April
25, 1599; 3,

Cromwell's
that authority but who
give

position of a king rested

cisely prewhose force,

at Huntingdon, at

died 1658.

Whitehall,

September
in

upon

steadily country at home He

the

to sought firm government

parliament Captain in 1640. of horse again 1642, in the army, parliamentary eral lieutenant-genin 1643; colonel

Entered

1628,

and

honor
1650.

in 1645

Chosen

; commander-in-chief, Protector in

1653.

abroad.
who

adhered until he saw


The they

those allowed to the Prayer Book


that they
were

to meet

his

most
were

ministers
were

of the

State

Church

privately for worship, dangerous opponents. but to be Puritans, Presbyterians


or

not

Independents.

the
war an

Prench that
an

the Dutch and joined with It was during this in their war against Spain. Cromwell fleet captured Jamaica. English put of the Vaudois

asked whether He peace made

they

were

end to the oppression

by the duke

of Savoy

256

THE

PURITAN

REVOLUTION

Of all made English power feared in the Mediterranean. in later days became this Englishmen proud, but at that time impelled by their they looked upon him as a usurper and were
and
ancient traditions of self-government
case was

to

long

arbitrary rule.
with Naturally
agree

The

not

improved

of by his failure to

for

an

end

the parliaments a stout defender

elected under the new constitution. law, he had been driven by the of

to tyrannize over to preserve the results of the war endeavor king had done since Henry Englishmen He was VIII. as no death came to his release, of the impossible task when weary September 3, 1658, the anniversary of his victories at Dunbar

and

Worcester.
he

For

time

his this
sense

son

Richard

tried to play the of the

part, but

General

At abdicated. Monk, by a moved

junctureone
of the

and backed be elected.


as

by his army, insisted that a The restoration of the monarchy, inevitable.


In May, "the

king,

was

should with Charles II. 1660, Charles was recalled

real wish free parliament

officers, England of

and

parliament to be, by King,

declared that Lords, and

Government

is, and

ought

Commons."

SUMMARY
I.

Charles

I.

and

Parliament. toward
monarchs

"

1. Origin of the conflict


;

(a) change
tax

in attitude

question (ft)

of the

right to Laud's

(c) controversy
2.

in Church of parliament

between
:

Puritans
reasons

and

party.
;

Dismissal of
:

(rt)

for Petition 3. Period


to

of Right

aim {]))

parliamentary

resolutions. of Great

of

personal
;

government

(a)
of

causes

Emigration forms

Massachusetts
;

(") ship
on

money

and

other arbitrary with the

of taxation 4, Long

(c) effect
:

situation

quarrel

Scots.

Parliament
secures

parliament attack on Strafford and Laud ; (/") king's interference ; (c) cuts off king's against

(a)

itself
;

prerogatives

{d)
IL Civil

divided War.
;
"

by

question

of Chiirch immediate

reform.
occasion;
;

1. War:

{a)

(6) division
by
;

country

(c) royal plan of campaign the Scots were action ; (e) why
victory
was

{d)

checked

of well's Crom-

summoned
made

(/)
:

to whom

parliamentary among

due.

2. Use

of victory
;

victors ;

{h)

policy

of Lidependents

(a) strife (c) consequence of

SUMMARY

257
tries to take
execution.

distrust of army
of this TIT.

(d) army in power ; (e) king of strife ; (/) justificationking's


;

vantage ad-

Commonwealth
2.

and

Protectorate.

"

1. Organization in Ireland
and

ment. of govern-

Conquest
with
the

of

royalists
:

Scotland.
Dutch
war.

3.

Quarrel
English

Dutch Dutch
:

(a)

strife among
;

the

(6)
4. about

strike at
in power

commerce

(c) course
;
was

of the
was

Cromwell
;

(a)

how

his

supremacy

brought

policy ; IV.

(6) (d) why

his religious policy ; his parliaments

(c) his
of

foreign

Contemporary
2.

restoration of the monarchy 1. The France. of regency


a
"

inevitable. Austria.

Anne

Reasons

for
4. Terms

Mazarin's of peace

unpopularity. exacted

3.

Objects

of

the

Fronde.

of Spain.

IMPORTANT
1625.

DATES

Accession

of Charles

I. La
or

1628.

Petition of Right Period

(theyear
of

Rochelle
arbitrary

was

captured

1629-1640.
with

of personal

government

Richelieu). (contemporary

by

later years of Long

Richelieu).

1640.

Beginnings

Parliament.

1642-1645. 1648. 1649. 1651.


Peace

Civil War.
of Westphalia
:

Fronde.

of Charles I. : the Commonwealth Act, followed by war First Navigation with


Execution

established.
Dutch. in France.

1653.
1659. 1660,

Cromwell,
France and

Lord Spain

Protector. make

End

of civil war

the Peace

of the Pyrenees.

Restoration

in England.

FURTHER

STUDY books named Puritan


of
in previous

General

Reading

for Europe,

chapter
or

; for

England,
History

especially

Gardiner's

BevoluUon

Student's
Firth and

of England;

biographies

Cromwell,

by

Constitutional Documents, Gardiner's ; for documents, books ; for connection source with history of English colonies in History America, the United States. especially Channing's Gardiner

of

Paragraphs 254.

"

Dissolution 74 ; Kendall,
Liberty

of Parliament
No.

Gardiner,

Puritan

Revolution, group

64-

72 ; Henderson,

Side Lights,

10 ; Hill,

Documents,
:

Ch.

6.

255.

Emigration

Kendall,

No. 73.

258
Paraorapiis 256.

THE

PURITAN

BEVOLUTION

"

Berkeley's

Argument

on

king's

power

in ship-money
pp. 53-54.

case,

see

Gardiner's 258.
Long

CunstUntional
:

Documents,
on

Parliament

attack

the royal prerogative,

Gardiner,

118-

123 ; Straiiford case,

letters, etc., in Kendall, h. Morris, 134-162.


No.

76, 77 ; Colby,

No.

71, and
259. 260.

Lee,
:

158,
see

a,

265.
Arrest

Ireland of the

O'Connor
Members:

Five
:

Kendall, by Firth,

78.
Harrison, Mor-

261.

269.

Cromwell

biographies

Gardiner,
group
12.

ley, Carlyle ; Henderson, 262. Naseby Death


129;
:

Side Lights,

Kendall,

No.
:

81.

263.

of Charles

Gardiner,
82, 83; 210-212

Cromivell, 152-165

; Harrison^

128-

Kendall,
and
:

Nos.

Henderson,
; Lee,

Side

Lights, grou^) 11;

Adams 266.
Holland

Stephens,

160-163.
; Kendall,

Firth,

312-315,

334,

371-372

No.

86 ; Navigation

Act, 268. Cromwell


No.

Macdonald,
Parliament No.
:

Select Ghnrters,
:

p. 106. 20 ; Colby, No. dall, 75 ; Ken-

and

Firth, Ch.

85 ; Lee, Policy

168 ; Hill, Ch. 7. Nos. 87-89.

269.

Cromwell's

Firth, Ch. 17 ; Kendall,

Additional
Macray

Reading:

Clarendon's

History History

of the Great
Lomas

BebelUon,

ed., 6 vols.; Ranke,


and

of England,
History

6 vols. ; Carlyle,

Letters

Speeches

of

Oliver

Cromwell,

ed., 3 vols. ;

Gardiner,
and

History

of

England

and

of

the Commonwealth

the Protectorate., 4 vols.

CHAPTER

XVI.

THE

AGE

or

LOUIS

XIV.

270. The
reigned Mazarin,

Age

of Louis

XIV.,

1643-1715.

"

Louis

XIV.

it was 1661 Cardinal Until years. Even after this rather tlian he, who governed. by what Richelieu time his policy was and Mazarin guided But for half a century Louis was the cenhad accomplished. tral seventy-two life. He was figure of European as the typical regarded His ambitious the frontiers of plans to extend monarch. In France other states to unite in self-defence. compelled his influence over II. prompted Charles II. and James England them
to

adopt
which

schemes
caused

for the the

Church

restoration of Revolution of 1688.


"

the

Catholic

271.

The

English

Charles

parliament II. to his father's throne, in 1660,


:

Restoration.

The

rewhich called had three

hard questions to answer m punishing the Puritan


the Long

First, how

far should

vengeance

go

parliament The

leaders ; second, should all the work of be undone ; and third, should the Presbyterians they had
was

be tolerated, because
king. first question of the Puritan

helped

bring

back

the
to

death many had dug taken part in the trial of Charles I. Cromwell's body was The bodies of Pym taken and Blake were up and hanged. from their graves in Westminster Abbey into a and thrown pit. Such
zeal did not
mean

by condemning answered leaders, particularly those who

against arbitrary government it. The king's principal minister, Sir Edward later Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, had favored the attack of the Long parlia^
259

that all the effects of the struggle to be obliterated. Far from were

260

THE

AGE

OF

LOUIS

XIV.

ment

the

upon the royal prerogatives until, in the summer Consequently, Church was also threatened.
its claim

of 1641, parliament

did not abate But it treated Charles


so

of the privilege of voting all taxes. II. liberally, giving him a fixed income

large that he would not have needed He had had he not been a spendthrift.
"

parliamentary
no

grants

on

his travels," and he knew,


was

better than

to go again mind how his father, just

far it

safe to try the temper


was

of parliament. parliament,

The

religious

question
ardent

left to
that

new was

royalists

it

called

the

composed of such Cavalier parliament.

King

Charles would
as

have he
was

been

to be tolerated,

glad for differences in religion inclined to become a Catholic and

wished

to protect
was

the English
more

Catholics.

The

Cavalier parliament
out

all the

opposition the bishops, Book.


were

to crush anxious on this account Church, with its government to the Established

by

and

its services

By

series of acts two


to

in accordance with the Prayer thousand Presbyterian ministers

those prescribed religious services save by law could be held, none of the deposed ministers could reside within five miles of a corporate town, and even were the magistrates of the towns good obliged to become resign,
no
retheir ofiices. Those who fused Dissenters. Their to conform were called numbers increased, for they included not only the Separatists, the

forced

churchmen

if they

would

hold

Puritans of the also many older type, who, in Elizabeth's, James's, and Charles's day, had in 1667, while the enemies in the Church. It was of remained Milton, Puritanism were their victory, that John completing

Baptists,

and

the

Quakers, but

the Puritan

published 272. Louis

poet, who had been his Paradise Lost.

one

of Cromwell's

secretaries,

XIV.

"

To

his

cousin,

Louis
Louis,

XIV., "the

Charles's
greatest

situation seemed
calamity
that
can

deplorable,

for, said

of our rank is the necessity of Mazarin When to the direction of his people." submitting died in 1661, Louis declared that henceforth he should be his

befall

man

own

chief minister.

He

still called about

him

ministers

and

LOUIS

XIV.

261
nothing without
his

secretaries of state, but they


approval.
consider He

were

to do

the councils held to presided in person over important touching the relations of France matters
or

One of the administration of the kingdom. held every day, and he did not allow even these councils was illness to interfere with the death in his family or his own he conThe trade of king despatch sidered of public business. full of noble joysif one were of conscious, as he was, being equal to its many tasks.
to other states

great kingdom where each laws and province had its own In
a

special privileges, no monarch, industrious, however could himself. settle all questions

Louis

was

ministers desire to pose his jealous


master

obliged to trust his and secretaries, but


as

them to give compelled him the impression that each his own. His decision was

led jealousy
obscure
men

him and

often to prefer commonplace be content to


Louis Born
men

XIV. tember, Sep-

who would act as his agents. like Colbert, who

When had

at St. Germain-en-Laye,

1638; September,

died

served him in his earlier years, died, he did not appoint equally

1715.

at Versailles, king at Became

the age of five under Anne of his mother,

the

of

regency Austria.

the opposition from permit no judges in parlement, and they learned to restrict themselves intended to their ordinary duties. The states general he never

able

successors.

He

would

to

summon.

To him

the

the monarch that


even

peculiarly open to flattery. notion that the sovereignty of the State vested in He believed was not merely a scholar's theory. Such
a

monarch

was

leave

as

his to take or was the property of his subjects his long reign the business During he chose.
was

to

of the

government

carefully

organized

about

the

king

as

262

TUE

AGE

OF

LOUIS

XIV.

source

of all authority.

In

pushed similar officers were directly represented ants who


a

the provinces, the governors and into sinecures by the intendaside


the
was

king

strongly

organized guided.

country

in his council. Such to its neighbors dangerous

unless and

wisely

Unfortunately,

Louis

XIV.

loved glory

to appear as the '^ Sun-King." wished One of the laws 273. The Second Dutch War.
"

Commonwealth
did not repeal was Acts which by new

of the which the parliaments it Act. They the Navigation strengthened to the ordered that goods sent from Europe
must

lish of the EngRestoration

colonies or from the colonies to Europe in order that the English to England Certain them. the profit of handling like sugar, tobacco, cotton, and her to England or colonies.
aimed
at the Dutch,

be firstforwarded
might

merchants ''enumerated

have

articles,"

West

Indies, and on The English


They

who the

were

coast

could be sent only laws These were especially in North America, in the rivals War the conwas sequence. of Guinea. dyewoods it in 1664 any formal without Amsterdam the New and king's
war,

began

declaration.

Netherlands, renamed between New


great

seized New in honor of the which As in the first York.


fleets in the London
waters

brother fighting

were
was

the

midst of the to its narrow,


was

war

unhealthy in 1666, followed,

In the England. about was visited by a terrible plague, due This streets and badly built houses. the

by

Great

Eire, which

destroyed

nearly all the old city. large sums appropriated

In spite of these calamities parliament but was for the war, anxious that rather than wasted the English and the of Louis

the money should be spent upon the war Both his pleasures. by the king upon

Dutch made

became

had made Erance When and the Dutch. XIV. peace with Spain in 1659, it had been agreed that Louis The Spaniards did should marry the Spanish king's daughter.

peace 274. Louis

alarmed in 1667.

by

the

schemes

XIV.,

and

XIV.

"

not

wish to see to the domain

their kingdom

of Louis

added with all its dependencies XIV., so they insisted that the new

LOUIS

XIV.

AND

THE

DUTCH

263
her heritage.
son

all claims queen of France should renounce In 1665 the king of Spain died, leaving four years

upon
a

sickly

Since Louis could not claim all the old. in of a rule of inheritance possessions, he took advantage his wife Netherlands to give the Spanish which seemed better claim upon than that them a of the infant king of Spain.
country conquer
a

onlySpanish

His

best

reasons

were

and the excellent army it in 1667. The Dutch disliked to ambitious


a

his desire for such he set with which


see

fine
to

out

the frontiers of closer


to

and powerful They arranged

monarch

brought

them.

Sweden, triple alliance with England and Louis to pause after he had captured few a which compelled Louis signed a of the southern fortresses of the Netherlands. He was determined to peace in 1668, with rage in his heart.
have
as

vengeance

upon

the stout

burghers,

republicans and as Protestants. Colbert, gave him another reason, Acts to adopt the Navigation When Colbert had

also hated His great finance minister, land that had led Engthe same whom
war

he

the Dutch.

and twice to make raised the duties on

upon imports

had articles, the Dutch replied by taxing of manufactured Erench Louis articles, especially their wines and brandies. knew he could separate both Sweden from their and England old friends of Erance and quite the alliance for a rich present, and because ready to renew King Charles of England had a scheme, to carry out which he needed Louis's aid. In 1669, Charles secretly, and his brother
ally, because the Swedes
were

throne, publicly, joinedthe Catholics. In a secret treaty at Dover, following, Charles the year the Dutch, and Louis assistance in an attack upon promised

James,

the heir to the

promised kingdom
Both

soldiers to aid Charles in holding his after he should have made public his conversion. knew felt by English that the jealousy of the Dutch money and

merchants

and shippers Louis had parliament.

the war make would popular with difficulty in arranging no alliances the other European that the Dutch states, so with almost all appeared to be friendless.

264
275.
1672.

THE

AGE

OF

LOUIS

XIV.

The
The

Attack
Dutch

upon
were
uu

the Dutch.
prepared

"

The
an

war

broke
on

out

in

for

attack

the

land

several provinces. side, and the French armies speedily overran The young now was twenty-two prince of Orange years old. he had been made Early in the year In the captain-general. stadtholder of Holland, his father's enemies. Meanwhile, to force
summer

he

became

the stronghold of the French back,

De

The Orange ordered the dikes cut. party threw De Witt and stirred all the blame for the first defeats upon In the winter the French began the populace to murder him.

Witt

had

their retreat.
French
successes

Prince

William

took advantage

of the fear which

everywhere caused to unite nearly all Louis also lost Louis's former allies in a league against him. Charles had taken advantage the help of England. of Louis's

had

promises by which
him

of support by issuing a Declaration of Indulgence, he suspended the laws against the Catholics and the held this to be illegal,and would give Parliament Dissenters.
no

from
sea

for the war until he had money and had signed a Test Act, which holding otBce. The English were wearied

withdrawn excluded
not

the

ration decla-

all Catholics
on

successful

the

they began to of the contest, especially when their suspect that the king of France, and not the Dutch, was In 1674 Charles was obliged to make peace Avith real enemy. A littlelater he would have been forced to declare the Dutch. and
war on on

France

had

not

Louis

without
a

To parliament. between marriage William of

to get money enough placate the English, Charles arranged Mary, daughter his brother of

given

him

had all Europe in 1678 to end the turned against Louis, and he concluded For France the peace seemed glorious, for it brought struggle. lands along the northern frontier. in Franche-Comte and more to forced the French lost nothing ; they even But the Dutch

James,

and

Orange.

Nearly

reduce the high duties Colbert had placed on their goods. had begun to During a new the war 276. Prussia. power Since 1640 Brandenburg-Prussia. itself felt. This was make
"

it had

been

governed

by Frederick

William,

justly called

the

LOUIS

THE

GEE

AT

265

Great
Thirty

Elector. Years'
was

first task

suffered terribly from the War, losing half of its population. Frederick's to repair the ruin, but he also determined to

Brandenburg

had

increase his little state and to bind more closely its scattered The old contest about the duchy of Cleves had possessions. feudal not been settled, and the duchy of Prussia still owed

broke out between When war of Poland. Sweden and Poland he sold his alliance to whichever side paid highest price. The result was that as duke of Prussia he the freed in 1657 from the suzerainty of the Polish king. A was
homage finally of the duke of Cleves was divided, and he received besides the duchy of Cleves itself the To this Rhenish territory counties of Mark and Ravensberg. he had been brought closer b_y the bishoprics of Halberstadt, little later the inheritance

to the king

Minden,

and Thus

Cammin,
the

which
were

had

been
from
were

given the

him Ehine

at

Westphalia.
to

Niemen

within He was Prussia.


refuge Arians

stakes which his


a

set

the

of oppressed and Jews. the

modern tolerant prince, and his lands became the Calvinists and Lutherans, even and of At the

successors

to build up

close of the war with the Dutch, Louis XIV. seemed The at the height of his power. Louis the Great, a corporation of Paris formally styled him
"

277. Louis

Great.

by the people. Never before had title already bestowed king in the affairs of Europe of a French word seemed humble. an so excite such fear or to command obedience
was

the
to

It

not

by

success

in

war

only that France

was

winning

glory.

poets, orators, writers of comedy and French tragedy were the polite as well as the intellectual making language Corneille, Racine, Moliere, Bosof Europe. a few are suet, Pascal, and La Fontaine of the names of which greatest

Many

of her

the "Age

of Louis

XIV."

could boast.
a

In 1682

the king fixed

his court

by magnificent palace, constructed the architect Mansart, the builder of many other chateaux. He gathered the nobles about him in order to heighten his None on their estates save those royal splendor. remained

at Versailles in

2GG
too poor

THE

AGE

OF

LOUIS

XIV.

to bear the burdens

incurred

his displeasure

the nobility became


ancient
"

privileges, honorary right to many

and less useful, while they retained from the land tax exemption offices.

of life at court or those who had In this way had been " exiled." all their

and

sole

Palace

of

Versailles.

XIII. The been had ture present strucerected here by Louis palace Mansart is chiefly the work architect and was erected of the royal it When The it in 1682. 1676 and 1688. between completed court occupied

A smaller

could house 10,000 persons. is from This view the Place

The

fa(;ade toward
at

d'Armes,

the

the gardens end of the

is 18!K) feet long.


avenue

de

Paris.

Till his death in 1683, Colbert, The Cost of Greatness. the king's ablest minister, tried to meet the enormous charges

278.

"

caused

by

wars

to manage

and by royal extravagance. the finances the thievish Fouquet

Before

he

began

had

so

conducted

that only thirty-two million livres reached the treasury out Colbert of eighty-five million collected by the tax-gatherers.

them

raised the collections to one the receipts to ninety-seven.


taille,which

hundred

bore heavily
famine

on

and nineteen million, and same time he reduced the his Unfortunately the farmers. At the the times when grain from the or exported efforts to improve

attempt

to prevent

could be sent from one country did the farmers

by regulating district to another

much

harm.

His

BEVOCATION

OF

THE

EDICT

OF

NANTES

267

in which of French goods by fixing the manner the spirit of enterthey should be manufactured also checked prise. After his death no one found to meet was equally able the quality the burdens French

which
so

constant

succession
so

of

wars

threw

resources,

that the age

gloriously

begun

upon ended in

disaster.
first stain The of Nantes. the revocation of the Edict upon the glory of Louis's reign was Ever since the death of Cardinal Mazarin he had of Nantes.
"

279. Revocation

of the Edict

been

forming

the

design The

Church
was as

in France.

reestablishing the existence of Huguenots


of

unity "of the in his realm

land offensive to him as the existence of Catholics in EngHe did not have the excuse had been to the Puritans. Puritans bidden expressly forreligious differences were had been promby law, for in the edict the Huguenots ised
that

of the

liberty of worship. Possibly he would never have ventured to destroy his grandfather's noble compromise he not been constantly pressed by the appeals had of the
a

perpetual

He was clergy. under him in had supported

special obligations
a

to

them, pope

for they
over

controversy

with

the

the

in the administration rights of the crown and had agreed in 1682 to a declaration

of vacant

bishoprics,

of the supremacy of in all matters State. At the suggestion the royal authority of of the clergy he had already deprived the Huguenots of everything expressly granted in the edict. Hundreds of churches deprived of offices,and in were pulled down. Huguenots
not
cases were even

were

many

driven from

business.

After

1681 their

could be taken from them children, at the age of seven, and brought up as Catholics if these children could be persuaded Every inducement to say that they wished to be converted.
was

offered to pastors

When the
news

well as people the royal officers discovered how of such conversions, they

as

to

renounce

their faith. Louis


the

pleased

threatened

with Huguenots

was

with all sorts of tortures unless they would declare' themselves One method or was the " dragonnade," converted. quartering dragoons in Huguenot houses, encouraging the rough soldiers

268
to

TUE

AGE

OF

LOUIS

XIV.

any cruelty short of death perpetrate Finally in October, 1685, Louis issued an in which Huguenots

upon

the

inmates.

he

pretended that the Edict

that

there

were

this edict the Huguenots religious privileges. leave the country Their pastors must in fifteen days unless declare their conversion. If other Huguenots they too would In to leave, they would be punished as criminals. attempted
three and four hundred thousand spite of this edict, between emigrated, or, rather, fled, from France, carrying their industry and their riches, but above all their sturdy independence and courage, of them
to

had of Nantes lost all their

edict of revocation few unconverted become By useless.


so

other countries. found homes with


to

No the

fewer

than

twenty

thousand and
the their
The

remained work 280. Later Years


Huguenots eyes, Louis English were

for the

elector of Brandenburg, greatness of Prussia.


"

of Charles II.

The

destruction
In

of

the Protestants alarmed XIV. had undertaken the

everywhere. part of Philip

II.

because at the death of particularly alarmed, Charles II., earlier in 1685, his brother James, an avowed Catholic, had ascended During the throne. the latter part of
the king

his reign Charles had won over feared that new quarrels between bring became
on

majority of

those

who

civil war. into parties organized

another

Both

and parliament might his opponents his friends and


names
were

with

which

meant

as

insults.

His

supporters

were while his opponents James Scottish rebels. The Whigs to exclude were anxious from the throne ; but Charles threw by discredit upon them having several of them tried and executed for treason. Charles

Irish brigands,

nally origiTories, or called or called Whigs,

were

took advantage in such towns

of his popularity
a

to change

way that they would If he could not obtain votes enough in parliato parliament. ment, he knew he could get on without it,since his cousin Louis came beOne important measure would furnish him with money. law which during this period,
"

the charters of the henceforward send Tories

the Habeas
an

Corpus

secured

to persons

arrested

immediate

of 1679, hearing, pro-

Act

JAMES

II.

269

of unjust imprisonment. against the danger fulfilled the promises Charta. Thus were of Magna James II. did not have as much 281. James II., 1685-1688.

tecting

them

"

sense
was

as

his brother.

He

was

so

sure

that he

always astonished to find that any one will. He acted on his grandfather's theory, that the king He collected taxes before they not held to obey the law.
Fortunately voted. first parliament had for him his such a large that little fault

right that he his could oppose


was was were

Tory
was

majority
found with

him,

and

he

was

But revenue. granted an ample when he placed Catholics in office, from dispensing the legal them

obligation of taking he found that even


It was complained. that a Catholic king
allowed and
to fill the army

the the

''test,"

Tories

dangerous should be

and navy lics. the public offices with CathoJames's popularity also suffered from
the cruelty with which Jeffreys condemned dreds hunWilliam
Prince

III. of II.

Judge

of misguided rebels who had followed the duke of Monmouth in an uprising in the western counties. Two years after he became
to protect the Catholics

Charles
Born 1650, 1702. the

Grandson of Orange. I. ; son-in-law of James


The Hague, November,

at

died

March, at Kensington, Made captain-general of


Provinces, February,

United

king he sought

guise of a grant of under To religious toleration to all. keep him from winning the over

1072, and proclaimed stadtholder Zeeland in July of Holland and Two the same of year. years later these

offices were made King of England

tary. herediin 1689.

dissenters by such means, the churchmen by Act of parliament. The next


to have

When churches. clergy from reading

tion promised them toleraatyear, 1688, James tempted another declaration of indulgence read in the bishops petitioned him to excuse seven the it, he ordered these

bishops

tried for

270
treason.

THE

AGE

OF

LOUIS

XIV.

Meanwhile the birth of a son acquitted. to his second wife, Mary a Catholic, destroyed the of Modena, hope that his J'rutestant daughter, Mary, would succeed him.
were

They

For

these

reasons

the

king's

opponents

this daughter

282.
argument

The

and to her husband, Revolution of 1688. accepting the

offered the William of Orange.


To
was

crown

to

"

William that

the
were

for

offer

strongest he king

the League against Louis XIV. After the would join Peace of 1678, Louis had seized important territories along the the city of Strasnortheastern frontier of France, including burg, to which league, formed
Mary

England

he

had

no

justclaim.
by William

against
over

him

a result was in 1686. William was

The

new

crossed friends and fled to France. own A Convention parliament declared that by leaving the country James had abdicated, and

to England.

James

deserted

by

and his

proclaimed of Eights
new

William
was

monarchs.
crown

A Declaration and Mary king and queen. drawn by the up by parliament and accepted A little later the Scottish parliament offered

the

This parliament of Scotland to William and Mary. doing away also reestablished Presbyterianism, with bishops Ireland had
to be conquered,
war

altogether.

but this

was

part

of the general

European

which

had

already begun.

SUMMARY
I.

England

and

France

after

1660.

"

1. Eestoration
;

in
of

England:
parliament

(")
upon II.
on

questions taxation question

before
;

parliament

(h)

attitude
parliament

(c)

difference

between

and

Charles

ers of religious toleration ; (d) treatment of dissentLouis XIV. : {a) his work after he was 2. his ; (e) Milton.

own

minister
absolutism

to

(6) method of ; (d) attitude


Dutch.
"

conducting of Louis

business toward

(c) obstacles
and

parlements

states

general.
on the

II. Attacks

1. England's
war

policy

(a) stronger
of
2.
on

gation Navi-

laws, schemes policy


:

with

(6)
XIV.
at

as

result ;

(c) fear

ambitious
French

of Louis

leads to peace Dutch

(a)

anger
;

and alliance. interference with attack

Spanish

Netherlands

commercial (ft)

jealousyand

tariff war

(c) plan

SUMMARY

271
Brealidown
II. in

to

humiliate
:

the

Dutcli.

Dutch

(a)

motives
;

allies of Louis

(c)

attack on of general in attack ; (") other joining of Charles Orange, William the antagonist of of Louis ;
;

3.

(d) (/)
III. Prussia.

Dutch

methods
makes Mary

of defence
peace

(e) Louis
the

deserted
;

by

his allies ; of

England

with

Dutch

(g)

marriage

William
"

and 1. The
no

Stuart.
Great

4.

Nature
2.

of Peace His

of 1678.

Elector.

territorial gains. Elector's policy

3.
of

Prussia

longer

vassal of Poland.

4. The

toleration.

IV,

The

England. France in and Question again, French 1. Louis the Great : (a) brilliancy of civilization ; (h) Louis's desire to suppress dissent; (d) his burden ; (c) of expense for the revocafirst restrictions upon the Huguenots tion ; (e) excuse Edict of Nantes ; (/) ministers driven from the country, of the 2. to remain the Huguenot exodus. ; (g) others compelled dulgence Question of tolerating English Catholics : (a) Declaration of Inreply by Test Act ; (6) fear excited and parliamentary II. was a Catholic ; (c) theories because James of government of to Declaration James ; (e) promises of Indulgence ; (d) a new

Religious

"

the 3.

dissenters Relation XIV.

(/)

the

conflict brings between

on

Revolution

of 1688. and

of this to struggle

William

of Orange

Louis

IMPORTANT
1660. Restoration Treaty Habeas

DATES

of Charles II,
the (connect Act. ensuing
war

1670.
1679. 1685,

of Dover

with

the

Dutch).
II. to English

Corpus

Revocation throne.

of Edict

of Nantes.

Accession

of James

1688.

Revolution

in England.

FURTHER Wakeman, Spain,

STUDY
the histories of England,

General

Reading France,

and

Germany,
History

and

already

mentioned

; Figgis, English

from Original Sources.


Paragraphs 271.
:

Restoration: 77 ; Henderson,

Gardiner,

History

of England,
90-93

576-582

; Colby,

No.

Side Lights, group


ff. ; Kendall,
Nos. Nos.

14 ; persecution

Gardiner,
and

582

of dissenters, ; Figgis ; Acts, in Adams

Stephens,

223-226.

272
Paragraphs
:

THE

AGE

OF

LOUIS

XIV.

272,

277,

278.

Louis

XIV.

general

character

Ch.

10, Kitchin,

III., 143-164

; Hassall,

of his rule. Grant, II., Louis XIV., Chs. 3, 11 ;

Perkms,

Ch.

5. for Navigation
; Andrews,

273-275.

The

Dutch: 189-193
No.

Acts,

see

Macdonald,
No.

110, 133;
:

Cheyney,

Ch.
No.

1 ; Kendall,

94

the Great

Eire ; Colby, group

78 ; Kendall,

93 ; Henderson,
situation,

Side

Lights,

16 ; Figgis ; the 599-009 and


; Grant,

political

briefly

in Gardiner,

589-593,
Adams 274.

II. , 30-44

; Declaration

of Indulgence,

Stephens,
below

No.

227 ; Kendall,

No.

95.

See genealogy
The

276.

Great

for claim of Louis XIV. upon Spanish heritage. II., 1-29; Henderson, Tuttle, I., especially Elector:

Chs. 5, 6.
279.
Revocation of the Edict

of

Nantes

Grant,
and

II.,

Ch.

12 ;

Kitchin,

III., 22.3-:^31; Baird,

The

Huguenots

the Revocation

of
280.
Later

the Edict

of Nantes,
of Charles

II., Ch. 11.

Years

II.
Act,
:

Gardiner, 8.

Ch. 40 ; Kendall,

No. 96 ;

Figgis ; Habeas

Corpus
of

Hill, Ch.

281-282.

Revolution

1688
;

Kendall,
Henderson, 9.

Nos.

98, 99, 101 ; Colby, Lights, group

8119 ;

83 ;

Lee,

Nos.

180-192

Side

Figgis,

Part

II. ; Hill, Ch.

Additional

Reading: under

Macaulay, the Begency

History

France Mahan,

Influenceof

; Sea Poioer

of England, Tuttle, History of


upon

5 vols. ; Perkins,

Prussia,

4 vols. ;

History

; Andrews,

Colonial

Self -Government.
to
illustrate
the

dispute

over

the

spanish
290

heritage

see

also

Paragraph
Philip 11., tl598

(ofSpain) I
Philip III., 1 1621

I
Louis
XIII.
=

I
Philip IV., 1 166.5

I
Maria=
I

Anne I

Emperor

Ferdinand

III.

(ofFrance)

|
=

Louis XIV. Maria 1 1715 I Louis, 1 1711 \

I., tl705 Leopold Margaret Charles II., 8d marriage 1 1700 I Maria Maximilian
=
=

(of Bavaria) |

|
Joseph,

|
Charles VI.,
emperor

I
"

I
Philip v.,

Joseph,

tl699

tl711

I
I
Louis XV.,

1700-1746

1711-1740

(ofSpain)
1715-1774

(ofFrance)

CHAPTER
DOWNFALL OF LOUIS

XVII.
THE

GREAT

followed years which were a the Revolution period of important changes in To France they brought the English of government. system the fatal consequence ruin and disappointment, of a policy
"The of 1688 twenty-five

283.

1688-1715.

which

had

forced

all Europe

to unite

in self-defence.

The

struggles Europe.

duke
soon

which resulted altered the political geography of became Brandenburg the monarchy the of Prussia; king of Sicily, a title which he was made of Savoy was for that of king of Sardinia; the Netherto exchange lands

During this ceased to be Spanish and became Austrian. period, also, Russia claimed a %hare in European politics. In 284. Louis XIV. and his Enemies. September, 1688,
"

before William

III. became
on

provoked

war

king of England, had the French the Continent by seizing the domain of the XIV. duke claimed should To of Orleans.
of the League,

Louis elector palatine, which the wife of his brother, the its recovery by the

belong

to

generals

impossible make he ordered region. homes,

his officers to burn the cities and The inhabitants were wretched
carrying
soon as

devastate driven

the whole from their

their hatred

of the

French in

far into

Germany.
kingdom,

As
the

William

was

established

his

new

English

and

a new This gave the war acter. charentered the League. Its principal cause had been the desire of both Louis tage. heriLeopold to possess the great Spanish the Emperor

Each

had

married
also
were

Their

mothers

sister of the feeble Spanish England Spanish princesses.


273

king.

had

274

DOWNFALL

OF

LOTUS

THE

GEE

AT

slight feared

interest
was

in

tins

family

quarrel.

AVhat

the

English

the growth less of French power guided by the boundBy this time both the French ambitions of Louis XIV.
the

and the

English held

had the

trading

stations

in India.

In

America

French

St. Lawrence

the Mississipj)i, while the English along the Atlantic coast from Maine also, had

valley and were had settlements

exploring

scattered to the Carolinas. Both,

The war became colonies in the West India Islands. It proved a struggle for these to be the beginning colonies. Hundred Years' War, which a new of a series of wars, closed
only in 1815. 285. King William's

War,

1689-1697.

"

In

America

the

earlier Europe. French

wars

different from their names received names first was The William's War. called King
their Indian

in
The

and

massacring Port Eoyal Europe Louis

allies burned several frontier settlements, their inhabitants, while the English captured in Acadia, later called Nova Scotia. In

of England, and an to Ireland to establish his authority in that sent expedition King William despatched Marshal country. against James, Schomberg, Huguenot had been forced to leave France a who
as

XIV.

treated James

II.

king

after the revocation crossed to Ireland Boyne.

of the Edict

On

and the Continent

In 1690 William of Nantes. defeated James at the battle of the

the French

stubborn defeat kept them continually after each became was weary of the war, which
resources

but William's

of the vicgained most tories, anew persistence in beginning

in check.

Louis

soon

in 1697, Louis was made at Eyswick, obliged to give up all the lands which he had seized since 1678, except the city of Strasburg. The ruin of his plans had begun.
was

of Spain When peace

of France. died and

the rapidly exhausting He wished peace made before Charles II. the struggle for his possessions began.

III, 1689-1702. At the Peace of of William Eyswick, Louis had been obliged to recognize William III. king of England. as William was never popular in England.
"

286.

Reign

Even

the

nobles

who

had

invited

him

to

take

the

English

IRELAND

275

to James, thinking it best to regain occasionally wrote In spite of this his favor in case he should return. possibly because of it the English method of governing chiefly through William's more was effective during parliament made reign.
crown
"
"

Annual

period the act making mutiny punishable by William at first chose his ministers from both court-martial. Whigs this led to disputes, he selected and Tories ; but when
same

money for the

sessions were for government

secured expenses

through for only

the
a

custom

of voting of renewing

year, and

them House
a

from of

the Whigs,

Commons.

who The

happened
ministers

to have

in majority
act
more

the

began

to

like

modern cabinet, and to organize their followers carefully. have been as dangerous Since a supreme as parliament might to whom an none an absolute king if there were appeal from its decisions might be made, it was fortunate that the practice free. of licensing printing was abandoned and the press made A Toleration Act relieved the dissenters from opj)ression. Other changes gave England to pay for her wars. A strength Bank form of England of permanent
was

founded. loans, called

Money
a

was

borrowed debt,
so

in the that the

national

the citizens, of a great crisis might not crush but might be partly borne by later generations. In 1701, after the death of Queen Mary and the death of her sister
expenses

children, an Act of Settlement was passed, guaranteeing in the event of the death of William the crown and of Anne to the Electress Sophia of Hanover, daughter of the elector
palatine and descendants.

Anne's

granddaughter
The

of James

I., and

to her

Protestant

287.
lost by

Ireland.
the

"

only

one

transfer

Under Irish
the

Charles
some

of the II. there had

of the three kingdoms which Ireland. to William crown was

been

of the land

that had

attempt to return to the been taken from them during


an

The result was rule of Cromwell. not satisfactory, for held while in 1641 about two-thirds of the cultivated land was by Irish Catholics, in 1685 about two-thirds was held by Protestants, who
were

almost

wholly

English

emigrants.

The

276

DOM'NFALL

OF

LOUIS

THE

GREAT

Irish Catholics had brought


parliament
no

and his overthrow The Dublin about still further confiscations. longer had any Catholic members, so that it James,

cast in their lot with

represented
allow
no

only

open
were

small portion of the by the Catholics. worship


a

to

make

the

hatred

of

It would people. Long years of oppressio Irish an the English

national

tradition.

288.

Repulse

other enemies siege to Vienna,


assistance
a

of the Turks. besides Louis XIV.


"

The

Emperor

Leopold had

had laid

In 1683

the Turks

crusade The emperor, Russians, assault,

and would have captured it but for the timely The next year Sobieski, king of Poland. of John begun against this ancient enemy was of Europe.
the Poles, the Venetians,
a

joined in
and the

Holy

League.

and Buda

little later the


was

taken

by

Turkish

between battle of Mohacs outbreak of the war for a time saved the Turks from Louis XIV. and the emperor forced to sign the Peace but by 1699 they were utter overthrow,
to the emperor they abandoned not which and Transylvania, but also parts of the Slavic only Hungary Poland lands south of Hungary. received Podolia and other to later, she was to surrender territories, which, a century

army The in 1687.

disastrously

defeated

at the

of

Karlowitz,

by

Russia.

The
a

Russians

during Venetian
using
as

bombardment
shell ruined
a

in this war, It was received Azov. that at Athens, of the Acropolis the Parthenon, which the

Turks

were

magazine. powder Hungary 289. Austria-Hungary.


"

now

fell more

completely

under the had been rendered

of the An elective. power it hereditary

Hapsburgs.

Hitherto

condition king should swear that each new at his accession to respect the This made up in part for the loss of constitution of the land. lia. by the Peace of Westphapower brought upon the Hapsburgs than a had been hardly more Since that time the Empire

agreement in the House

with of Hapsburg

the monarchy diet the Hungarian


on

had little real auloose confederation in which the emperor thority Austria and the lands associated with Thenceforward

THE

SPANISH

HERITAGE

277
power
to

it, rather

than

the

Empire,
the

gave

actual
At

the

ruler

as generally known 290. The Spanish

emperor.
"

Charles II. of Spain to be his heirs were


It
was
a

close of the century had not long to live. Those who claimed tage. for a division of the heribusy arranging
Although

Heritage.

the

This remained. besides Spain, the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, Sardinia, half of North Milan, and other Italian lands, the Netherlands, America, Cuba, Porto K-ico, the larger part of South America,
a

already taken of the Netherlands,

splendid domain. away Franche-Comte


vast

Louis

XIV.

had

and

the

southern

empire

portion included,

and

the

Philippines.

In

1668

Louis

XIV.

agreed upon a plan of division, because After so feeble that he was not expected to grow to manhood. Louis made two treaties of partition with the Peace of Eyswick, William,
who represented English and Dutch interests. By the to have most of the Italian of France was second the dauphin Charles, was to have lands, while the emperor's son, younger

had and Leopold the infant Charles was

Spain, the Netherlands,

for Charles. the whole incensed dying king, were

The emperor claimed and the Indies. Most of the Spaniards, including the

by

magnificent empire which was the friends of France in Madrid


to make
a

for spoiling the Consequently still their glory. cillors easily persuaded king and coun-

such

schemes

will, giving the whole heritage to the second This was to the family of an of Louis. advantage grandson Louis rather than to France, for the new king was to give up his claim upon to be separate immediately
accepted the French forever. death throne, and of the two this

kingdoms bequest

were

The

news

followed

Holland.

Louis 1700. of Charles in November, his agreements the will, breaking with England and This would have brought but Louis on war, not the

to be managed from acted as if the Spanish possessions were Versailles and as if his grandson, King Philip V., was simply Just at this moment a deputy. James II. died, but not before

Louis

had

promised

to recognize

his

son

as

James

III.

The

English

were

enraged.

They

scorned

the

idea that it rested

278
"with Louis brought on

DOWNFALL

OF

LOUIS

THE

GREAT

to transfer

the

crown

at his pleasure.

Thus

was

ica of the Spanish Succession, called in AmerQueen Anne's War, because William died and she mounted the throne before it broke out.
the War

291. Europe

takes Sides.
"

The War Louis

lasted for twelve

king was The duke really popular. and Spain, where him, but afterward, finding that the of Savoy at first joined To more, the changed sides. emperor win promise would the emperor elector of Brandenburg, allowed him to take, in king of Portugal The 1701, the title king of Prussia. also Louis, attracted by abandoned the offers of the allies, and particularly It was England. at of this time that the Methuen
was

years. the new

had

of the Spanish Succession no allies except Bavaria

treaty

by which England made lowered the duties upon Portuguese


in wines, and Portugal, lish those upon Engreturn, lowered woollens and other manufactures. Commercially, Portugal

became

outlying province of England, and the products of the Portuguese colony of Brazil went
Duke
of

an

Marlborough.

to pay
duke of in 1650 ;
of the of the heim, at Blenat

for articles purchased by the Portuguese of the English.

John
died

Churchill,
in 1722.

created
Born

Marlboroua^h

in 1702.

292. The

War.

"

Erance

lost

Commander
during
the War Victor

Briti.sh troops

Spanl.sh Succession.
1704;
at

nearly all the great battles of the war, although for fifty years her armies Among had
not

Ramillies,

1706;

been

defeated.^

1708 ; at Malplaquet Oudenarde, Removed from command 1709.

in in

1711, when

the Tories

gained

power.

the allies the two greatest the English were generals

and Prince of Marlborough Eugene, cousin of the duke of Savoy. They shared the glory in 1709. in 1704 and Malplaquet of the victories of Blenheim duke

The

duke

of Marlborough

was

politician

as

well

as

soldier

PETER

THE

GEE

AT

279

he controlled the He whole of the war. and


he thought

English
was

during nearly the government in no haste to make peace, because decrease


"

that this would

his influence. In northern Europe, also, Hus-

293. Peter the Great, 1682-1725.


war was

Sweden under Charles XII. and raging between For two centuries the Russians sia under Peter the Great. Several of had been independent of their Tartar conquerors. to increase their relations with their tsars had attempted
western

Europe

and

to

reorganize

was

The the country. difficult, because no

task
part

of the Eussian frontier touched Sea or the either the Black Baltic, and the White Sea was frozen several months of the The capital was cow. at Mosyear. Peter ruler of he had Russia actual in 1689, although been nominally became

tsar since to manhood

1682.
his

As

he

grew

learn
a

the

curiosity to European came arts bepassion.


anxious
were

consuming

He
to

particularly learn how ships


and how

was

built
Born,
tsar
to

Peter

the

Great. Titular

soldiers were organized for war. To the old Russians, who despised and hated which land in customs
In he

1672; in

died, 1725. First


in Europe

1682.

journey
1696-97.
in 1703.

western

Founded

St. Petersburg

Europe
own

differed from in religion, these things seemed he built and reality the ships which
and

their

idle amusements. the regiments

organized

while
army Azov,

still

youth

were

the Peace
was

ginning beof

of Russia's modern Karlowitz had brought him


to restore

The and navy. but this port he of another


war.

compelled

in 1711

at the end

Before visit-

this peace

had

been

made

he

had

journeyedwestward,

280
ing

DOWNFALL

OF

LOUIS

THE

GREAT

Germany,

Holland,

England,

task of rewhatever could observing casting Assuming the industrial and social life of Eussia. a in the shipyards disguise, he even At worked of Holland. Vienna he was eager to learn of Prince Eugene, already famous
as
a

Austria, and instruct him in his

everywhere

general.

He

of the ancient

hastily recalled to Russia the Streltsi, which militia, named


was was

by the revolt disliked his

which It was characterized him throughout. shortly after this that he laid the foundations of the city of Petersburg in the marshes of the lower Neva. influences European This
were

reforms and which In punishing them

loath to showed

see

its

own

influence decreasing.
savage

he

the

same

energy

was

to be the
come

to

portal through to his aid. There

which
was no

his repart of the industrial or social or political life which forms did not touch. He ventured even to change the government the Church, leaving the officeof patriarch vacant of and appointing
a

board
The

of bishoj)s and
new

archbishops,
at

Holy

Synod.

two hundred reign over the line, besides a multitude


were

numbered thousand, the navy


of smaller
were

army

later called the the end of his

forty-eight ships of These things vessels.

expensive
weight upon

and
the

new

taxes

peasants, Although

reduced the differences between and


wars

to serfdom.

who Peter

devised, falling with crushing before had been a century succeeded in decreasing states, and other European
into
account

although

Russia

his country had to be taken

in all the

which

followed, it is doubtful
of the Russian

whether

he greatly changed

the character

294.
only

people. Charles XII., 1697-1718. Charles XII. of Sweden was the war eighteen years old in 1700 when with Russia
"

Four began. fore, and Denmark, years beSobieski, Augustus II., elector of at the death of John Saxony, had been chosen king of Poland. Augustus and Peter to divide between lands on the them the Swedish proposed

and

her

allies, Poland

eastern

shore of the Baltic.

The

for

share of the spoils.

The

king of Denmark allies had mistaken


was

also hoped their enemy.

Although

still a boy, Charles

eager to rival the glories of

PEACE

OF

UTRECHT

281
a

Alexander for he
ever

tlie Great.

This

was

not

mere

cliildishdream,

the

had to be one of the greatest generals Europe proved for him, his army had forgotten neither Fortunately seen. discipline nor the lessons in war given it by Gustavus It took king

Adolphus. from
the

Charles

of Denmark.

to force a peace only six weeks he turned upon Peter and Next

defeated
gave

his army the


so

before Narva

in November.

This

him and

his attacks of continuing from his provinces guaranteeing

choice

upon danger, the

victory sians, the Rusof latter


or

entering
course,

Poland
and

against

Augustus

II.

He

took

place

upon

and wasted six years in trying to depose Augustus he had When Stanislaus Leszcynski. the throne

apparently succeeded, he tried to offset the gains the tsar had been making along the Baltic by a direct invasion of Russia
failed, and he turned southward, hoping hetman, Mazeppa, to find allies among the Cossacks, whose him the support of forty thousand of these terrible promised horsemen. RusMazeppa could not keep his promise, and a sian

toward

Moscow.

This

Peter the ruin of the Swedish army. winter completed brought against him an army twice as large. The battle took It was For the revenge for Narva. place at Poltava in 1709. the Turks, and with several years Charles found refuge among

insane
it
was

When

obstinacy refused to return to Sweden until long after had lost. vain to hope for the recovery of what Sweden finally made in 1721, Russia had peace was gained Swedish Livland, Esthland,
was

Ingermanland, and Finland. 295. Peace threatened

and

parts of Carelia

of Peter's ambitions The of Utrecht, 1713.


"

One

satisfied. fighting in the

north

several times

to become

against Louis XIV. Charles XII. and Peter the aside from their Charles inherited
soon
own

paigns complicated with the camFortunately for the allies both


were

Great

not

inclined

to

turn

struggle.

When

in 1711

the Archduke and


was

to

become

the possessions emperor, England have

of the

Hapsburgs

that

he
case

this

should not he would

be

as

were and Holland anxious the Spanish possessions also, for in Charles V. had been. as powerful

282

DOWNFALL

OF

LOUIS

THE

GREAT

HO

g^" li.5l"p

PEACE

OF

UTRECHT

283

lost his influence, and the Tories This led to the treaties of Utrecht were anxious to make peace. in 1713, to which all the allies agreed except the emperor. He longer, making a year continued the war peace with Louis at

In England

Marlborough

had

Eastadt. the map


were

By

the Peace
was

of Europe

of Utrecht and largely redrawn.

the Peace

of Kastadt,

Spain

to belong

to Philip

V.

Of the other

and the Indies Spanish possessions

Chateau
This

of

Chambert.

"

iu the thirteenth was century constructed chateau Later the residence I., count by Thomas of the of Savoy. dukes of Savoy until they fixed their residence at Turin.

the

Emperor

Charles

was

to

have

Naples,

Sardinia,

Milan,

The duke of Savoy received Sicily. The and the Netherlands. From English they had captured. retained Gibraltar, which Bay. Louis they gained Acadia, Newfoundland, and Hudson's They also received the assiento, or right to transport all the
As a result of the war America. the sold in Spanish Spain dissipated. inheritance of Philip 11. was magnificent But it was family. to the Bourbon passed from the Hapsburg slaves

284

DOWNFALL

OF

LOUIS

THE

GREAT

compensation for the themselves

some

to

the Austrian

Hapsburgs

to

in Italy and the France had gained nothing, although the family of Louis French jealousy the Hapsburgs of acquired a kingdom. Austria. to turn wholly toward

Spaniards

substitute Netherlands. had


was

296.
XIV.

New

Monarchs
So
great

in France
had

and England.

"

In 1715 Louis

died.
the
war

that
new

news.

The
was

durbeen the misery of the country ing the people breathed a sigh of relief at the king, Louis XV., great-grandson of Louis

old, and for a time the government by a regent, the duke of Orleans, the late king's was managed had died the year before. Queen Anne nephew. of England

XIV.,

only ten years

her successor was with the Act of Settlement George I., great-grandson I. the elector of Hanover, of James king of Scotland also, for in 1707 Scotland and He became England had been united by agreement between the parliaments

In

accordance

of the
her

two

kingdoms.

After

that

time

Scotland

sent

instead of to Edinburgh. representatives to Westminster There were in England many and in Scotland who would have preferred that Anne should have been succeeded by her brother These usually called the Old Pretender. persons were Jacobites. James rection tried in 1715 to raise an insurnicknamed king, but his supporters were against the new easily beaten. His title could not be recognized even by France, for

James,

Louis

XIV.

had

abandoned

him

at the Treaty

of Utrecht.

SUMMARY
I. Louis
XIV.
and

William
;
war

III.

"

1. King

AVilliam's War League


;

(") provocation
him
;

by Louis

(6) why

English

entered France

against

(c) meaning
colonies peace.
France
;
were

of

for England

and

(d) how

American
nature
war

affected ;
France

2.

and

(e) struggle England : (") effect


national and
army
;

in Ireland ;

(/)
the

of

of

upon parliament

(b)

origin

of English expenditure

debt ;

(c)the

way

controlled
cabinet

(d)
Act

beginnings of Settlement
to

of
;

system

; (e) religious toleration ;

(/)

(g)

treatment

of

Ireland,

especially

in

relation

origin

of

"Irish

question."

SUMMARY

285
it consisted.
2.

II. Spanish

Heritage.

"

1.

Of
of 3.

what

Schemes

for

division:

(a) treaties
great heritage.

partition; The
war
:

gained

(5) how (a) why


war

Louis's

grandson all Europe

nearly

took sides against Louis;


the

(6)cases
with part in

of Prussia and Portugal;


this
;

(c)why
Sweden
heritage
:

English Russia change

remember

pride

(d)
of

reason

and

took
in

no

it. 4.

Division

the

(a)
III. East

attitude

toward

Austria's

share ;

(")
in

gains

of

England
and

in America.

North.

(b)
2.

relation

Turks: ^1. of this to growth


"

(")

their

disasters

Hungary; monarchy.

of Austro-Hungarian for reform

Peter

the Great Europe the

in western

and

Peter

(6)
IV.
Neav

first successes
;

journeys ; (b) (a) 3. Charles XII. his work. ; (c) results of Great : (n) combination against the Swedes ; tava policy ; (d) Polof Charles ; (c) his mistaken
:

his mania

his

(e) terms
IN

of peace.
England.
"

Monarchy

1. Accession

of George

I.

2. Union

with

Scotland. IMPORTANT

DATES
against Louis XIV.

1688.

Opening

of

war

in Europe

Revolution

of 1688

in England. 1689. 1697. 1699. 1700. Peter


Peace

the Great of Ryswick

begins
; end

his rule in Russia. of King "William's War.

Treaty Philip,

of Karlowitz.

grandson
of
war

of Louis between

XIV.,

made and

heir of Spanish

heritage

beginning 1704. 1707. Battle


Act

Sweden

Russia.

of Blenheim.

of Union

between

England

and

Scotland.

1709.
1713.

Battle Peace

of Poltava. of Utrecht.

FURTHER
General Reading
: same

STUDY
chapter,
with

as

in preceding

Seeley, Expansion

of England.
Paragraphs
:

284.

Causes

of War

Wakeman,
Frontenac.

256-261

; Duruy,

France,

440-441

Parkman's

Count
III.
:

286.

William

Traill,

William
statutes,

III. ; Adams
No.

Henderson, and

Side

Lights,

group

22 ; important
on

Stephens,

Nos.

237-

239, 243 ; Kendall, below.

the

Bank,

Colby,

85 ; Glencoe, succession,

Colby,
see

No. 84 ;

No.

102 ; Figgis, part

2 ; the

genealogy

286
Paragraphs
287. 288,
Ireland

DOWNFALL

OF

LOUIS

THE

GREAT

O'Connor
Europe

Morris,
:

177 ff. Ch.


12.
; Hume,

289.
The

Eastern

Wakeman,
:

290.

Spanish

Heritage

Kitchin,

III., 274-291
see

312-319
272, and

Duruy, paragraph

449-450
274. War:
;

; Figgis, 119

ff. ;

genealogy,

page

291,

292.

The

288-302

Kitchin, III., 294 ff. ; Prussia's policy, Tuttle, I., Kitchin, Portugal, 302-303 ; Blenheim, Savoy and
86 ; Kendall, No. 115 ; Henderson,

Colby,
1.36 ^.

No.

group

23 ; Figgis,

293,

294.

Peter

the

Great,
1-4;

Charles Schuyler,

XII.

Wakeman,

299-310
Bain,

; Ram-

baud,
XIL

II., Chs.

Peter

the

Great;

Charles

295.

Utrecht:

Kitchin, Reading
:

III., 337-342; Parkman,

Figgis, 187-190.
and England in

Additional

France

America,
Old
and the

especially La

Begime New Indian

in

Salle and the Discovery of the Great West, The Frontenac Count Louis XIV., Canada nnder
binder Louis

France

XIV-

; Hunter,

Brief

History

of

Peoples.

Stuart

and

Hanoverian
James

Families

I., 1 1625

Charles

I., f 1649

Elizabeth

Elector
=

Palatine

I
Charles
II., 1 1685

j
James II.,

[
Mary= William of Orange

Sophia

Elector of "''""^"''
t

(William III.)

r^L"^ 1(14-1^7

1
Mary + 1694
=

1
William III., Anne,
James

1
(OM
Pretender), 1 1765
\
Henry,

tl702

+1714 Charles Edward


"

( Young ),+ 1788

Cardinal, + 1S07

Special

Review in England,

ruin of the Stuarts, and

end

of arbitrary

government

Chs.
of

15-17,

period, 1625-1715. upon

1. The

Stuart Church
Petition

theory

government
2.

(")

taxation, theory,

and
as

{b)
shown

upon in

administration. of Right,

Parliamentary Puritan

and

(/;) under

influence, in the resolutions

3. First struggle : (a) period of 1629. its characteristics ; (6) retaliatory (c) division about Church parliament, with

of personal
measures

ment, governof

Long be-

administration

EEVIEW

287
of Charles I., resulting
under

tween

Puritans
and

and

supporters

(d)
a

in Civil

War,
4.

(e)

eventually
:

in military

govei'nment
of
taxes
on

dictator. II. ;

Second Church
alarmed

struggle struggle
at

(a)

regulation Puritans
the

under

Charles

(")

changes,
shovsrn

the
;

defensive,

men churchJames II. of

favor

Catholics

(c)

why

aroused
1688,
as

more a

antagonism
political 5.

than

Charles
and
secures

II. ;
as

(d)

Revolution
the
:

domestic XIV.

quarrel,

part

of

struggle

against method
system

Louis

Parliament

its victory Mutiny


Act

(a)

by by

of of

granting
party forced

appropriations
;

and
by Act

by

(6)

ministries the

(c)
line

of

Succession,
into
the

which

incidentally
mere

male

of

Stuarts

position

of

pretenders.

CHAPTER
NEW STRUGGLES

XVIII.
FOR SUPREMACY

297.

European

Rivalries.

"

Before

the straggle which century between England on and France had been shifted from Europe to France was longer what she had been India and America. no littleprospect that her power under Louis XIV. and there was

of the eighmiddle teenth III. had brought William the

in Europe
was

would

be dangerously

increased.

In the colonies than


the

it

the aggressiveness of the English rather was which of French colonial governors
a

tions ambilikely to bring


the French,
more

on

crisis.

The

only

the guidance cessfitl. Meanwhile

under

exception of Dupleix,
a new

was
were

India, where
at

the

outset

suc-

power
was

itself to the front.

This

of the first rank had forced Prussia, organized by Frederick by Frederick


were

William
At the

I. and
same

rendered time Holland

victorious and

the

Great.
or

Spain

sinking -to second

third rank.

298.

Commercial

Bubbles.
deeply
no

"

The

wars

left all governments This is bankrupt.


seven

in debt.
for she

had of Louis XIV. France was practically had been


at
war

wonder,

fortyThe

French
money

seventy-two years of Louis's reign. five hundred debt was million dollars at a time four or five times as valuable as it is now. was
out

of

the

when Even

after peace

was
so

debt

was

the government twenty


each years

lish The Engmade the annual deficit increased. large that the creditors doubted the ability of founded to pay, although the Bank of England,
In this easier than in France. to lighten the burden attempted

country

before, rendered the government itself with


vast

by

allying

speculations,
288

and

in each

these

COMMERCIAL

BUBBLES

289

been called failed so disastrously that they have schemes " bubbles," the Mississippi Bubble and the South Sea Bubble.
"

Scotchman,

regent Law which

the French tried to persuade like the Bank to establish a bank land. somewhat of EngThe not do this, but in 1716 regent would authorized

named

John

Law,

to found

private bank, three-quarters of the capital of to be paid with government count. was then at a disnotes The bank business new received deposits, discounted
a

paper,

and loaned
or

notes

of its

own

which

it promptly

redeemed

in gold

The they were success silver whenever presented. cier, finana great was of the bank convinced the regent that Law bank. a that it be made government and he ordered Before this Law up in Louisiana rights had

bought

the

Company

with its trade had permitted


notes.

and the stock to be paid for largely with government A little later he added East India Company the
the whole
one

of the West in Canada. Again he

the

and several others, organizing Any Company of the Indies.

in 1719

into

who

wished

to

buy

shares in this must have four shares in the original company. The new the contract company obtained from the government to collect the indirect taxes and to coin the money ; it even
to pay Such the national debt. undertook appearance of financial power deceived almost every one. There was a mad They from 550 livres to 18,000. rose When rush for shares.

they

issued 300,000 more at this price. reached 5000, Law In order that there might be currency enough for these enormous transactions, he flooded the country with bank-notes,

had

them, for unmindful of the necessity of being able to redeem he believed that if the government legal tender them made be no danger. him The there would conregent appointed trollerSoon afterward the stockof the finances. holders,
for the paid too much to sell. The company's government shares, began could do nothing to check a sudden fall in the value of both shares and bank-notes. had been founded in 1716, the The first bank suspecting

that

they

had

bubble

burst in 1721.

Law

was

obliged to leave France

and

290
few

NEW

STRUGGLES

FOR

SUPREMACY

Sea South English The years later died in poverty. to trade with the Spanish colonies. had been formed company the right to the By the Treaty of Utrecht, England gained for importing slaves into these colonies ; she had also contract
a

fair at received the privilege of sending a ship to the annual People thought that by buying the shares of the Porto Bello. they could have a part in the boundless wealth of company
the Indies.
notes

Parliament

of indebtedness brought August, 1720, shares which sold originally for "100 had risen. But they than "1000. they fell even quicker to Several of the ministers who had lent government support

voted that those who these could exchange

held government for shares. By

disgraced by its collaiDse. enterprise were The settlement at the close of 299. The Italian Question. had satisfied neither the the War of the Spanish Succession
this wild
"

Emperor
of the

Charles
Italian

nor

King

Philip.

Charles

had

gained

most

Spain lands

heritage ; but he wished the rest, as well as to reunite the Italian and the Indies. " Philip V. wished At this time there was no to Spain. united Italian

Piedmontese, or only Savoyards, people, there were in the north, Neapolitans Lombards, and Venetians

Genoese,

ians and Sicilduke of in the south, with of subjects the pope, the grand hated The Genoese Tuscany, and other princes in the centre.
Piedmontese, of Savoy whom the Lombards also distrusted, because

the

the duke

bent on absorbing one state after seemed lost its energy had Venice and seemed merely another. involved its neighbors. anxious to keep out of the quarrels which to The was exchange emperor already negotiating Sardinia for Sicily, and the duke king of Sicily, was not strong king of Spain was The bargain.
of

Savoy,
to

so

recently
so

enough

refuse
to

made bad a
the

determined

prevent

Farnese, was the only heir His queen, Elizabeth exchange. increase of Austrian and feared any of Parma of the duke influence in the peninsula. Philip sent a fleet and troops in 1717 to seize Sardinia, and a second, a year later, to seize

Sicily ; but this brought

England,

Holland,

the emperor,

and,

THE

POLISH

SUCCESSION

291

into alliance against liim. The this. It was not expected action was that the littleLouis XV. would live, and the Eegent D'Orleans Philip of Spain resolved to desired to succeed to the throne. strangely enough, even for the French reason Prance make good his
own was

title to the French

throne,

and

in consequence

the regent Before The king such

emperor

other schemes. ready to oppose .Philip's in 1720 to yield. an obliged alliance Philip was became Sicily, and the duke of Savoy gained

his descendants retained until of Sardinia, a title which Philip was it for the title of king of Italy. they exchanged king of Spain, and by the emperor, as even acknowledged,

his wife's rights in Italy were safeguarded. By the Peace 300. The Polish Succession.
"

of ISTystad, in 1721, Russia had gained the eastern shore of the Baltic as far Adolphus The Sweden and of Gustavus south as Courland. The candidate of Charles XII. ceased to be a dangerous rival. of Charles for the Polish throne, Stanislaus, had, with the aid of

Russia, been driven away and Augustus of Saxony reigned undisturbe Stanislaus had gained a his death. Meantime until
supporter in France, for his daughter Marie had become Augustus died in 1733, and immediately the wife of Louis XV.
new

France

Eussia and Austria secured the election of Stanislaus. III. of Saxony should be king ; and so resolved that Augustus portant imThis war was the War of the Polish Succession began. it strengthened Russian influence in Poland, but especially because it led to further changes in Italy. France by which the two Compact and Spain entered into the Family In the kings agreed to defend each other's interests. Bourbon

because

Italian campaigns the

the king

of Sardinia

helped

the French

Spaniards.
the the

When

received This was

duchies
same as

peace was made of Bar and Lorraine in lieu of Poland. giving them to France, of which his only duke

in 1735

and Stanislaus

child was queen. duke of Tuscany and Piacenza were

The
on

to become of Lorraine was the death of the last of the Medicis.

grand Parma
son

to go to the emperor,

but Don
to receive

Carlos,
the

of

Elizabeth Parnese

and

Philip V.,

was

kingdom

292

JVEW

STRUGGLES

FOB

SUPREMACY

Sicilies, as Naples and Sicily were called. The. of the Two two or one king of Sardinia took as Ins reward strips along a century, his eastern frontier. This settlement lasted for over

in spite of temporary changes. Meanwhile 301. England and Spain.


"

uncontrollable. English traders and the Spanish colonial conflicts between officers. Like most other countries in the eighteenth century, Spain did not allow foreigners to trade with her colonies. Only
as a

for Spain

became

the hatred of Englishmen It was caused by the

had she permitted the English to send a ship fair at Porto Bello and to possess the contract to the annual The English for the importation of slaves into her colonies.
result of
war

sending a single transferred their cargoes others which ship; they despatched They to this ship by night. also smuggled goods into many The Spaniards had a right to complain, places besides Porto Bello.
merchants
content

did not

themselves

with

for the

Spanish
smugglers

government York to trade in New ships


were

English

would harbor.

caught and shut up increased by Caj)tain This was a great outcry in England. was declared that the Spaniards had cut ofE his ear, Jenkins, who
an ear a of the Commons committee and, to prove it, showed Sir Robert Walhe had carefully preserved in a box. which pole, who had been England's chief minister for nearly twenty altogether the better policy, years, and who thought peace was
was

allowed But when English in Spanish prisons, there


not

have

in 1739

this way it was merged

forced to yield to the clamor " " was the war of Jenkins's ear

of the war party. In Before long begun.

in

302.

An

English

greater struggle. much Although Prime Minister.


"

Walpole

was

really prime

minister the title.

in the later He had

sense

repudiated
and

become

of the words, he always first lord of the treasury in 1721. all equal

chancellor

of the

the ministers regarded Eor some years the king

exchequer as themselves
had

At

that time

in authority.

of ceased to preside over meetings EngI. could not understand lish. the cabinet, chiefly because George first lord of the treasury, held the purseWalpole, as

AN

ENGLISH

PRIME

MINISTER

293
king
was

had greater influence with the strings, and he actually than the other nainisters. After a time his "primacy"

House

of

Commons,

1741.

The
on

his right and the Opposition on view faces the Speaker, with the Ministry in St. Stephens. Commons his left. House At this time the sat of

important, because, since the reign of This was undisputed. William III., the ministers had in several instances been really than by the king. chosen of Commons rather by the House

294
William

NEW

STRUGGLES

FOR

SUPREMACY

a Whig obliged to take a Tory ministry and Anne they could not have perat a time wlien otherwise ministry suaded to do what the House If the ministers they wished. to represent the House it was well that they were of Commons, was

In this way, also, should be united under a single leadership. likely to accept their advice, and the day more the king was

had
not.

not yet

come

when

he must
worked

accept through

it whether the House

he liked it or of Commons, his followers their votes.


was

but with When

always he built up his

Walpole

majorityin

offices,and, probably, at last,in 1742, a

it by rewarding by directly purchasing of


one

even majority

vote

brought

together

303.

against him, he resigned. Prussia. While Walpole


"

was

strengthening
creating
a

the

resources

of England, scattered dominions capable and of taking


statesman
was a

was another statesman of Brandenburg-Prussia

out of the

of becoming

the ascended throne in 1713. His father, the firstking of Prussia, had loved the pomp of royalty. Frederick William cared rather for a large, His first act was to dismiss well-trained army and a full treasury.
useless officialsand
court, and set

place among King Frederick

monpowerful archy, House of Hapsburg the rival of the the strongest states of Europe. This

William

I., who

flunkeys, cut down


of rigid economy

the expenses

and When that the nobles of East Prussia were due, he ordered a new only one-sixth of the taxes ^paying for the whole In those days the royal assessment province.

example he discovered

an

of the try. tireless indus-

about one-third of all the land in the kingdom, and the income from them equalled the income from By requiring a more the taxes. careful management of the forests, by improving the methods of cultivating the fields, domains amounted
to

he added two million dollars to this source Lands of revenue. desolated by war or colonists. pestilence he resettled with driven from their When were the Protestants of Salzburg

homes

for the unity of the anxious faith than for the prosperity of his people, Frederick William to take them sent commissioners under his protection, treating

by

an

archbishop

more

THE

AUSTRIAN

SUCCESSION

295
his offer

them

as

his

from subjects

the moment

they

accepted

of homes, the

paying

archbishop

the expenses to indemnify the


to
as

and compelling of their journey, for their losses. He them also of the lords the peasants serfs condition of serfs. These

sought to guard from had finally sunk who


were

tyranny

the

not

as

well

off

for they

could

the mediaeval be driven from the domain


were

land, serfs in France or EngThe king their lands.


lands, to free them from

especially attempted, this danger, but his

on

officials who to have His chief anxiety was with sympathized the army to be enough recruits for his army, and he wanted of his subjects rather than of foreign mercenaries. composed to He assigned to each regiment a certain district from which
efforts the lords. the sons of nobles to attend recruit its ranks, and compelled his military school to be trained as officers. At his death, in 1740, his army numbered eighty thousand, and in his treasury iam The work of Frederick Willwere twenty-five million dollars.

thwarted

by

enabled

his

son,

Frederick

the

Great, to
in
new

use

the

opportunity
to

offered by the emperor's Prussia's territories and to show henceforth 304.

death, that
the

1740,

to add

kingdom

must

be reckoned with. The Austrian Succession.


a

"

Charles VI. left

as

heir to

his estates

whose husband, Francis He had feared grand duke of Tuscany. of Lorraine, had become that his death would be the signal for an attempt to divide the lands of the Austrian Hapsburgs, as the death of Charles II, daughter, Maria Theresa,

tage. heriof Spain had led to the division of the Spanish Hapsburg His own eign states readily agreed to accept as their soverdifferent he had persuaded heiress, and the the young No sooner European to guarantee this arrangement. courts
was

he dead

reason nearly all these courts discovered some The elector of Bavaria for repudiating their promises.

than

Bohemia, the elector of Saxony Moravia, the king of wanted Italy. France saw Spain the Farnese inheritance in northern to place an opportunity to tear up the Treaty of Utrecht and it the imperial throne the elector of Bavaria, although upon

296
liad been

NEW

STRUGGLES

FOR

SUPREMACY

emperor. from another the time

expected But the

that

Prancis

of Lorraine

would

be elected
queen
came was

greatest menace Frederick quarter.

to the young

of Prussia

saw

that this

to seize Silesia, a fair country

disputed
to

march Such were

He it would be best with the Hapsburgs. his armies into Silesia and to negotiate afterward. Succession, the causes of the Austrian of the War 1740, two months England only
after the

which thought

his ancestors

had

began in December, which By 1744 a war death. made gains France the struggle
was
more

between

and
one

or's emperFrance had

general. Avho forced

The

to receive any

Frederick,

Maria

Theresa

to cede

Silesia.

cis j)revent the election of FranFrench of Lorraine. armies gained victories, on they were the sea, from offset by the triumph of England French Nothing driven. were could be merchantmen which
was

succeeded he died but when

in making

the elector of Bavaria


to

emperor,

imable Although

done

to

ended 305.
King

English attacks. the colonies from in 1748 by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.


save

The

war

was

America

George's

and War.

India.

"

1\\ America

this

war

was

Shortly

after it began,

Governor

called Shirley

the of Massachusetts, of volunteers, captured with an army fortress of Louisburg, which the entrance of the commanded St. Lawrence River. When the colonists peace was made,
to hear chagrined for Madras, exchange
were

that Louisburg
a

had

been

given

up

in

trading

station

in India

French

had

Company One

Besides Madras captured. had important stations at French

the English

the which East India

Bombay

and

Calcutta.

of the

raandel
the
new

on the Coroat Pondicherri stations was began, Just before the war coast soiith of Madras. Fran(^ois Dupleix, had carefully fortified governor,

Pondicherri.
to

Owing
of
the

to the help

the

nawab

Karnatik,

his predecessor had he was considered

rendered
a

With prince as well as manager of a trading station. fleet he captured Madras. When tried the nawab of a French to compel him to give it up, he defeated the natives with his

native the aid

little army

of Europeans

and

trained natives

or

sepoys.

This

SUMMARY

297

him feared and respected throughout southern India. made increased when he succeeded His prestige was in beating off a The British attack on Pondicherri. peace satisfied him no Englanders, for each was better than it did the New obliged
to surrender

his army in the struggles though there again

cherished prize. Above together and for this purpose


a

of the

native

began
India

peace in India between

was

princes between England


the

to keep all he wished he began to take part for supremacy. Soon,

and
and

France,

war

French

English
causes

East

In America, companies. also, there were between trouble, for the boundaries the French and colonies the and America,
was

of lish the Eng-

had

never

Mississippi
as

well

as

settled. Each claimed the Ohio Consequently in India and in valleys. in Europe, the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle
a

been

little more

than

truce.

SUMMAEY

I. Commercial

Bubbles. bank;

"

1. John

Law

(") Law's
2. the

(c) his "mergers" South Sea Bubble : (a) English desire Indies; (6)government lends support to
for
:

(a) indebtedness of France ; the bubble burst. ; (d) why


to share

the wealth consequences.

of

scheme,

IL

Struggle

Territory.

"

1. Echoes

of War

of Spanish desire

sion Succes-

(a) divisions

of Italy ;

(6)

Austria's

for Sicily ;

(c)

Spain wishes to recover all her heritage; (d)settlement 2. Polish Succession origin of kingdom of Sardinia.
takes Sweden's
for place in Polish

of question,
:

(a) France
as

affairs ;

(6)

use

of Lorraine
annexation

indemnity
France
;

King

Stanislaus
settlements policy ; 4. The

; this, virtually,

to
:

(c)further
colonial

in Italy.

3. England

and

Spain

(a)

Spanish

(6) conduct
Austrian William
the

of English
:

outcry

against

Spain.
under

Succession
I.;

sailors ; (c) ment (a) developto divide

of Prussia the Hapsburg and

Frederick
;

(b) desire

heritage France America.

(c) Frederick
into

Great

in Silesia ;

(d)
in

England England

drawn

struggle ;

(e) consequences
L

and III. Constitutional


2. Advantage

Development

in

England.

"

Walpole's

career.

of the

system

of government

which

he helped

to

organize.

298

NEW

STRUGGLES

FOE

SUPREMACY

IMPORTANT
of kingdom becomes

DATES

1720.
1735. 1740.

Beginning
Lorraine Accession

of Sardinia.

virtually part of France. II. in Prussia ; beginning Frederick of

of War

trian of Aus-

Succession. 1748.
Peace

of Aix-la-Chapelle.

FURTHER
in addition Hassall,

STUDY
to

General

References, mentioned
:

histories of separate
Power

states

already-

Balance

of Conflict;Hunter's
Paragraphs
:

; of Brief History of

Parkman's

tury Half CenPeoples.

the Indian

298.

Mississippi

Bubble

Perkins,

France

binder

the Regency,

Chs.

13, 14 ; Parkman,

Half Century
I., 348-351

I., of Conflict, 304 ff.; South

Sea

Bubble, 299.
300. Italy Poland:
:

Lecky,

; Colby,

No.

88.

Hassall, 49-56.

Morfill ; in relation to France, Colonial


:

Kitchin,

III., 400-405.

301.

Spanish
Walpole

Trade

Bourne,

Spain

in America,

Chs. 18, 19.


No. 90.

302.
303.

Macy,

Ch. 36 ; Morley's
William paragraphs growth

Walpole

; Colby, II., Ch. 202,

Prussia:

Frederick 10, 11.

I., Henderson, 100,

3 ; Tuttle, I.,
250,

Chs.
291, 304.
Austrian

See

156,

238,

276,

for previous

of Prussia. Frederick's claim


on

Succession: French

Silesia, Tuttle,
sea

II.,

61-67; Mahan,

policy, Perkins,
; Colby,

I., 176 ff.; influence of

power,

264, 279-280
career

93.
I., Ch. 9; Hunter,

305.

India:

of Dupleix,

Perkins,

176-179;

Malleson,

Dupleix.

Additional

Reading

Lecky,

History

of

England
the

in the

Eighteenth

Century, Expansion

8 vols.; Carlyle,

Frederick

Great, 6 vols.; Seeley,


2 vols.

of England;

Perkins,

Louis

XV.,

CHAPTER

XIX.

COLONIAL

EMPIRES

GAINED

AND

LOST

306.
not

The

Struggles
because

Renewed.

"

The

Peace
not

of

1748

did

last long

the Austrians

did

consider

Silesia

lost, and because the English permanently and the Prench had rather than settled their conflicts in India postponed The Seven Years' War, called in America the and America.

Prench

and

Indian

War,

was

began struggle which when her ancient rivalry Shortly after it opened Prance abandoned of Hapsburg with the House and put her armies at its disposal
to accomplish

really the second part of the II. invaded Prederick Silesia.

the ruin of the

new

Prussian

state.

Weakened

struggle in Europe and one on the sea and in the colonies, she paid for the venture by the loss of her North American colonies and by the destruction of her power in India. Her finances became burdened so that discontent

by the double

task of

hurried
almost

her people
as

toward
as

ruinous

the try

England's revolution. failure of Prance, for


to

success

was

it led

the

English
levying army

parliament
taxes

upon in America, a
Prussia

her new strengthen empire by the colonists for the support of a standing tion. to insurrecthem policy which provoked
to

her position in Silesia, and Austria maintained to suffer this dangerous was obliged henceforth rivalry for the control of Germany. of the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle between the English at Madras end to the war put an and ing the Prench their fightat Pondicherri, but it did not prevent
"

307. Dupleix.

The

news

as

under

India was of rival native princes. nominally In the DecDelhi. the rule of the Mughal emperor of
partisans
299

300

COLONIAL

EMPIRES

GAINED

AND

LOST

Kiver, a governor the peninsula south of the Nabacla One vassal king reigned with his capital at Haiderabad.
can,

or

of
was as

his vassals
at Arcot.

was

the nawab of the These vassals of high

Karnatik, and

whose capital low degree were vassals

independent the Simple


a

as of their emperor in the Frankish empire

were

the

of Charles

of the tenth

influence of

opportunity backed by well-trained soldiers. an outside power In 1749, at the time when Dupleix his should have dismissed weak
government

offered

an

Such century. for pushing the

soldiers, lie the His


was

saw

an

opportunity

to

employ

them

in furthering

cause

and Arcot. of claimants of the thrones of Haiderabad little French by carefully taught sepoys, army, supported hordes for the undisciplined too strong of the native

princes. India
not

When
he
was
"

his candidate was himself looked

master undisputed throughout upon

at

Haiderabad,

southern
was

as

the

ever

triumphant.
and

victorious." The English


was

In the Karnatik

only, he of from
a

took

up

the

cause

nawab,

Dupleix

nopili, a however, the

stronghold that his plans

unable to dislodge south of Pondicherri.


w^ere

them
It
was

rival Trichi-

in France,

managers
men as

also

anxious
on

He was considered by undone. influential of the East India Company and by many dreamer. The French a wild was government to avoid Dupleix a new war with England. when
to
a

seemed

in the Karnatik the point of success arrived in India, in 1754, authorized


nearly
or

commissioner

arrest

him

and

to abandon

by diplomacy in poverty
methods,
an

by

war.

all the advantages which he had gained He was taken back to France to die
His

and

disgrace.

English
some

enemies

imitated

his

and

to this they owed

of their

success

in creating

empire

in India.

308.
to

Fighting
war

in America.
with

"

prevent before his woods

England. had

arrest,

there

failed sacrifice of Dupleix In May, 1754, two months fight in the Virginia been a The

Both a conflict inevitable. the English which made and the French claimed the valley of the Ohio and of the Mississippi. This region had been explored firstby the French

AUSTRIAN

PLANS

OF

VENGEANCE

301

in their efforts to discover the mouth They of the Mississippi. Orleans and had several tradhad made a settlement ing at New Detroit, and Unfortunat stations at Kaskaskia, other places.
for them

Mississippi
as

Valley

all the inhabitants of Canada together did not number a tenth

and
as

the

the English

to

Georgia.

colonists along the Atlantic from These the western colonists claimed

many Massachusetts

Several of their original charters had mentioned boundary. Such a question was as their western likely more to be settled by war by argument. than When Virginia
granted aroused

valleys. the South Sea

land

on

the Ohio
to

to

kn
an

Ohio

Company,
of

the

French

themselves site of force

On

the

prevent Pittsburg they

invasion

their domain. Duquesne, of the

named French

after the governor


sent to

constructed It was of Canada.

Fort
a

accomplish

portion this task that fought Although

with
war

party of Virginians under declared was not formally

George
for two

Washington.

years, both the French and English forces in America. A small the their strengthened English army under General Braddock was sent in 1755 to capture Fort Duquesne, defeated and its commander but it was mortally wounded.

On
even

the

sea

the

English Not

seized
until

French

merchant vessels and did Louis declare war.

war-ships.

after this

309. Austrian
discovered
that

Plans
Maria

of Vengeance.
Theresa
was

"

When

Frederick

II.

Silesia, he looked
Elizabeth Saxony,
was

about for allies. anxious to destroy him


was

to reconquer planning He knew that the Tsarina

who

Sweden
During

with her the War of the Austrian

also king Pomeranian

of lands

and Poland,
was

that the
was

elector of the plot.

in

his natural enemy. Succession he had been little

that his safest course concluded would be to ally himself with the king of England, who desired that the electorate of Hanover should have a strong defender

helped

by

the

French.

He

in Germany.

no went agreement with England further than a pledge, taken by both allies, to keep foreign did not look upon Frederick this armies out of Germany.

At

first the

302

COLONIAL

EMPIRES

GAINED

AND

LOST

as an of his alliance with England abandonment and more with France, but Louis XV. considered it as a new Twice during the j)revious of faithlessness. startling example in the lurch, making Frederick had left France a separate war,

agreement

peace with Austria.


giving

His

conduct

was

strong

argument

for

an and making np the old enmity with the Hapsburgs To Maria Theresa, if she hoped to recover alliance with them. had now Silesia, such an alliance was that England necessary

joined Frederick

II.

treaty

was

made

in

1756

which

pledged the two countries to defend each other's territories. in diplomacy This of itself amounted because to a revolution France had opposed Austria ever since the marriage of Mary Maximilian. A year later it and the Emperor of Burgundy
alliance to aid Austria in the recovery France was in the towns a few of Silesia. Although promised for France needed Netherlands, the treaty was a fatal blunder,
was

transformed

into

an

all her resources the English.


Theresa, East
on

to

save

Already
the

her colonies and trading stations from the tsarina had allied herself to Maria that

acceded to the second treaty between France to reduce Frederick and Austria, determined to the position held by his ancestor, the Great Elector. Frederick, finding himself 310. War, 1756. threatened
"

Prussia.

understanding Russia and Sweden

Kussia

was

to

have

from

every

of Saxony, the Russians

side, tried to end the followed by an attack


come

war

by

upon

sudden occupation the Austrian s before Although time the

Saxons

could resisted long

to their to

assistance.

enough

give Austria

to prepare,

forced to surrender and to become a part of the their army was Prussian Frederick's attack upon Austria failed disastrously. army. His troops were beaten by the Austrians while the

Russians
1757

defeated
cause

his

another of his armies. lost. Even Berlin seemed

By
was

the middle raided.

of The

who remained in possession of the electorate, threatening Brandenburg from Suddenly the situation changed. In November the west. and December Frederick over the gained the victory of Rossbach

Hanoverian

army

had been beaten by the French,

FEENCH

DEFEATS

IJ^

INDIA

AND

AMERICA

303

Just at this time the Austrians. and of Leutlien over Pitt, a great war William of English minister, took charge to a new treaty with Frederick, promising affairs. Pitt made to send more troops to Eiirope. a year, and pay him "670,000 dom But the cordon of enemies drawn about Frederick's little kingstill to threaten him seemed French with
ruin.

Victories
His

and

defeats

alternated.

were subjects

bs-

coming subsidy
the

exhausted.
was

The enough

English
to meet

not

enormous

expenses.

Fortunately

for him
one

airother
never

the allies distrusted that they so much

quite agree how best Louis XV. persisted to attack him. in intriguing in Poland against the
could

Russian
the

William

Pitt. Born, Entered Leading

party,

and

tsarina

would
to

consequently not allow the

First
1708;

Earl

of Chatham. in 1735.

died; 1778.

Russian

beyond

too far march over, the Polish frontiers. More-

troops

parliament

member of the Newcastle istry minin 1757, during the Seven

France
constant

by a crippled succession of disasters in


was

Years'
Pitt, 1783

War.
was

His

son,

William

the colonies.

1804

prime minister 1801 and again in his death until


to

from
from

1806.

311. and
the The
so

French
"

Defeats
These

in

India
not

America.
French

disasters might occupied with

have

not

been

the

war war

occurred had against Prussia. fle'et was larger,

English that they

had

the advantage

that their

could more easily forward soldiers to America In America, because of the energy of the French and to India. In Montcalm, the French were commander, at first successful.

1758

and Fort Duquesne The year following General Wolfe were obliged to surrender. defeated Montcalm Wolfe and on the heights above Quebec.

numbers

began

to

tell. Louisburg

Montcalm and

were

both

mortally

shortly afterward colonies in the West

Quebec surrendered, wounded. The French all Canada submitted. India Islands were also taken, one

304
after

COLONIAL

EMPIRES

GAINED

AND

LOST

another.

In

India

the

French

had

not

Dupleix had secured. They advantages which the subahdar or lish, governor of Bengal in his war with the Engat Calcutta, but the subahdar whose station was would Early in the war, take their advice. in June, 1756, one not

lost all the tried to assist

hundred
captives

and forty-six English


were

by
a

nearly all suffocated being crowded into

" Black small prison, the Hole Led by of Calcutta."

Kobert

Clive, the English

defeated

the subahdar at Plassey a year later, and, after the manner of Dupleix, replaced him
own.

by

candidate

of their

they ruler
not
Robert Born,
1725;

unlike demanded of
so

But

Dupleix,
the
new

much

money

that

all the gold and

in jewels

Clive.
1774. Entered
as

his great treasure-house

died,

service of East India Company Arcot, clerk in 1743. Captured

of Baron

of the Karnatik, Governor the plans of Dupleix. Made Bengal, 1758, 1765-67.

capital ing in 17.51,block-

could half pay the sum, Clive, a few years before, had been a
clerk upon a small salary ; now he "200,000, received and land with an income annual of

Clive

of

Plassey

iu

1700.

"27,000.

So

greedy

did

the English

that whole vilafter their early successes lages English While fled at the approach of even merchants.
was

become

Coote's victory at gaining control in Bengal, Eyre had opened the road to Pondicherri, which was Wandiwash This was the end of the French obliged to surrender in 1761. empire in India. Clive

312.

Peace.

"

In 1762 Compact

France

with in her misfortunes, Havana and Pitt had by English fleets. Meanwhile Spain

the Family

last effort by renewa made ing Spain, but this only involved Manila
were

captured
new

resigned and the

FRENCH

FINANCES

305
erick Fredso

ministry
was

was
no

anxious for peace. longer paid. The


was a

subsidy promised European states were

The

exhausted

that peace

mere

question
was

between
France

England

and

France

The treaty of detaiL signed at Paris in 1763.

lost all her colonial possessions in America save a few Indies and off the coast of Newfoundland. islands in the West to Spain, because Spain was forced to cede She gave Louisiana

Florida to England. by the English


to
on

In India

the French

towns

were

returned

remain

simple the

the understanding trading stations.


war

that henceforth The Treaty By

they

were

of Huberts-

burg

ended

on

the

Continent.

it Maria

Theresa

the hope of recovering Silesia. All the men and abandoned lost in this part of the seven all the treasure years' struggle The only power had been wasted. had anything but losses that
to

show
sea

for the
was

immense

the

unquestioned, by those of Spain. 313. French Finances. increased the English


of France there
was

effort was and her

England. colonies
were

Her

control of

rivalled only had greatly the finances


war

"

The

expenses

of the

war

national debt, but they threw into hopeless disorder. Even before the annual

began

seventy-five million livres, dollars. to almost as many equal at the present value of money " It became twentieth," to which a necessary to levy another So many third was added before the end of the war. persons
an

deficit of about

in escaping this tax that it produced little revenue. succeeded The only remedy would have been a thorough-going change in the system of taxes, so that the burden could be distributed equally
the
over

nobles, officials,townsmen,

government

resisted by the look upon themselves

Had and peasants. attempted such a change, it would have been They had come to judges in the parlements.
as

the

last defence

of the

community

against the despotism of the government officers. Whenever taxes the king's council ordered new collected, they refused to by the king register the decrees until expressly commanded
to do

this.

Unfortunately
to

any

attempt

with equal opposed from the shoulders shift the burden

they

energy of the

306

COLONIAL

EMPIRES

GAINED

AND

LOST

third estate they

to

those of the nobles


same

or

the clergy, for

as

judges

The king had privileges as the nobles. taxes should cease, the war that when ended the new promised be paid. but he could not keep this promise, for the debts must

enjoyedthe

Accordingly,
collection
greater
or

the

parlements
"

joinedin
Their

the

outcry against

the

of the

twentieths."

when

the king's advisers began

popularity was all the his debts to scale down resolved to reorganize
of the

postpone
courts

the

payment. and to do

Finally
away

the king
the

with

power

judges to

Such a was reform really desirable, resist royal decrees. a last obstacle removing although it looked as if the king were If the parlements despotism. to complete thwarted every

be to change the system of taxation, France attempt would It was in 1771 that the driven to bankruptcy and revolution. There had not been time to see were new courts organized.
how they would work before Louis XV. died, three years later. For England 314. The English Colonies. the consequence was taxation, but not so much quarrels over with of the war
"

her

at subjects

home

as

with

English

method

of managing

guided benefit of the mother had not been allowed manufacture


to

with the policy of by the common notion


country.

her colonists in America. The in comgenerous colonies was parison but it was other governments,
that For

colonies existed this


reason

for the

the colonists

to trade wherever

they

pleased, and the

of articles which them


was

the English

sell to

restricted.

One

wished merchants English statesman

declared

that
even a

to manunot be allowed facture colonists should horseshoe nail. At the same time their charters

the

allowed could

them

to

have

make
got

the laws

of representatives which assemblies Often these assemblies and vote the taxes.

into controversies with the royal governors, much like the old controversies between and the kings. parliament land EngWhen parliament tried to cut off the trade between New
and
the

French

West

Indies by levying

heavy

duty

on

molasses, the New of the royal

ance their trade in deficontinued before 1763 the Navigation officers. Even
Englanders

EASTERN

EUROPE

307
considerable
over,

Acts

and

similar

laws

had the
that

created
war

discontent advisers
of in

in the

George
America,

When colonies. III. concluded which


would

was

the
a

there

should

be

useful not only attack, but in enabling the governors colonies against sudden laws whether to enforce the revenue the local assemblies or The army, the ministry said, the inhabitants liked it or not. be paid for by the colonists, but the necessary taxes rather than by the colonial should be voted by parliament It was strange to expect that the colonists, who assemblies. for over had been allowed to tax themselves a hundred years, should would suffer this right to be taken away had already imposed customs, dodged by American systematically
to increase them

be

royal army in defending the

Parby parliament. liament but even these had

been

merchants.

An

be like the attempt of James would to collect to raise the rates of impositions, and an attempt like his son's In direct taxes was collection of ship money.

attempt I.

the money, but parliament the government each case needed had contended, as the colonists were now contending, that it Unhappily way. should be obtained in the customary ment parlia-

did not

discover that

it

was

A tragic part of the Stuart kings. Burke saw the blunder, but the majority and
out

playing again the vain and few wise men like Pitt and in of Englishmen

upheld the ministry

of parliament in the colonies


was

believed
as

that

well

as

its authority must be For this reason at home.

Act and the tax on able to pass the Stamp By 1774 the quarrel had gone so far that the government tea. was military rule. The under obliged to put Massachusetts delphia colonists retorted by sending delegates to a congress at Philato consider the proper method of defending themselves against such tyrannies. Europe. 315. Eastern

"

While

Prance

absorbed the verge


The

by their difficulties, eastern

and Europe

England
was

were

brought

to

by the schemes of Russia in Poland. of a general war had taken advantage Russians of the fact that the Polish
was

monarchy

elective, to

place

their candidates

upon

the

308

COLONIAL

EMPIBES

GAINED

AND

LOST

giving the country a better At the death of the last Saxon king, in 1763, organization. II, and the Tsarina Frederick Catherine II. had united to procure the election of Catherine's favorite, Stanislaus Poniathrone, and towski.
These for national Catholics, who

to keep

the Poles from

intrigues offended the party which independence, and particularly the did
not

was more

jealous
ardent
with
Ia.

wish

to

share

their

privileges
MA^^

NO.

or either Protestants in Poland a custom

granted. Bar, and Turks Russian

of called the Confederation it in 1768. The Catherine sent an army to destroy because were already irritated against the Eussians
group
was

and The new

It was of the Greek Church. members a federation, ''Conthat such parties should form in arms were until their demands remain

emissaries were stirring up the Christian peoples of the Balkan Peninsula, and the invasion of Poland led them to declare war Catherine, lest she gain too much power upon

SUMMABY

309

At first Catherine's armies were successful, Austria hand. empire seemed at and the ruin of the Turkish was armyalarmed, and she resolved to prevent the Russian Frederick thought that this controversy crossing the Danube.
on

their borders.

might

involve him

should help the Turks. and Austria

also in war, and he proposed that Catherine herself to a part of Poland instead of despoiling if Catherine Of course, agreed to this, Prussia
must

also have

shares,

so

that
a

the

balance

of

power might be preserved. to cover Prussian claims with which hunt Theresa suggested that Maria
own

Frederick

found

number

The

The archives. important most


connecting

result was land which old

up the robbery, for similar rights in her treaty of partition in 1772.

of old and he

Prussia

took

was

West

Prussia,

the
was

duchy

principal

share

Galicia.
"

with Russia

Brandenburg.

Austria's

of what was taken from for the

White Russia," called by the duke the Russians


this district
was

received the greater part which had been formerly

nobles

Except of Lithuania. peopled wholly by Russians.

In all the annexed districts the people were no worse off than before, because they had been serfs much by their oppressed lords. Indeed, Frederick the Great endeavored to better their

lot.

to save robbed Turks were obliged, two years later, in 1774, to the independence of Kainardji, acknowledge
was

Although

Poland

Turkey, by the

the

Treaty

khans

of the

Crimean

annexation

to Russia

prepared Russia shortly afterward.

region, which

of the Tartar the way for its

by treaty the rights of the Greek empire, Turkish


so

also protected Christians within the Turkish privilege of

that

she

gained

the

interfering

in

affairs.
SUMMAKY
Peace Europe, India,
;

I. Obstacles

to

in

and

America.
by
;

"

1. India:

(a)

condition

of India

in 1748

(b)

means

which

Dupleix
of his

established eventual

French
2.

supremacy

in the
:

Deccan

(c)causes

ruin.

(6) English

Austria .3. changing sides ;

claims and occupation ; in time of peace. the first clash ; (d) war claims ; (c) and Prussia : (a) Austrian plans for revenge ; (6)allies

America

(a) French

(c)the

blunder

made

by France.

310
II. The

COLONIAL

EMPIRES

GAINED

AND

LOST

Seven

Years'

War.
saved
a

"

1. Frederick him.

the Great

(6) things which


France
was

2. In America
;

and

India:

at

disadvantage
3.
;

made

of his victories.
of Louisiana
"

Terms

(6) victories of of peace : (a) in

(a) near ruin ; (a) why Clive ; (c) use


the colonies ;

(b) case
III.

Consequences.

1.

(c)Silesia. France : (") increase


taxes

of debt, with bankruptcy


:

new

taxes;

(6) who
of
Louis American

paid
to

these

(c) partial
2.

(d) attempt
desire of
;

reorganize should

courts.

England of the

(a)

that
;

colonies

bear

part

burdens

empire

(6) difficultiesabout
attempts of the struggle. IV. Eastern
Europe.
"

raising this money

through

taxation
;

lish (c)Engmeaning

to restrict American

manufactures

the (cl)

1. Poland:

(a) Russian
;

interference

in Polish for scheme

affairs ;
to

divide

(b)consequent Poland ; (d) gains


2. Russian

action of the Turks of each

(c)reason
three

of the the Black

parties

to

the

treaty.

advance

toward

Sea.

IMPORTANT 1754.
Ruin of Dupleix in America. in India

DATES first fighting between


French

and

lish Eng-

1756.
1757.

Beginning Battle

of Seven

Years'

War.

of Plassey.

1759.
1763. 1772. 1774.

Capture
Peace

of

Quebec.

of Paris.

First partition

of Poland. First Continental Congress.

Treaty

of

Kainardji.

FURTHER
General Paragraphs
307. Duplei:s
French

STUDY

Reading
:

see

ch. 18.

see

308.

and

references, 305. in America English


I., 20-35.

especially

Parkman,

calm, Mont-

and 309.

Wolfe,

Change

of French

Policy

Perkins,

Lo^ds

XV.,
and

Ch. 12 ; Kitchin,
Austria,

III., 451-455 187,

; previous

relations
212,

of France 249, 250,

paragraphs 304.

200,

206,

246,

284,

290,

310.

Crisis

in Frederick's

Affairs:

Henderson,

II., 159-179;

Tuttle,

IV., Ch. 3.

SUMMARY
Paragraphs 311.
:

311

Quebec
Hunter,

Colby, 179-186

No.

No. 95 ; Kendall, 118 ; English Clive, 75 ff. ; Colby, No. ; Malleson, England Mahan.
in

in India, 94 ; Kendall, III.,

No.

117 ; Lecky,
war

the Eighteenth

Century,

513 ff.; 312. 313. 314. Peace French English


ton,
:

on

the

sea,

terms,

Hassall, 276-279.
:

Finances Colonial

Adams,

Growth

of
:

French

Nation, estimates

248-249. in, EgerI., icy Pol-

Policy,

after 176-3

English

177 ff.; Lecky,

American and America

Bevolution,
industry,

Ch. I. ; Trevelyan,
Beer,

27 ff.; control of

commerce

Commercial

of England
discussion. 315.
First Partition

toward

; Seeley, Lecture
138-153

4 ; contemporary
Nos.

Hart,

II., Nos.

130-133,
:

; Lee,

202-205. Modern

of Poland 521-524.

Hassall, 303-318

; Cambridge

History,

VIII.,

Additional

Reading

Egerton, American

Short

History

of British

Colonial

icy Pol-

; Trevelyan, Bevolution

Bevolution,

3 vols. ; Lecky,

American

see

also Ch. 18.

CHAPTER
THE ENLIGHTENED

XX.
DESPOTS

316. From
end the

1774

to 1789.

"

The

Seven

Years'

War

and England. took advantage of the revolt of the English colonists to humble The chief result to France their ancient enemy. an was enthusiasm for liberty and equality awakened by fighting for the struggle

between

France

did not The French

liberties of the Americans. The sort of equality especially in France was fortunat Unneeded equality before the tax-gatherer.
there
were so

many

persons,
were

nobles, clergy, and


or

thousands
from

that each time a minister to remedy the evil he was seriously undertook speedily Nothing but revolution would be strong enough overthrown. to sweep In other countries such special privileges. away
monarchs,
as

of office-holders, who the payment of burdensome

partly

wholly

exempt

taxes,

well

meaning

as

Louis

XVI.

capacity, sought to substitute a single master, the masters which the feudal system had created and who still These monclung to the remnants of their former greatness. archs the conditions of life for their also sought to improve a subjects,nd
In England
"

of greater the State, for all

and

therefore the

were

inventive

called "enlightened was genius of a few men

despots." devising the

instruments,
power-loom,

the

which

steam-engine, the in later years did

and spinning-jenny,
more

than

kings to push XV. had left

old rights and 317. A New

privileges into the background. King in France, 1774. Louis


"

heritage of trouble for his grandson, Louis XVI. been so evil, even in old age, that the people had
to
reverence

His life had


almost

the monarchy.

Taxes

were

burdensome

ceased and debts


were

were

unpaid.

Many

were

loud
312

in complaint

who

not

tubgot's

befoems

313

ready
them

to approve
one

and

cost of betterment which should of their privileges. The young king was well meaning intelligent, but was to persist in the not strong enough

any

plan

from his courtiers, and especially from the face of opposition from Antoinette, inherited her mother, Marie who queen, but not sound Theresa Maria judgment. of Austria, energy
Turgot controller-general of the Avell by making in fact, though not in name, finances. Turgot was prime minister, for he insisted that none of the other ministers should

Louis

began

spend any money Another was reason


for the since they
or
were

not

set down

in the

plan

of expenditure.

his resolution to make the changes necessary These him, the country. welfare of concerned changes
which touched

system of the finances or trade and industry. the management of " As No bankruptcy, was, no of finances his motto minister increase of taxation, no loans." This meant that in order to
taxes

either the

establish be must
Marie

balance

between

severe

economy, who

receipts and expenditures disagreeable to something

there

Queen

Antoinette,

and who wished Much could be accomplished


to compel
taxes

her court life to be brilliant, wished to gratify her friends with splendid favors.

by economy,

but it

was

necessary

the clergy and

the nobles
was ever

if the government

their share of the to extricate itself from its


Turgot the

to pay

debts.

318.

Turgot's Reforms,
to

1774-1776.
equally

"

distribute

more

would burdens of

attempted taxation

have

office within two years. He made in accordance with which by annulling the corvee, a beginning the great highways built by the forced labor of the peaswere ant

had

he not been driven

from

farmers
of

rather

than by

hired

laborers paid

from

taxes

collected from

to prevent the only way famine was to forbid grain to be sent from province to province without government permission, and to insist that it must at prices fixed by always be sold at public markets, sometimes

allowed France.

the grain merchants Many had believed

owners. all property to buy and sell freely throughout

the proceeds He also

that

314
the government.

THE

ENLIGHTENED

DESPOTS

Turgot's

greatest

reform

was

the abolition

of corporations of artisans, composed, of masters and provided long sets of rules, which controlled the manufacture with and in almost all French towns. These corporations sale of articles

tried to keep frequently


Turgot's

in their hands

prevented plans
were

ordinary denounced

of business, and they masters. artisans from becoming monopoly


as

the members
parlements, because many

of the corporations, had which Louis XVI.

revolutionary but also by the been obliged

only by judgesin the


not to reestablish

people thought them an Turgot against despotism. persuaded to register the decrees, but soon judges
of the outcry, dismissed immediately undone. him. Many

indispensable
the

safeguard

king to compel the Louis, weary afterward


of his reforms
were

319. France
dismissed

and the English


the king's

Colonists.
council

"

Before

Turgot the

was

in 1776, France

whether Turgot argued the finances of France


minister

question help the revolting colonies of England. should, because this would war, throw against a new into greater disorder ; but Vergennes, the

discussed

the occasion excellent for of foreign affairs, thought the recovery of the prestige France had lost in the Seven Years'

War. would

was opinion of Vergennes adopted, and an alliance have been made immediately had not the defeat of the
on

The

the retreat through the Jerseys to hesitate. Already caused the French government money and had been secretly forwarded to the colonists. Lafayette arms colonists and

Long

Island

and

other

young

of the capture of Burgoyne in 1777, an alliance was France arranged. French because the king's assistance was especially valuable, the value advisers had learned during the Seven Years' War ever of a strong fleet and had been at work since preparing

colonial armies. at Saratoga reached

officers had When the

crossed
news

the

sea

to fight in the

one

for such
a

an

that they

squadron

emergency. under Count from

As

soon

as was

the

English

learned

d'Estaing

to sail for America, to New

withdrew In 1779 they

were

and returned too busy defending their West

Philadelphia

York.

India Islands

ENGLAND

FORCED

TO

YIELD

315

to push

the

Spaniards
French united
cover an

against the colonists. In this year, also, the The entered the war, hoping to recapture Gibraltar.
war

fleets and Spanish in the Channel to invasion


land. of Enginvasion never the danger the

The
took

place, but

thoroughly English.

alarmed

320. Yield.
"

England Other
the

Forced
dangers

to

threatened Their

English.

to seize attempts American French or goods found in neutral ships and to

capture

trading American

neutral ships French or with

ports, which they had declared to be in a state


of blockade, but which they had not actually blockaded,

with the Dutch and to a league of northern by states in 1780 headed


war

led to

COMTB
Born,

DE

ROCHAMBEAU.

called the Armed Neutrality. The Irish Protestants Russia,


this opportunity England to compel to

1725 ; died, 1807. Served in the War Austrian Succession of and in the Seven Years' War. Made commander,
the
statue,
was

took

in 1780, of the French

This

nation,

the Irish parliament to make the laws for Ireland


allow

in America. army by the French presented 1902. erected in Washington,

distant India the English

and to regulate its trade. Even in on were the defensive, for the sultan
was were

He of Mysore, Haider Ali, invaded the Karnatik. fleet under Suffren. by a French The English for war than in the days of Dupleix, prepared

assisted better

for Warren

Hastings,

the

new

governor-general,

administration

of

the

Company's

the reorganized successaffairs and had

had

316
fully

THE

ENLIGHTENED

DESPOTS

from the treasuries of dependent millions fatal blow at English The most native princes. power was struck by the Count de Grasse, when with a large fleet he beat fleet at the capes of the ChesajDeake while off the English

extracted

Washington The After


an

and Rochambeau independence of the this England


peace. Indies fought The

shut Cornwallis in at Yorktown. American colonies was assured. France and Spain only to obtain

honorable West
were

in the English

De Grasse over victory of Rodney in April, 1782, made this possible. The

but

retained 321. The Result to France.


the
a
war.

obliged to give Minorca Gibraltar.


"

and

Florida

to Spain,

from

It had

cost

gained fifteen hundred


a

France

little save

Necker, had

Swiss

who

had

made

fortune

million in banking at Paris,

glory livres.

been put in charge of the government finances shortly after Turgot's dismissal. He did not dare to suggest new taxes and loans. This merely through raised the needed money poned postday. the evil

322.

Frederick

the

Great, 1740-1786.
a

"

In

Frederick

the

tions ruler capable of laying the foundaHe had shown this by his energetic prosperity. of a new efforts to repair the ravages of the Seven Years' War, which in districts had been as dreadful as those of the Thirty some
possessed The money century before. and stores which for another campaign he had gathered he immediately used in these ruined districts. To the farmers of Silesia he gave horses and a great quantity of grain. He thousand seventeen Years'

Great, Prussia

War

also remitted houses. places that


a

the

of the ruler
was

sand year and rebuilt eight thouHe sought everywhere for colonists to fill the had disappeared. If he learned peasants who
a

taxes

for half

persecuting

his

or subjects,

that calamity

had

he sent agents there to persuade a overwhelmed community, A part of their expenses to Prussia. the people to emigrate he paid, as his father had done in similar cases. Before his over, thousand reign was about three hundred persons had

been added

in this way

to the Prussian

population.

As

he had

FREDERICK

THE

GREAT

317

a sought to increase the prosperity of Silesia after it became it was for West Prussia when Prussian province, so he worked his from Poland. he renewed On the royal domains taken

father's attempt

to better the condition

of the

peasants.

The

Frederick

the

Great.
of Sans Souci, near erected in Berlin in 1851.

Born

at Berlin,

January,
1786.

1712 ; died at the palace

Potsdam,

August,

This

statue

was

most

to free their children from the could do was domestic servants in the houses of the obligation of becoming industries in various parts of lords. His efforts to plant new

that

he

the kingdom

were

partially successful, though

he

trade injured

318
by acting keep
on

THE

ENLIGHTENED

DESPOTS

to

the ancient notion that every thaler spent in purchasing lost. In his schemes foreign article was a thaler a honest than in no more the State out of debt he was

his plans to rob his neighbors of territory. He repeatedly a fifth of its nomiinflated the currency which he redeemed at nal in such currency that he paid the salaries It was value.

in other ways, for he treated them simply as his agents, brow-beating them brutallj'hard, Like his father he worked they displeased him. when of his officials. Their lot
was
a

hard

one

His petty tyranhis personal attention to everything. nies forgiven by the Prussian were jjeople, and after his death " Fritz." They knew our in 1786 he was only as remembered giving
that he

323.

wholly devoted to the welfare of the State. erick's Maria Theresa had been FredJoseph II., 1765-1790.
was
"

his imitator. rival ; her son, Joseph II., became a strong, carefully believed that it had been through Joseph scattered provinces of his widely centralized administration
greatest

that Frederick

had been

so

and to destroy he ascended When the throne at the death of his serfdom. Turgot had appeared, this as if another mother, in 1780, it was he had not Unfortunately time endowed with absolute power. Frederick
to equalize

the

He was successful. burdens of taxation

more

eager than

self-restraint as Turgot, and he did not realize how stubborn would be the resistance of those whose privileges fifteen years before he He had been emperor he struck down.
even
as

much

became

king
an

and

he had found

that it was

impossible to put

new

like the princes were old confederation, where He independent turned with all the greater enthusias sovereigns. to the task of reforming the dominions of the House

life into

inevitable sooner Some of his reforms were or of Hapsburg. he showed too little consideralater, but in attempting them tion had long possessed. for rights which nobles or clergy Such the abolition of serfdom were of and the assessment His attempt to property so that all should be taxed equally. like the Hungarians, the the Bohemians, unite different races, Austrians,
and

the Netherlanders,

under

single administra-

ENGLISH

INVENTORS

319

tive system
were

was

futile, because
a

he

was

not merely cherished which He went far habit of life among so these different peoples. German to make the only language as officially recognized

attacking privileges heritage, but also a fixed

throughout

each region had its charter, dukes had which all rulers from the time of the Burgundian Joseph's attempt to organize the Netherlands as confirmed. a rebellion in 1789, which a single province was provoked put roused
There
He had only by Joseph's successor. for Bavaria, to exchange the Netherlands

all his states. in the Netherlands.

The

most

dangerous

discontent

was

down

already attempted but neither Frederick


to
see
a

the

Great
territory

nor

France
to

was

the added drawn by his ally, Catherine II., into a profitless 1787 he was his last days. war with Turkey, the failures of which saddened

German

willing Hapsburg

domains.

purely After

324.
had
"

Other

Enlightened
despots
"

Despots.
and

"

Many

other

countries

enlightened ministers who State for groups of attempted substitute a well-organized for clergy and lords communities with special charters, and in Such was with special privileges. work undertaken in Portugal, Bavaria, Sardinia, the grand duchy of Tuscany,
to

benevolent

and
very

even

in Spain. for
the

Unfortunately
rulers
were

the
more

reforms

never

went

deep,

obstacles to their own power down the peasants and the artisans. weighed had 325. English Inventors. England
"

to destroy anxious than to lighten the burden which

no

"

benevolent
There

despot."
were no

Taxation

was

fairer than

on

the Continent.

It is true that the land was serfs to free. generally laws in inaking by the lords, and that parliament owned thought more of the interests of the nobles and the merchants But the inventors were than of the people as a whole. preparing

industrial revolution these wrongs, although it might


an

which
create

would

correct

some

of

others and
was

bring much
on

temporary according

Manufacturing suffering. to. the domestic system. by


women or

still carried
was men

Thread

spun
wove

on

the the

spinning-wheel

children,

while

320

THE

ENLIGHTENED

DESPOTS

These hand-looms. men cloth on might also little land and be farmers as well as weavers. of land were often in half-acre strips, scattered

own

or

lease
holdings

Their
over

fields,as of living
machinery enclosure Hargreaves

had
was

been

the custom
on

in the Middle sides


:

Ages.

the village This way of

attacked
for spinning

two

first by the inventors

and

or

redistribution devised his


made
a

spinning-jenny
with
"

by the rapid weaving, second of strips into consolidated farms. in 1764. A little later
rollers, while Crompton Up to this time spinner.
combined more

Ark Wright

machine
"

the two thread

into the

mule

than Avas readily spun on the could be used in weaving faster than weaving. Now After on wheels. spinning went 1784 Cartwright restored the balance by constructing a powerloom. About the same was time Watt steamconstructing engines and which, could furnish the power. did not have weavers enough money
so

Ordinary
to buy

spinners these machines, hands


were

that the

new were

enterprise

passed

into the

of

capitalists.

Factories

built and

there the machines

placed. 326. Cost of Industrial


produce spinners cloth and cheaper
weavers

Revolution.

than
were

Since factories could both tlie hand-loom weavers,


"

and either Tliose who farmers,


new

to give up their work compelled become or take other employment. mill hands held land might in the country as try to remain

but

this

methods large outlays century forward the

difficidt because more yearly becoming introduced Avhich also required of farming wei'e Moreover, from the middle of the of money.
was

have
were

fields was pushed of enclosing the common farmer the Under the old system might rapidly. fields. When these rights of pasturage on the common
plan he would

enclosed

as compensation, money he would a livelihood, and

receive a little more be more but it would be tempted


town
or

land

or

sum

of

his fortune

in
no

held

neighboring land except

difficult to gain to sell his land and try in America. Many villagers
cottages.
or

the

They

had

been wont,

however,

about their to pasture their cows


plot

allow

FRENCH

PEASANTS

321
fields. If this right did This is with enclosure.

their geese
not

to wander

in the

common

in the records, it vanished the meaning of the rhyme : appear


"

' '

The

law

locks up the

man

or

woman common

Who
But

steals the goose

from

off the

leaves the greater villain loose steals the


common

Who

from

the goose."

The

new

undoubtedly not have equally

of agriculture of manufacturing methods and increased the wealth of the country : they may

increased
"

the In

327.

French
were

Peasants.

worth France

of the men. from to two one

fifths

of the land

only

one

or on

two

held by the peasants. Although there were hundred these in the thousand serfs, and
of Germany, feudal many the land of the peasants dues. Besides the cens,

northeast
was

the borders

with a sort of quit-rent, he was generally obliged to pay the lord of His grain must be ground a the manor at part of his crop. the lord's mill, his bread baked at the lord's bake-oven, and his In grapes pressed at the lord's wine-press. the lord had done a favor to the community with
a

still burdened

the Middle

Ages

This service had conveniences. The lord could also collect tolls upon monopoly. on roads, justas the king collected them such He

by providing it at length become the neighborhood ways. the high-

could

keep

pigeons,

which

fed

on

the peasants' could hunt game over keep pigeons peasant himself could neither hateful. These privileges seemed charges or
grain.
not

He

peasants' fields. As the


nor

the

hunt,

such

burdens
an

could

be regarded
a

as

rent, for the

than been
lords

tenant.

free from
an

In many cases before the feudal them


to

peasant the land

was

which

opportunity neighbors.

establish

by

system force rights

rather he owned had had given the


over

owner

their

weaker

In

original rent charge. the origin of such rights that the peasants were to beginning look upon them as mere Many exactions. peasants lived upon

they really represented an other cases So many generations had passed since

322
land

THE

ENLIGHTENED

DESPOTS

owned
on

by the Church

or

by the

lords, which

they cultivated
system.
owners,

shares, according

to what
worse

They

were

generally much they


saw no

is called the metayer than the peasant ojffi

because

reason

to improve

land that belonged

to

others and

contented

themselves
"

328.
peasants
was

Taxation
was

in France.

with a meagre subsistence. The the greatest burden upon


sum

the taxes.
to
a

In collecting the taille a certain

assigned

the peasants fixed the sums

be paid whether must village and the money Assessors when they chose could afford it or not. It did not take the peasants each should pay.

long to learn that if they appeared prosperous and if they made improvements upon their farms, the sum charged against them be increased. Consequently they often seemed more would

wretched than they were. paid the taille. Thousands

Neither

the

nobles

nor

the

clergy

of officialsenjoyedthe same lege. priviThe nobles paid the " twentieths," but they had the right to state the amount they should be taxed, while upon which the peasants paid according to the amount of the taille. It was

the
that
cent,

same

way with the poll tax. these direct taxes took from of the income

One
the

writer

has

originally set down

over peasant liable to taille. In as

calculated fifty per

pay the tithe to addition, the peasant must dues, the customs, and the taxes on salt. he had to live on unless he had succeeded The clergy of his property at the outset.

the clergy, his feudal It is hard to see what

in concealing a part had for a lump sum

purchased They made

the poll tax and the " twentieths." " free gift," which was too small, called a what was considering that the Church held at least a fifth of all the land. heavily taxed, the government did Although the people seemed
exemption from
not

sufficient income. from demanded small amounts the expensive method was receive
a

The
so

principal

reason

was

the

other Anwealthy persons. ing Nothof collecting the taxes. many

but
could

thorough
France

save

overhauling of the whole from disaster.


"

financial system
dismissal

329. A Crisis in France.


attempt
was

Since Turgot's

no

made

to better the situation until 1787.

ous seriOver

SUMMARY

323

lost, for the ministers could only take up and the courtiers plans which the ill-willof Marie Antoinette had compelled him to lay aside. Calonne, the controller-general,
ten

years

had

been

proposed
government

stamp

tax

and

a
"

land

tax, which
"

to abolish the

twentieths

The stamp tax would and the salt tax. stamped rich, whose business required the use of officially

enable the and to reduce the taille the rest chiefly upon
would paper.

be particularly obnoxious to the taille under another the clergy and nobility, because it was from name, such taxes as an and they regarded their freedom honor due their rank in society. In order to give weight to It
was

the land

tax which

would

these

sembly AsCalonne the king to summon an persuaded reforms of Notables, chiefly clergy, nobles, and royal officers, The Notables expected to hear and approve the plans. which was more were lieve anxious to protect their privileges than to rethe government from its difficulties.

Their

resistance

caused Calonne's them, but found

overthrow.
a

His

successor

finally got rid of

of serious obstacle in the parlement Paris, which registered the decrees only by express command afterward voted that its act was of the king and immediately
more

real registration. The quarrel dragged Louis XVI. vainly repeated his grandfather's
not
a

on

until in 1788
to suppress

attempt

system and to organize a new of courts. left except to call once There was the states more resource no the country from general and ask it to discover a way to save

the parlements

bankruptcy.
SUMMARY
I. France,
Fcttile
character Efforts
for

Reform.

"

1.

Turgot's

XVI. ; (h) problem of Louis for his dismissal, effect of this upon decrees ; (d) reason reform French 2. Effect of alliance with America his reforms. upon

(a)

Turgot's

attempts: ; (c) his

finances.
II. Beginning
OF
THE

Revolutionary

Era.

"

1. Why

France

was

to assist the revolted

colonists of England.
:

2. Results

ready of French

intervention.

3.

Difficulties of England in Ireland


;

(a) armed
in India

neutrality
;

of 1780 ;

(6) troubles

(c)attacks

(d) successful

expedition

of Count

de Grasse.

4. Terms

of peace.

324
III.
Bknevolent

THE

ENLIGHTENED

DESPOTS

Despots.
war

"

].

Frederick

the

Great:

(a)

efforts to
tion posi-

repair

damages
;

; (h) assists immigration

; (c) improves

of peasants
aims
;

(d)

liisabuses

of power.

2. Joseph

II.

(a) his
of his

(6)
S.
the

difficulties of the

situation ; lands.
and

(c) consequences
France.
"

efforts.
IV. Life
of

Reforms
People,

in other
in

England people
; growth

1. England: system ;

(rt)condition (c) industrial


this upon

of

country

(6)

the

domestic
;

inventions

of factory

system

(d) effect
2. France

of
:

villagers ;

(e) effect
on

of system
;

of enclosing. origin ;

(a) burdens
distribution

resting
of taxes

peasantry

(b) their

(c) unequal

(d)

the crisis of 1787, 1788.

IMPORTANT

DATES
king
with

1774.
1778.

Louis

XVI.

becomes

of France. colonists.

Alliance

of France

American

1783.

Independence

of United

States acknowledged.

FURTHER

STUDY
Hassall;
ell's Low-

General

Reading Eve

national French

histories already

mentioned;

of the

Eevolution.

Paragraphs

317. 318.

The Turgot

Heritage
:

of Louis 235-238

XVI.:

Camb.
Fr. Mod.

3Iod. Hist.,Ylll., Eev., 111-114

79-82.

Lowell,

; Lecky,

; Morley,

Miscellanies, 319.
France in the

II., 41-162; American

Camb.

Hist., VIIL,
:

83-88. American

Revolution

Trevelyan,

Eevolution;
320.
322. 323.
Final

Tuckerman,
on

Lafayette; Mahan,
Sea
:

346 ff.

Struggle
the

the
:

Mahan,

Ch.

13.
II., Ch. 5.

Frederick Joseph II.

Great

especially

Henderson,

Hassall,

351-358

; Bright,

Joseph

IL,

Chs. 3, 6 ; Whitman,

Austria. 325,

326.
bins.

Industrial

Revolution

Cheyney,

203-223

; Toynbee;

Gib-

327.

French

Peasants:

Taine,

329-348

(on
Ch. gives

Taine,

see

Morley,

cellanies, Mis-

III., in the notes dues ; Arthur 328. Taxation:

261-290) ; Lowell, (333 ff.) Tocqueville ;


Young,
Travels

13 ; Tocqueville,
a

151-169;

descriptive list of feudal

in France.

Taine,
:

349-373,

especially, 362-368;

Lowell,

Ch.

14.

329.

Crisis

in France

especially

Camb.

Mod.

Hist., VIIL,

99^115.

SUMMABT

325
Begime

Additional

Reading: and
the

Taine's

Ancient

; Tocqueville's
French 2-4; ToyuhQB,

Old

gime Re-

Bevolution Mod.

Bourne);
Review:

Gamh.

; Lecky, Ms"., VIII.,

Bevolution

(ed.
trial Indus-

Chs.

; Gibbins's Industry in England. : downfall Chs. 16-20 ; period, 1660-1788 of Stuarts in England ; France ; division and England struggle between of new opening to heritage ; struggle for control of Poland ; attempt of Spanish
Bevolution despoil the Hapsburgs
;
a

revolution

in the colonies.

Special

Reviews

"

I. Geographical

Changes.

^-

1.

Completion
and

of French

frontiers,

by

(a) acquisition
of Spanish
;

of Franche heritage:
;

Comt^,

(") of

Lorraine.
;

2. Division

(a)Spain
;

and

the colonies

lands (6) Nether-

(c) Naples
;

(d) Milan
3.

Sicily and

Sardinia.

Germany

(h)

independent

{d) partition of Poland. (") gains part of Poland.


6. II. New

(e) change in disposition of in western Prussia : (a) acquisitions of Silesia ; of Poland ; (c) conquest 4.' Austria ; (a) gains in Hungary ;
5. Russia's conquests
France,

from
and

Sweden.

Colonial
or

gains and

losses of England,
"

Holland.
:

Reorganized

Monarchies.

1. Great

Britain

(a) change
;

of

dynasty;
;

supremacy

with (") union (c?) organization of with

Scotland
cabinet
2.

(c)
:

parliamentary trous (e) disas-

government
France

political quarrel
absolute permanent
;

colonies. trouble

(a) growth
3.

of

monarchy control

(6)

about

taxation.
:

Austria,

of Hungary.

4. Prussia I. ;

(a) the

tor Great Electhe

(5) work

of Frederick

William

(c)Frederick
6.
Russia

Great.
by

5. Beginnings Peter III. New


1.

of kingdom

of Sardinia.

reorganized

the Great.

Hundred

Years'
:

War

between

France

and

England.
Louis

"

Prelude

(a)

dependence

of Charles the

II. upon
;
as

XIV. from of
enters
a

(6) common
ambitions of

antagonism
Louis
;

against
Louis

Dutch 1670

(c) danger
champion 2. England

Catholic restoration ; league against Louis

(d) after Revolution (e) of 1688. : (a) due to leadership

of

William

III. ;

(6)

effect

3. English

English colonies. and relations of Canada Louis to settle the in thwarting attempt of cooperate upon 4. Echoes of War
of Austrian

Spanish
India

question. America

Succession

in

and
;

(King
or

George's
;

War).
Indian
War

5. Fight

for the colonies


;

(rt) schemes
Years'

of Dupleix French

(6) causes

of conflict in America
;

(c) Seven

and

{d)

the

French
to 1783.

take their revenge

in 1778 ;

(e) results

of the conflict up

CHAPTER
FROM REFORM TO

XXI.
REVOLUTION

330.
Louis

Preparations
XVI. had found

for

the

States

General

in
nor

France.
his

"

that neither

his Notables

judges

a new aid him in planning and better system of taxes, he had to call the states general. and reluctantly decided being made in the fall and winter of While preparations were

would

1788-1789
not met
to

for the elections, for one hundred and

"

the great banker, was again As the other bankers asked to take charge of the finances. to keep trusted Necker, he had no trouble in borrowing enough

income

find money to pay Necker, and his expenses.

small task, since this body had it was necesseventy-four years, sary the difference between the king's
no
"

the king

king

from

becoming

bankrupt.

He

also persuaded

the
meet

to promise

that henceforth have

the states general should

the right to consent to plans of taxation. to pay taxes like the The nobles and the clergy were Furthermore common the third estate was promised people. in the states general as the nobles and as many representatives regularly

and

should

clergy that

were

to have

together.
had
as
"

All Frenchmen again.


restorer

began
were

to think

the golden toward

age

come

They

gratitude

Louis

the Each
to

filled with of liberty.


of
voters,
even

331.
country
wants,

Plans

of Reform.
was

group

the

parishes,
so

asked

draw

up

burdens

that the king and be removed. must

the states general These

cahier, or list of might know what

cahiers show

chiefly desired a constitution in which They duties of the royal officersshould be carefully set forth. also asked that everybody, noble or peasant, be equal before Only a few expressed the wish the judgeand the tax-gatherer.
to take from

that the people their rights and the

the clergy

or

the nobles the honors


326

which

had

for

OPENING

OF

THE

STATES

GENEBAL

327

centuries

belonged

to them.

In addition

to the caJiier,many

and books were pamphlets The famous done. most


named
estate ?

printed explaining pamphlet


was

what

Sieyes.

Its opening Everything. What

: words were has it been thus

written " What

ought to be by a priest is the third

affairs ?

Nothing. This

What
other

does it demand writings argued


so

?
so

far in political To become something."

and

boldly

for

the

rights of
manner

the

people

The alarmed. Influenced by those who had most states general. king began to fear he had promised too much. and

of governing judges became

and suggested France that some

in the changes many of the nobles, bishops, the queen also dreaded
to lose, the

332. Opening
assembled
estate
were

in

of the States General. 5, 1789. Versailles, May

"

The Many

states general

of

the

third

his ministers surprised that the king and said littleabout the promised in the constitution and much changes about his authority, about taxes, and paying the debt. They
favor the nobles and the clergy in deprive them their struggle against changes which would of their special privileges and honors. This made the commons the more to anxious to know whether all the deputies were

began

to fear lest he should

be of little use to assembly, since it would have as many deputies as the nobles and clergy put together if to be three assemblies, each with a single vote in there were
vote
one

in

great

any

final decision.

There

was

long

wrangle

between

the
more

three estates about. this, and liberal clergy and nobles

June

17, after several of the

had
"

joined them,

the

commons

declared their assembly to be the National assembly " and invited the other two estates to joinit if they would have a part in lawmaking. The king, more and more under the influence
of the queen of the

and the frightened


question.

third estate
the clergy

stubbornly

courtiers, forbade such a settlement He was forced to yield, for the soon persisted in its decision, and many of

nobles gave up the attempt to hold separate As the National assembly was to draw up a conassemblies. stitution it was also called the Constituent assembly.

and

328
333.

FROM

REFORM

TO

REVOLUTION

Some of the king's advisers now The Revolt of Paris. him that if he did not support his authority by persuaded force, disobedience soon government and riot would make
"

impossible.
excuse

The

increasing disorders in Paris


an

were

for gathering

army

about

both

Paris

and

used as an Versailles.

The

Bastille.

the Bastille, the rue Saint of 1734, showing map, Antoine the Hotel de Ville, and, outside the Saint Antoine were mohs recruited. gate, the fauhoui-g where many of the Revolutionary The from the Bastille was the courtyards on at the right. attack made

Section of

engraved leading toward

an

After
mask, leave
to

soldiers had arrived, the court party threw ofE the dismissed was and ordered to and on July 11 Necker the country with all haste, and a new ministry, hateful
the National

the

assembly,

was

formed.

At

the

news

of

IST eoker's dismissal the streets of Paris were declaring there was to be a people, some

filled with
new

Saint
the city.

excited mew, BartholoTaking

others

that

the

army

was

to attack

THE

REVOLT

OF

PARIS

329

began to of vagabonds of the confusion, thousands advantage for plunder. As tlie royal through the streets seeking run a convention officers did not dare to act, the electors elected
"

to choose
at

the Paris deputies

to the states

general

"

assembled

the

Hotel

de

Ville

and

organized a city government. to form They also began


city

On the mornmilitia. ing July 14, a great crowd of broke into the Hotel des Insand valides and seized thirty thouA similar crowd guns.
to procure arms at attempted the Bastille. The commander

of the Bastille

M^as

unable

to

to withdraw, them persuade and foolishly fired upon them.

The
to

mob
the

thereupon fortress.

laid siege After the


Bom

The

Marquis
in Auvergne, 1834. the

de

Lafayette. 1757; died

electors had failed to stop the fighting, a part of the old city guard Although
no

France, Became
a

at Paris,

eral major-genof the When

joined the
the from

besiegers.
was

in
army Paris he

American

Revolutionary

in

1777.
from he
was

Commander

Bastille

in

National

Guard
France

in 1789.

danger

successful

fled
1792,

10,

after imprisoned

August by
the

attack, the

surcommander rendered. Prussians He and several of were

and

Austrians

until

1797.

the

garrison

savagely

mob.
more

The
to

triumph
what

undo

in the streets by the murdered the king once of the Parisians compelled he had done. He the troops, withdrew
came

recalled jSTecker, and

to Paris, where

he

approved

of the

Bailly city government, with the astronomer as mayor and with Lafayette as commander of the city militia to be named Guard. soon the National organization
of
a

334.

The

Attack

on

Feudalism.

"

Since Paris

had

successfully

own

defied the king, many took affairs into their other towns hands. In some the orders of the government provinces

330

FROM

REFORM

TO

REVOLUTION

were was

disobeyed
at his

and

the taxes

could not

expenses. and burned

recorded the had been ever since the days of feudalism which payments In an outburst of made to the nobles by the holders of land. the National assembly tried to restore order by enthusiasm had made the people revengeful. the burdens which removing 4 it voted to abolish all sorts of priviIn the session of August leges, the peasants, all special the rights of the nobles over
"

wits' end to find money In many places the peasants attacked were the papers or books in which

be collected. Necker to pay the daily enough


the chateaux

class possessed by one office, all advantages its neighbors. over or a province another, and by a town to be equal before the law, with the Frenchmen were claims
to

over

All
same

rights
owners

and

the

same

burdens.
"

It

was

also

decided

that

the

had
were

offices which they or their ancestors of certain rights had leased purchased, or dues from lands which they
"

to receive money

to make

good

their losses.

Those

whose

rights had

grown

out

As many nothing. for hundreds of years, it


present owners decrees it was laws

of the possession of serfs could expect and sold of these rights had been bought
was

not

fair to take
In

them

from

their

about by

order to carry out these and to make necessary to get the king's consent details, for a society like France organiz could not be rewithout
payment.
a

few
"

decrees.
The
to

335.

Reforms.

assembly
secure

next

drew

up

Declaration equal in the Declaration

of Rights,
treatment.

intended
The

to all the people

just and

Americans

had

set the
"

example

of Independence
to the state
men

bills of rights" and in the declaration This French constitutions.

prefixed

that

"

are

born and

every one also promised print what he believed.


offences

remain free and to think, to utter, and to the freedom No one to be arrested except for was
when

affirmed It equal in rights."

by law, and innocent until he was defined


was

this declaration

assembly

succeeded

to be considered arrested he was In spirit to be guilty. proved 4. The similar to the decrees of August in putting only a portion of these promises

THE

KING

BROUGHT

TO

PARIS

331

of trial by and abolished cruel methods jury, of putting criminals to death, It attempted stroy to desubstituting execution by the guillotine.
the system

into the form

of laws.

It established

by abolishof the greater inequalities between men ing titles of nobility and forbidding the use of coats of arms guilds which control and liveries. The still retained some different trades were dissolved, and every man free over was
some

helped Commerce was should choose. by the abolition of the tariffs collected upon goods passing from province to province. Such taxes henceforth to be were collected only at the frontiers.
to pursue

the trade

he

336.
assembly
two

The

King

Brought
useful

to Paris, Octol)er 6.
reforms,

"

Before

the

it got into a violent controversy the question whether the legislature should have over houses, like the English and the American legislatures, or
these

began

the king should be allowed to veto bills. whether excited by the controversy, because the king had 4. Finally the assemnot yet accepted the decrees of August bly voted to have a single house, but gave the king the right

only one, Paris was

and

of veto.

The

Parisians

excitement learned that a

was

beginning had

to subside

when

the

regiment

court suspected a new Thousands were also suffering for lack of bread. out of employment In their distress they easily listened to demagogues

They

sailles. ordered to VerThey were conspiracy.

been

who the

told them

that the

trouble, and that could be kept away from the influence of selfish courtiers, there On October 5 a mob, composed more. at would be plenty once first chiefly of women, tramped out to Versailles, followed by
the Paris

king's advisers were to blame for all if he were brought to Paris, where he

had corapelled Lafayette to who lead them. In his alarm the king yielded to the clamor of the rioters and came with the queen and the dauphin to reside in Henceforward he was the Tuileries. really a prisoner.

National

Guard,

337.
men

ate moderthat several prominent the assembly reof members signed, and Mirabeau, its ablest leader, began secretly to advise
"

The

Emigrants.

This

incident

so

alarmed

332

FROM

REFORM

TO

REVOLUTION

the his

king

how

to

restore

authority. nobles
"

Already had
left the
count
was

many

country, Artois,

the
who

of the

king's brother, and several princes going immediately


after the fall of the Bastille.

been
the

nobles had frightened by away burning


were

Other

of chateaux.

These
or

called emigrh, As they emigrants.

to receive their continued from their estates income

and to spend it in foreign lands, many French workmen

had
on

and shopkeepers, who previously depended


them,
were

made

poor. also peror Em-

of the emigres tried to induce the

Some

and the king of Prussia to put down the Revolution. Joseph


Note.
1734. The with
"

Section of
Tuileries

map

of
connected

were

long

the older Louvre In front was gallery.

by
the

Place

du

Carrousel

from

which

the

was attack principal August 10. 1792. Behind

made lay the


on

Tuileries
the Place

Gardens,

opening

The July from

Tuileries.

Louis XV., renamed the de la Re'volutiou and now called the Place de la Concorde. It was that some on this square Place

of the first fighting took place, The Constituent were Here, also, many 12, 1789. guillotined in 1793 and 1794. held its sessions in the Manege (atthe left of the picture) assembly November,

1789.

LOCAL

GOVERNMENT

333
assembly hesitated to hurried forward by the
tried to

338. Newspapers
go
on

and

Clubs.

"

If the it
was

with

its great

and newspapers keep things as they

changes, A the clubs.


were,

few of the newspapers

had

the

most

influence.

but those which cried out for change Many politicians edited newspapers,
a

like pamphlets, containing which were had been said in the assembly or in the clubs, with little news and
no

description

of what

advertisements.

The

most

mous fa-

the Monof these papers was iteur. Another, du Peuple, L'Ami


or

Friend

of the People,
Marat,

was

lished pub-

by
while

and

was

all the

calling on the people to rise against the king or the assembly The or the Paris government. principal political club met at the convent of the Jacobins and was

Club. Jacobin the nicknamed Three years later it was controlled by The violent revolutionists.
best
known

CoMTB
Born, 1791.

DB

Mirabeau.

of

these
a

men

was

1749; Already

died,

April,
for

famous

Robespierre,

already

member

of

his adventures

the club, but as yet without much influence, for the club also contained
leaders Lafayette. it did
a

began.
of the

when The

and his writings Revolution the


ablest statesman assembly.

Constituent

like

Mirabeau

As good

the Jacobin

and Club had

branches think

all

over

France,

deal to make

Frenchmen

things it wanted to do generally the assembly There was from the monastery also the Cordelier Club, named Danton held. its most prominent was where its sessions were

alike, and the had to be done.

member. 339. Local Government.

by the assembly was the departments, replacing the older division into provinces and Each department for some was generalities. named natural

of the greatest changes made division of France into eighty-three


"

One

334

FROM

REFORM

TO

REVOLUTION

feature, generally a river lines of the old provinces the


or

or

mountain retained

range.
as

The
as

boundary-

were

people preferred to call themselves Burgundians, rather than inhabitants and


the Cote

possible, for Bretons, or Picards,


Finistere, the
governments

far

Somrae,
were

d'Or.

The

of the departmental

their local affairs and to act as agents in carrying out the laws and in colof the central government lecting A similar form of local self-government the taxes. was

expected

to manage

granted

to the colonies.

As

there

officersto enforce laws which happened became that departments


central anarchy."
government.

of compelling they did not approve, it often almost

was

no

sure

way

independent
"

of the

This
as

has

been

It

was

if Congress

called administrative should intrust to the states and the collection of large whether
acted

the enforcement In the taxes.


or

of United
same

States laws
or

way
own

each town
government,

commune,

small, had

its

and

often

independently This
their

was

or of the central government. of the department, especially true of Paris, for the Parisians thought

opinions should be followed because the Bevolution at the beginning.

they had

done

so

much

for

340.
more

Church

Property.

"

By

important,
a

the Church,

another change, in some formerly a half independent

ways body,

became

of officialspaid by the State to perform the company One of the reasons for this religious duties assigned to them. the desire to iise the vast property of the Church in paying was the national debt and in meeting the daily expenses of the government. It was feared that if the people were to compelled propay in taxes the heavy cost of all the reforms which were posed, the Revolution and its enemies would become unpopular would

triumph.
property

Accordingly
in November,

national

churches,
as

and

few monastery and

declared was property 1789. The cathedrals, parish to be maintained ch lurches were Church lands
and

parish

churches

all the other

buildings

were

to be sold.

341.
sell
so

Paper
much

Money.
property

"

It
at

was once

difficult to without

devise
at

a a

selling

way to heavy

PAPER

MONET

335
that
a
new

loss.

FurtheriTiore,

buyers

were

of the Eevolutioii got the upper declare the be chosen which would its return. wrong and would compel fear it was
to pay

afraid hand,

if the

enemies

assembly would Church sale of property


To relieve them
towns,

of this

decided

to sell the

land
The

to the towns

the government

in notes.

give

safer title to would-be

purchasers.

would But there

were which be able to

was

an-

An

Assignat.

This
the

traordinary to pay 1000 livres ($200)at the office of the Expromises 20 deniers a day, the security being Fund, with interest at to the reimbursement Domains, National of such notes. pledged
note

other difficulty; money long time to sell enough their notes and so help

was

take a possibly it would to redeem land to enable the towns to pay its expenses. the government
scarce,

Since

could not wait, the assembly government April, 1790, to issue notes of its own, called assignats,
the upon
at

voted
or

in

three

the proceeds of the land sales, and bearing The leaders declared that this per cent.

ments assigninterest
not

was

in gold, that it was safer than notes redeemable paper money, They for gold might be stolen, but land could not be stolen.

336

FROM

REFORM

TO

REVOLUTION

promised
million
amount.

to issue assignats,

to the value
was

livres, while the land It was not six months million


more,

of only four hundred times that many worth they decided their
to

before they

issue in

eight hundred the Legislative

assembly

until the assignat the American

voted other issues ing duras was worthless as Continental money land was Meanwhile Revolution, much and

and Convention the

and

successors

sold. It used to be thought that this passed into the hands of the peasants and helped to build up a body of small farmers, bought but it has been shown that quite as often the land was in town by rich men or country.

342. Reorganization
property the

of the Church.

"

After taking the Church

to change the thoroughly assembly undertook " Civil In what was called the organization of the Church. ceses Constitution of the Clergy," adopted in July, 1790, all the dioto correspond were cutting with the departments, made

and archbishops from one hundred All these prelates as well as the and thirty-four to eighty-three. to be elected as if they were ordinary civil officers. priests were to their apThey pointme could not look to the pope for his consent down the number
of bishops
as

had

been

agreed

by Francis

had The monasteries with Pope Leo X. To many pious Frenchmen, as well as to the king, all this seemed in the organization of They thought that any change wrong. It was the Church should be made by a Church council. certain

I. in his concordat already been closed.

that the pope would not agree to the " Civil Constitution of the told that Indeed, Louis signed it only because he was Clergy." As nearly all if he did not, there would be an insurrection. the bishops

declared

openly

ber, against it,the assembly, in Novem-

to the clergy were up an oath of submission which All except four bishops take or be deprived of their positions. About forty-six thousand priests also refused refused the oath. vait. The assembly cant. ordered elections to fillthe places made

drew

After much They


were

trouble
"

new

bishops and priests


"

were
or,

enemies,

constitutional clergy called the " the others were intruders," while the

chosen. by their
"

named

non-

THE

KING

AND

THE

NEW

CONSTITUTION

337

jurors."In
unless they the

some were

parishes protected
were

the intruders

by soldiers.

did not dare appear In other places it was

Thus France vided diwas roughly used. feared and hated one into two bodies which another. Although the king had signed the law, he did not dare to who non-jurors

constitutional priest. He also had gone too far and began to plot that the assembly thought how he might upset much that had been done. 343. The King and the New Constitution. The king had
receive the
sacrament
a
"

from

grown weary of his captivity. in the Tuileries gardens without being attended by guardsmen. the aid of his generals he
an

He

could not

take

walk

even

With

of

one

gathered
northern thought

army near frontier.

the He could

that

if he

reach this army, he could appeal to its loyalty for support


against the revolutionary politicians who had

taken the

away

army

his power. If also failed him,

the could ride across frontier into the dominions of his brother-in-law, Emperor Leopold. the In
Louis

he

June,
from far
as

1791,
Paris,

he

and Varennes,

escaped drove as
Born
at

XVI.
1754;
executed 21, 1793.

Versailles,

almost the

at Paris, January

within
army,
not

the but
once was

lines of

at

began

The assembly did stopped and brought back. Enthusiastic revolutionrestore him to authority. ists to talk of dethroning him. Some even of them

a July 17, a multitude suggested republic. gathered in the Champ de Mars, a great field where a year before on the first

338

FROM

REFORM

TO

REVOLUTION

anniversary of the fall of the Bastille a festival of Federation had been held. Here a petition for the king's dethronement displayed. The Paris municipal was that ofticers, thinking another

insurrection
to disperse

was

being

prepared,

ordered

the National

Guard

the mob.

into the which

and many crowd " followed. This Massacre

In the confusion the guards fired hurt in the stampede persons were
of

the

Champ

de Mars

"

the more stirred up hatred among against the wellviolent men to-do Parisians, who were anxious for good order and were The assembly concluded willing to compromise with the king. that it had
more was

far and attempted When satisfactory to Louis. gone


too

to

make

the constitution

because
persuade

he

presented in hoped

to

hiin in

completed tution constihe accepted it, September,

the

the emperor

to gain time until he way to interfere in his behalf.

this

could

344. The

Legislative Assembly.

"

October

1, 1791, the

new

legislature, called the Legislative assembly, took the place of The Constituent had Constituent assem.bly. the National or unwisely and Most voted that
so
a

none

of its members
men were

could accept

an

tion, elec-

set of untried

to manage

more of those who were chosen were It was Eevolution than even the members of the Constituent. improbable his situathat they would please the king or make tion
more

the government. enthusiastic for the

Indeed,

they attacked the two classes of persons he regarded as his stanchest, though not always his wisest, whom In one decree friends, the emigres and the
"

agreeable in November

than

he

had

thought

it in the

sp];ing.

non-jurors.

they declared

the

emigres

who

the frontiers to be conspirators, for a stricter surveillance over


measures

should remain and in another

assembled

on

non-juring

they provided priests. To these


no

he refused his consent. peace between the assembly and

After this there could be the king.

SUMMARY

339

SUMMARY

I. Hopes

ings promises : (") periodical meetincreased influence for third estate ; of states general ; (b) 2. Popular plans : (a) cahiers ; (") a (c) equality of taxes. constitution ; (c) equality before the law ; (d) greater political
of
"

Betterment.

1.

King's

power.

II. Why
and

Reform third sides

became

Revolution.
:

"

1.

Conflict between

estate

(a)
use

question
;

of voting ;

(")

reasons

nobles king why

took
party the

with

nobles
to

attempts
;

of third estate ; (d) court (c) success on ; (e) revolt of Paris ; (/) war army and
queen
made

ch",teaux Reforms 4
:

king (gr)
the

forced

to

reside
"

in Paris.
1.

III.

What

Revolution

Possible.

Program

of August about
to

(a)

abolition

of feudal

privileges ;

carrying
2.

this out ; Declaration

(c) equality
of Rights: of

of taxation

(5) difficulties ; (d) eligibility


"

office.

(a) freedoms,

thought, of guild

speech, system.
into

press ;

(h) safeguards
trade.
;

justice. 3.

Abolition

4,

Freer

5.

Local

departments

(6)
as

provision
:

: (a) division government for local self-government.

6. Reorganization
property
;

of Church
assignats by
a

(a) Church
method

property

made

national
to

(6)

of sale ;

(c) attempt

reorganize

the

Church

Civil Constitution
"

of Clergy. 2.

IV.

Resistance 3.

OF

Old

Order.
:

1. Emigration.

Non-juringclergy.
public
nature

Flight

of king
to

(a) object; (")


about
;

effect upon
;

opinion of king's
non-

(c) attempt
acceptance and

bring

his deposition

(d)

of constitution

(e)

his veto

used

to

protect

jurors

^migr6s.

IMPORTANT
1789, May 1789, June
1789, July 5. Meeting of states

DATES
general.
becomes

17.
14.

States general

National

assembly.

1789, August 1789, October 1791, June.

Fall of Bastille. 4. Declaration abolishing 6. King and queen

the feudal

system.

forced to reside in Paris.

Flight

to Varennes.

1791, October.

Meeting

of Legislative

assembly.

FURTHER
General Reading
:

STUDY
; brief histories

Histories

of France Morris,
or

by

Matthews,

Gardiner

tion, of the RevoluEuropean ; Stephens,

JSistoi'y, 1789-1815;

Fyffe,

History

of

Modern

Europe;

Rose,

340
Century
Era;

FROM

REFORM

TO

REVOLUTION

of European
Tr. and

History

and

Revohitionary
and

Anderson,

Constitutions
Rp.

Documents;

and Napoleonic University of

Pennsylvania,
Paragraphs
:

330.

Necker's 115-118.

First

Measures

Cambridge

Modern

History^

VIII.

331.

Cahiers
from

specimens by States

in

Tr. and

Rp.,

Vol.

VI.,

No.

5;

selection

pamphlet of

Siey^s, Ibid., Vol. VI., No.


General
151
:

1, p. 32.

332.

Opening
Travels

vivid

impressions

in

Young's

in France,

ff.; Jefferson's French

letters. I., Ch. 5;


new

333.

Paris

Uprising:

Stephens,
Bourne,

Revolution,
Rev., 4; but

city government,

Am.
Anderson,

Hist.
No.

January, Tr. and

1905.
Rp., Vol. I., Viollet in

334.

Decrees
No.

of August
5, pp.

4:
Taine,

2-6;

I., 149-154;

especially

Camb.
335.

3Iod. Hist., VIII., of Rights


with the
:

715-721.
58-60
; Tr. and

Declaration
compare

Anderson,

Rp., Ibid.,G-S

first eleven

amendments

of the

Constitution prefixed to See further.

of the
the

States and with the constitutions of Massachusetts


United American

"bills of rights"
and

Virginia.
in the

Bourne,

Constitutional
Hist.

Precedents 1903.

Constituent

Assembly,

Am.
5-6
:

Review,

April,

336.

October
January,

Pasquier

I., 60-61 Young, in

; Morris,

I., Ch. 8 ; situation

in

1790, Arthur specimens

287-310.
Tr. and

338.

Newspapers:

Rp.,

Ibid. ; Jacobin

Club,

Ibid., 19. 340.


341. 342.

Church Paper Civil

Property: Money
:

Taine,

I., 167-175;

Jervis, 30-42.
695-690.
No.

Camb.

Mod.

Hist., VIII.,
:

Constitution

of Clergy

Anderson,

6, C ; Tr. and
to French

Rp.,
see

Ibid., 20-26 paragraphs 343. 344. King's The Flight

; for earlier relations of Church

State,

169,
:

195,

279;

Jervis, Ch. 3 ; Taine, Nos.

I., 176-180.

his

Anderson, justification,

12, 16.

New

Constitution:

Montague

in Camb.

Mod.

Hist., VIII.,

201-210.

Additional
and

Reading

works

of Stephens, 3Iod.
Hist.
,

Von

Hoist,
; Memoirs

Taine,

Thiers,

Carlyle ; Camb.
Mallet Letters

VIII.

of Pasquier,

Talleyrand, Diary and

du Pan

; Dumont,

Recollections
2 vols. ; Mahan's

of Mirabeau
Sea
Power

of Q.

Morris, and

the and Monarchy From


and the

French

Revolution
to Republic

Empire,

vols. ; M.acLehose,

in France;

Jervis, Galilean

Church

Revolution

Willert,

Mirabeait

; Despatches

of

Lord

Gower.

CHAPTER

XXII.

THE

REVOLUTION

AT

WAR

WITH

EUROPE

345.
events

Impression
in
France
were

made
were

by

the

Revolution.
in

"

The other

startling
countries.

Americans

eagerly watched interested because they had

been revolutionists

now government, and were actually organizing a new provided for in a constitution drawn or up by a convention constituent Lafayette, one assembly. of the Paris heroes, had fought for

American

independence

and

was

Washington's

intimate

friend.

Jefferson, the secretary of state, had been Revolution to France the French when
discussed their plans with the leaders In England there were and in Germany poets
more

ister minout and liad of the National assembly. broke

the American

like Burns,

Wordsworth,
was

and

men, many particularly Klopstock, a who thought

glorious age burdens, be would

freed from heavy men, when happier But, a little later, and better. Burke, had spoken in behalf of the rights of Edmund who the American that the French colonists, became convinced
coming

fatally wrong. His book entitled Reflections the Revoon lution in France, published in 1790, declared that there could be no worse the ills of a nation. He also said that way to cure
were

the

had privileges and clues which by the new laws were as sacred as

been

changed

or

abolished

ordinary
"

346.
not

Policy

of European
the

Monarchs.

private property. did Eevolution The


even

at first alarm
an

sovereigns

which

had

in advantage long sought to dominate


were

They of Europe. it, because it crippled a

covered dis-

kingdom

and

nearly all the Russians

deeply

against

engaged the Turks,


341

its neighbors. more, Furtherin war, the Austrians


"

and

the Swedes

against

342

THE

REVOLUTION

AT

WAR

WITH

EUROPE

the Kussians. had tion which Louis XVI. was


Emperor it
was

The

Austrians
out

broken

also harassed in the Netherlands.


were

by

revohiwhen
the

But

forcibly

brought

back

from

Varennes,

Leopold,
time

brother of Queen Marie monarchs


to restore

Antoinette,

decided

for other

royal authority in

France.

England,
The

to interfere.

Pitt, refused under the guidance of William Tsarina Catherine of Russia hoped that both

of Prussia would become France, in order that she might be a quarrel with Leopold free to carry out her designs upon Poland. understood by Louis of the new the acceptance this and was relieved when ference. his plan of interto abandon constitution gave him an excuse the emperor involved in and Frederick

William

Unfortunately,
still remained. trying
to

grievances

which
were

might

bring

on

war

Bands
arrange

of emigres invasion an

princes who had estates in Alsace feudal rights by the decrees of August from France in payment. accept money Many 347. Declaration of War.
"

tier, gathered on the fronThe German of France. and Lorraine had lost their
4, 1789, and

refused

to

in

the

Legislative XVI.

assembly

thought intriguing with

that

the

only

way

to

keep

Louis

from

to was othef monarchs against the Revolution Leopold, on the ground that he had make war upon the Emperor to interfere in French threatened affairs and that he had not

dispersed

the armed

emigres.

If the kings

united

revolutionists, they would appeal to the peoples In such a war have littlechance, for were the kings would not fight against drawn from the people, and would they armies their brethren
?

against the of Europe.

that the king of Prussia might enemy consider this a fine opportunity to cripple the Hapsburg In the midst of the discussion the pruof the Hohenzollerns. dent
It
was

hinted

Leopold Louis
as
was

by his son was and succeeded forced, April 20, 1792, to declare war upon died
of Germany

Francis. him, not Bohemia, well


as

emperor the

but
not

as

king

for

assembly Austria. Prussia

did

would

wish not listen

of Hungary and to fight Germany


to

as

the French

proposals of
a

and

the joined

Austrians.

This

was

the beginning

series

SEPTEMBER

MASSACRES

343
to its foundations,

of

wars

and
even

which were which, before


the United American

to shake ancient

Europe

they

were

States and

to involve ended in 1815, were to lead to the insurrection of the

Spanish

348. Overthrow
was

colonies. of Louis XVI.,

August

10, 1792."

France

for war. Thousands of officers,disgusted by the unprepared Revolution or frightened by their mutinous soldiers, had joined

The the emigres. rapidly in value.


only hope

assignats, The king

or

paper

and

had begun to fall money, queen, believing that their

of safety lay in the success of the enemies of France, At midsummer, revealed to them the plans of the generals. before the Prussians and the Austrians crossed the frontier, just
that all Frenchmen must at once return to the obedience of their king, that any town be ravaged which resisted the invaders would with fire and sword, and that Paris should be similarly treated if the king After such a mad insulted or harmed. and queen were proclamation

they published

manifesto

declaring

difficult for any patriotic Frenchman not to look upon the king as in league with the enemy. This gave They their opportunity. the Paris violent men overthrew
was

it

government,
on

10, led the populace, with many from Paris or other cities, against the national guardsmen Tuileries. The king took refuge in the assembly, while his brave

establishing a the following day, August

new

Revolutionary

commune,

and

Swiss
The

guards

fought

until they

firing.

palace was captured and assembly to the Temple the king's authority and sent him suspended Those a as were were who prisoner. still loyal to him
to

ordered The sacked.

were

to

cease

forced

hoped Lafayette to lead the or submit emigrate. army, which he had commanded since the opening of the war, to Paris, to put down but his the insurrectionary government,
troops would frontier as a
not follow

him, and

he

was

obliged

to

cross

the

refugee.

349.

September

Massacres.

"

The hands

triumph

the control

of affairs in the

Robespierre,

who

were

determined

of men to treat the king's friends

of the mob placed like Danton and

344

THE

BEVOLUTION

AT

WAR

WITH

EUROPE

as

traitors.
and

Hundreds
priests
were

of

bishops

officials,nobles, and into the Paris crowded

non-juring

into monasteries When one used as prisons. Prussians, after another fell before the advancing

prisons or frontier fortress


the populace

The The

Temple.

by the Templars Great Tower constructed of the Temple, in by Philip IV. after 1307, demolished in 1222, confiscated toinette AnMarie imprisoned. 1811. Here were the royal family
was

later taken

to

another

prison,

the

Conciergerie.

began

Bloodthirstyclamor for the lives of the prisoners. The fanatics, like Marat, urged the people on. assembly and On the city officials were either indifferent or powerless.
to

Sunday,

September

2, bands

of

desperadoes

broke

into

the

THE

CONVENTION

345

prisons and killed the prisoners. For. several days a systematic found When on. massacre quiet was restored, it was went
that
at least
a

thousand

persons

had

been

slain.

The

Carmelite

Monastery.

Here
two

over

one

hundred and an of them

and fifty persons,


archbishop, thrust were
or were

bishops
Many

chiefly priests, including 2, September murdered,

1792.

out

and

killed

with

swords

pikes

at

at the left of the doorway the foot of the stairway.

350.

The

Convention.
the monarchy.

"

The

insurrection
was

of August
a

10 had

destroyed although

France
not

this fact had

been

republic, It was legally proclaimed.

actually

346

THE

REVOLUTION

AT

WAR

WITH

EUROPE

necessary

to call

constitution to be later. The ministers dared undertake settled several months Its special of the Convention, nothing without the consent difficult b}''the quarrels between leading task was rendered politicians,
"

constitution. forced to give nearly all its attention to the leaving the question of a new of government,

convention which should form a republican it met, September 20, this Convention was When
a

ordinary

business

the Girondins,

named

from

the department

which

party, so called seats at the left of the friends of Madame hall. The Girondins Roland, were wife detested Danton of the minister of the interior. They and held responsible for the massacres E-obespierre, whom they of September.
they
v/ere

several of them represented, and because its members occupied the high

the Mountain

])uriug

had

belonged

period of the Legislative assembly to the Jacobin Club, but now its members
the

their bitter enemies. 351. Defeat of the Allies.

"

The

day

the

Convention
It

met,

was was army not a checked battle, but it was hard-fought a great victory for the French. The Prussians were The already disgusted with the invasion. that they would find friends everywhere, emigres had promised

the

Prussian

at Valmy.

but they
towns

discovered

that the peasants

What resisted stubbornly. Prussian king was the conduct of Catherine, whose army had invaded Poland before. He felt that his troops several months

hostile and that the especially influenced the


were

of miles should be on his eastern frontier rather than hundreds in France. His decision to retreat was the only not away Other French overran advantage armies gained by France.

the Rhine
at

Valmy,
so

Dumouriez, the victor country, Savoy, and Nice. in the Netherlands. the Austrians also defeated

Success

blinded
to march

the eyes
to the
as
"

of the Convention
rescue

that

it ordered wished

the armies
to overthrow

its tyrants,

of any people France had done. The

which

352.
soon

The

New

Crusade.

leaders

of

the

Convention

discovered wish the

that the Netherlanders


of liberty which

not

sort

did and the Germans French politicians, follow-

THE

NEW

CRUSADE

347

ing in the

wake of to force npon them,

the
"

victorious armies, were attempting heavy war contributions, persecution of

in assignats. This reluctance priests and nobles, and payments cember, the Convention attributed to the local aristocracy, and in De1792, ordered that the officials should be deposed and their places
among
to gain

given

to

partisans
or
sans

the

poorer

by

classes, When revolution.

selected chiefly culottes, who had everything such a crusade for democracy

of

France,

Execution

of

Louis

XVI.
tlie pedestal the square
at
was

According
was a

to

statue

contemporary XV. of Louis

On print. from which

the

left

named.

Alarm turned to horror took alarm. proclaimed, Europe had tried Louis XVI. as if that the Convention with the news he were traitor, had declared him a common guilty, and had 21, 1793. There was soon caused him to be executed January
was
no

large state in Europe,

except

Turkey,

which

was

not

at

war

had a special grievance, England with the terrible republic. the advance of the French armies toward the frontiers of Holland, her ally. The tide of victory turned. Dumouriez,
"

the

hero

of Valmy,

disgusted

agents

and

defeated

by

by the conduct of the French to lead his the Austrians, attempted

3^8

THE

REVOLUTION

AT

WAR

WITH

EUROPE

army

against

the

Convention.

crossed the frontier with future king of France. a

failed, and early in April his staff, including Louis Philippe,

He

353.
among

Poland.
her

"

France

had

attempted

to

carry

They retorted by planning neighbors. She could read her fate in the way Russia and of territory. In 1791 Poland had adopted despoiling Poland. Prussia were
a

revolution to rob her

new

constitution

keep

The

order at home Tsarina Catherine

providing for and to defend


wanted

strong enough to monarchy the land against its enemies. Poland to be weak, so that she
a

The Polish provinces. or annex might control the government Russians the constitution, but in 1793 were obliged overthrew
to share

Dantzig

the spoil with Prussia. and Thorn, with Posen

Prussia and

received the cities of Gnesen, and Russia a large

part of Lithuania. 354. France in Alarm. conspirators Revolutionary the

"

France

Convention,
a

To frighten took warning. in March, 1793, established the from which

Tribunal, In order

special court

be

no

appeal.

that these conspirators in every comformed mune, were revolutionary committees and in the sections of the large cities. An executive

there could covered, might be dis-

committee, chosen called the Committee of Public Safety, was in April from the Convention, to control the ministers and see In order that whatever was necessary should be done quickly. to pay the heavy expenses, more issued. and more assignats were

As

these fell in value the government from rising by forcing bakers and

attempted

to keep

prices

below

which had plunged


as

fixed maximum the quarrels and


a

price. the

to sell other shopkeepers into from Thus the dangers

their country
as

leaders recklessness of the French had grown a government every whit of the Bourbons

arbitrary

the old government The

and

more

tyrannical. France threatened which did not check the wrangling of the Girondins and the Jacobins. The Girondins realized that Paris, managed by its most violent

355.

Civil War.

"

dangers

citizens, threatened

the

liberties of France,

but

their protests

BEIGN

OF

TEBROB

349

hastened

their
on

own

Convention,
escaped
from

June

A new insurrection compelled the ruin. 2, to order their arrest. Several of them made Jacobin
a

Paris, and

vain city.

attempt

to

arm

partmen the de-

revolt in the western department originally caused by the effort of the into neighboring ments, departto raise troops, spread government and by those who wished supported by the monarchists

against the of La Yendee,

The priests restored. driven back armies of France were from the frontier. The came peril betheir

old

so

men, great that patriotic Frenchdetested the those who even


dared lest
a

Jacobins,

not

encourage

resistance,

divided
fall
a

country
to the

might the foreigner.

sooner

prey

356. Reign

of Terror.

"

In July,

1793, the government passed from his the control of Danton and
friends into that of stillmore lent vioRobespierre men, of whom
was
men

the
saw

most
no

influential.
to
save

These
Born,

Danton.
1759, at Arcis-sur-Aube April Paris, at executed ; 5,

way

the country

their own maintain power except by frightening their personal and

1794.
August

Minister 10,

of 1792;

justice after
member
member

of

and

into political enemies abject Little by little they submission.


on a

the Convention of the public

; leading

first committee of 1793. safety, April-July,

brought

Reign

It had

where. of Terror everylong before been decided who


one

that

any

priest non-juring

death.
or

Now,

every

to France returned had opposed who

should the men

emigre be put

or

to

in power,

had been a noble, or was was who emigre related to an declared to be a suspicious person, liable to immediate arrest. Arrest did not always death, but few of those once mean

brought

to trial before the Revolutionary

tribunal

were

freed.

In the fall and winter

there

was

constant

series of executions

350

THE

REVOLUTION

AT

WAR

WITH

EUROPE

Roland, 1 the queen, Madame "ailly, was the first mayor of Paris, and many other distinguished who The rebellious cities of Bordeaux, Lyons, and Toulon persons. were punished by butcheries of hundreds of citizens. Even such

in Paris,

"

the Girondins,

bloody

deeds

did not satisfy

some

fanatics.
to

group

began

attack

the They

of them tional Constitu-

priests. the
a new

abolished

old

.calendar, set of months

substituting from named


new

the

seasons,

beginning
They

a and September

era,

22, 1792.

to set up the endeavored worship of Liberty and Reason

in place of the Catholic religion. The cathedral of Notre Dame declared to be a Temple was of Reason. Now

enemies the Jacobins themselves.

that their political had been crushed,


quarrelled among Danton and his had tried to check
were

friends, who the Terror,


Robespierre. Born
Paris, the the
at

sent

to

the

Arras,

1758;

July

28, 1794.

executed Member and member

at

of of

pierre Robesscaffold in April, 1794. left apparently suwas preme, but only for a short time.
he lived his personal friends alone felt safe. He fell

Constituent Convention

assembly ; leading

So long

as

of the

safety,

of public second committee 1794. July, 1793-July,

last attempt to destroy his rivals on the 9th Thermidor,


in
a
"

so

the 27th
the

During

of July, 1794, was last forty-nine days

named 1376
was

in the persons weary

new

had

calendar. been executed ter. slaughover.

in Paris The

The country alone. had been danger which

of such
excuse was

its only

armies had again become once more the frontiers, and were the Rhine country, and Savoy.

French

had freed They victorious. invading the Netherlands,

ENB

OF

THE

CONVENTION

351

357. France
England During

between The outbreak of war and America. in a dilemma. had placed the Americans and France an War, when they had made the Eevolutionary ance alli"

with France, both countries had agreed to protect each It was shores of the Atlantic. other's territory on the western West attack the French would probable that the English the Indies, and Washington was obliged to decide whether
the still binding after Louis XVI., with whom Washington treaty was concluded made, had been executed. cult diffiStates should remain neutral, but it was that the United
agreement
was

to

maintain

took sides, some had not yet surrendered


at the
to keep

fair neutrality, because the people eagerly England for France. for England, but most
a

peace American
The
anger

forts, as had been the western for she undertook of 1783, and now ships from trading with the French
against

ised proma

time

West
greater

Indies.

England

would

have

been

had not the French

ports to fit minister, Genet, used American out privateers to attack English ships, and had he not insulted issued to stop this violation of Washington when orders were

neutrality.

358.
alarmed

England.
by
the

"

The
success

influential
of the

men

of

England
the

were

so

persecution by the rapid of the Church, the wealthy, and the nobles, and armies, that they set their faces against advance of the French against a fairer representation of the change of any sort, even people in parliament, the Catholics and the
or

Jaeobins,

by

and the slave trade. the Habeas been the advocate of peace and reform, suspended from arbitrary imprisonment, Corpus Act which protected men and, like the Jacobins in France, caused the adoption of laws
which took
or

repeal of the laws which burdened dissenters, or the abolition of slavery had by them, Pitt, who once Supported
a

away

the

liberty of speech, compelling


Although during

every

one

to submit

359.

End

be silent. of the Convention. Convention had it had

"

the Eeign

of Terror
most

the

violent members,

shared the cruel hatreds of its It done much that was useful.

352
had

THE

REVOLUTION

AT

WAR

WITH

EUROPE

technic of public scliools,including the PolySchool at Paris, and had adopted the and It had and measures. metric system of weights abolished in the French The law of inheritance which slavery colonies. their compelled parents to divide their property equally among
organized system the Normal
a

doubtful value, because it split up many children was of more farms into portions so small as to render farming less much the churches were profitable. After the fall of Robespierre
to pay the promise reopened, but the Convention repudiated This meant a separation the salaries of the clergy. of Church the and State, but since many of the revolutionists regarded little religious Church as the enemy of the republic, there was

liberty.
was

The

chief
new

the
men

tion of the later sessions of the ConvenThis provided for a Directory constitution.
work
to

of five
were

who

were

to be made

by two

the country, govern houses or councils, one

while the laws of five hundred

another of two hundred and fifty. The Convention feared that its political enemies control the new might assemblies, and it ordered that at least two-thirds of their members should and

be chosen

This brought on a new membership. revolt in Paris in October, 1795, led chiefly by the royalists. One of the principal officers who suppressed the insurrection
own was

from

its

Napoleon

Bonaparte,

conqueror

of Italy and

Corsican, young master of France.


a
"

soon

to

become

360.
European France.

Triumph

of

France.
were

It
not

was

strange

that
to

all

the

angered

had not each sought advantage succeeded The partition of Poland had distasteful to the others. the Austrians, and they determined not to miss their
another

monarchies They might

strong

enough

conquer

have

portion if there was been content with more France to annex


these two

division.

Had

the

Prussians

trians Polish territory and allowed the Auserlands to the Nethnorth of the river Somme

together, but could have worked monarchies Alsace and Lorraine. Prussia wanted England, the paymaster self of the allies, wished little on the Continent, but contented her-

with

seizing French

colonies and

building up her

own

SUMMABY

353

with neutral trade, the Europeans thought her policy selfish. An insurrection of the Poles, led by tionary RevoluKosciuszko, who had been an officer in the American

trade.

As

she interfered

army, caused the Prussians, The Poles troops from the Rhine.

in 1794, to withdraw
were

their

division of Poland was In the and Austria.


with

made,
same

and a final conquered in 1795, between Eussia, Prussia,

year Prussia decided to make peace losses of terFrance, on the understanding ritory that Prussian bank of the E-hine should be balanced by on the west

Holland Germany. annexation of territory in western Spain made France. forced to make an was alliance with Russia in 1795 also, and and peace only Austria, England, sia left to fight the French. By their agreement were with Prusfrontier, had made the Rhine their northern the French
the limits. Whether called their "natural" to make a the Austrians they could compel similar agreement Meantime to be seen. the new territory was organized remained reaching what

they

as

departments
was,
on

and the people

were

brought

law, which put


an

the whole, a great advantage end to their feudal burdens and made them

under French to them, for it all equal.

SUMMARY

I. Eevolution

and

Europe.
;

"

1. Early

impressions

(a) in
Policy

America of other

(b)

in England
:

(c) among
for alarm 3. War
:

rival monarchs.
;

2.

states

(a)

causes

of Austria.

(")
war.

hopes

of Prussian

(6) work tude ; (c) attias a means the king ; (a) of coercing of (c) far-reachiug consequences support ;
War.
"

of the ^migr^s

II. First

Consequences
distress of the
;

of

1.

Overthrow
position 10 ;

of

monarchy: by of
:

(a)

manifesto

(c)

people ; insurrection
2.

(")
of

king's
August

compromised
causes

(d) (c)

the

September
new

massacres.

The

republic

against
;

Europe French

(a) the
offers

of

(6) ; government liberty ; (d) decision

Prussian
to

retreat

force
as

revolution
a

upon

conquered

territory ;

(e) execution (/) general war ; (gr) echoes

of king

challenge

to Europe,

with

in distant Poland.

354

THE

REVOLUTION

AT

WAB

WITH

EUROPE

III. Reign

of

Terror.

"

1. Causes
war

(a)treason
in

(b) distress
field.

(c)party
:

strife and

civil
of

(d) disasters
persons;

the

2. Methods

(o)
3.

arrest

suspicious
towns

(b) executions;
on
:

(c) punishment
religion.
;

of "The

rebellious
republic
;

consumes

; (d) attack her children"

Catholic

(a) Danton

(b)fall (a) in (") attempt


of

of Robespierre IV. Beginnings America;


to
a new
of

(c) end
"

of the Terror. Loss

Peace.

1.

(6)in

England.
relations

of friendship for France 2. Order restored in France


with

regulate

Church

(") organization
from
the

4.

government. Peace with Spain.

3. Prussia

withdi'aws

struggle.

IMPORTANT 1792, April. 1792, August


France 10.

DATES
upon Austria

declares
XVI.

war

by (supported Prussia).

Louis 21.

overthrown. declared
a

1792, September
1793, January 1793, June 1794, July
2.

France

republic.

21.

Louis

XVI.

Overthrow Overthrov?

executed. of Girondins.
of Robespierre Peace with
; end

27.

of Reign and

1795,

End

of Convention. of Poland.

Prussia

of Terror. Third Spain.

Partition

FURTHER General Paragraphs 345.


Reading
:

STUDY

see

Ch. 21.

Impression
the French

of

the

Revolution
; Dowden,

Hazen, French

Ame^'ica^i
Revolution No. 104.

Opinion
and

of

Revolution

English

Literature

; Morley's
; Rose,

Burke, Monarchs

Ch. 8 ; Colby,
:

346.

Policy

of European

Lecky,
Era,

French

Revolution,

299-,

305, 314-356 347. Declaration 356-358 348. Manifesto overthrow

Revolutionary
:

59-61.
see

of "War
; motives

Anderson,

No.

19 ;

also Arthur

Young,

of

Stephens, II., Ch. 2. of the French, Anderson, No. 23; Mallet, Brunswick:

145

ff.;

349.

September
IL, 198 ff.

of the king, Gardiner, 114-118. II., 139-150; Stephens, Massacres :

Taine's

view,

350. 351. 352.

The Valmy French

Convention:

Gardiner,
:

124-129.

Campaign
Foreign No.

Fyffe, 28-38.

Policy:

Gardiner, 130-135;

Lecky,

441 ff. An; derson,

28, A

and

B.

SUMMARY Paragraphs
353. 354.
:

355

Poland: Tribunals 32-35.

Cambridge
and

Modern

History,
:

VIII.,

Ch. 17.
; Anderson,

Committees

Gardiner, 142-148

Nos.

355. 356.

Civil
Law

War: of

Stephens, Suspects
:

II., Ch. Anderson,

8.
No.

41 ; Claretie's Gamille and by Beesly and Belloc, biographies Lucile Besnioulins, of Danton pierre, Robesby Lewes of Robespierre and Belloc ; Morley's essay on Miscellanies, I., 1-133.
and
America
:

357.

France

Channing,

Studenfs
Mahan,

History

of United

States, 296-303
358.
Reaction
in

; the American
:

neutral,

II., 199 ff.

England

May,

Constitutional Histonj

of

England,

II., 297 ff.; Dowden, 359. End


Peace

Ch. 5.
:

of the

Convention
:

Fyffe, 68-69;
No.

Rose,

Napoleon,
Rose,

I., Ch. 4. 91-92,


or

360.

of Basel

Anderson,

48 ; explanation.
; Camh.

Fyffe, 64-65

; final partition

of Poland

Mod.

Hist., VIII.,

Ch. 17.

Additional

Reading

B. Mallet, Mallet

dti Fan.

CHAPTER

XXIII.

THE

RISE

OF

NAPOLEON

361.
of 1795

The
had

War

Spirit in
the

France.

"

Long

before
states

the

peace

broken

circle of hostile

France, the French republican soldiers had As in the defence of their country. merely victory carried far from their frontiers, they forgot in the fierce joysof them conquest and pillage that they had set out as messengers of

surrounding ceased to fight

liberty and officers saw

equality and in continued

politicians were become the frontiers


of the German French
on

Their of man. Influential war the road to fortune. determined that the Rhine and the Alps should
of the of France.

brotherhood

princes, was the Continent.


was

Austria, supported by some the only dangerous enemy of the be directly England not could
more

attacked, for she There seas. were southern Germany had in Germany under

becoming
two

than

ever

unstress

of the

Austria, through of attacking in northern Italy. The French or armies little success, but in Italy they were phant triumways Bonaparte. of Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte was he
won

the leadership

362.
seven

A
years

"New

Leader.

"

twenty-

old in 1796, when

was

Corsican,
He
was

France. During

his first victories. He to born after this island had been annexed in the royal military schools. educated
he

the Revolution

learned

to talk

like

Jacobin,

He him. brother had befriended younger himself at the capture of rebelliovis Toulon, and in vention. the Conthe repulse of the royalists who wished to overthrow for him These the command successes won of the

Robespierre's

and tinguish dis-

army

of Italy ; they also

won

for him
356

the hand

of

one

of the

BONAPARTE'S

POLICY

357
de
Beauharnais,

most

influential husband

women

of Paris,
on

Josephine

the scaffold during the Terror. Italy was 363. Italy in 1796. still divided into several important were the kingdom the most of states, of which Sardinia, including Piedmont of Milan, held by ; the duchy whose

had

died
"

the Austrians;

about half republic of Venice, occupying of Italy north of the Po ; farther south, the States of the Sicilies. This beautiful Church and the kingdom of the Two
the

land

had

not

been

desolated tempted by

by the Revolutionary
the French

war.

Its
were

prosperous poorly fed


them

wealth

soldiers, who
government. lead you into

" to the said, Soldiers, I am There you will find honor, fertile plaius in the world. most Although his army was small, the wonderful glory, and riches." leader, by the rapidity of his marches, by always young

and Bonaparte

clothed

their

bankrupt

To

bringing important
a

more

men

than

the

enemy

for

the capture

of each

separate
new

each

the Sardinians to make position, speedily compelled peace, drove the Austrians out of Milan, and forced that sallied from the valleys of the Tyrol army
or

struggle and was Bonaparte not ended until the spring of 1797, when advanced Vienna through the Alps toward and forced the Austrians to surrender.
was

either to retreat

It

hard

truce.

364.
had

Bonaparte's

Policy.

"

Although

General

Bonaparte

his officers and soldiers to plunder the country he had compelled the cities to send pitilessly, and although of money great sums and many works of art to Paris, the allowed

in his veins prompted him to encourage longed for a union of all the states of the Italian patriots who Out of the Austrian the peninsula. possessions, with some that
ran

Italian blood

Venetian created Cisalpine


a

territory, and republic, Republic.

part of the States of the Church, he manner, the called, after the Roman
a

But

at

the

Peace

of Campo

Formio,

in

did not hesitate to sacrifice the remainder of Venice to Austria, in return for the cession to France of the Netherlands. Austria was in obtaining also to assist France

October,

1797, he

358
from

TUE

IlISE

OF

NAPOLEON

the imperial

the Rhine

which

diet the abandonment of the lands west of had been conquered by the French armies. England.
"

365.
"giant

War

against

It
one

was

now

the turn

corsair

called England. France, and their ships, with fleet. For a time the English

as of the seas," In 1795 Spain

of the

French

of the directors allies of

and the

Holland
French

became

England
two

fleet, outnumbered in danger, but seemed

before the Peace St. Vincent

victories at Cape had crippled the Spanish and at Camperdown It was St. at the battle of Cape and the Dutch navies. in February, Vincent 1797, that Nelson first distinguished
himself. genius in directing the sea power of England Since genius as a commander of armies. rivalled Bonaparte's longer be attacked England directly, the French could no

of Campo

Formio

English

His

government

despatched the
vague

Bonaparte
hope

Egypt might

with

upon if it that,

an were

expedition

to

be sent to the enemies to the Sultan Tipii of Mysore.


landed in Egypt,
in August, their fleet at Aboukir

of England Immediately

conquered, aid in India, especially

1798, Nelson
Bonaparte

after the French found and destroyed

Bay.

Mameluke

none and the Turkish the less a prisoner, for he had no means of taking his army back to France. When in danger news came that France was

warriors

gained victories over armies, but he was

the

from

the coalition, he left his army under command of Kleber, in August, 1799, and, eluding the English long after Nelson's Not ships, returned to France. victory,
a new

European

the

attacked Tipu, killed him, and shared his possessions with friendly Indian princes. During the last had captured three years the English nearly all the French

English

in

India

Of the Dutch colonies. South Africa and and Dutch colonies. Ceylon eventually became parts of the British empire. 366. Distress in England. Although England's sea power brought saved her from a direct invasion by France, the war
"

distress upon It was the people. only the contractors Even they were and the capitalists who alarmed prospered. the Bank was when of England obliged to refuse to pay gold
great

FRENCH

POLITICS

359

on

demand
the

for its notes. of

The

most

of

uprising

thousands

and tyranny oppression This rebellion was might be more in 1800, taking

the of ment. of their landlords and of the governput down, and, in order that Ireland passed

serious danger grew Irishmen tortured by

out

was easily controlled, the Act of Union from her the right to have a separate

ment. parlia-

367. Bankruptcy
was

in France.

"

as

nothing

until These

and the issues


notes

compared with had the Directory amounted


to

distress of the English The Convention that of the French. The


to print continued forty-five thousand

assignats millions.

per cent, of their A shoulder of veal cost six hundred face value. and fifty hundred francs, or one thirty dollars, and a bottle of and francs. In 1797 the government ordinary wine, thirty longer legal tender and declared that this paper was no
worth
one

had

become

less than

refused

public been especially

receiye lands. The

to

either of taxes or of the payment steady fall in value of the assignats had had invested all their bad for persons who

it in

bonds and had been obliged to receive savings in government followed. For them worse In Septeminterest in assignats. ber, divided the public debt into two 1797, the government parts, of which only called the consolidated indebtedness, while two-thirds
one,
"

third,"
were

was

treated

regular paid in notes their face value.

as

diately imme-

which

were

worth

about

one-twentieth

of
The

368.

French

Politics.
"

France

had

other

troubles.

did not make good republicans of of Louis XVI. done in the name of all the citizens. The cruelties which were had been at first eager revothe republic convinced some lutionist who in a- restoration of that the only hope for France was dethronement
the

As the secret with Louis's brother as king. had to gain power, all who enemies of the republic began had seen their feudal burdens profited by the changes, who disappear, or who had purchased the confiscated property of
monarchy the Church

and

of the emigres,

became

alarmed.

Party

con-

360
flicts were

THE

RISE

OF

NAPOLEON

ordinary but about property, religion, and Under the circumstances only carried out, could
monarchists,
or
save

passionate, because men matters, such as taxation

were

struggling

not

about

the possession of offices, itself. the form of government


or
a

the country

wise constitution, honestly from violent quarrels. The

monof being suspected archists, Five Hundred, got control of the council of while the of revolutionists. majority the directors were uncompromising To retain their power the directors used the army, arrested over

those

who

were

to Guiana, which was and sent them ously omin" dry guillotine." This aft'air occurred on the 18th Fructidor 4, a (September 1797), month before the Peace Formio. Two of Campo years later the legislature retaliated,

sixty councillors the named

forced and two of the directors were did not hesitate to call upon for some quarrels, the way was opened himself master of the republic. 369. Overthrow of the Directory.
return
to

to resign.

As
to

the politicians settle their

the

army daring

soldier to make

"

Bonaparte,
a

upon
on

his
foot

Paris, in October,
the

1799,

found

movement

to change

author Sieyes
to

Its leader was Sieyes, the Abbe constitution. " What is the Third Estate ? " of the famous pamphlet, to decrease the power of the legislature and wished that of the executive

increase change

officers.

To

bring

about

the assistance of a popular needed general Bonaparte who could control the army. readily entered into the plot. The not serious, because the majority risk was of the directors and of the council of Elders, or the Two Hundred and Bonaparte the plan. was commade mander included of the troops in the military district which In order that the supporters of the existing constitution,

the

he

Fifty, favored

Paris.
who

Huncontrolled the majority of the council of Five dred, be unable to call the Parisian mob to their aid, might in St. Cloud, a suburb sevthe two assemblies were convened eral miles away. that Bonaparte

So violent
was

attempted

greeted to enter the hall.

the oppositfon in this council " " he treason with cries of when
was

Soldiers

were

summoned

to drive

THE

CONSULATE

361

Shortly afterward a few of the council the councillors. the council of Elders in apunited with pointin of Five Hundred to draw up a new a constitution and in commission to manage This three consuls the government. choosing
out

affair

was

called the 18th


many
strong

Brumaire

(November

9,

1799).

At

them Lafayette, republicans, and among from thought that the republic had been saved ruin at the hands of noisy demagogues.
the time

370. The

Consulate.
new

"

Bonaparte
was

had

been chosen

one

of the rather

The consuls. Sieyes, than

who

constitution had made

arranged

to suit him

Instead of the original plan. a Directory of five there were consuls, of whom to have the first was nearly for he could all the power, appoint
the
to be

three

ambassadors,

the

officers of the army and navy, the judges, and the government officialswho local affairs.
to be
were

to

The up

manage laws were


a

council by him, and of state appointed after they had been discussed

drawn

in

by

tribunate

and

voted by

Napoleon Born

Bonaparte.
1769;

legislative

be examined in 1785. in the French army he controlled, to see selection if they complied though Alwith the principles of the constitution. to be chosen by the senate, ordinarily the consuls were in the constitution itself,and this time they were appointed
Bonaparte
was

to were assembly by a senate, whose

in

Corsica,
1821.

died

at

St.

Helena,

Commissioned

tenant lieu-

to be first consul.

Immediately

into effect, Bonaparte increased by forcing the passage of a law that the local government of Prance be intrusted in each department to prefects should
went

after the constitutio his own power

appointed

by the first consul.

The

mayors

of the towns

were

362

THE

RISE

OF

NAPOLEON

also to be appointed

either by him General

or

by the prefects whom

he

controlled. 371. The Concordat.

"

Bonaparte

kings, except than the old Bourbon power The refusal of the Convention had to suj^port the Church the constitutional priests in the same situation as those who

already had more over the Church.


left
non-

jurors

in the country or to return remain They both belonged to private after the fall of Eobespierre. bodies not recognized by the State. Bonaparte was anxious to by healing this schism and win the favor of pious churchmen

had

dared

to

by restoring At the same

the Church time

to its form