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AmericaBikes'AnalysisofBicycleandPedestrianPrograms SAFETEALUvs.

MAP21
Congresspassedanewfederaltransportationlaw,MovingAheadforProgressinthe21st Century(MAP21),inJuneof2012. Whilethenewlawsignificantlycutsavailablefundingforbikingandwalkingprojects,this legislationpresentsanopportunityforAmericanstoencouragestateandlocalgovernmentsto fullyutilizeavailablefundstomakebikingandwalkingsaferandmoreconvenient. ThisdocumentisAmericaBikescompleteanalysisofthebikingandwalkingportionsofMAP 21.OriginallywrittenshortlyafterthelawsreleaseinJuneof2012,ithasbeenupdated multipletimestoreflectnewinformation.Mostrecently,AmericaBikesupdatedthisanalysisto incorporateinterimguidancefromtheFederalHighwayAdministrationoftheUSDepartmentof Transportation. FormoreinformationonMAP21includinganswerstofrequentlyaskedquestionsandways togetinvolvedinyourcommunityvisitamericabikes.org/map_21.

TableofContents
Programs .........................................................................................................................................2 Analysis .......................................................................................................................................2 FundingandStateoptout ..............................................................................................................3 Analysis .......................................................................................................................................4 EligibleUses:TransportationEnhancements ..................................................................................6 Analysis .......................................................................................................................................7 EligibleUses:SafeRoutestoSchool................................................................................................9 Analysis .......................................................................................................................................9 EligibleUses:RecreationalTrailsProgram ....................................................................................10 Analysis .....................................................................................................................................10 EligibleActivities:Other ................................................................................................................11 Analysis .....................................................................................................................................11 ProgramMechanics:GrantProgram.............................................................................................12 Analysis .....................................................................................................................................13 Chart:DistributionofTransportationAlternativesfunds..........................................................14 MandatorySidepathClause ..........................................................................................................15 Analysis .....................................................................................................................................15

Programs
SAFETEALU 3distinctprogramswiththeirownfunding andmechanicsfordistribution TransportationEnhancements SafeRoutestoSchool RecreationalTrails 2012MAP21 TransportationAlternativescombinesthe followingprograms: TransportationAlternatives* (formerlyTransportation Enhancements) SafeRoutestoSchool RecreationalTrails Someroaduses

Analysis Bycombiningthethreemainprogramsthatfundedbikingandwalkingprojects,plannersand localcommunitieslosethespecificmechanismsforfunding.Inordertotakefulladvantageof theseprograms,applicantsandadvocatesmustlearnthenewsystemandnomenclature. Becausethefundingmechanismwillbecompletelynew,itwilltakeUSDOTandStateDOTs sometimetogetthisnewprogramupandrunning. *Note:Thenewbillreferstoboththeoverallfundingprogramandthenewlyeligibleusesforthe formerTEprogrambythesamenameTransportationAlternatives.Inthisdocument,werefer totheoverallprogramastheTransportationAlternativesProgramandthesmallerproject categoryasTransportationAlternativesprojects.Thisdistinctionisnotinthelawitself.

FundingandStateoptout
Thenewbillrepresentsasignificantreductioninfundingforbikingandwalkingprojects. SAFETEALU 2012MAP21 Infiscalyear2011,thecombinedfunding ThecombinedfundingforTransportation forTransportationEnhancements,Safe AlternativesProgramforalluseswillbe RoutestoSchool,andRecreationalTrails approximately$800millionperyear.** was$1.2billionlessthan2%ofall Nationally,TransportationAlternativeswill transportationfunding. makeup$808.76millioninfiscalyear2013 and$819.90millioninfiscalyear2014. EachstatesTAfundingisdeterminedby dividingthenationaltotalsamongthe statesbasedoneachstatesproportionate shareoffiscalyear2009Transportation Enhancementsfunding. Stateoptout/transfer: Stateoptout/transfer: Statescouldtransferupto1015%of Statescantransferupto50%of TransportationEnhancementsfundsto TransportationAlternativesProgram fundingtootheruseswithout otherprograms. explanation.Statesmayonlytransferthe fundingthatwouldbemadeavailableto SafeRoutestoSchoolfundingwasnon localentitiesthroughastaterun transferable. competitivegrantprogram.Statesmaynot transferTAfundsthataredistributed throughsuballocationbypopulation.For moreinformation,seeProgramMechanics: GrantProgram. USDOTsinterimguidancestipulatesthata statemaytransferTAfundstotheNational HighwayPerformanceProgram(NHPP),the SurfaceTransportationProgram(STP),the HighwaySafetyImprovementProgram (HSIP),theCongestionMitigationandAir Qualityprogram(CMAQ),and/orMetro planningprogram. Inastateofemergency,statescantransfer 100%ofTransportationAlternatives Programfundingtorebuilddamaged highwayinfrastructure.

Ifthestatereceivesreimbursement forStateofEmergencydamages throughanadditionalappropriation,it mustberepaidtotheTransportation AlternativesProgram. ThroughtheCoburnoptout,ifthe unobligatedbalanceoftheTransportation AlternativesProgramexceeds100%ofa oneyearallocation,everythingoverthat 100%canbeusedforCMAQuses. Federalshare: DuetoitsconsolidationwithTransportation Alternatives,SafeRoutestoSchoolprojects willnowfallunderthesamematch requirementsasmostothertransportation projects80%federalfundingwitha20% localmatch. Projectsthatpreviouslyfellunder TransportationEnhancementsand RecreationalTrailsremainsubjecttothe 80%federaland20%localfunding breakdown.

Federalshare: UnderSAFETEALU,thefederalSafeRoutes toSchoolprojectswasoneoftherare transportationprogramsinwhich100%ofa projectscostscouldbepaidbyfederal funds,withoutalocalmatch. ForTransportationEnhancementsand RecreationalTrailsprojects,federalfunds covered80%ofaprojectscostsandlocal entitiespaid20%ofthecosts.

Analysis Overall,theamountoffundinghasbeencutby33%.Ifallstatesfullyexercisetheiroptout,the newbillwillrepresenta66%cutinfunding.** Thestateoptoutprovisionisamajorblowtofundinglevels.Astatethatchoosestooptoutcan usethisfundingforanyprogramwithnoadditionalrestrictions.EvenastateDOTthatcares aboutbikingandwalkingmaybetemptedtohaveunrestrictedfundingforhighwayuses. Keepingthisfundingforbikingandwalkingwillrequiresignificantadvocacyatthestatelevel. Unfortunately,theUSDepartmentofTransportationsinterpretationofMAP21determined thatSafeRoutestoSchoolprojectswillnotcontinuetobe100%federallyfunded.This alterationisanespeciallyharshblowforlowincomecommunitiesinneedofsaferstreets aroundschoolsthathavefewlocalfundstosupportneededprojects. ThetransferabilityoffundsmakestheCoburnoptoutvirtuallymeaningless. **Note:Inouroriginalanalysis,AmericaBikeshadfoundthatfundingforTransportation Alternativeswouldcometo$702millionperyear,representinganoverallfundingcutof42% anda70%cutifallstatesexercisetheoptout.Uponfurtherreview,AmericaBikesfoundthat

availablefundingwillactuallybe$792or$808million,representinga33%cutoverallanda66% cutifallstatesoptout.

EligibleUses:TransportationEnhancements
TransportationEnhancementsprojectsarenowcalledTransportationAlternativesprojects. SAFETEALU 2012MAP21 TransportationEnhancements TransportationAlternativesprojects Dedicatedfunding: Dedicatedfunding: 10%ofSurfaceTransportation Nodedicatedfunding.Theseprojects Programfunds(1%oftotal areeligibleforfundingunderthe transportationfunding) largerTransportationAlternatives $878millionin2011 Program. Eligibleactivities: Eligibleactivities: 1. Bicycleandpedestrianfacilities 1. Construction,planning,anddesign 2. Bicycleandpedestriansafetyand ofonroadandoffroadtrail educationactivities facilitiesforpedestrians,bicyclists, 3. Acquisitionofsceniceasementsand andothernonmotorizedformsof scenicorhistoricsites transportation,includingsidewalks, 4. Scenicorhistorichighwayprograms bicycleinfrastructure,pedestrian (includingtheprovisionoftourist andbicyclesignals,trafficcalming andwelcomecenterfacilities) techniques,lightingandother 5. Landscapingandotherscenic safetyrelatedinfrastructure,and beautification transportationprojectstoachieve 6. Historicpreservation compliancewiththeAmericans 7. Rehabilitationandoperationof withDisabilitiesActof1990. historictransportationbuildings, 2. Construction,planning,anddesign structures,orfacilities(including ofinfrastructurerelatedprojects historicrailroadfacilitiesand andsystemsthatwillprovidesafe canals) routesfornondrivers,including 8. Preservationofabandonedrailway children,olderadults,and corridors(includingtheconversion individualswithdisabilitiesto andusethereofforpedestrianor accessdailyneeds. bicycletrails) 3. Conversionanduseofabandoned 9. Inventory,controlandremovalof railroadcorridorsfortrailsfor outdooradvertising pedestrians,bicyclists,orother 10. Archaeologicalplanningand nonmotorizedtransportationusers. research 4. Constructionofturnouts,overlooks, 11. Environmentalmitigationto andviewingareas. addresswaterpollutiondueto 5. Communityimprovementactivities, highwayrunofforreducevehicle including: causedwildlifemortalitywhile inventory,control,orremovalof maintaininghabitatconnectivity outdooradvertising;

12. Transportationmuseums

historicpreservationand rehabilitationofhistoric transportationfacilities; vegetationmanagement practicesintransportation rightsofwaytoimprove roadwaysafety,preventagainst invasivespecies,andprovide erosioncontrol;and archaeologicalactivitiesrelating toimpactsfromimplementation ofatransportationproject eligibleundertitle23. 6. Anyenvironmentalmitigation activity,includingpollution preventionandpollution abatementactivitiesandmitigation to addressstormwater management,control,and waterpollutionpreventionor abatementrelatedtohighway constructionorduetohighway runoff,includingactivities describedinsections133(b)(11), 328(a),and329oftitle23;or reducevehiclecausedwildlife mortalityortorestoreand maintainconnectivityamong terrestrialoraquatichabitats.

Analysis Inthenewprogram,thechangestothesafetyandeducationactivitiesremoveeligibilityfor educationandsafetyactivities.However,noninfrastructureprojectstoencouragesafewalking andbicyclingtoschoolforkindergartenthrougheighthgradearestilleligibleasSafeRoutesto Schoolprojects. TheeligibilityforconstructionofturnoutsistomakeupforthelossoftheScenicByways program,andsomeuseswerecoveredundertheoriginalprogram. Inthenewlaw,eligibilitiesregardingscenicorhistorichighwayprograms,landscapingand beautification,historicpreservation,rehabilitationoftransportationbuildings,andpreservation ofhistoricrailwaycorridorsarereworded.TransportationAlternativesfundscannowonlybe usedforarchaeologicalactivitiesiftheprojectsaretransportationrelated.

Sceniceasementsandmuseumsweredeletedaseligibilities.Rehabilitationofhistoricbuildings isnowcombinedwithhistoricpreservation. Environmentalmitigationeligibility#6inthenewprogramwasexpandedfromthespecific usesincurrentlawtoincludeANYenvironmentalmitigation,includingNEPAcompliance. AddingANYenvironmentalmitigationallowsfundingfromtheTransportationAlternatives Programtobedirectedtowardsfederalenvironmentalrequirementspreviouslynotallowable underTransportationEnhancements.Becauseofthelocalcontrolaspectsofthebill,local governmentsarelesslikelytousethisfundingforNEPAcompliance.

EligibleUses:SafeRoutestoSchool
SafeRoutestoSchooliseliminatedasastandaloneprogram,buttheprogramlanguageisstill inthebill. SAFETEALU 2012MAP21 SafeRoutestoSchool SafeRoutestoSchool Dedicatedfunding: Dedicatedfunding: $182millionin2011 Nodedicatedfunding. Features: Eligibleprojects: Standaloneprogramincluding 1. Infrastructurerelatedprojects separateandspecificfunding planning,design,andconstruction processesforstakeholders ofinfrastructurerelatedprojectson Statesmustspend7090%ofprogram anypublicroadoranybicycleor fundingforinfrastructureand1030% pedestrianpathwayortrailinthe fornoninfrastructure vicinityofschoolsthatwill FundedafulltimestateSafeRoutes substantiallyimprovetheabilityof studentstowalkandbicycleto toSchoolCoordinator school. 2. Noninfrastructurerelatedactivities toencouragewalkingandbicycling toschool 3. SafeRoutestoSchoolcoordinator. Analysis WebelievethatastatecanchoosetorunastateSafeRoutestoSchoolprogramasis,butthe fundingwouldneedtocomefromtheiroveralltransportationdollars.Becauseitreferences currentSafeRoutestoSchoollaw,theabilitytofundbothinfrastructureandnoninfrastructure isretained.ThestateSafeRoutestoSchoolCoordinatorpositioniseligible,butnotrequired.

EligibleUses:RecreationalTrailsProgram
SAFETEALU RecreationalTrails Dedicatedfunding: Dedicatedfundingbasedon recreationalfueltax Roughly$85millionperyear Features: Standaloneprogramwith20%local fundingmatch Fundsobligatedforspecifiedtrailuses 30%motorizedtrails,30%non motorized,40%multiusetrails AdministeredthroughDOTandstate DNRs 2012MAP21 RecreationalTrails DedicatedFunding: Levelfunding Features: Governorscanoptouteachyearif theycontacttheSecretaryoftheUS DOT30dayspriortoapportionments Theprogramiseligibleunderthe TransportationAlternativesProgram Projectsarealsoeligibleunderthe SurfaceTransportationProgram

Analysis Ifagovernordoesnotoptout,thisprogramwillcontinuetofunctionasitdoesincurrentlaw.It willbeimportantforadvocatestoaskgovernorstokeeptheprogram. Governorshavetheoptiontooptouteachyear.

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EligibleActivities:Other
SAFETEALU Othereligibleactivities N/A 2012MAP21 Othereligibleactivities Planning,designing,orconstructing boulevardsandotherroadwayslargelyin therightofwayofformerInterstate Systemroutesorotherdividedhighways.

Analysis ThenewtypesofroadprojectsthatareeligibleundertheTransportationAlternativesProgram couldconsumeanentirestate'sbudgetforoneormoreyears. Thelocalcontrolaspectsofthistransportationbillmakeitlesslikelythataprojectofthislarge scalecouldcompeteforthelimitedavailablefunds.

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ProgramMechanics:GrantProgram
ThisisthepartoftheprogramamendedbytheCardinCochranagreement. SAFETEALU 2012MAP21 GrantProgram GrantProgram Eachprogramhaditsownmethodfor Allfundsmustgothroughagrantprogram. Thebilllimitswhichentitiesareeligibleto distributionoffunds. apply. ForTransportationEnhancements,most statescouldsetupthegrantprogram. 50%ofFundingbyPopulation ForSafeRoutestoSchool,moststatesheld DOTsmustdistributefundsaccordingtothe statewidecompetitions,butafewused shareofpopulationwithinthestate: regionaldistributionorstatemanaged Forareaswithapopulationover implementation. 200,000,fundswillbesuballocated toMPOs.TheMPOsmustthenruna grantcompetitionwithinitsarea. Forareaswithapopulationbetween 5,000and200,000,thestatewill distributethroughacompetitivegrant program. Forareaswithapopulationunder 5,000,thestatewilldistributethrough acompetitivegrantprogram. Noneofthesefundsmaybetransferredby theDOT. 50%ofFundingbyGrantProgram TheDOTsarerequiredtorunagrant programtodistributetheother50%.Only eligibleentitiesmayapply.StateDOTsare noteligible. StateDOTsmaytransferallofthispotto otherhighwayuses.Iftheydo,therewillbe nograntprogram. EligibleEntities EligibleEntities 1. Localgovernments N/A 2. Regionaltransportationauthorities

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3. Transitagencies 4. Naturalresourceorpublicland agencies 5. Schooldistricts,localeducation agencies,orschools 6. Tribalgovernments 7. Anyotherlocalorregional governmentalentitywith responsibilityfororoversightof transportationorrecreationaltrails (otherthanametropolitanplanning organizationorastateagency)that thestatedeterminestobeeligible, consistentwiththegoalsofthis subsection. Analysis WhilethefinalbillretainsthehalfofCardinCochranthatsuballocateshalfoffundstoMPOs andlocalareas,itallowsstatestooptoutofthehalfofTAfundsthataremadeavailabletolocal entitiesthroughastateruncompetitivegrantprogram. Byrequiringacompetitivegrantprogramandlimitingtheentitiesallowedtoapplyforthat funding,thisprovisioniswrittentolimittheamountoffundsgoingtolargescalestatepriorities likeroadsandNEPAcompliance. Suballocating50%bypopulationensuresthatlocalcommunitiesofallsizeswillgetashareofTA funding. TheMPOcompetitionensuresthatentitieswithinanMPOareacanapplyforashareofMPO funding,andensuresthestateDOTisnotthesoledecisionmakeronfundingpriorities. The50%offundingdistributedbyastaterungrantcompetitionisatsignificantriskgiventhe fulltransferabilityofitsfunds.Advocateswillneedtoworktoensurethatstatesretainthese funds. Eligibleentitiesinthenewbillweredefinedtoensurethatcurrentusersofthethreebikingand walkingprogramscouldcontinuetobenefit.Stateagenciesarenoteligibletoapplyfor TransportationAlternativesProgramfunding. Thefollowingchartillustrateshowbikingandwalkingfundswillbedistributedunderthenew law.

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Chart:DistributionofTransportationAlternativesfunds

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MandatorySidepathClause
SAFETEALU MandatorySidepathLaw None 2012MAP21 MandatorySidepathLaw Bicyclistsareprohibitedonfederallyowned roadsthathaveaspeedlimitof30miles perhourorgreaterifthereisanadjacent pavedpathforusebybicycleswithin100 yardsoftheroad,unlesstheSecretaryof therelevantfederallandmanagement agencydeterminesthatthebicyclelevelof serviceonthatroadwayisratedBor higher.

Analysis Mandatorysidepathlawswereoncecommoninstatevehiclecodes.Theysaidthatwhenaroad hasaseparatebikepathorbiketrail,bicyclistsmustusethepathandnottheroad. Bymovingtobanbicyclistsoncertainnonhighwayroads,thisclausecouldsetadangerous precedentforfederalbikepolicy. ThisprovisionwasfirstincludedintheSenatetransportationbillwithouttheadditionofthe BicycleLevelofServiceclause.Theadditionofthisclausenowmeansthatstatescanhavesome outtoenforcingthelawandthatadvocateshaveanopportunitytodemonstratethatthe restrictionshouldnotapplytotheirroads.

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