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FINAL REPORT

ADB TA 7206-BAN BANGLADESH: CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FOR MADRASAH EDUCATION

PREPARED FOR ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK & GOVERNMENT OF BANGLADESH

PREPARED BY MAXWELL STAMP LIMITED, BANGLADESH

In association with:

EDUCATION FOR CHANGE, UK

JULY 2011

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

Table of Contents

ABBREVIATIONS..............................................................................................................................................II KNOWLEDGE SUMMARY.............................................................................................................................. V

CHAPTER 1.......................................................................................................................................................... 1 REFLECTIONS ON THE EXPECTED OUTCOMES AND OUTPUTS OF THE PROJECT.................... 1 1.0 1.1 ASSESSMENT OF THE OUTCOMES OF THE TA PROJECT ........................................................................ 1 OUTPUTS OF THE TA PROJECT ............................................................................................................. 1

CHAPTER 2.......................................................................................................................................................... 8 THE OUTPUTS OF CDTA 7206 BAN............................................................................................................... 8 2.0 OUTPUTS ............................................................................................................................................. 8 2.1 SHORT AND MEDIUM TERM CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN .............................................................. 8 2.2 THE MADRASAH SECTOR STUDY (MSS) ........................................................................................... 10 2.3 PRELIMINARY MAPPING OF THE QOUMI AND IBTEDAYE MADRASAH SUBSECTORS ...................... 16 2.3.1 Qoumi Madrasahs .......................................................................................................................... 16 2.4 PRELIMINARY MAPPING OF THE INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE SUB-SECTOR ........................................... 17 2.5 QUALITATIVE STUDY OF PARENTS AND CHILDRENS DECISIONS AND EXPERIENCES IN MADRASAHS 20 2.6 ROAD MAP AND COSTED INVESTMENT PROGRAM FOR THE MADRASAH SUBSECTOR ......................... 22 2.6.1 Priority Areas for Investment ......................................................................................................... 23 2.6.2 Indicative Investment Program for Madrasah Education............................................................... 25 2.7 REPORT ON THE OVERSEAS STUDY VISITS ........................................................................................ 26 2.8 LESSONS LEARNED ............................................................................................................................ 27 TA Design .................................................................................................................................................... 27 Government Execution and Implementation Agencies................................................................................. 27 Office Accommodation................................................................................................................................. 28

ANNEX 1: INSTITUTIONAL ASSESSMENT AND CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN (CDP) FOR BANGLADESH MADRASAH EDUCATION BOARD (BMEB).............................................. 29 ANNEX 2: MADRASAH SECTOR STUDY REPORT.................................................................................. 84 ANNEX 3: ROAD MAP AND INDICATIVE INVESTMENT PROPOSAL.............................................. 413 ANNEX 4: OVERSEAS STUDY VISITS REPORT ..................................................................................... 541

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

ABBREVIATIONS
ADB AI BANBEIS BE B Ed BEDU BMEB BMTTI BNFE BNP BRAC BSCE CAMPE CDP CDTA C in Ed CQ DC DEO DIA DME DPE DSHE DTE EFA EIIN EMIS FGD GDP GER Asian Development Bank Assistant Inspector Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics Budget Estimate Bachelor of Education Bangladesh Examination Development Unit Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute Bureau of Non-Formal Education Bangladesh Nationalist Party Building Resources Across Communities (Formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) Bangladesh Central Service Examination Campaign for Popular Education Capacity Development Plan Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Technical Assistance Certificate in Education Creative questions Deputy Commissioner District Education Office Directorate of Inspection and Audit Directorate of Madrasah Education (proposed) Directorate of Primary Education Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education Directorate of Technical Education Education for All Educational Institution Identification Number Education Management Information System Focus Group Discussion Gross Domestic Product Gross Enrolment Ratio

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education GPS HRP HSC HSTTI ICT JCE MBA M&E MCQ MLSS MMC MOE MOPME MPO NAEM NCTB NCCC NEP NER NGO NTRCA OMR PBM PEDP II PROG 3 PRSP PTI RE RNGPS SBM SEQAEP SESDP SSC STR Government Primary School Human Resource Planning Higher Education Certificate Higher Secondary Teacher Training Institute Information and Communication Technology Junior Certificate Examination Madrasah Based Assessment Monitoring and Evaluation Multiple Choice Question Menial Level and Subordinate Staff Madrasah Management Committee Ministry of Education Ministry of Primary and Mass Education Monthly Pay Order National Academy for Education Management National Curriculum and Textbook Board National Curriculum Coordination Committee National Education Policy Net Enrolment Ratio Non Government Organization Non-government Teachers Registration and Certification Authority Optical Mark Recognition Performance Based Management Primary Education Development Program II Program 3 (for Primary Education Development) Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Primary Teacher Training Institute Revised (Budget) Estimate Registered Non-Government Primary School School Based Management Secondary Education Quality Access Enhancement Project Secondary Education Sector Development Project Secondary School Certificate Student Teacher Ratio
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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education TA TQIP TTC TVET UEO UNDP UNICEF UNO WB Technical Assistance Teaching Quality Improvement Project Teacher Training College Technical and Vocational Education and Training Upazila Education Officer United Nations Development Program United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund Upazila Nirbahi Officer World Bank

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

KNOWLEDGE SUMMARY
Madrasahs are religious schools that offer religious education along with secular subjects. In Bangladesh there are two types of madrasahs Aliya and Qoumi. The Aliya madrasahs receive financial support from the government, mainly salary for hiring teachers and are under government supervision. Qoumi madrasahs are not recognised by the state and do not receive any financial support from the government. While the curriculum of the Aliya madrasahs has a mix of general education and religious subjects there is no uniform curriculum in the latter type of madrasahs although the weight is heavily on religious subjects. All Aliya madrasahs, apart from three government aliya madrasahs, are managed by local communities. The Aliya madrasahs have over 4 million students in about 14,000 institutions, under the overall supervision of Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB). There is no official estimate about the total number of Qoumi madrasahs. The Quomi madrasahs are known to be under the supervision of unspecified number of regional quomi madrasah education boards. While most of the Aliya and Quomi madrasahs are located in rural and semi urban areas there are more girls than boys attending Aliyah madrasahs. A sample survey on Qoumi madrasahs carried out under the project shows that most Quomi students are male and about half of all students are boarding. Until 2010 madrasah education was considered outside of the mainstream education system. The new National Education Policy 2010 announced a unified system of education under which Aliya Madrasah, though not Qoumi (as they are outside the purview of government supervision and support), students will study the same curriculum and sit the examinations as general education students plus they will have their unique religious subjects and separate examinations for religious subject. In addition, the structure of the school system is to change from a 5+5+2 years system to 8+4 years with the 8 years primary or basic education cycle being compulsory. The policy context for the future of madrasah education will require long term planning and considerable additional resources. In general, students attending Aliya Madrasahs compared to those students attending general secondary schools experience a lower quality of education in terms of the inputs provided by the government and the communities which manage those madrasahs. Moreover, with rare exceptions, the perception of the public is also that madrasahs offer an inferior quality education. Aliya madrasah students cannot at present compete with their peers from mainstream secondary schools in the labor market nor can they readily advance into higher education. There are six main obstacles that Aliya Madrasahs face in improving quality and becoming unified with the general education stream. These are the lack of adequate training in teaching methodology of the majority of madrasah teachers; failure to use the same textbooks and examination questions as general education schools for non-religious subjects; the lack of capacity of the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board to plan, manage, monitor and evaluate Aliya Madrasah education; failure of students to complete their education cycles; failure to teach Aliya Madrasah students, at both primary and secondary levels, in good facilities that are equipped for learning.

There are proposals in the final report of the project to address the above obstacles. The TA has also addressed the policy and planning issue, access & equity and gender issue, curriculum and teacher training issue, as well as physical facilities and learning materials issue, monitoring and evaluation, as well as EMIS for madrasah education. In addition,
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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education capacity of Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) was developed for madrasah mapping study and particularly for qualitative survey. The main outputs of the project are: a comprehensive madrasah sector study, an institutional assessment and capacity development plan for the BMEB, and a road map and an indicative investment plan for madrsah education development.

The Asian Development Bank has supported the education sector, though not directly madrasahs, in Bangladesh for nearly three decades. ADB has the potential to lead a consortium of development partners to support the government of Bangladesh in investing in madrasah education. The urgent need is to attend to the gross inequalities in education provision within madrasahs so that they are ready to benefit from the restructuring which the new education policy envisages. Thereafter, madrasahs will be part of the mainstream education system.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

CHAPTER 1 REFLECTIONS ON THE EXPECTED OUTCOMES AND OUTPUTS OF THE PROJECT


1. A TA Fact-Finding Mission fielded in July 2008 reached an understanding with the government on the rationale, scope, outcomes and outputs, methodology, implementation arrangements and timeframe, cost and financing plan, and terms of reference for the TA project, Capacity Development for Madrasah Education. The Project was approved in December 2008. The new government took office in January 2009. One of its first actions was to set up a commission to formulate an education policy. By September 2009 there was a draft education policy, the first since Liberation in 1971. Cabinet agreed to it in mid-2010 and the National Assembly approved it in December 2010. Hence the policy context for education, and in particular madrasah education, changed during the fielding of the TA Team. In reviewing the expected outcomes and outputs this critical point has to be understood.

1.0

ASSESSMENT OF THE OUTCOMES OF THE TA PROJECT

2. The outcomes of the TA will be a strengthened Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB) with increased human, organizational and institutional capacity. (TA Paper, paragraph 1). 3. This outcome is dealt with under Capacity Development below.

1.1

OUTPUTS OF THE TA PROJECT

4. The TA project was expected to deliver its outputs in two phases. The outputs of the first phase were to be (1) a comprehensive sector study for the entire madrasah subsector and (2) an action plan for institutional and organizational capacity development for BMEB and other associated institutions, such as the Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB), and the Qoumi Madrasah boards (TA Paper paragraph 1). The output of the second phase was for the TA Project to assist the Government in developing a medium- to long-term participatory policy and strategic plan for the madrasah subsector.

1.1.1 Phase One Outputs


5. The sector study An interim version of the Madrasah Sector Study (MSS) was completed in July of 2010 and the draft final version in late March 2011. There were two main reasons for the delay. First, two surveys of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs and
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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Qoumi Madrasahs, and a Qualitative Study, took much longer to launch and process than the sub-contractor, BANBEIS, had estimated. Second, the policy context had changed. The National Education Policy approved in 2010 envisaged a unified curriculum for all schools and madrasahs as well as the restructuring of the school system from a 5+5+2 system to an 8+4 system. During 2010, as the National Education Policy went through various stages to its adoption, fresh thinking on the nature of the madrasah sector was required. 6. Capacity development plan The TA Project prepared a Capacity Development Plan (CDP) for BMEB in early 2010. Stakeholders then discussed it and provided feedback to the TA Project. As explained below, under Capacity Development, the TA Project did not include the NCTB in the plan for capacity development. The Qoumi boards were also not included in the capacity development plan. Qoumi Madrasahs are not recognised by the government. While the staff of the main Qoumi board was willing to participate in limited ways, for instance, in assisting BANBEIS to devise the first data collection instruments for their institutions, there was no enthusiasm for their involvement in other aspects of the TA Project. With limited consultant time, and the lack of governments official positive line on Qoumi Madrasahs, the TA took a decision to restrict the CDP to Aliya Madrasah education. 7. The first version of the Capacity Development Plan was reviewed and updated to be consistent with the emerging proposals within the National Education Policy (NEP 2010). These revised proposals for capacity development appear in the Road Map for Madrasah Education and they are flexible enough to respond to whatever organisational and structural change the government may decree once the NEP 2010 is implemented.

1.1.2 Phase Two Outputs


8. During Phase Two, the TA project was to assist the government in developing a medium- to long-term participatory policy and strategic plan for the madrasah subsector. The output of the TA Project at this stage was described as (i) an agreed process for policy reform for the madrasah subsector; (ii) a madrasah subsector road map; (iii) complete databases installed in the governments computer systems and a comprehensive madrasah mapping study; and (iv) an agreed financial planning, management, and monitoring framework for reforming the madrasah subsector with detailed budgeting, funding options, and prioritized activities (TA Paper paragraph 1). 9. Process for policy reform for the madrasah subsector This output became irrelevant once government drafted the NEP 2010. Officials sent strong signals that no longer would madrasah education be a neglected and separate entity. The NEP 2010 stipulated that the whole of education, from Classes 1 12, including madrasahs, were to be unified both in terms of curriculum and standards. Thus, there was no case for an output that formulated a process for madrasah reform outside of the already approved NEP 2010 and its implementation process. However, the TA Project included a section in the MSS that addresses the feasibility of madrasah education reform in relation to the NEP 2010 and its implementation process.

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 10. Madrasah subsector road map. The TA Project produced a Road Map for Madrasah Education in March 2011 after consultations with stakeholders in October 2010 and again in early March 2011. The Road Map considers education in madrasahs as part of the proposed education reform in Bangladesh rather than treating madrasah reform as a separate subsector activity. This approach allows flexibility as progress in implementing the NEP 2010 unfolds. In addition, once the reforms of the NEP are complete, the present functions of the BMEB for education in the madrasah subsector may well be altered. 11. Complete database installed in the governments computer systems and a comprehensive madrasah mapping study: the databases This third output has two separate sub-outputs: the databases and the mapping study. We discus the databases first. BANBEIS has a database of Aliya Madrasahs for both 2008 and, now, 2009. The TA Project used the 2008 database since the 2009 database was not available during the time allocated for the consultants. The analyses that were specified by the TA Project can repeated on the updated database in the future. BANBEIS also has the 2010 database of a large sample (25%) of the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. The TA Project proposes that beginning in 2011, the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MOPME) include all Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in its annual Primary Education Census. The MOPMEs inclusion of these madrasahs in its census will assure that its data collection will be aligned with the NEP 2010s intentions of not neglecting the madrasahs. The database of Qoumi Madrasahs consists of 544 institutions. It is not comprehensive since time and resources did not allow a statistically sound nationally representative sample to be taken. Further, the number and location of the population of Qoumi Madrasahs in Bangladesh are unknown. The TA Project made proposals in the Road Map for a national survey of Qoumi Madrasahs. 12. The comprehensive mapping study. The TA Team interpreted the comprehensive mapping study to be a report that addresses all the facets of madrasahs and incorporates information obtained from empirical data analyses with insights from reading, field visits, the Qualitative Study interviews, and structured enquiries of the stakeholders in madrasah education. The MSS is this output. The MSS is a comprehensive report on the status madrasah education as it currently operates. 13. Agreed financial planning, management, and monitoring framework for reforming the madrasah subsector with detailed budgeting, funding options, and prioritized activities. This is the fourth and final expected output. The TA Project prepared an Indicative Investment Proposal (IIP) that covers part of this output. The IIP provides cost estimates for implementing the main proposals described in the Road Map. The analysis the TA Project prepared and included in the MSS shows that Bangladesh persistently allocates less to education than other countries in the region and that the per student allocations to secondary education, including madrasahs, stand below the international norm as judged by the Mingat ratio1. 14. However, although the NEP 2010 advocates increasing the government financial allocation to education, neither the BMEB nor the MOE felt able to discuss the topic of
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Ratio of revenue expenditure per student to the GDP per head of population.

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education financing madrasahs with the TA Project consultants. The financing of madrasahs is a political topic in Bangladesh. The NEP 2010 contains only sketchy and incomplete calculations of the cost of adding the classrooms that are needed for extending primary education to eight years. It is not possible to consider the financing of madrasah education separately from the wider budget allocations of government revenue and development funds to the education sector. Give the contexts describe here, the TA Project can go no further than presenting the MSS, the CDP, the RM, and the IIP. 15. Monitoring framework The TA Project made proposals regarding monitoring in the Road Map. At present MOE has neither the capacity nor a real interest to monitor madrasahs except for publishing exam results. Madrasah educational personnel in the field have virtually no capacity to monitor madrasahs educational processes or teaching quality. The TA made proposals in the Road Map to strengthen both the staffing and systems for monitoring through using secondary education field personnel.

1.4

Capacity Development

16. Being a capacity development technical assistance project it is appropriate to reflect on the extent to which capacities were developed during the tenure of the project. The target organisations for this project were the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB), the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE), the Bangladesh Bureau for Education Information and Statistics (BANBEIS), and the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB). Offices for the TA consultant team were provided in both BMEB and DSHE. Since a substantial part of the work in the mid-period of the TA was subcontracted to BANBEIS, the team leader, the EMIS specialist, and Qualitative Research Specialist spent substantial amounts of time at BANBEIS. The NCTB provided information on and samples of curriculum and textbooks, and provided information on policy, procedures and organization. The BMEB provided information about policy and procedures, but provided only a minimum amount of materials. The TA Project consultants noted that all the target institutions were involved, though to different degrees. Some staff of these institutions benefitted from the short study visits to India and Indonesia, while all participated in the various workshop activities organised under the project. 17. Capacity development covers both training and administrative systems development. Training can be on-the-job where, as in this case, consultants and regular government staff sit together to work on project tasks, or off-the-job. The latter can be formal, such as when a short course of training is delivered or non-formal. Non-formal training includes overseas study visits that provided exposure to new ways of thinking through observing and discussing with others how madrasah education is managed elsewhere. Such visits and interactions can potentially increase capacity to analyse issues and generate new approaches. Project workshops allow interchange of views, between officials and consultants, and between officials from different departments and agencies. Such interchanges can lead to appreciation of other perspectives on issues, in this case on madrasah education.

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 18. But capacity development extends beyond training to increase the skills and knowledge of current personnel in the target institutions. Alongside these improvements in human capacities, there also has to be improved systems or operational procedures. These improvements in how an organisation works day-to-day have to be sustained beyond the Project period. In what follows an attempt is made to assess just how successful have been the attempts at capacity development in the target organisations. 19. Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board, BMEB: This organisation, as detailed within the Capacity Development Plan, suffers from a chronic shortage of technical and higher level curriculum and textbook development staff. The current staff members workload is such as not to allow the key top managers to spare time to work regularly with consultants. One BMEB staff member became almost the sole source of information about madrasah education and contributed to the teams understanding of the many complex issues. The short-term capacity development workshops proved problematic since their timing had to coincide with prior commitments of the BMEB staff such as examination administration, competing events set by government, and with the intermittent availability of the international consultants. The few zonal staff, who were targeted for both local training and overseas exposure, could play an important role in field management, but are totally handicapped by lack of resources. While the operational systems of the BMEB were not affected directly by the TA Project consultants, there is evidence in the Study Visits Report that those overseas study visits provided by the Project opened the eyes of many of the BMEB staff to operational features of madrasahs elsewhere and these insights will contribute to positive attitudes toward the need to improve the BMEBs systems and ways of working. 20. Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education, DSHE: Interactions with the DSHE were mainly with the Director, Deputy Director, and Assistant Director of the Planning and Development (P&D) wing. They facilitated our project office accommodation and provided the channel for communication to the MOE. The P&D wing contributed to all of the Projects workshops, particularly by looking at the statistics and quantitative aspects of reports and proposals, and through offering comments on the CDTA Projects documents. The Director General of Secondary and Higher Education was de facto project director and gave time to the team and took the chair at most of the workshops. 21. The DSHE operations were not changed as a result of the CDTA. However, as the report of the overseas Study Visits shows, the visits revealed to the DSHE that in Indonesia madrasahs and schools are at par with each other. The DSHEs recognition of this may help to improve working relations between the DSHE and the BMEB. 22. Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics, BANBEIS: The most salient aspect of capacity development was the Projects impact on some key technical staff of the BANBEIS. The BANBEIS was commissioned by the Project to undertake two surveys and one qualitative study, as well as to produce fresh analyses of two existing databases.

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 23. In Bangladesh, there is capacity in private sector to undertake large scale surveys. However, the attempt to involve the BANBEIS in conducting the studies had several advantages and capacity building opportunities for this national institution: (a) contracting with a designated government office to conduct the studies could lead to better acceptance of the results by the MOE, (b) a national database of Aliya Dakhil Madrasahs was accomplished, and a start has been made to establishing national databases for both Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs (IIMs), and Qoumi Madrasahs (there is an expectation that later there will be a complete national coverage of the both IIMs and Qoumi Madrasahs), and (c) the BANBEIS staff appreciated the lessons learned from the missions input, especially at the data processing stage. 24. The team leader worked with the BANBEIS to produce technical and financial proposals for undertaking the surveys and the Qualitative Study since the BANBEIS had no experience in writing proposals. This is a new skill now embedded in the organisation and, therefore, a new technical capacity. 25. The national EMIS specialists worked closely with the BANBEIS staff to develop, field test, and revise data collection instruments for the sample surveys of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs and Qoumi Madrasahs. Development of the latter set of instruments required careful negotiation and close cooperation with the senior members of the main Qoumi board. These data collection instruments, with some further refinement and updating, can be used in the future and, therefore, represent a second item of capacity development. The second national EMIS consultant worked closely with the BANBEIS staff in producing the data tables that summarize the analyses of the databases. There was clear indication of lack of capacity in the BANBEIS in data cleaning processes; the problem became acute in case of Qoumi survey. Fresh approaches to data cleaning were introduced as a new technical capacity. 26. BANBEIS had no experience of conducting and reporting qualitative research studies. The Bank, through a separate contract, hired a specialist researcher to train three senior staff of the BANBEIS in qualitative research techniques, as well as to work closely with those researchers through email to prepare the analysis and write the report. The BANBEIS now has the capacity to undertake qualitative studies in the education field. 27. The interactions with officials of the Qoumi board extended the knowledge base of the BANBEIS staff as well as their skills in negotiating the involvement of Qoumi Madrasah personnel in the survey. The Qoumi board personnel also benefited in that they seemed to concede that information on the Qoumi Madrasahs could be useful for purposes other than registering them. 28. Data collection forms for both the sample surveys had shortcomings in the sense that they could not capture the dropout data. The Qoumi Madrasah form has some serious shortcomings, like gender disaggregation of result data were not attempted, teacher information was not clear, various details of attached sections were missing, etc. These shortcomings arose from the thin inputs of the international EMIS consultant, the delay in appointing a replacement national EMIS consultant, and time pressures to start the surveys.

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 29. The combined analyses of the madrasah and secondary school databases, again commissioned by the Project, provided the BANBEIS with a new tool since previously the organisation had reported separately on the different sectors. 30. National Curriculum and Textbook Board, NCTB: The NCTB staff provided information when required, but they were not targeted for training except for the overseas study visits. The Secondary Education Sector Development Project (SESDP) has the reform of curriculum in madrasahs within its framework and has appropriate long term resources to aid the process. Hence, NCTB at this point had a limited role with respect to our TA Project.

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

CHAPTER 2 THE OUTPUTS OF CDTA 7206 BAN


2.0
31.

OUTPUTS
The following are the outputs of the CDTA 7206 BAN: 1. Short- and medium-term Capacity Development Plan 2. Comprehensive mapping of the Aliya Madrasah subsector 3. Preliminary mapping of the Qoumi /Ibtedaye Madrasah subsector 4. Qualitative study of parents and childrens decisions and experiences in madrasahs 5. Comprehensive Madrasah Sector Study synthesising findings 6. Road Map for the madrasah subsector 7. Costed Investment Plan for the madrasah subsector

32. Each of these outputs is summarized in the remaining sections of this chapter. In addition to the above contracted outputs, this Report includes a Report of the Overseas Study Visits.

2.1

SHORT AND MEDIUM TERM CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Summary 33. Bangladesh has made significant progress in primary, secondary, and higher education. It has also witnessed a remarkable growth in Islamic schools known as madrasahs both at primary and secondary levels2. Officially recognized as an integral part of national education system, madrasahs in general are perceived to be lagging behind mainstream schools due to poor physical facilities, lack of qualified teachers, and inadequate management and supervision. It is estimated that approximately over 20 per cent3 of primary and secondary age students attend madrasah located primarily in rural and semi-urban areas. Madrasahs, however, also exist in urban areas. 34. Since liberation in 1971, successive governments attempted to modernize madrasah education in parallel with mainstream education. The Madrasah Education Ordinance 1978
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In Aliya madrasah education, Ibtedaye (grade 1-5) is the primary level, Dakhil (grade 6-10) is the secondary level and Alim (grade 11-12) is the higher secondary education. 3 Unless otherwise stated, data for secondary schools and secondary (Dakhil) madrasahs are for 2008. Numerical information given for Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs and Qoumi Madrasahs are from the 2010 surveys.

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education was promulgated with a view to streamlining, regulating, managing, and upgrading the subsector. It also established the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB) as an autonomous institution. However, the experience during the past several decades has shown that the BMEB is constrained by a number of bottlenecks that need urgent action to meet the challenges of modern times and to deliver the governments goals of quality education and mainstreaming madrasah education. 35. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) funded technical assistance (TA) No. 7206BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education to help develop a medium and longterm policy framework, and a strategy and investment plan that will need to be supported by effective institutional arrangements and qualified personnel. Despite the sound strategy and policy thrusts enshrined in the first and revised Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) for accelerated poverty reduction and human development, madrasah education is seriously constrained due to lack of appropriate investments, effective institutional arrangements, and qualified staff. 36. The TA, in close consultation with key stakeholders, prepared a Capacity Development Plan (CDP). The CDP addresses the policy and management environment of the Aliya Madrasah education system that is currently coordinated by the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB); the institutional aspects of the current BMEB, including functions, systems, and processes; and most importantly the current capacity BMEBs staff. Using both an institutional analysis and a participatory needs assessment analysis, the TA formulated a short-term CDP, consisting mainly of local training workshops and overseas study visits; and an indicative medium-term CDP, that could be part of a future investment package. The medium-term CDP is included in Section 5, Planning and Management, of the Road Map for madrasah education. Within this section, there are detailed costed proposals for investment in the human infrastructure of the BMEB, as well as other organisations relevant to madrasah education. 37. There was almost a years gap between the first appearance of the CDP and the finalisation of the Road Map, during that gap the government introduced the NER 2010. Thus, the proposals in the Road Map take precedence since they are based on an increased appreciation of madrasahs in the light of the NEP 2010. Moreover, the proposals in the Road Map are flexible enough to meet possible organisational changes that might result from the NEP 2010 (for instance, the possible establishment of a Directorate of Madrasah Education). 38. The Capacity Development Plan is attached as Annex 1.

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

2.2

THE MADRASAH SECTOR STUDY (MSS)

39. The MSS document runs to 100 pages of text and 200 pages of appendices to support the text. It is the response to both the second and fifth outputs listed in Chapter 1. The appendices contain the reports of the three commissioned pieces of work: (1) the sample survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, (2) the sample survey of the Qoumi Madrasahs, and (3) the qualitative study. 40. Below is a summary of the main text. Sections 2.3 2.5 are separate summaries of the three commissioned research reports.

Summary
Introduction 41. The Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Technical Assistance Project had its origins before the election of the present government and before the rapid formulation and adoption of a National Education Policy in December 2010 (NEP 2010), the first comprehensive education policy since Liberation in 1971. The NEP 2010 presents a vision of the Bangladesh education system that is quite different than the system that existed at the time the TA Project was started. The NEP 2010 calls for a unified school system with a strong common core of subjects in the curriculum; a restructuring from 5+5+2 years of schools to 8+4 years, with the first eight years being free and compulsory; establishing comparable standards for students in schools and madrasah; and requiring students from both systems to be assessed in the core general subjects with the same examinations. 42. In planning the TA Project there was an unstated assumption that the status quo of madrasah education system under the direction of the BMEB would continue. The reforming proposals in the NEP 2010, however, change the context for planning the future shape of madrasah education, as the TA Project was in the completion phases of the MSS. 43. The MSS presents a status report of madrasah education up to 2010. Nevertheless, what we can be certain of is that the future for madrasah education may be quite different from how it is at present and how it has developed over the last couple of decades. The MSS discusses both types of madrasahs that currently exist: one type, the Aliya, being partly funded and supervised by government, and the other, the Qoumi, standing outside state control. However, the MSS focuses primarily on the Aliya Madrasahs, particularly at the Dakhil or secondary level. The MSS addresses issues of access, quality, internal efficiency, equity, management, and finance. It attempts to identify the most pressing needs for madrasah education and points the way towards a Road Map and Indicative Investment Proposal (that were prepared as separate outputs). The MSS is a substantial documentation of the current madrasah system in Bangladesh that is timely in relation to the implementation of the NEP 2010.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education The MSS was prepared using information obtained from commissioned surveys, projectinitiated studies, document reviews and analyses, visits by the Technical Assistance team to almost 50 madrasahs of all types, and interviews and discussions, both formal and informal, with key stakeholders. An Interim Madrasah Study was completed and presented to key stakeholders in June 2010 and further drafts in December 2010 and March 2011. The TA team used feedback from those presentations to shape the final MSS. 44. Among the several reasons for studying madrasah education at the present time is that while the number of madrasahs has grown fast since Liberation it is widely held that the quality of madrasah education falls short of general education in preparing students for a very competitive job market and for entry into higher education. 45. Access to all forms of secondary education is almost exclusively through nongovernment schools and Aliya Dakhil Madrasahs, there being only 317 government secondary schools and 3 government madrasahs in a total of almost 33,000 secondary level institutions. There is also a tiny Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) stream. Madrasahs are more common in rural areas than urban areas. In 2008, just under one fifth of all students at secondary level were studying in madrasahs, 2% in TVET, the remaining 80% in the general education stream. The growth of Aliya Madrasahs over the period since 1970 has been twice as fast as that of general education secondary schools. 46. Gross and net participation rates at secondary level are quite close being around 44% to 42%, respectively, for boys, and 56% - 55.8%, respectively, for girls, showing that most students fall within the accepted age range of 11 - 16 years. These rates ignore those students attending Qoumi madrasahs, for whom comparable data could not be obtained. Divisional and national averages hide wide variations at district and upazila levels. Gender parity has been achieved within both general education and Aliya Madrasahs. Participation of the higher income groups is more common in secondary schools than in madrasahs. Stipend schemes, which have long targeted girls, seem to be associated with higher participation by girls in both schools and madrasahs. The administration of the two scholarship schemes open to both school and madrasah students seems to favour greatly male secondary school students. Children with various disabilities are few in schools and even rarer in Madrasahs. Madrasahs Dakhil, Independent Ibtedaye, and Qoumi all have lower student-teacher ratios than secondary schools and consequently lower class sizes. Madrasah teachers, however, are much less likely to be trained than teachers in secondary schools. Few madrasah teachers have had in-service training. Approximately three quarters of all madrasah buildings are of poor or temporary construction. Quality 47. A wide gap has existed in the curricula used in general education schools and Aliya Madrasahs. Based on a careful study of curricula and textbooks it is concluded that the amount of content included in general subjects has been less in Aliya Madrasah textbooks than in the general education school textbooks. Curricula, syllabi, and textbooks covering the general subjects have been developed by BMEB and have fewer numbers of teaching units than the general secondary education curricula. These differences in the textbooks defined
11

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education the differences in the content and amount of material taught to students in two streams of secondary education since the textbooks are the primary teaching resources used by teachers. The examinations set for the general education school students are of a higher quality than those set for the madrasah students. The NEP 2010 educational policy has attempted to address these differences and to close the gap between the two streams. In the coming years, a core of general education subjects in the two systems should be taught using the same textbooks and perhaps a similar pattern of examinations will be instituted. Religious education curricula and textbooks will continue to be unique to the madrasahs. 48. Generalisations concerning Qoumi curricula cannot be easily made since there is no single umbrella body for curricula and many Qoumi madrasahs are independent of any board. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are supposed to follow a curriculum similar to that used in primary schools with the addition of religious education, but an analysis of past textbooks show they have fewer lessons than their counterparts in primary schools. With poorly qualified and untrained teachers, a general neglect of physical facilities and learning resources, as well as the lack of supervision nor inspection, it is difficult to conclude that students in the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs do experience at present a curriculum comparable to that in government or even non-government primary schools. 49. The pass rates for the general education Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and the Dakhil examination for ten years show Dakhil leavers to have a higher rate of passing their examination than the general education secondary school leavers have of passing their examination. However, the curriculum, textbooks, and examinations of the BMEB and NCTB were found to be so different that the pass rates cannot be validly compared to evaluate quality. Pass rates are not valid indicators of the quality of student learning in the past Bangladesh education system. Internal Efficiency 50. Wastage at the secondary level is disturbingly high. The rates of cycle completion in the general secondary education stream are 42% for boys and 34% for girls while in madrasahs the rates are slightly better for boys at 50% and around the same for girls, 36%. These low completion rates represent a huge loss of money to the country and to the families who pay hard-earned money to invest in the future of their children. Although no data were collected in the survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs on dropout and repetition, the pattern of heavy enrolments in the early grades, and a sharp decline in enrolment by Class 5, that is so typical of primary schools in Bangladesh, suggest significant attrition in the course of the 5-years cycle. Dropout in Qoumi Madrasahs is thought to be very low perhaps because they are predominantly residential institutions and many students receive free board and some get free food.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Equity 51. Availability, proximity, and affordability have made madrasah education attractive to rural and poor parents who cannot afford the costs associated with other types of education. Madrasahs are particularly appealing where girls are concerned, when the benefits of moral and religious issues are added to lower parental costs and the availability of government stipends. Against this backdrop, girls are being enrolled in greater numbers though their wastage rate is higher than that of boys. However, girls do not fare as well as boys in terms of performance, retention, and completion rates. Their educational attainment does not translate as well into post-secondary education opportunities or higher salaries on graduation. Equity analysis shows that in Aliya Madrasahs female teachers are rare and female education managers even rarer. Approximately 10% of all madrasah teachers are female; less than 3% of Dahkil Madrasahs have female superintendents or assistant superintendents. Vulnerable groups are not well represented, with very few recorded students with disabilities; orphans are roughly 3% of all students in Dakhil Madrasahs. Moreover, in the case of madrasahs, girls are being educated in a context where womens rights and access to full citizenship are not always fully supported. System Planning and Management 52. The NEP 2010 is committed to bringing Aliya Madrasahs, but not Qoumi Madrasahs, into the framework of an overall education policy and system. However, the implementation strategy is not yet fully developed. At present, the BMEB has no capacity for policy analysis and technical planning. Planning expertise for re-structuring of the school system will have to come from the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) and the Ministry of Education. 53. Education policy and planning suffers when there is a dearth of reliable and up-todate information. At present, the secondary sector, including the Aliya Madrasah sub-sector, has a somewhat disjointed system of information collection, processing, retrieval, and access. Although an integrated EMIS covering the main administrative, management, monitoring, and evaluation functions was developed in 2006/7, only one part, management of the monthly payment order (MPO) system is functioning. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are not included in the annual census of primary schools nor are they surveyed during the irregular BANBEIS surveys of post-primary education institutions. Qoumi Madrasahs also fall outside the existing and proposed systems for data collection, processing, and analysis. 54. Implementation of the NEP 2010 policies, including the restructuring of schooling to an eight years primary cycle and four years secondary phase, will require substantial additional planning capacity and reliable up-to-date information. 55. The TA Projects institutional analysis of the BMEB showed that its decisions are frequently referred to the Ministry of Education for adjudication, even though BMEB decisions are in principle autonomous.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 56. Like other government organisations, the BMEBs strict hierarchy inhibits lower level staff members from enhancing institutional performance. Moreover, while almost all senior staff are deputed from the Bangladesh Civil Service (Education cadre), the BMEBs own staff have no route for development and promotion. The BMEB neglects human resource management. There is a total absence of female professional staff within the BMEB. The TA Project has prepared a Capacity Development Plan (CDP) for the madrasah education sector4. The CDP is a medium-term proposal focusing on developing human resources and institutional capacity for the madrasah sector. The Road Map for madrasah education contains detailed proposals for a long-term future development of capacity. Finance 57. Against a backdrop of a respectable growth rates in GDP, over the past few years Bangladesh has consistently allocated only 2.0% - 2.3% of GDP to education. Educations share of the government revenue budget has fluctuated in the range 15 - 19% in the period 2000 - 2008. Within the education revenue budget, madrasahs have held their share at about 11% while primary educations share dipped in the last year for which there are data. Primary education, however, took the lions share of the education development budget over the period 2000 - 2008. Secondary education, including madrasah education, fared poorly with steadily decreasing allocations, in real terms, from the development budget: when the effects of inflation are considered, the allocations in 2006/07 were less than in 2001/02. 58. Relative unit recurrent expenditures in non-government secondary schools and madrasahs have improved in the period 2005/6 to 2008/9 but are still some way below the internationally accepted norm of expenditure per head on secondary level students, being twice that on primary school students. The significance of low inputs per student, taken in the context of very high wastage through low completion rates of the secondary cycle, indicates that the secondary schools and madrasahs are possibly not receiving adequate resources to operate effectively nor to produce their potential output. Conclusions and Recommendations 59. The relevant messages in the NEP 2010 for the Aliya Madrasahs are that all types of primary schools and madrasah will follow a common curriculum with only variations up to Class 8; secondary education will start at Class 9 and run to Class 12; and each stream of secondary education is to have a common core of five or six compulsory subjects, thus providing students in all three streams of secondary with potentially equal chances to proceed to further study and access the job market. The question arises, once the NEP 2010 begins to be implemented, as to what will happen to the present Aliya Madrasah sub-sector? It appears that the present Dakhil curriculum and examination arrangements would be changed so that a core of the curriculum the general subjects would be in common with secondary schools; examinations would be common across the streams, and comparability between achieved grades on those general subjects would be transparent.

The CDP is available as Annex 1 to the Final Report of TA 7206-BAN.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 60. At present, both the mechanism for implementing the NEP 2010 and the pace at which it will be implemented are unclear. Hence, it is very difficult to be certain about how the large structural changes for the entire school and madrasah system will impact on madrasah education. Logically, implementation of such a large-scale upheaval in the structure and curriculum of schools would be preceded by a school sector study. That study would identify problems and present possible solutions. In the absence of a structure and a timescale for implementation of the NEP 2010, however, certain areas in madrasah education are recommended for immediate to medium term support in order to prepare for the implementation of the NEP 2010 policies. It is important that madrasah education have an earmarked project or a program support, otherwise it may not receive its appropriate share of development resources. Moreover, when the full-scale implementation of the NEP 2010 begins, madrasah education may not be at the starting line without this enhancement to the current resources and management. 61. The MSS has identified six main obstacles that Aliya Madrasahs face in improving quality. These are A. The lack of adequate training in teaching methodology of the majority of madrasah teachers. B. Failure to use the same textbooks and examination questions as general education schools for non-religious subjects at all levels of madrasah education. C. The lack of capacity of the BMEB to plan, manage, monitor and evaluate Aliya Madrasah education. D. Failure of students to complete their education cycles. E. Failure to teach Dakhil Madrasah students in good facilities that are equipped for learning. F. Failure to teach Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah student in good facilities that are equipped for learning.

62. The Road Map and Indicative Investment Proposal for Madrasah Education has detailed recommendations for each of these obstacles. Hence, we recommend a) A massive teacher training program for 50,000 teachers over 6 years. b) Adoption, after vetting, of the curriculum and textbooks of the National Curriculum and Textbook Board for general subjects, and revision of the textbooks for religious subjects. c) A capacity development plan for BMEB involving substantial training, local international and on-the-job. d) Conditional cash transfers for the poorest students in the poorest upazillas to encourage sustained attendance and prevention of drop-out. e) A re-building program at 120 Dakhil Madrasahs in the poorest areas to provide pucca facilities that can act as flagships to other communities. f) A package of improvements to some 200 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, including enhancement of facilities, teacher and head teacher training.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 63. These TA Project recommendations appear in the Road Map and Indicative Investment Proposal. 64. The MSS is attached as Annex 2 to this Report.

2.3 PRELIMINARY MAPPING OF THE QOUMI AND IBTEDAYE MADRASAH SUBSECTORS 2.3.1 Qoumi Madrasahs
The Sample 65. Because the number and national geographical distribution of Qoumi Madrasahs is unknown, it was not possible to construct a 10% nationally representative random sample of Qoumi Madrasahs. Instead, a census of all Qoumi Madrasahs was undertaken in seven districts. This is more than 10% of the 64 districts in Bangladesh and these districts contained approximately 12% of the national all-age population. The survey found 544 Qoumi Madrasahs in the seven districts. The data were collected in June to August of 2010. 66. On account of the lack of national geographical representativeness in the survey, the findings are best regarded as indicative rather than conclusive. Nevertheless, the findings of this survey are the first indications of the key features of Qoumi Madrasahs derived from a large number of madrasahs.

Summary
67. There were at least nine identified Qoumi education boards in the seven districts studied but the overwhelming majority of Qoumi Madrasahs (355 of 544) that registered with a board were registered with the Befaqul5 board. Some registered Qoumi Madrasahs use one local board for regular tests and the Befaqul board for terminal examinations. Surprisingly, 189 Qoumi Madrasahs were not registered with any board: they may be lower level institutions that do not offer formal external examinations. 68. About 85% of Quomi Madrasahs students are boys but about 25% of the madrasahs accept girls, either for girls only madrasahs or in mixed madrasahs in which they are normally taught separately. Girls-only madrasahs have a slightly better overall studentteacher ratio than boys-only or mixed madrasahs. There is wide variation of the students to teacher ratio in different types of madrasahs in rural, municipal, and metropolitan areas. 69. The attached sections of Qoumi Madrasahs provide a mix of pre-school and additional education with almost as many boys attending these sections (and a rather lower proportion of girls) as are formally enrolled in them. These may be students, who are also enrolled in other institutions, or in the case of pre-school students, proceed to other types of
5

The complete name of this board is Befaqul Madrasil Arabia Bangladesh.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education education subsequently. In such cases, Qoumi Madrasahs may essentially be providing the religious education that students and their parents seek as complementary to their learning in other schools. 70. About half of the students in Qoumi Madrasahs are residential, with a substantial number benefiting from free boarding. 71. Facilities vary widely but over 90% of Qoumi Madrasahs have water, toilets and electricity, a proportion that compares very favourably with the situation in the Aliya Madrasahs. 72. The report of the survey of Qoumi Madrasahs appears as Appendix 11 within Annex 2 to this Report.

2.4

PRELIMINARY MAPPING OF THE INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE SUBSECTOR

The Sample 73. The Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah survey was conducted using a sample of 25% of all districts in the country. Statistically, it followed a single stage stratified cluster sampling design, where the four greater (old) administrative divisions were considered as strata. From each of the stratum, four districts were randomly selected. However, one district (Rangamati) from Chittagong Division was later dropped and replaced by Gopalganj from Dhaka Division because there is a very low incidence of madrasahs in the Hill Tracts districts and because Dhaka is the largest division. Thus, those 16 districts were selected randomly as the primary sampling units from the total of 64 districts in the country. All Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in all 117 upazilas within the selected districts were included in the survey.

Summary
74. There were 1,104 active Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in the districts that were surveyed. For this survey, the BMEBs and the BANBEISs lists were supplemented on the basis of reports from field officers. This resulted in a new list of 2,103 madrasahs in the selected districts. However, of these, only 1,104 were found to be active as Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs at the time of the survey; 80 had upgraded to Dakhil Madrasahs, 74 had converted to Qoumi Madrasahs, 21 converted to Kindergarten, plus Noorani Madrasahs; and 824 (40% of the 2103) had disappeared. 75. Based on this 25% sample we estimate that in Bangladesh in 2010 there were 4,278 (standard error 77) Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs with 655,270 students (standard error 12.203).

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 76. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are small with an average enrolment of 153 students, an average of 4.5 rooms, and an average of 4 teachers. While there is overall gender equity in enrolments, there is considerable variation between upazilas with girls accounting for 39% to 75% of enrolments depending on the upazila. One possible explanation for this variability lies in the availability of other forms of primary education in an upazila. Girls and boys benefit equally from stipends although there are significantly fewer stipend holders (less than 13% of all students) in Independent Ibtadaye Madrasahs than in primary schools where 40% of students in receipt of stipends has been the norm. 77. The facilities are poor, with only 5% of rural Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs having pucca buildings. While most have water supplies, almost 63% of the water supplies have tested negative for arsenic (i.e. 37% of the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs either have not been tested for arsenic or are known not have safe water). 78. Few Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs have electricity (only 15% in rural areas). Facilities for teaching and learning are meagre with less than two textbooks per student even though between 5 and 10 subjects are taught per class. 79. Their teachers are predominantly male. Female teachers are 18% of the total. In the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs 89% of the teachers have received no training as teachers, not even short inservice training. 80. While 30% of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs have government support through the monthly payment order (MPO) system, only 17% of the teachers are under MPO. The MPO is a meagre Taka 500 (US 7) per month. Only 13% of female teachers receive the MPO. 81. Most commonly, Ibtedaye teachers have an Alim (HSC equivalent) level of education, though 40% of men have higher qualifications (bachelors degree or more) compared to only 18% of women. Teachers in the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs tend to be young with more than 70% of the women being under 30, compare to about 37% of men. 82. Although no data were collected on dropout and repetition, the pattern of heavy enrolments in the early grades and a sharp decline in enrolment by Class 5, that is so typical of primary schools in Bangladesh, suggest significant attrition over the 5 years cycle. In Class 5, overage students are approximately one third of all enrolments, an indicator of repetition. 83. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are founded, maintained, and managed by communities from which management committees are formed. They are, by and large, poor institutions with the majority, 70%, having an annual income of less than Taka 50,000. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in cities and metropolitan areas have an income approximately 50% higher though there are, of course, few of them. The Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in the survey had over 11 thousand management committee members

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education of whom only 800 (7.1%) were female and half the management committees had no female member at all. 84. The report of the survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs appears as Appendix 10 within Annex 2 to this Report.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

2.5

QUALITATIVE STUDY OF PARENTS AND CHILDRENS DECISIONS AND EXPERIENCES IN MADRASAHS

The Sample 85. The Qualitative Study involved ten madrasahs and is not representative of the vast range of types, locations, and sizes of madrasahs. The purpose was to provide additional information that might help to interpret the findings of quantitative surveys through in-depth interviews. Sixty students were interviewed for this study; twenty-one of the students were girls. The students ages were between 7 and 22 and they were enrolled in Class 1 to Fazil 3rd year and Post Graduation (for Qoumi Madrasahs). Five Aliya, three Independent Ibtedaye, and two Qoumi Madrasahs formed the sample. In addition to students, 40 guardians, 40 teachers, 10 administrators, and 10 members of Madrasah Managing Committees were targeted for interview In all, 157 interviews were conducted in the ten madrasahs.

Summary
86. Madrasahs and the people within them are deeply attached to the ideal of providing a Muslim education and instilling good moral values to the children of Bangladesh. This ideal gives madrasahs and their supporters a strong sense of identity and a collective belief that they are special institutions with a unique purpose and mission. This is both strength and a potential limitation. Madrasahs derive great pride and purpose from their uniqueness and their core ideal. However, such a differential identity may increase madrasahs insularity and may reinforce an inward looking stance that may make changes more difficult to implement. 87. In point of fact, however, madrasahs, especially Aliya Madrasahs, have been changing all along. Madrasahs have already adapted and responded to the changes brought about by modernity and globalization. Their numbers have grown, and they have offered secondary level educational albeit as weaker condensed versions of the national curriculum opportunities to many children in Bangladesh, including large numbers of girls. Many madrasahs are now co-educational. As modern madrasahs, they are being shaped by the realities of the national and global economies, which increasingly demand that a nations youth master computer and other forms of technological literacy. 88. Aliya Madrasahs want to reform their curricular offerings, they want better science labs, they want libraries and computers, and they want support from the government. However, they do not want to do this at the expense of their core religious mission. Indeed, madrasahs want to retain their core identity as faith-based educational institutions at the same time as they want to provide their students, especially young male students, with the tools they need to succeed when they graduate. How they will manage to do both in the context of the NEP 2010 remains to be decided. 89. The qualitative study has also underscored several issues that are of concern to us. In particular the serious lack of play time, the recurring use of physical punishment, and the

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education evidence of gender inequalities, which stand not only as barriers to the development goals of Bangladesh, but also as violations to basic human rights. 90. This study has given us a glimpse of what happens within ten madrasahs in Bangladesh. It has highlighted their great variety and their complexity as religious educational institutions. A few of the unique insights afforded by the qualitative analysis are summarised here. 91. Teachers and administrators in madrasahs are themselves products of the madrasah sub-sector and share certain elements of their students background. Moreover, the recruitment practices of madrasahs, and the lack of teacher training opportunities for madrasah staff members, reinforces their insularity. 92. While many respondents declare that madrasahs deliver an excellent education (at least equivalent and sometimes superior to the one offered in the general education schools), there are recurring references in the interviews to private tutors, coaching centres, dual tracks, and transfers to the general education schools. Respondents faith in madrasahs (at least as far as preparation for the job market is concerned) might have its limits. 93. Despite some of the harsh disciplinary tactics deployed by the teaching staff, most students interviewed for this study, had positive perceptions of their teachers. The students often used the language of love and affection to describe what they liked most about their teachers. They also underscored the sincerity of the teaching staff as something that might distinguish them from teachers working in other institutions. 94. Clear gender distinctions emerged from the analysis. Girls seem to be overburdened by the domestic chores they are expected to perform at home. This added labour combined with the strenuous study schedule of madrasahs and their lack of playtime may have adverse consequence for the girls and young women enrolled in the madrasahs in the sense of limiting their opportunities and educational advancement. Gender differences were also noted in the ways madrasah students thought and talked about their future. Girls were more likely than boys to frame their plans in the language of service and dedication to others (especially family members). In contradistinction, boys especially those enrolled in Qoumi madrasahs talked about serving their religion. The theme of serving the people is less present in the boys interviews and most often framed in the language of spiritual service and leadership. 95. The report of the Qualitative Study of Madrasahs appears within Annex 2 to this Report, as Appendix 9.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

2.6

ROAD MAP AND COSTED MADRASAH SUBSECTOR

INVESTMENT

PROGRAM

FOR

THE

Introduction 96. The policy context for madrasah education changed with the approval in December 2010 of the National Education Policy. As a result, it is no longer possible to regard Aliya Madrasahs as a separate island of education. The NEP 2010 presents a strong vision of a unified school system sharing a common curriculum and achieving comparability of standards. Hence, in formulating the Road Map and making proposals for investment, the TA Project took the view that investments are urgently required in madrasahs, both Dakhil and Independent Ibtedaye, no matter how they are eventually controlled and managed. Moreover, we have chosen to label the investments as both indicative and proposal rather than as a program. The reason is that in the context of the NEP 2010 there is an Implementation Committee that will be planning implementation across all sectors of education. The major restructuring of education into an 8+ 4 system from a 5+5+2 structure inevitably will include madrasahs. That will mean changes to both Ibtedaye and Dakhil Madrasahs. The new secondary sector Classes 9 - 12 will require an investment program and that will also affect madrasahs. The Indicative Investment Proposal for madrasahs made by the TA Project is based on the conviction that unless there are earmarked funds for the madrasahs to meet the immediate deficiencies in teacher education and training, in management, and in facilities, the likelihood is that, in whatever sectoral development programs emerge later to meet the regulations of the NEP 2010, madrasahs will not receive the scale of support that is needed to increase their standards so their outputs can compete on equal terms with those of the general education schools. Without enhancement to the resources and management of madrasah education, when the full scale implementation of the NEP 2010 begins, madrasah education will neither be prepared for nor able to meet the challenges that restructuring will bring. As an absolute priority, unless the Dakhil Madrasah teachers have their subject knowledge and pedagogical skills upgraded, full implementation of the new secondary curriculum in madrasahs will just not happen.

Summary of Road Map (RM) and Indicative Investment Proposal (IIP)


97. The RM is based on (i) the comprehensive Madrasah Sector Study 100 pages of text and 200 pages of appendices; (ii) consultations with officials, including two Road Map workshops in October 2010 and in early March 2011; (iii) recommendations from the officers who undertook study visits to Indonesia and West Bengal; and (iv) critiques of the draft Road Map in two consultations with stakeholders in late March and late May, 2011. 98. The proposals are fully consistent with the NEP 2010 in so far as the policy is explicit on a unified curriculum, restructuring of school education, and the need for a common assessment system for all secondary level students.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 99. There are three overarching objectives grouped into: Access/ Efficiency/ Equity; Quality; and Management. For each objective the TA Project presented a rationale for the proposed intervention, followed by an outline of the proposed investment. Lastly there are some recommendations for the NEP 2010 Implementation Committee. The latter are not costed.

2.6.1 Priority Areas for Investment


100. The following are the main areas recommended for investment. In subsequent paragraphs we summarize the nature of each recommended investment. Training for approximately 50,000 of Dakhil madrasah teachers who have no teacher training qualification Upgrading through re-building of up to 120 selected Dakhil Madrasahs in the poorest rural areas Conditional cash transfers to at least 27,000 identified students, boys as well as girls, from the poorest households in the poorest upazilas or an alternative of school feeding for students in the poorest madrasahs Capacity development for madrasah education, including for the BMEB A support package for 200 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs Nine studies of, and research into, madrasah education to serve the interest of better planning and management of madrasah education.

1) Rapid Madrasah Teacher Quality Improvement. Teacher training for the majority of the thousands of Dakhil Madrasah teachers who have no teacher training qualification. Teachers to be training for a Diploma in Secondary Teaching Duration of course = 50,000 = 4 months

Residential period for intensive subject and pedagogical training in two subjects = 2 months Training venues will be selected, after research, from TTCs, PTIs, BMTTI, private TTCs Number of Key Trainers = 36

2) Upgrading through re-building of selected Dakhil Madrasahs in the poorest rural areas. Number of rural kachha madrasahs to be upgraded = 120, including 10% for girls only

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Flagship status with full teaching learning facilities including science lab, ICT facility, etc Separate toilet provision for boys and girls, male and female teachers Design of facilities based on the 35 model madrasahs of the SESDP with enhancement to respond to the needs of the NEP 2010.

3) Conditional cash transfers to identified students from the poorest households in the poorest upazilas. Number of madrasah students to be provided with cash transfers for stipends, exam fees, tuition fees = 27,000 per year Average level of cash transfer per student Stipend rates increase each year from Class 8 Stipend levels build upon the experiences of the Secondary Education Stipend Project and other stipend schemes. = 2580 Taka per year

101. As an alternative, a madrasah feeding program could be devised and for the same objective of ensuring enrolment and attendance of the poorest students and within the same IIP allocation. 4) Capacity Development for Madrasah Education, including for the BMEB A first and major program of support to madrasah education and to BMEB Combination of local and international training in areas identified as weak in the BMEB National and international, long and short term technical support for skill and knowledge development for the BMEB and other organizations with a stake in madrasah education Building on the Capacity Development Plan, agreed with government in early 2010, but with additional flexibility in case of the establishment of a Directorate of Madrasah Education and the possibly changing functions of the BMEB.

5) Support to Distressed Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs (IIMs) Facilities enhanced and learning materials provided at the 200 poorest IIMs 400 teachers to be trained in a condensed course to teach the basic subjects Head teacher management and teacher supervision training for 200 head teachers

24

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Special annual allowance for motivation of teachers, dependent on performance and continued service.

102. There are also nine studies in support of madrasah education to serve the interest of better planning and management of madrasah education.

2.6.2 Indicative Investment Program for Madrasah Education


SUMMARY OF PROPOSED INVESTMENT

In Lakh Taka Teacher Training Facilities Equity Capacity Development IIM Support Package Studies Project Management Total of 7 components Contingency 5% of Direct Costs TOTAL 10131 18827 3505 2748 8932 613 1400 45963 2298 48,463

In US $ 14,472,531 26,895,471 5,007,150 3,926,400 12,760,000 875,000 2,000,000 65,660,553 3,283,028 69,233,381

Note: Project Management Costs are only approximate 103. The Road Map and Indicative Investment Proposal for Madrasah Education appear as Annex 3.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

2.7

REPORT ON THE OVERSEAS STUDY VISITS

Summary
104. Three study teams, each comprising 10 members, were selected by the government to visit Indonesia and India to learn about their madrasah education systems that are recognized for their mainstream elements. From the reporting of the officials, it appears that they have benefited immensely from their visits, especially the staff from the BMEB who learned about the policy and legal status, financing, structure, and monitoring system of the madrasah education in the two countries. The madrasah curricula in these countries are mainstreamed and student mobility from one institution to other is not restricted. These factors also make the madrasah graduates equally competitive in the job markets with their peers from general education schools. In West Bengal, India, many Hindu students attend madrasahs as they can study most core courses. Generous stipends, scholarship schemes, and a mid-day meal have made madrasah students of West Bengal not only more motivated towards their academic studies but they have also reduced dropout and repetition. Based on their experience, the study team made a number of recommendations for developing and mainstreaming madrasah education in Bangladesh. These are set out in Annex 4 to the Final Report. 105. Among many significant aspects of madrasah education in Indonesia, it is striking that science and ICT education have evidently brought phenomenal success in the recent development of madrasah education. Student language proficiencies both in Arabic and English are also worth noting since such proficiencies increase job possibilities at home and abroad. Teacher recruitment, training, and promotion are all professionally dynamic and well structured. Communities are involved, through Parent Teacher Associations (PTA), in the regular academic and other relevant affairs of madrasah education. This has ensured more transparency, accountability, and collective ownership of this system in Indonesia. 106. The report of the Overseas Study Visits appears as Annex 4.

26

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

2.8

LESSONS LEARNED TA Design

107. The original TA design was planned to extend over 18 months. Delays in delivery of the subcontractors outputs for the surveys and analyses of existing databases further extended the Project by three months. It would have been more efficient had there been a planned intermission allowing the subcontractor BANBEIS six months or so to undertake the surveys and qualitative study while the TA team stood down for this period. 108. Because there was a shortage of qualified national consultants in the defined technical areas of the TA, and because of the long elapsed time of the project, some national consultants opted for other longer-term positions with more secure income streams. The unavailability of the original national consultants in some of the important areas, namely, national deputy team leader, institutional capacity assessment, EMIS, and finance at the initial phase and at some of the critical phases, affected smooth operation of the TA. 109. The TA team never met as a whole, partly due to the late appointment of the specialist in qualitative research methods, the absence of a full national team, and partly because the intermittent inputs of three of the four international consultants were very dilute. One consequence of the dilute international inputs was that issues such as gender mainstreaming in the analysis and how to incorporate findings from the qualitative study with the other findings could not be discussed interactively among team members in advance of writing different parts of the outputs, resulting in a less integrated report than was desired.

Government Execution and Implementation Agencies


110. The MOE was the designated EA. The MOEs Planning Wing was inadequately staffed to engage in the details of the TA, though they sent representatives to the TA workshops and participated in the overseas training programme. The Planning Wing was the coordinator of the TA Steering Committee. This committee met on two occasions: once some six months after the team was mobilised and again in June 2011. 111. The TA Paper envisaged the BMEB being the Implementing Agency (IA). During the TA Inception, a change was made to have both BMEB and DSHE as joint IAs. The BMEB has neither project implementation experience nor expertise. The DSHE became the de facto IA. While it is noted that, without the active involvement of experienced officers of DSHE, the TA would not have been implemented effectively, the ownership of the TA Project could have been decided before mobilizing the team. The long delay in implementing the overseas study visits was partly caused by having joint IAs. Earlier implementation of those study visits would have enriched the contributions of BMEB and DSHE to the conceptualisation of the Road Map.

27

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

Office Accommodation
112. Two offices were established: one at the DSHE and one at the BMEB the joint IAs. The office in the BMEB was available after four months and the office in DSHE, which was better furbished, was established about nine months after the mobilization of the TA team. As a result for the first four months the team often used the facility of MSL. Having two offices and two IAs provided challenges to project management in liaising project implementation. 113. Learning from Other ADB Projects The Secondary Education Sector Development Project (SESDP) had produced a Madrasah Sector Strategy before the CDTA was mobilised. The draft was shared in late 2009. It was not accepted by the MOE till March of 2011. In part, the strategic recommendations within the Madrasah Sector Strategy were already accepted in the 2010 National Education Policy while other components of the Sector Strategy required empirical data and investment proposals now included in the Road Map, RM, and Indicative Investment Proposal (IIP). The SESDP has also established some 35 model madrasahs. The evaluation of the concept is on-going internally to the SESDP. However, the physical infrastructure, furniture, and equipment specifications were all available to the CDTA and provided the basis for the investment package (component 2) in the IIP. 114. The Teaching Quality Improvement Project (TQI) had made significant progress towards development of inservice programmes for secondary teachers, including a few madrasah teachers in the final batches of trainees. Their course structure provided the basis for the proposed investment to cover approximately 50,000 madrasah teachers (as component 4) in the IIP.

28

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

ANNEX 1: INSTITUTIONAL ASSESSMENT AND CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN (CDP) FOR BANGLADESH MADRASAH EDUCATION BOARD (BMEB)

29

ANNEX 1

INSTITUTIONAL ASSESSMENT AND CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN (CDP) FOR BANGLADESH MADRASAH EDUCATION BOARD (BMEB)

ADB TA 7206-BAN
BANGLADESH: CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FOR MADRASAH EDUCATION

PREPARED FOR
ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK & GOVERNMENT OF BANGLADESH

PREPARED BY
MAXWELL STAMP LIMITED, BAN

In association with:
EDUCATION FOR CHANGE, UK

JULY 2011

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

CONTENTS
ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................... 31 GLOSSARY ....................................................................................................................... 32 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY....................................................................................................... 33 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................... 37 MADRASAH EDUCATION SUB-SECTOR ...................................................................... 37 GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT OF MADRASAH .............................. 39 INSTITUTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF BMEB.................................................................... 44 CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN ................................................................................ 49 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................ 68

APPENDIX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE ................................................................................. 69 APPENDIX 2: REFERENCES ............................................................................................... 69 APPENDIX 3: PRESENT ORGANOGRAM OF BMEB.............................................................. 70 APPENDIX 4: PROPOSED ORGANOGRAM OF BMEB........................................................... 72 APPENDIX 5: ORGANOGRAM OF PROPOSED DME ............................................................. 75 APPENDIX 6: NEEDS ASSESSMENT CONSULTATION WORKSHOP ........................................ 76

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

ABBREVIATIONS
ADB BMEB BMTTI BNFE CDP DC DIA DPE DSHE DTE EFA EMIS FGD HRP HTTI ICT MBM MLSS MMC MMC MOE MOPME MPO NAEM NTEARA NTRCA PEDP II PRSP PTI SBM SESDP TA TQIP TTC UNDP UNO WB Asian Development Bank Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute Bureau of Non-formal Education Capacity Development Plan Deputy Commissioner Directorate of Inspection and Audit Directorate of Primary Education Directorate of Secondary & Higher Education Directorate of Technical Education Education for All Education Management Information System Focus Group Discussion Human Resource Planning Higher Teacher Training Institute Information and Communication Technology Madrasah Based Management Menial Level and Subordinate Staff Madrasah Management Committee Madrasah Management Committee Ministry of Education Ministry of Primary and Mass Education Monthly Pay Order National Academy for Education Management National Teachers Accreditation and Registration Authority National Teachers Registration and Certification Authority Primary Education Development Program II Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Primary Teacher Training Institute School Based Management Secondary Education Sector Development Project Technical Assistance Teacher Quality Improvement Project Teacher Training College United Nations Development Program Upazilla Nirbahi Officer World Bank

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

GLOSSARY
Benchmarking is the systematic comparison of organizational processes and performance in order to create new standards and /or improve processes. Benchmarking can provide new insights into the strengths and weaknesses of an organization and illustrate possible improvements and fresh ideas. Business plan is a document, which sets out in words and figures a projection of how the new programs or activities (and or expansion of old/existing program/activity) is going to proceed. Capacity development is understood here as the need to adjust policies and regulations to: reform institutions; modify working procedures and coordination mechanisms; increase the skills and qualification of personnel; and change the value systems and attitudes in a way that meets the demands of the organizations priority policies, programs and services. Core competency refers to a combination of specific, inherent, integrated and applied knowledge, skills and attitudes of an organization that should be used as the basis for strategic intent. Human resource planning refers to a technique aimed at securing, and improving an organizations human resources to meet present and future needs. Three principal stages can be envisaged: evaluation of existing resources, forecast of future requirements, and action plan. Job description is a statement of overall purpose and scope of a job, together with details of its tasks and duties. Organization structure is used to describe the intangible network of relationships between jobs, jobholders, roles, and organizational groupings by which organizations achieve sufficient differentiation and coordination of human effort to meet their strategic goals. Training needs analysis is a rational approach to assessing the training or development needs of employees, aimed at clarifying the needs of the job and the needs of individuals in terms of training required.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. Bangladesh has made significant progress in primary, secondary and higher education. It has also witnessed a remarkable growth in Islamic schools known as Madrasahs both at primary and secondary levels1. Officially recognized as an integral part of national education system madrasahs in general are perceived to be lagging behind mainstream schools due to poor physical facilities, lack of qualified teachers and inadequate management and supervision. It is estimated that over 20 per cent of primary and secondary level students attend madrasahs located primarily in rural and semi-urban areas but also exist in urban areas. 2. Since liberation in 1971 successive Governments attempted to modernize the madrasah education in parallel with mainstream education. The Madrasah Education Ordinance 1978 was promulgated with a view to streamline and upgrade the subsector. The ordinance aimed to regulate, manage and upgrade madrasah education and established the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB) as an autonomous institution. However, the experience during the past several decades has shown that the Board is constrained by a number of bottlenecks that need urgent action to meet the challenges of modern times and to deliver the Governments goal of quality education and mainstreaming madrasah education. 3. Consistent with the current Governments National Education Policy 2010, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) funded technical assistance (TA) No. 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education helped to develop medium and long term policy framework, strategy and investment plan that will be supported by effective institutional arrangements and qualified personnel. Despite the sound strategy and policy thrusts enshrined in the first and revised Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) for accelerated poverty reduction and human development madrasah education is seriously constrained due to lack of new investment, effective institutional arrangements and qualified staff. 4. This report, prepared in close consultation with key stakeholders, looks at the policy and management environment of the madrasah education coordinated by the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB), the institutional aspects including functions, systems and processes and most importantly the staff capacity. On the basis of the analysis and findings, including a participatory needs assessment analysis, a short-term Capacity Development (CD) plan comprising mainly training workshops and study visits within the limited resources of the TA and an indicative medium-term CD plan as part of future investment package are formulated. TOR of the CDP is provided in Appendix 1 and a list of documents consulted is in Appendix 2. Below is a summary of the key points made in this report. Governance and Management Environment of Madrasah 5. Partly due to absence of robust systems and processes and lack of qualified staff the management, supervision and decision making functions of madrasah are centralized at senior management level and very little delegation takes place. This is despite the fact that the number of madrasahs almost quadrupled since the 1978 ordinance was adopted by the Government.

In Madrasah education Ibtedaye (grade 1-5) is equivalent to primary level, Dakhil (grade 6-10) is equivalent to secondary level and Alim (grade 11-12) is equivalent to higher secondary education.

33

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 6. Analysis shows that at the central level the component units are either thinly structured or inappropriately organized. For example, despite the high priority on quality curriculum and textbooks, and inspection and supervision the two units are inadequately staffed and are unlikely to provide strong direction for program execution. BMEB lacks a quality assurance unit, a monitoring and evaluation unit or an education management and information system (EMIS) unit. In addition it lacks the capacity for its human resources planning and development. 7. Despite maintaining a database on personnel by DSHE mainly for the purpose of salary administration very little is done on human resource planning and management through the application of modern tools and techniques that will meet its strategic objectives. 8. The nine zonal offices are not only inadequately staffed (only one Assistant Inspector to cover a range of 4 to 11 districts) and virtually without any logistic support, but also these offices are often overburdened with the work of collection of fees and other related activities, and manual record keeping on behalf of BMEB. The Zonal offices need to be empowered with logistics and new mandate to undertake regular supervision and inspection of madrasah and foster madrasah based management (MBM). 9. Despite its own strong revenue base BMEB lacks financial autonomy to prudently use its earned income for development purposes as the organization is restricted by various procedural matters that negatively impact staff morale and professional development. In future, BMEB may be empowered to use its earned income with the approval of MOE and within the planned annual budget. 10. The Madrasah Ordinance 1978 needs to be amended urgently to meet the challenges of modern times including rationalizing the structure of BMEB and providing flexibility and a clear mandate as an autonomous institution in accordance with the recommendations of National Education Policy 2010. Institutional Assessment 11. McKinseys seven-S framework was used to analyze the organization of the BMEB [structure, strategy, systems, skills, staff, style and shared value]. The strategy and style of the institution seem to be reasonable. However, major weaknesses were evident in other critical areas. 12. An organization structure is usually designed to reflect two main objectives: to cover all essential functions with an appropriate combination of specialists and generalists; and to secure a suitable hierarchy which provides a framework for decision making and authority, and which meets the career aspirations of the individuals working in the organization. Current organization structure doesnt appear to meet these twin requirements. 13. A major feature of staffing is the deployment of senior staff in managerial positions including the chairman who are deputed from the Bangladesh Civil Service (BCS) General Education Cadre. This deputation system is an established practice of the Government cadre service. Other staff are directly recruited by the Board following its recruitment rules. The latter category staff have limited prospects of promotion or upward mobility and their careers are thus stagnated at certain levels. This condition may have a negative impact on BMEBs strategic and operational functions. 14. There is no clear evidence that staff in the organization have a shared value in search of excellence. However, the deployment of appropriately qualified staff and

34

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education increased interaction and communication will go some way to foster a shared perception and value. BMEB needs to improve its communication with Zonal staff, who are inadequate in numbers and are often remote, and without adequate professional support. 15. Partly due to organizational weaknesses and shortage of qualified staff some of the key functions are currently not being well articulated. The core functions of the BMEB are identified in the context of overall generic functions. 16. There seems to be an urgent need to revamp BMEB through restructuring and by recruiting additional staff with a mandate to be engaged in strategic planning and management of madrasah education as a step toward modernizing and mainstreaming the subsector. The organization structure needs to be redesigned to reflect BMEBs new priorities and programs and the consideration of economy and efficiency. Good practices of other countries may also be considered. 17. Almost all madrasah, including those for girls, are predominantly staffed by male teachers. Similarly BMEBs mid level to senior staff positions are all occupied by male professionals. Measures should be adopted to recruit and retain female teachers in madrasahs and female professionals at BMEB through direct recruitment or secondment from BCS Education cadre service. Capacity Development Plan 18. Bangladeshs experience in capacity development in education sector was analyzed in the context of large-scale infusion of external inputs for the past several decades including on-going support provided in particular by ADB and the World Bank in primary and secondary education as well as the governments capacity development plan for the public sector including education. 19. On the basis of a needs assessment, validated by the stakeholders, an indicative capacity development plan (CDP) for BMEB and allied institutions including DSHE is designed to address the urgent staff development needs in strategic areas of madrasah education and to install appropriate systems and processes over a medium- term time horizon. 20. The CDP has three components: (i) an initial short-term staff development program through training workshops and study visits under the present TA2, (ii) a medium-term capacity development plan that includes comprehensive staff training and fellowships program and installation of appropriate systems and practices that will be supported by (iii) a technical assistance package. The medium-term CDP will be tightly structured, executed and monitored to realize maximum benefits. The estimated cost of the medium-term CDP will be established during the second phase3 of this TA in conjunction with other development inputs within the overall resource envelope envisaged for a medium term investment package to be developed by the TA. Conclusion and Recommendation for the Medium Term 21. Lack of institutional and staff capacity in policy analysis, planning and management of madrasah education are the major bottlenecks to build and deliver effective madrasah education services across the country. Restructuring the central BMEB, developing staff and institutional capacity and empowering the zonal
2 3

This component was completed in June 2011. The costs of this package are given in the Road Map and Indicative Investment Proposal, Section 5.1.

35

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education education offices and madrasah should become a major focus in the reforms agenda for madrasah education. 22. Principal interventions will include: capacity building for policy formulation, planning and managing education at the central and zonal levels; human resource development program for managerial, supervisory and professional staff including recruitment and training of female staff; and developing effective logistics and physical inputs to support improved management capacity.

36

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

I. INTRODUCTION
23. Bangladesh has achieved considerable success in expanding the base of primary and secondary education and moving closer to the goals of Education for All (EFA).Since Liberation from Pakistan in 1971 substantial investments were made in education sector through various projects and programs aided by development partners. As a result gross enrollment ratios including those for girls in primary, secondary and higher secondary levels have increased. But various challenges remain for the sector in particular improving the quality of education and making education more relevant for the challenges of a competitive and increasingly knowledge based economy. 24. Although madrasah education is considered as an integral part of national education system this sub-sector lags far behind the mainstream primary and secondary education in terms of learning outcomes, teacher qualifications and training, physical infrastructure and participation of its graduates in labor markets. According to BMEB, over 20 percent of primary and secondary level students attend 4 Aliya madrasahs across Bangladesh.5 Improving the capacity of the subsector will be a major challenge in education planning and finance.

II. MADRASAH EDUCATION SUB-SECTOR


25. The following section provides a brief synopsis of the governments education policy and strategy for the medium term. Overall Education Policy Framework 26. In 2009 the government released a draft National Education Policy that sets out the following vision, mission, and main policy thrusts for the education sector. These are summarized as follows: Vision a well educated, democratic and highly productive society; education for all, particularly the poor, the disabled and women; creating a literate and skilled population to build the nation; building a knowledge and information based digital Bangladesh; Mission deliver quality education at all levels; regulate standards of education by all providers; seek and coordinate inputs by all stakeholders; and
4 There are two types of Madrasah in Bangladesh. These are the Aliyah and Qoumi madrasah both of which offer courses from primary to university levels with varying proportions of religious and secular subjects. Aliyah madrasah, modeled on the Calcutta4 model, are recognised by the government whereas the Qoumi, modeled on the Deoband4 madrasah, are independent of the state. The BMEB and DSHE deal with the Aliyah system. The Ministry of Education, BMEB and DSHE do not routinely collect any information about Aliya Madrasah though there are intermittent surveys. Data on Qoumi madrasah are expected to be generated under the on-going madrasah mapping study of the current CDTA. 5 Enrolment and institutional data for 2008 are given in the Madrasah Sector Study, Annex 2 of the Report. 6 National Education Policy 2009 (Final Draft), Ministry of Education, Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, September 2009.

37

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education monitor and report progress to all interested parties.

Broad Policy Thrusts develop creative, practical and production-oriented education for the economic and social development of the country. reduce socio-economic disparity and male- female discrimination irrespective of race, religion, sect etc. and create world fraternity, secularism, friendship and fellow-feeling and make the students respectful to human rights. make equal opportunities for education for all irrespective of spatial, social and economic position based on intellect and aptitude, for building a society free from disparities and discriminations. help create an atmosphere of mutual tolerance and to develop life-oriented, realistic and positive thinking among the students. ensure successful participation in various fields of the world for creating high quality skills at all the levels of education. put proper emphasis on information technology (ICT) and other related subjects (Mathematics, Science and English) for building a knowledge and Information Technology based (Digital) Bangladesh. put emphasis on primary and secondary education for making education broadbased; to make students respectful to and interested in work, and to support them acquire skills and vocational education for self employment. make common curriculum, syllabus and text book in basic subjects for all streams of the primary education subsector. develop a favorable, congenial, creative and joyful atmosphere for the protection and appropriate development of the child/student at primary and secondary levels of education. ensure appropriate quality at all levels of education and make consistency of the acquired knowledge and skills (in agreement with various objectives and goals of education) of proceeding level with the following one. increased spending on education as a proportion of GDP. Objectives and Goals of Madrasah Education Madrasah education is an inseparable part of the National Education System. Measures will be taken to modernize madrasah education keeping its own identity, so that this education system develops with new life-blood. Alongside the teachings of Islam, arrangements will be made for the students to acquire appropriate knowledge in science and other modern disciplines to prepare them in various professions. The Madrasah education will be reorganized so that students are able to compete equally with mainstream general education or English medium students. Strategies for Madrasah Education 27. Currently madrasah education is offered as: Ibtedaye (grade 1-5), Dakhil (grade 6-10), Alim (grade 11-12), Fazil (grade13-14), and Kamil (grade15-16). In order to establish similarity with proposed mainstream courses, these will be restructured as Ibtedaye for eight years (grade 1-8) and Dakhil for four years (9-12) course7. Likewise, Fazil will be offered for three/four years course and Kamil for one / two years.
7

Dakhil classes will comprise four grades 9-12 similar to the proposed secondary education grades 912 under the Education Policy 2009 (Final draft).

38

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 28. Consistent with mainstream education, selected subjects like Bangla, English, Moral Education, Bangladesh Studies, Mathematics, Environment and Climatic changes, ICT and Science will be compulsory courses of study at Ibtedaye level. From grade six to eight, students will be taught pre-vocational and information technology courses. At the Dakhil level (up to grade 10) Bangla, English, Mathematics Information Technology and Vocational education will be made compulsory subject. 29. Bangladesh Madrasah Teachers Training Institute (BMTTI) will be upgraded and strengthened to provide opportunities for further training of madrasah teachers at different levels. 30. Emphasis will be given to the teaching of English, Science, Information Technology and vocational education so that the students can get opportunity to equip themselves to meet the economic demands both within and outside the country. Necessary infrastructure for such training opportunities will be established in the madrasah. 31. The Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board will be strengthened and restructured in the light of needs to accomplish activities like, providing registration and renewal of registration of Ibtedaye, Dakhil and Alim levels of madrasah education, developing curriculum and textbooks of religious education, conducting various public examinations and issuing certificates etc. 32. Student assessment methods, used in general education stream, including terminal assessment in non-religious subjects English, Bangla, Mathematics, Science and Social Science, Arts, Technical education etc will be done by the Secondary Education Board and the Technical Education Board. Assessment of religious subjects will be the responsibility of Madrasah Board. 33. Measures will be adopted for conducting improved inspection, supervision and monitoring of madrasah education and to encourage local community participation.

III. GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT OF MADRASAH


34. Education governance exists within a legal, political and policy environment unique to the country. To a considerable extent this also depends on the policy and planning capacity, level of commitment to change, openness and transparency of policy and administrative decisions, and the extent of participation in decision making. An attempt is made here to analyze the current governance and management of madrasah education in Bangladesh at central, zonal and school levels. This report essentially focuses on Aliyah madrasah which is recognized and funded by the Government. Information on Qoumi madrasah is scanty and often not reliable and is therefore outside the purview of this CDP.8 The survey of Qoumi Madrasah, commissioned under the CDTA, will involve discussions with Qoumi Boards and collection of data from a sample of Qoumi Madrasah. It may be then possible to comment on the management of the Qoumi system of madrasah.

During interview with Joint Secretary (Madrasah)/MOE Director General/DSHE and Chairman/BMEB it was confirmed that MOE, DSHE and BMEB have no formal contact with the Qoumi madrasahs and that their respective agencies do not collect data on Qoumi madrasahs.

39

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Central Level Management 35. At the central level a number of government institutions are involved in policy making, management and operation of madrasah education with BMEB at the center of all these activities. The Ministry of Education(MOE) is responsible for developing policies for madrasah education (MOEs madrasah wing is headed by a Joint Secretary); its Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) administers the government subvention known as Monthly Payment Order (MPO) system through 9 which government funds for madrasah teachers are channeled. MOE also decides policy on free textbooks; it distributes free text books to Ibtedaye madrasah through the network of District Education Officers (DEO). BMEB develops madrasah curriculum and designs textbooks for madrasah education with the assistance of the National Curriculum and Textbooks Board (NCTB).The Directorate of Inspection and Audit (DIA) carries out financial inspection and audit of government funds for the madrasahs. The Bangladesh Bureau of Education Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) and Education Management Information System (EMIS) Wing of DSHE compile and analyze information and statistics for madrasah (primarily registered or government funded madrasahs). The management relationship is shown in the following diagram:

Diagram 1: Management of Madrasah

36. Under the 1978 Ordinance, BMEB was envisaged as an autonomous institution and empowered for the organization, regulation, supervision, control, development and improvement of madrasah education in Bangladesh (for BMEBs organogram see Appendix 3). The ordinance assigned the following authority/functions to BMEB: To design, adapt and prescribe courses of instruction at Ibtedaye, Dakhil and Alim (primary, secondary and higher secondary levels) of madrasah education;
In addition to administering MPO, DSHE performs other functions such as granting time scale to teachers, meeting audit objections from DIA, correcting date of birth of beneficiaries, and taking disciplinary actions.
9

40

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education To hold and conduct and regulate public examinations at the end of Dakhil (equivalent to SSC) and Alim (equivalent to HSC) madrasah education; To publish public examination results of Dakhil and Alim; To confer, withhold or withdraw recognition for Ibtedaye, Dakhil and Alim madrasah based on inspection reports conducted by DSHE, BMEB or any authorized inspectors; To cause inspection, and prescribe the mode and manner of such inspection of madrasah; To prescribe conditions governing the admission of student to and transfer of students from Dakhil and Alim Madrasah; To award certificates to students who have passed the examinations held by the Board and withdraws the certificates from them; and to arbitrate or arrange arbitration in disputes between teachers and managing committees of Madrasah. To fix demand and receive such fees as may be prescribed; To hold and manage endowments and to institute and award scholarships, stipends and prizes; To regulate administrative matters including the creation and abolition of posts; To make provisions for buildings, premises, furniture, equipment, books and other materials to effectively perform its tasks; To enter into and carry out contracts in exercise of the power and responsibility assigned to it by the Ordinance; and To submit to the Government views on any matter with which the Board is concerned.

37. BMEB is headed by a Chairman and comprises 12 other members some of whom are ex-officio while the rest are nominated members. The Chairman is a fulltime officer of BMEB and is appointed by the President of the Republic on such terms and conditions as the President may determine. The Chairman, the Registrar, the Controller of Examinations and the Inspector of Madrasah are designated as the officers of the Board and form the management of the Board.10 Other staffs are appointed by the Board following its recruitment policy. The Board conducts its business through committee system such as finance committee; staff selection and recruitment committee; academic committee; curricula and courses of studies committee etc (17 committees are mentioned in the original ordinance authorizing the Board to create further committees on need basis). The members of the committee are appointed for limited tenure and are either reappointed or replaced by new members. However all committees are not functioning effectively. There is a need to revamp the committee system and make it a sound mechanism for decision making in all policy and management issues. Under the Chairman who is the chief executive (CEO) there are four functional departments/units: (i) Administration, Registration and Accounts; (ii) Inspection, (iii) Examinations; and (iv) Curriculum and Textbook Wing.

10

In this report BMEB and Board are used interchangeably.

41

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 38. All professional and support staff are assigned to the above mentioned departments/wing. For example, Administration, Registration and Accounts department has been allocated 62 staff, Examinations department has been assigned 66 staff, and Inspection department has been given 46 staff including the zonal office staff. The Curriculum and Textbook Wing is the smallest unit comprising only one professional staff and two support staff. This is despite the priority on curriculum and textbook development of madrasah education. 39. Over the past years BMEB attempted to recruit new staff and upgrade its physical facilities but was prevented by the new regulations imposed by the Ministry of Establishment and Ministry of Finance curtailing its autonomy as originally envisaged. For example in April 2008 BMEB submitted a proposal for the creation of 75 new positions to be funded by BMEBs own resources. In May 2009 the Ministry of Establishment approved the creation of only 12 positions and rejected the rest. However, this approval further needed the concurrence of the Ministry of Finance before BMEB could select and recruit new staff. 40. Lack of adequate number of qualified staff has further lessened its capacity to develop expertise in some of the critical areas such as human resources planning, education management system, research and development, monitoring and evaluation and curriculum and textbook development. Substantial restructuring and provision of critical staff and physical resources, supported by some measures of flexibility will be needed to develop BMEB as a sound educational institution capable of meeting the challenges envisaged in Governments new Education Policy. Zonal Level Management 41. There are nine education zones in the country where Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) has offices. BMEB has established its zonal offices, generally in the same premises of DSHE with shared facilities, albeit extremely inadequate support. The BMEB zonal offices are located in Barisal, Chittagong, Comilla, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, and Rangpur The zonal education office acts as the agent of BMEB. 42. The zonal office usually has a complement of 3 staff including one Assistant Inspector, a data entry operator and one Menial Level Subordinate Staff (MLSS). The Assistant Inspector heads the zonal office and is tasked with a wide range of functions but in practice his current role is essentially limited to collecting and remitting all fees and collectables from madrasah, distribution of transcripts, and inspection for the purpose of registration or renewal of registration. 43. A recent job description (see Box 1 below) issued by BMEB entails specific functions in madrasah supervision and inspection. However, the zonal Assistant Inspectors need both the professional training and logistics to fully accomplish the assigned responsibility. For example, inspection of Dakhil and Alim madrasah for the purpose of renewal of registration is currently one of the major tasks of the zonal Assistant inspectors. (New registrations have been halted for some years). However, they do not undertake routine supervision of madrasah as mentioned in the job description. 44. Discussions with the group of zonal Assistant Inspectors further suggest that they are not only isolated from the central offices of BMEB in terms of professional support but are handicapped due to lack of logistics, office equipment and expenditures for day to day operation. The Assistant Inspectors urgently need training to develop appropriate skills and knowledge in inspection and supervision of madrasah. The art of school inspection and supervision has embraced major reforms

42

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education and changes in the region. Lessons learned in this area and best practices can be adapted for Bangladesh as appropriate. Although there is a data entry operator in the zonal office there is no dedicated IT hard or software facility for madrasah education. There is also a need to equip each of the zonal offices with a complement of ICT package including a desk computer, printer, UPS, fax machine and internet connectivity to make these offices adequately functional. In addition, all data entry operators need to have a refresher course in ICT. Box 1. Job description of newly appointed Assistant Inspectors of BMEB 1. Monitoring and Inspection of all categories of madrasah under the jurisdiction of respective regional office. 2. Supervision for ensuring time table of daily class routine (from 10 am to 4 pm) of madrasah. 3. Inspection and preparation of reports for recognition; renewal of recognition, and reports on stipend program. Inspection and preparation of reports for giving permission to open science and computer sections. In the context of these activities, will collect relevant papers from the Board, create files and send them to the Chairman of the Board after obtaining comments of the district education officer and regional deputy director of DSHE. 4. Sudden and unscheduled visits to all categories of madrasahs under the jurisdiction of the Board and send reports of such visits to the Board. 5. Visit examination centers of Dakhil and Alim, examinations and scholarship examinations to ensure smooth conduct of such examinations. 6. Supervise Ibtedaye madrasah for its proper operation. 7. Report to the Board for appropriate action after proper investigation of alleged irregularities and corruption. 8. Distribute various Board documents and papers including SIF forms, transcripts, original certificates, tabulation sheets, computer printouts, etc. 9. Distribute various notifications/orders issued by the MOE and Board and take necessary action. 10. Take necessary action as directed by the Board in the interest of the Boards operation.

Madrasah Level Management 45. There are three variants of madrasah at primary to upper secondary levels: independent Ibtedaye madrasah (primary level), Dakhil madrasah (secondary level including Ibtedaye madrasah) and Alim madrasah (upper secondary level including Ibtedaye, and Dakhil madrasah). An independent or free-standing Ibtedaye usually comprises four teachers including a head master but with no support staff, a dakhil madrasah has an average of 16 teachers including a superintendent, and 3 support staff, and an Alim madrasah comprises 21 teachers including principal, and 3 support staff.11 All teachers and support staff are graded according to government salary scales. 46. Each madrasah is required to be managed by a madrasah managing committee (MMC) comprising 13 members including the chairman and vice-chairman based on government regulation governing the formation of MMC. The MMC decides the policy and management of the individual madrasah. Of the 13 members the
11

Even within schools and madrasahs that are enlisted for MPO not all teachers and other staff are given MPO. See MSS, Chapter 7.

43

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education chairman is nominated by the member of national Parliament and approved by BMEB. Two members are ex-officio and one member is nominated by the Deputy Director of DSHE. Others are elected by interested groups such as teachers, donor group, founder group etc. Womens membership in the MMC is known to be low despite most Aliyah madrasah being co-educational. Even in girls only madrasah female membership of MMCs is very low, see MSS Chapter 5 where it is reported that only 7.1% of the membership of MMCs are female. There is opportunity to activate the MMC to be more broad based by including women, similar to SMCs at primary and secondary level (although much remains to be done in these schools also) and to engage the MMCs in Madrasah based management (MBM) similar to the on-going efforts for school based management (SBM) in primary and secondary schools as a tool to improve the quality and efficiency of education. Many countries in the region are attempting to establish SBM as part of the strategy for decentralized education management and financing by empowering schools through the provision of block grants. There are lessons to be learned from these experiences. IV. INSTITUTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF BMEB Conceptual Approach 47. In conceptualizing the structure of organization a model is employed that was first developed within McKinsey, the well-known management consultancy and then popularized in the management field. It is called the Seven - S framework.12 Rather than thinking in terms of strategy and systems or structures, one must think comprehensively about a strategy and how it works in conjunction with a variety of other elements that comprise an organization. This approach provides a holistic framework to determine the organizational effectiveness of an institution like BMEB where all the elements are identifiable. The seven Ss are: Structure Strategy Systems Skills Staff Style Shared values 48. Structure refers to the organizational structure, hierarchy and coordination, including division and integration of tasks or activities down to lower units, i.e. education zones and madrasah. 49. Systems are the primary and secondary processes that the organization employs to get things done, such as planning and implementation of madrasah education including registration and renewal, financial management and conduct and publishing of public examinations by BMEB. 50. Strategy is the organizations objectives and deliberate choices it makes to achieve them, such as prioritizing the curriculum and textbooks implementation, holding and publishing the public examinations and deploying resources to them. 51. Staff is the quality of human resources comprising people in different salary or position levels in the BMEB and in particular their collective presence in the organization.
12 See Pascale, R.T. and Athos, A. (1981) The Art of Japanese Management: Applications for American Executives, New York: Simon and Schuster

44

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 52. Skills are organizational capabilities and competencies that contribute to effective performance of the organization toward achieving its goals and objectives. The key skills in the BMEB are those that are required to plan and manage the madrasah education; registration, renewal and deregistration of madrasah; timely conduct and publishing of public examinations or specifically skills and competencies in policy analysis, macro and micro planning, project design and implementation, education management at central and field levels, human resources and financial management etc. 53. Style is the way management of the BMEB sets its priorities, prepares business plan and conducts its business. It also refers how the senior staff of the BMEB is perceived by other agencies of the government and the society at large. 54. Shared values, also known as shared values in search of excellence are the vision, mission and long-term goals and objectives that underlie the existence of the organization. They include core beliefs, functions and expectations that the staff have of their organization. Analysis 55. Thus, the seven -S framework can be used as robust checklist to define and analyze the most important elements or dimension of an organization. This framework can be used as a means of assessing the viability of a strategic plan from the perspective of the organizations ability to succeed at the given strategy. When used with discipline, the 7-S framework can help make a strategy more wholesome. In the following sections we will analyze the institutional strengths and weaknesses including any gaps that may permeate the BMEB.

Structure

Strategy

System

SHARED VALUES

Skills

Style

Staff
Diagram 2: Seven-S Framework 56. An examination of the current structural arrangement of divisions/units shows that this is essentially based on functional responsibility viz. (i) administration,

45

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education registration, finance and accounts; (ii) examinations, issuance of certificates and transcripts; (iii) inspection; and (iv) curriculum and textbooks etc. There is no specific reference or organizational home for quality assurance and control, maintenance of standards, human resource development and management, evaluation and monitoring, and research and development. BMEB is no different from other government departments in Bangladesh in that authority is vested in the highest level. The apex is heavily overburdened with routine work since files flow upwards for decisions on even the most routine matter. Lower levels have little authority, their role being limited to drafting and providing file comments. In a static situation, such an arrangement may suffice. When innovation and new thinking are required the bureaucratic approach cannot offer the speed and innovative responses required. 57. The organizational structure needs to be revised to reflect the governments educational priority and achieve efficiency and economy in the execution and delivery of all its key functions and services. The restructured organization will also need to be supported by new business practices. There is much to be done in the way business is conducted in BMEB by adopting best practices from similar organizations and through innovations. 58. BMEB was established rapidly in 1978 almost from scratch with little developed systems and processes to organize and manage the educational needs of the madrasah. Although substantial investments were made and some important reforms took place or are underway in the mainstream primary, secondary and technical education no significant efforts were made at BMEB to improving the overall management, in particular human resources management; financial management, budget preparation and execution; audit and control; educational soft and hardware development viz. curriculum and textbooks, quality assurance and accreditation system etc. These should now be developed in a systematic and sustainable way. In this context modern technology is available to aid the development and operation of appropriate systems and processes for BMEB in all key areas of its work. Staffing Pattern and Skills Mix 59. BMEB has an authorized workforce of 182 personnel comprising management, professional/technical, clerical and support staff. However, the principal weakness is the gross imbalance in the staffing of mid to senior level technical/professional staff versus lower level sub-professional/support staff. Of the 182 positions only 4 are senior level staff, 5 are deputies, 32 mid-level technicalprofessional staff and the rest 141 are lower-level support staff. Even the unit-wise distribution is uneven, for example the curriculum and textbooks development wing has only one professional staff and the newly established IT/MIS unit is staffed by one junior IT professional staff only. 60. Just as most madrasah are predominantly staffed by male teachers so also is BMEB itself with all mid to senior staff positions occupied by men. Another feature in staffing is that all senior staff are seconded from the BCS Education service (excepting the Accounts Officer who is seconded from Audit and Accounts Service) whose members serve the organization with limited tenure and return to their parent organization. However, this practice is standard within Bangladesh civil service organizations and cannot be changed within one organization. Whereas the deputed staff is generally well educated, the latter category staff, BMEBs regular staff, may lack the experience and intellectual depth to foster shared values within their organization.

46

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 61. Other factors in limiting the capacity of BMEBs regular staff are the lack of opportunity to move upwards in their careers and the absence of a professional development program within the organization. All these factors may act against attracting higher caliber professionals into BMEB. In addition, current shortage of critical skills is further exacerbated by BMEBs lack of authority to recruit new or additional staff with competitive salary and benefits. 62. Reforms of madrasah education through decentralization, and mainstreaming have been given high priority by the Government and it is reflected both in public pronouncements as well as in the draft National Education Policy. Despite the shortage of staff and lack of strong institutional support there is an apparent commitment of the senior management of BMEB to push through educational reforms agenda with the assistance of the development partners. Working through revitalized committees and with related agencies would be a good style of management. 63. Shared values, or the shared values in search of excellence, are essentially a corporate culture that binds all its employees with the vision and objectives of the organization and provides the intellectual stimuli. BMEBs sub-sector wide goals, objectives, and strategy do not appear to be adequately internalized by all personnel. 64. There are reasons for that. First; BMEB was established to control and regulate madrasah education from scratch when there was no credible government entity to undertake the responsibility adequately. Since its establishment there was no major effort to develop professional excellence and prepare staff to deal with the complexities of modern education; secondly staff resources are of mixed origin some are seconded from the BCS Education cadre and others are the BMEBs own staff whose careers are stagnated and have little stimulus to embrace shared values; and finally, perhaps because of the above reasons decision making is highly centralized in the hands of senior management. As BMEB develops professionally, and qualified staff are in position, it is expected that there would be increased interaction and enhanced communication between staff leading to shared perception and values. 65. In this context, it has to be remembered that more than half the enrolments in Dahkil Madrasah consist of girls. Female teachers are scarce at 10% of the total. In the BMEB no female members of staff exist above the level of MLSS. In moving to a more balanced staffing pattern women should be represented at the mid- and senior levels. Recruitment and retention of female staff at BMEB including deputation of female officers from BCS Education cadre should receive priority in the plans for human resource development. Appropriate representation of female staff in all training and staff development programs should be ensured. Matrix of BMEBs Core Functions 66. On the basis of BMEBs mandated functions, goals, objectives, operational strategy and the need to develop the required level of professional capacity a matrix of core competencies has been developed. This should be reflected in BMEBs reworked structure and serve as a reference point for developing staff competencies and for designing any staff development upgrading program. This is presented below.

47

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Table 1: Suggested performance assessment of core functions of BMEB Cross-cutting/core functions Policy analysis and coordination Indicative performance parameters Organizational development General administration and management Examinations ,publications of examination results and issuance of transcripts Human resources management Academic Inspection and Supervision Information and communication technology Monitoring and evaluation Capacity to prepare analyses of issues related to policy. Capacity to devise short, medium and long-range subsector sector development plans and to prioritize investment options Capacity to prepare projects suitable for funding. Participatory involvement of key stakeholders in planning process. Appropriate system in place to coordinate domestic and external resources for education Organizational structuring is in accordance with efficiency requirements and BMEBs redefined functions Existence of institutional job descriptions based on study of what roles need to be done and is done. Rationalization to ensure efficiency in utilization of staff and resources Administrative procedures implemented within prescribed time frame Administration is clean, transparent and accountable Recommended financial management systems are working efficiently Financial management is transparent and accountable Efficient financial management Internal audit and control is maintained adequately is transparent Modern systems of assessment and evaluation are adopted Efficient record keeping and databases formulated. Efficient use of technology in place Modern human resources development tools are being applied Critical mass of human resources is identified and in place Institutional job descriptions, in accordance with organizational efficiency Academic Inspection and supervision are performed on a regular basis Inspectors recommendations are implemented and monitored Modern information communication systems including a MIS is established to support planning and decision making Citizens services supported Capacity to develop and apply appropriate methodology and indicators to evaluate and monitor

Financial management and internal audit

48

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Cross-cutting/core functions Indicative performance parameters on a regular basis the performance of madrasah education including learning outcomes. Capacity to implement projects efficiently with regard to resources and time Transparent and clean procurement procedures adopted and in practice Time and cost efficient procedures in place Modern system and process of curriculum and textbook development are in place Efficient use of technology is in place

Procurement of goods and services Curriculum and Textbooks development and implementation

Proposed Directorate of Madrasah Education 67. Given the rapidly increasing size of the madrasah sub-sector, which has almost quadrupled since 1978, and the need to support and better regulate the future development of the madrasah education in parallel with mainstream education successive education commission reports recommended the establishment of a separate directorate for madrasah education as a development parallel to the existing directorates for primary(DPE); secondary and higher (DSHE); and technical education (DTE) as well as bureau of non-formal education (BNFE). The 2010 National Education Policy is silent on the subject of a Directorate of Madrasah Education. 68. Recently the MOE has established a committee to prepare a proposal for the establishment of a separate Directorate of Madrasah Education (DME). The committee developed a tentative organogram and staffing pattern for the proposed DME to be located in the same premises as DSHE (see Appendix 4). However, an analysis of the organogram and staffing pattern shows a number of obvious weaknesses. For example it doesnt define the strategic relationship with BMEB or the division of work between the two institutions. In addition the staffing pattern needs to reflect the characteristics of the subsector and its goals and objectives and how to meet the challenges of modernization and mainstreaming madrasah education. Another weakness is lack of balance in staffing: one deputy directors position is proposed to cover only 3 existing government madrasah in the country whereas to cover nearly 16,000 non-government (but MPO supported) madrasah it also proposes only one position of deputy director. The Committee may like to review the proposed organogram including staffing and develop specific job descriptions in the light of above observations.

V. CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN


Background and Analysis 69. In the previous chapters analysis of the organizational structure of BMEB, its component units, and their functions and inter-relationships was made with a view to establish management systems and structure that will ensure the delivery of its services in an efficient and cost effective manner. The analysis identified the core functions of BMEB, its existing systems and staff capacity, the institutional gaps and skill shortages. On the basis of this analysis and in consultation with the stakeholders an initial short-term and an indicative medium-term Capacity Development Plan

49

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education (CDP) is proposed to overcome the institutional gaps and shortages of skills in critical areas. The proposed CDP is consistent with governments overall CDP articulated in the first and revised PRSP13. Currently in the education sector capacity development inputs are embedded in the externally funded programs and projects such as ADB funded PEDPII, SESDP and TQIP where capacity development inputs are targeted mainly at primary and secondary education subsectors and allied organizations. Of these SESDP includes some inputs for developing selected model madrasah and undertake madrasah development studies. This review has taken into consideration the work undertaken by SESDP team14. 70. Capacity development is understood here as the need to adjust policies and regulations to: reform institutions; modify working procedures and coordination mechanisms; increase the skills and qualifications of personnel; and change the value systems and attitudes in a way that meets the demands and needs of the madrasah education sectors priority policies, programs and services- as a new approach towards governing and administering mechanisms to meet the needs of a democratic society. In brief, the capacity development agenda of BMEB is consistent with national capacity building approach15 and is based on the following: (i) management training to foster institutional development, (ii) training key professional skills; and (iii) development of a service oriented bureaucracy that is flexible, demand-driven and responsive to the needs of the society and economy. Capacity Needs Assessment: 71. In undertaking the needs assessment of BMEB the following approach was adopted: 72. Review of Documents: Following documents were analyzed / reviewed to understand the issues and problems of madrasah education in particular its capacity constraints. - Past and new Education Commission Report - Madrasah Education Ordinance 1978 - Various GOB reports on Madrasah education - External agencies funded reports viz. DFID, EC, USAID etc 73. Stakeholders Engagement: Staff from following agencies were consulted to share and receive feedback on madrasah sector and assessing the needs for capacity development. - BMEB - BMTTI DIA - DPE - DSHE
13 Planning Commission, Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), Oct.2005 and Revised PRSP, August 2009 14 SESDP: Draft Madrasah Education Development Strategy, January 2009. The MOE is yet to give its views on the draft Strategy.

50

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education NAEM NCTB NTRCA MOE

74. Business Meetings with BMEB: In order to gain an insight into BMEBs work- its strengths and weaknesses and challenges faced several meetings were held with following BMEB staff: - Chairman - Registrar - Controller of Examinations - Inspector - Head of Curriculum and Textbook Wing - IT manager 75. Focus Group Discussion process at BMEB: To carry out more comprehensive and in-depth discussions on the BMEBs role and functions and constraints that impede its functioning at desired level a Focus Group was established headed by the Registrar and comprising Controller of Examinations, Inspector, Head of Curriculum and Textbook Wing and IT manager. Other BMEB staff also joined in some of the FGD as needed. Following themes/issues were covered: - Review of documents, regulatory frame work, legislation etc. - Business process - Knowledge Management - Resources (budget, human resources etc) - Accountability - Preparation and administration of questionnaires targeted at BMEB staff 76. Field Visits: Field visits were organized by DSHE and BMEB to visit their regional offices and local madrasah and interviews were held with regional BMEB and DSHE staff, and madrasah principals and teachers. This included - Visits to selected regional education offices of BMEB and DSHE - Visits to several madrasah (Ibtedaye, Dakhil and Alim) in selected education zones 77. Needs Assessment Consultation and Validation Workshop: A capacity development needs assessment consultation workshop was conducted on 6 December 2009 at BMEB participated by key stakeholders. The Workshop was chaired by Chairman of BMEB and a presentation was made by the international Consultant on Organization and Institutional Capacity. The objective was to summarize and interpret the results of needs assessment and obtain further feedback and validate the results in order to develop an initial short and indicative medium-term capacity development action plan. Details of the workshop activities are provided in Appendix 5.

51

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Capacity Development Plan 78. On the basis of the above (i-vi) and the suggestions and recommendations made by the participants an initial short-term CDP and an indicative medium-term CD plan (2011-2015) are formulated for the consideration of the government and ADB.

CD Formulation & Implementation Process


Engage stakeholders & assess the needs

Implement and evaluate the CD plan

Formulate CD plan to address the needs

Diagram 3: CD formulation and implementation process 79. While formulating the above approach the success of capacity development will not be measured in number of trainees or management systems installed, but rather on the improvement in the service delivery performance. A benchmarking of the core functions /competencies of staff will be undertaken at the entry of the CDP and appropriate indicators will be developed to track the progress of capacity development exercise. The following tables present: (I) (II) (III) a targeted initial short -term CD plan through training workshops and regional study visits envisaged in the Madrasah CDTA16, an indicative medium-term CD Plan through short and long-term training, and fellowships program 2011-2015, and an indicative technical assistance package to support the medium-term CD plan.

16

The last local training workshop was held in mid June 2011. The overseas study visits to India (West Bengal and Indonesia) were completed in the last quarter of 2010.

52

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education A. Short-term CD Plan through Training Workshops Training Workshop 1: Madrasah subsector Assessment 1. Objectives of the workshop To introduce the tools of sector analysis in education with specific reference to the madrasah education sector.

2.

Contents Policy context, Issues for sector, Structure, Trends in enrolment and institutions, Analysis of internal efficiency, access and equity Costs and financing Suggestions for the content for the Madrasah Sector Study 2010.

3.

Participants

Number of participants: 15 to 20 comprising senior and midlevel staff from MOE, BMEB, DSHE, BANBEIS. MOPME, DIA, NCTB and Planning Commission who are involved in madrasah education. Dr. Christopher E. Cumming, Policy, Strategy, Planning and system development specialist/ Team leader of the CDTA .Assisted by Prof. Harun and Prof SM Haider one day TBD Early June, 2010 TBD. A report of the workshop will be prepared with participants feedback including any follow-up action proposed.

4.

Resource persons

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Duration Estimated cost Date Venue Report of the workshop

53

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Training Workshop 2: Monitoring and Evaluation 1. Objective of the workshop The participants will be provided hands-on experience on the use of the tools and techniques and processes of monitoring and evaluation including compilation, analysis, retrieval and use of data for madrasah education. A structured format will be presented on M & E including the background and current status in Bangladesh education sector drawing lessons from past activities and how a viable M& E system can be developed for the Madrasah subsector. The consultants will also share experience of M&E from the task on hand under the current TA Number of participants 15 to 20 comprising senior and mid-level officers from MOE, BMEB, DSHE, BANBEIS, DIA, NCTB and IMED. Mr. John Wood, International EMIS and M&E specialist, and Mr. Rouf Akhand, National EMIS and M&E specialist of CDTA project for Madrasah

2.

Content

3.

Participants

4.

Resource persons

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Education. 1.5 days. Duration TBD Estimated cost Week 4 of May or Week 1 of June. Date TBD Venue Report of the workshop A Workshop Report with feedback from the participants will be prepared including any follow-up action proposed and submitted to the government and ADB

54

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Training Workshop 3: Inspection and Supervision of Madrasah

1.

Objective of the workshop

2.

Content/Participants

The participants will learn the techniques and methodology of carrying out Inspection and Supervision in the context of Bangladesh and will be able to use the skills in their professional work. Review the present status of Inspection and Supervision of madrasah and ways to upgrade it by applying modern tools and techniques consistent with the best practices in primary and secondary education under the MOPME and MOE as well as in the region Number of participants 15 to 20 comprising all Assistant Inspectors of zonal offices; Inspector BMEB; and related officers of DSHE and BMTTI. NAEM Faculty. 3 days. TBD 2nd week of October, 2010. NAEM class rooms. A Workshop Report with participants feedback including any recommended follow-up action will be prepared and submitted to the Government and ADB.

3.

Participants

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Resource persons Duration Estimated cost Date Venue Report of the workshop

55

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Regional Study Visit I 1. Objectives of the visit To gain first hand experience on madrasah management, supervision and inspection in Indonesia and India (West Bengal) 2.5 weeks TBD by MOE TBD Approximately 10 persons --- Inspector of BMEB and some Zonal Assistant Inspectors, Assistant Inspector (curriculum & text books).The participants list will be approved by MOE. The participants will be required to submit a study visit report using the following format: a) Legal basis of inspection and supervision (I & S), b) Agencies responsible for I & S, c) Methodology & procedure used, d) Type and frequency of I & S e) Use of I & S report, f) Evaluation of report and follow up, g) Relevance of the above (a-i) with Bangladesh, h) Conclusion and recommendations. The study team will share their experience in a post study visit dissemination workshop at BMEB and apply the knowledge in their professional work as relevant in Bangladesh.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Duration of the visit Time of visit Estimated cost Participants

6.

Report of the visit

7.

Dissemination of the report

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Regional Study Visit II 1. Objectives of the visit To learn from the experience of Indonesia and Malaysia in modernizing and mainstreaming madrasah education. This will include lessons learned in the context of national education system; resource allocations and utilization; private and public partnership; teacher development and management; equivalence and quality assurance mechanisms. Senior staff from BMEB, DSHE, NCTB and MOE 2.5 Weeks TBD by MOE. TBD The participants will be required to submit a study visit report to the government and ADB using the following format (with at least one or two paragraphs on each of the following ): i) Legal basis of madrasah education, j) System and structures of madrasah education from the central ministry down to the institutional level, k) Planning & development: policy and practice, l) Share in the national budget, m) Role of agencies related to madrasah education including private sector and the community, n) Quality assurance measures, o) Equivalence with other streams p) Governance and accountability, q) Relevance of the above (a-p) with Bangladesh, r) Conclusion and recommendations. Upon their return the study team members will share their findings and experience gained in a dissemination workshop of key agencies to be held in Dhaka and what Bangladesh can learn from the regional countries to modernize its madrasah sub-sector.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Participants Duration of the visit Time of visit Estimated cost Report of the visit

7.

Dissemination of the report

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

Table 2: Work Plan for short-term capacity development No. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.0 2.1 2.2 Particulars
Training / Workshop On:
Madrasah Sector Assessment

2009
Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May

2010
Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan

2011
Feb Mar

Monitoring and Evaluation Inspection and Supervision Regional Field Visits Study Visit I Study Visit II

Note: This is subject to MOEs confirmation of timing and participants

58

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education B. Tentative Medium-Term Capacity Development Plan, 2011-2015 1. Supporting the establishment of proposed Directorate of Madrasah Education (DME) 80. Given that MOE may establish the Directorate of Madrasah Education; this will need considerable inputs to make the new organization functional. The anticipated inputs will mean recurrent costs for staff salary and allowances, operation of facilities and plants, capital costs in accommodation, equipment, fixtures and furnishings, setting up new systems and processes as well as costs of in-country and overseas training and fellowships for the newly recruited staff. There will also be a need to rationalize and streamline some functions between BMEB and DME to achieve greater efficiency and economy. This may also require amendments in the existing Madrasah Ordinance 1978. Within these broad parameters provisions have been made for both DME and BMEB to benefit from the medium-term capacity development plan. Therefore the two allied organizations will be expected to play their strategic role in modernizing and mainstreaming madrasah education. 2. Capacity Development of BMEB A. Enhancing staff capacity through creating additional positions 81. The review indicates that the existing staff cannot cope with the present work load of the BMEB. Through needs assessment, Focus Group discussions, and workshop meeting BMEB officials informed that a number of proposed positions had been lying vacant for years; and additional new posts should be created to increase the effectiveness of BMEB. BMEB already identified a list of such positions that should be filled in with speed and urgency. B. Strengthening of BMEBs Regional Offices 82. With one Assistant Inspector, one data entry operator and a MLSS staff, the nine zonal offices are extremely inadequate to undertake meaningful professional work let alone meet the official job description set by BMEB and MOE. The regional office should be headed by a Regional Deputy Inspector/ Deputy Director supported by at least two Assistant Inspectors/Assistant Directors and two other support staff. In addition adequate logistic support including furnished office accommodation, equipment including ICT facilities, service vehicles and budgetary provision for recurrent costs should be provided to the zonal offices. The strengthened zonal offices should be able to act as testing grounds for effective supervision of madrasah. C. Strengthening of BMEB through restructuring 83. In order to meet the challenges of improved service delivery and enhance the strategic leadership BMEB needs to reposition itself through organizational readjustment and restructuring. Currently the tasks of conducting public examinations and publishing the results are reasonably well managed by BMEB. However, there are other important functions which need to be upgraded for enhancing BMEBs capacity and effectiveness. For example in addition to developing the curriculum and textbooks for religious subjects the Curriculum and Textbooks Wing of BMEB may be given the new mandate of monitoring and evaluation of curriculum and textbooks program in madrasah. This is consistent with the draft education policy initiative which proposes transferring the responsibility of non-religious curriculum and textbooks development to NCTB. Likewise there should be new units for

59

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education EMIS, human resources planning and management, monitoring and evaluation and research & development. These new units should be staffed through redeployment of existing staff, new recruitment and newly trained professional staff. In all these new units and staff positions recruitment of women professionals should get adequate consideration. 84. On the basis of institutional analysis carried out by the TA team and consultations held between the TA team and BMEB during needs assessment process BMEB developed a new organization structure and staffing pattern (see Appendix 4).This will be examined during the next field work of the TA consultants scheduled for September- October 2010. D. Revision of Madrasah Education Ordinance 1978 85. Since 1978 major changes took place in madrasah education as well as in the overall education scenario in the country. There are new challenges being faced to modernize and mainstream madrasah education in the national education system. In order to meet these challenges successfully BMEB will need to reposition itself as a sound professional organization. This means that the 1978 ordinance will need to be revised to reflect the present and future demands of madrasah education. The establishment of new Directorate of Madrasah Education will further necessitate the amendment of the ordinance. E. Strengthening of Inter agency linkages 86. BMEB should aim at developing a robust professional relationship with the related ministries and other agencies to strengthen madrasah education in particular the following: 87. NCTB: Curriculum and Text books of madrasah education will be developed by the National Curriculum and Text Book Board in the light of the NEP 2010. The curriculum & textbooks wing of BMEB may be mandated to be responsible for monitoring the impact of curriculum and text books on madrasah and childrens learning outcome. This wing will be involved in the selection committee for preparation of curriculum and text books on Islamic subjects. In addition it will develop strong professional relationship with NCTB at Members level on aspects of madrasah education. Curricula and textbooks in Islamic subjects will be designed and developed by BMEB in association with NCTB, the kind of association to be determined later. 88. DHSE: BMEB will need to strengthen its interaction with DSHE in particular with the Madrasah wing of DSHE. In the event there is delay in the establishment of DME, a new position of Director (Madrasah) with associated staff positions including. Deputy Director for madrasah education may be established under the DSHE by upgrading the existing Madrasah unit whose primary task is currently administration of the monthly pay order (MPO) for madrasahs. The new Director of Madrasah may be linked to Zonal offices for madrasah education. This arrangement could provide the first step towards a full-fledged Directorate of Madrasah Education. 89. MOE: Madrasah wing of MOE should be manned by qualified officers with adequate background of madrasah education who would be involved in strategic policy analysis and formulation. BMEB should develop a robust relationship with MOE on policy and development issues and BMEBs proposed new research and development unit should provide think tank support to MOE in the field of madrasah education. 90. MOPME and DPE: With the implementation of new national Education Policy 2009 the overall planning and management responsibility of Ibtedaye level madrasah is likely to 60

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education be transferred to the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE), under the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MOPME). This means that BMEB will need to establish close professional and administrative linkages with both MOPME and DPE 91. DIA: At present the Directorate of Inspection and Audit only undertakes financial audit. It is likely that DIA will be mandated to undertake technical audit of government funded educational institutions including madrasah. BMEB especially its Inspection and Supervision Wing will need to develop professional linkages with DIA. 92. NAEM: National Academy for Educational Administration trains education managers at secondary and higher secondary levels. However, NAEMs main training program is the long-term foundation training for BCS-Education cadre officers. NAEM conducts training for Principals of Madrasahs and has shown interest to continue this program on a regular basis. BMEB will need to coordinate this activity with NAEM to benefit the subsector. 93. BMTTI: Bangladesh Madrasah Teachers Training Institute is the only institute for inservice training of madrasah teachers in the country. BMTTI may be further upgraded and its capacity enhanced as part of the overall capacity development of the sub-sector. There seems little justification for additional and separate teacher training institutes for madrasah education until a study is undertaken of the entire teacher training sector including that of the capacity of the Primary Teachers Training Institutes (PTI), the Upazila Resource Centres, Teacher Training Colleges (TTC) and Higher Teacher Training Institutes (HTTI). Prospective madrasah teachers should have the opportunity to gain B.Ed. /M. Ed qualifications from the TTCs colleges. BMEB, as the principal sector institution, may play a strategic role to facilitate an information-based policy for teacher training for madrasah teachers and educational leaders. 94. NTRCA. In 2005 through an act of the parliament the Government established the Non-government Teachers' Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA) for registering and certifying teachers and head teachers including madrasah teachers. Without the registration and certification of NTRCA no new teacher can teach in secondary schools and recognized madrasah. With a view to strengthen coordination, set standards, and ensure quality of secondary teacher education, MOE is in the process of setting up an apex body, National Teachers' Accreditation and Registration Authority (NTEARA), by amending the NTRCA Act 2005. Like the NTRCA, the amended NTEARA will also cover the madrsah teachers under MPO system.

F. Capacity Development through Training and Fellowships program 95. Staff of various levels and professional category of BMEB, proposed DME/DSHEs madrasah unit, BMTTI, MOEs madrasah wing, NCTB, and selected madrasahs will benefit from the CD plan. In the selection of candidates adequate number of female staff should be nominated. Following table summarizes the plan activities.

61

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Table 3: Summary of staff capacity development through training & fellowships
Competency/ skills requirements Education Policy & Planning Clientele Number Training Mode* Duration** Location

Senior staff

Management retreat & short-term strategic training

Regular weekly sessions 2-3 months training 6-9 months 3-6 months 9-12 months 2-3 months

In-country Regional

Professional Staff Education Administration (Central/System level Education Administration (Zonal/district level) Inspection and Supervision Senior to Mid-level staff

10

Long-term

Regional /International

5 5

Short-term Long-term Diploma/Graduate Program Short-term

Regional /International Regional /International In-country /regional

Zonal/district education officers Senior to Mid level Field level staff Senior to mid-level Senior to mid-level staff

30

6 30

Long-term Short-term

6 months 2-3 months

Regional /international In-country/ Regional Regional

Curriculum & Textbook development Quality Assurance Financial management & budgeting Human resources planning Monitoring & Evaluation EMIS Community mobilization & Public- private cooperation Office management/ General professional skills upgrading program

5 5

Short-term

3-6 months 6-9 months

Long-term

Regional/international

Senior to mid-level staff Mid-level staff Mid-level staff Zonal& district officers Clerical & support staff Junior professional staff

6
6 5 25

Long-term

6-9 months 6-9 months 6-9 months 3 weeks

Regional

Long-term Long-term Short-term

In-country/Regional In-country/ regional In-country

40 35

Short-term Long-term

2-3 months 9-18 months (part-time basis)

In-country In-country

Notes: * appropriate training modes will be determined during implementation based on bench-marking. ** Duration can be varied during implementation based on bench-marking of skills requirements and availability of training/course slots in the host institutions.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education G. Supporting capacity development through medium-term technical assistance 96. Based on BMEBs institutional analysis and core competency and skills needs assessment above a medium-term technical assistance program has been devised which is summarized in the following table. This takes into account the regional experience as well as experience gained in Bangladesh17.
Table 4: Summary table for medium-term technical assistance support to capacity development

Areas of Expertise * Education Planning & Management Institutional development Human resources planning & management Financial management & monitoring Curriculum development Teacher training &staff development Competency-based education Textbook development and publishing Quality assurance EMIS Monitoring & evaluation Community mobilization & public-private collaboration

Person-months (International)* 36 person-months staggered over 5 years 18 person-months staggered over 5 years 12 person-months staggered over 3 years 12 person- months 15 persons-months staggered over 3 years 12 person-months 12 person-months 6 person-months 6 person- months 12 person-months staggered over 5 years 15 person-months staggered over 5 years 6 person months

Notes: * The expertise and person-months are based on international experience. Terms of reference of consultants will be articulated in consultation with the CDTA Team members and counterpart staff covering other aspects of madrasah subsector during second phase of TA implementation. In addition, it is proposed that national consultants will be recruited for the same duration to work as counterparts in respective areas with international experts and to facilitate the transfer of skills and expertise.

H. Cost Estimates of Fellowship Program and TA 97. Cost estimates of the staff development program through training and fellowships program and specialist services will be worked out in the second phase during the preparation of overall investment package for the medium-term development of madrasah education. I. Training Needs and Training Plan: A simplified Model 98. Usually organizations analyze training needs in response to operational weaknesses reported to by line managers, or to meet the demands of change. The former case suggests that there is a fire-fighting element in training needs analysis. The latter suggest that Training Needs Analysis can be deployed as an element of planned change in the organization. 99. What is a training need? Basically, it is any shortfall in employee performance, or potential performance, which can be remedied by appropriate training. There are many methods and means of overcoming deficiencies in human performance at work, and training is only one of them. For example, improving salary and benefits or service conditions etc

17

The TORs and the proposed duration of the assignments for both international and national consultants were finalised in October 2010 and incorporated within the Road Map and Indicative Investment Proposal. The durations of assignments differ to a limited extent from those drafted here.

63

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education (although valid in some sense) are not within the remit of training and need to be addressed in different ways. 100. The following is an illustration of the nature of training need as viewed from the perspective of an individual employee.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education


Table 5: Suggested staff training process

Demands of the Job: Knowledge Understanding Skills A i d &

less

Existing Staff Capacity Level of Knowledge Understanding, etc.

Training Needs

equal

101. The diagram shows that the demands of the job will be made up of appropriate proportions of knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes. Add to these factors the demands for change, and you will have a picture of what is required to perform the job in the context concerned. Against these requirements you set the existing employees level of knowledge and skills and, let us say, his/her attitude or willingness to adapt/change. If the two match there is no skill and knowledge gap and therefore no need for training. However, as it usually happens there is a mismatch between what is needed and what is required to perform the job to certain standards, then a training need has been identified. 102. In the needs assessment questionnaire for BMEB, academic qualifications and current staff profile were used as a proxy for knowledge and skills level against the specific job requirements in such areas as education policy analysis, human resource management, financial management, management information system, curriculum and textbook development, quality assurance, monitoring and evaluation of education programs, and the use of ICT. This was supplemented by interviews conducted with staff and focus group discussions. The skills identified are deemed to be critical skills and competencies required to operate a nation- wide madrasah education system. It appears that only limited number of individuals possess these skills at the needed level. 103. One way to overcome this problem to some extent is to design and deliver a professional education and knowledge upgrading program for most of the staff at junior to midlevel through long-term module-based programs conducted locally at NAEM and other institutions, for instance, BRAC University- IED or Dhaka university- IER Those who are graduates may be targeted to undertake longer-term diploma and non-diploma programs (on part-time basis) in core areas of work of BMEB or likely work program of proposed DME when established. While new and better-qualified staff should be recruited to fill in the critical positions existing staff will need to be redeployed based on qualifications and competence. J. Key Staff Development: A Suggested Approach 104. The concept of key persons development comes when the organization needs to develop urgently a critical mass of skilled professional who will take the leadership role in executing the organizations goals and objectives18. This requires a careful review of its human resources as well as recruitment and succession planning measures. Performance of the key persons is formally appraised, in terms of present and potential level of achievement. Improvements in performance can be dealt with through a variety of training and development activities, which are evaluated individually, or may also be subjected to a key staff development audit. The ultimate objective of this approach is to foster the following attributes:

18

Gerald Cole, Personal and Human Resource Management, Continuum, London, 2002

65

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Knowledge-what the job-holder needs to know about the organization, the job, procedures etc. Skills - the job holders problem solving, social and other skills etc. Attitudes - the job holder is required to cope with stress and dealing with people etc. Style - expectation of the society the way the key jobholder exercises the leadership.

105. The following is a schematic presentation of the key staff development plan. It sets out the steps involved and work to be carried out at different stages leading up to the training per se which can be conducted both within the institution (on the job) and outside the institution(off the job) such as overseas or in another settings.

66

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

KEY BMEB/ DME STAFF DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Review Managerial / Key Staff Positions

Present Requirements Recruitment

Key Staff Requirements

Future Requirements

Present Performance

Performance Appraisals

Potential Performance

On-the-Job

Training / Staff Development

Off-the-Job

Evaluation / Review

Key Staff Development Audit

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

VI. CONCLUSION
106. The institutional review of BMEB established that the organization structures, staff skills mix and competency do not appear to be in tune to plan, manage and deliver the key products and services of madrasah education subsector. Not only are there organizational gaps and weaknesses, the BMEB is constrained by shortages of critical skills. These have been identified and analyzed, and suggestions made to restructure/realign the organization, and upgrade staff capacity through training and fellowships program in the medium-term framework. The medium-term Capacity Development Plan 2011-2015 has two elements :(i) institutional reforms and restructuring of BMEB with a targeted staff upgrading program to develop specific skills and competencies, and (ii) a technical assistance package to provide specialized inputs and establish appropriate systems and processes at BMEB and proposed DME. It is envisaged that DSHE as one of the leading agencies for madrasah education will also benefit from both sets of activities.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

APPENDIX 1: TERMS OF REFERENCE


Institutional and Organizational Capacity Development Specialist

Assess the roles and responsibilities of different levels of education organizations for effective delivery of quality madrasah education. Assess the capacity and skills mix of staff at different levels and their training needs. Prepare an action plan for implementation of capacity development activities including seminars, workshops, short training programs in strategy formulation, policy reform and planning and study tours. Contribute to the sector study, road map and investment proposal as required by the team leader.

APPENDIX 2: REFERENCES
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) (xiv) (xv) ADB, Technical Assistance Report to the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh: Capacity Development for Bangladesh, December 2008 Asadullah, Niaz Mohammad, madrasah Education: The Bangladesh Experience, October 2007 Banu, Masuda, Allowing for Diversity; State Madrasah Relation in Bangladesh, Oxford, 2007 Chowdhury, S A: Invitation to Education Planning, University Press Ltd, Dhaka, 1986. DPE, School Survey Report 2006 Gerald Cole: Personal and Human Resource Management, Continuum, London, 2002 Government of Bangladesh: Constitution of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh Mercer, Malcolm et el, Madras ahs in Bangladesh and Pakistan- An Analysis, EU funded study, 2005 Ministry of Education: National Education Policy (final draft), 2009. Ministry of Planning, PRSP Oct 2005 and Revised PRSP II August. 2009 Ministry of Primary and Mass Education, Human Resource Development and Management (HRDM) Strategy, December 2005 SESDP Project, Madrasah Education Development Strategy, January 2009 Tom Lambert: Key Management Questions, FT Prentice Hall, London, 2003. UNDP, Capacity Development Practice Note, 2008 USAID,2002, Bangladesh Education Sector Review, Working with Government Agencies in Education, Paper commissioned from Ground Work Inc for USAID

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

APPENDIX 3: PRESENT ORGANOGRAM OF BMEB


Chairman Total sanctioned post-182

Registrar

Controller of Examination Manpower-66

Curriculum and Text book wing

Manpower-62

Dy.Registrar(Amn.

Accounts Officer

Dy. Registrar(common Service) Manpower-33

Programmer(Comp uter section)

Dy.Controller(Exami nation.)

Assistant Controller (Sch0olarship)

Dy.Controller(Confi dential)

System Analyst

Physical Education officer

Dy.Inspector (Manpower)

Asstt. Inspectors (eight Zones)

Asstt. Inspector (Publication)

Manpower-03 Man power-7 Manpower-14 Manpower-1 Manpower-19 Manpower-5 Manpower-20 Manpower-19 Manpower-03 Manpower-16 Manpower-24

Administrative officer

Asstt.Accounts Officer

Asstt Registrar

Asstt. Controller(Exam.)

Asstt.Controller (Confidential)

Programmer

Asstt.Programmer Asstt/SubAssitt. Engineer

70

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Existing Staffing Pattern
Chairman Stenographer (PA)-1 UDA (Confidential)-1 MLSS-2 3. Inspector Steno Typist (PA)-1 MLSS-1 3.1 Physical Education Officer-1 Office Assistant-1 MLSS-1 3.2 Dy. Inspector Asst. Inspector-4 Section Officer-1 UDA-2 Office Assistnat-4 Record Keeper-1 MLSS-2 3.3 Zone Offices Asst. Inspector-8 Office Assistant cum CO-8 MLSS-8

1.

Registrar Steno Typist (PA)-1 MLSS-1 1.1 Deputy Registrar (Admin) Administrative Officer-1 Section Offcer-2 UDA-1 Office Assistant-1 MLSS-1 1.2 Deputy Registrar (Comm. Service) Asst. Registrar-1 Asst. / Sub Asst. Engr.-1 Section Officer-1 UDA-2 Office Assistant-4 Store Keeper-1 Electrician-1 Record Keeper-1 Duplicate Matching Operetor-1 Driver-3 Guard-6 MLSS-1 Gardener-1 Sweeper-2 1.2. R & I Section UDA-1 Office Assistant-1 Messenger-1 MLSS-2 1.3 Accounts Officer Asst. Accounts Officer-1 Section Officer/Accountant-2 Asst. Accountant-4 Cashier-1 Office Assistant-2 Cash Sarker-1 MLSS-2 1.4 Computer Section Programmar-1

2.

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

Controller of Examination Steno Typist (PA)-1 MLSS-1 Dy. Controller of Exam. Asst. Controller of Exam.-1 Section Offcer-2 Chief Assistant-1 UDA-3 Office Assistant-9 Duplicate Matching Operetor-1 MLSS-2 Dy. Controller of Exam.(Confidential) Asst. Controller of Exam.(Confidential)-1 Section Officer-1 UDA-4 Office Assistant-8 Record Keeper-1 Binder-2 MLSS-2 Asst. Controller of Scholarship and Exam. Section Offcer-1 Office Assistant-3 System Analyst (Board Computer Center) Programmer-2 Asst. Programmer-4 Asst. Maintenance Engr.-1 Data entry/computer-4 Computer Attendant-2 Driver(Contact-wise)-1 MLSS-4

4. Curriculum & Text Book Wing Asst. Inspector (Publication)-1 Section Officer-1 UDA-1

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

APPENDIX 4: PROPOSED ORGANOGRAM OF BMEB19


Chairman Manpower-374

Registrar Manpower-95

Controller of Examination Manpower-80

Inspector Manpowr-172

Curriculum and Publication officer Manpower-27

Chief Accounts Officer Manpower-25

Dy. Registrar (Committee) Manpower-30

Dy. Registrar (Registration) Manpower-27

Dy. Registrar (Establishment) Manpower-13

Dy. Controller of (Dakhil) Manpower-18

Dy. Controller of (Aliml) Manpower-14

Dy. Controller of (Confidential) Manpower-12

Dy. Controller of (Closing Examinations) Manpower-25

Dy. Controller of (Certificate and Record) Manpower-11

Dy. Inspector (Ibtedaye) Manpower-18

Dy. Inspector (Dakhil) Manpower-29

Dy. Inspector (Alim) Manpower-29

Dy. Inspector (8-Zone) Manpower-96

Evaluation Officer Manpower-1

Curriculum Specialist Manpower-21

Assistant Controller (Publication) Manpower-4

19

This organogram with nominated personnel was prepared by BMEB and provided to the TA Team in April 2010 for consideration.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

Registrar (Manpower 95) Stenographer (PA)-1 UDA (Confidential)-1 MLSS-2 Accounts Chief Accounts Officer/DD Accounts-1 Accounts Officer-4 Section Offcer-4 UDA-4 LDA-4 Computer Operator-4 MLSS-4 Committee Deputy Registrar-4 Asst. Registrar-4 UDA-6 LDA-8 Computer Operator-4 MLSS-4 Registration Deputy Registrar-2 Asst. Registrar-4 UDA-6 LDA-8 Computer Operator-4 MLSS-3 Establishment Deputy Registrar-1 Asst. Registrar-1 UDA-3 LDA-3 Computer Operator-2 MLSS-3

Examination (Dakhil)

Examination (Alim)

Dy. Controller of Exam-1 Asst. Controller-1 Section Offcer-2 UDA-3 Office Assistant-8 Computer Operator-1 MLSS-2

Dy. Controller of Exam-1 Asst. Controller-1 Section Offcer-1 UDA-3 Office Assistant-6 Computer Operator-1 MLSS-1

Controller of Examinations (Manpower 80) Steno-typist (PA)-1 UDA (Confidential)-1 MLSS-2 Confidential Closing Examinations of class V Appointment(Examiner/H.E/Q.S & Viii & Q.M) Dy. Controller of Exam-1 Dy. Controller of Exam-1 Asst. Controller-1 Asst. Controller-2 Section Offcer-1 Section Offcer-2 UDA-2 UDA-4 Office Assistant-4 Office Assistant-12 Computer Operator-2 Computer Operator-2 MLSS-1 MLSS-2 Inspector (Manpower 172) Steno-typist (PA)-1 UDA (Confidential)-1 MLSS-2 Alim Dy. Inspector-1 Asst. Inspector-2 Section Officer-2 UDA-8 Office Assistnat-8 Computer Operator-3 Record Keeper-2 MLSS-3

Certificate and Record

Dy. Controller of Exam-1 Asst. Controller-1 Section Offcer-1 UDA-2 Office Assistant-4 Computer Operator-1 MLSS-1

Ibtedaye Dy. Inspector-1 Asst. Inspector-2 Section Officer-2 UDA-4 Office Assistnat-4 Computer Operator-1 Record Keeper-1 MLSS-3

Dakhil Dy. Inspector-1 Asst. Inspector-2 Section Officer-2 UDA-8 Office Assistnat-8 Computer Operator-3 Record Keeper-2 MLSS-3

8 Zonal Offices Dy. Inspector-8 Asst. Inspector-16 UDA-16 Office Assistnat-16 Computer Operator-16 Record Keeper-8 MLSS-16

73

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

Controller of Publication Steno-typist (PA)-1 UDA (Confidential)-1 MLSS-2 Evaluation Evaluation Officer-1 Curriculum Curriculum Specialist-8 Section Officer-2 UDA-3 Office Assistant-6 MLSS-2 Publication Assistant Controller,Publication-1 Office Assistant-2 MLSS-1

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

APPENDIX 5: ORGANOGRAM OF PROPOSED DME20


Director General

Director (Fin & Admin)

Director (P & D)

Director (Madrasah & Training)

Deputy Director

Deputy Director

Deputy Director Non Govt. Madrasah

Deputy Director Govt. Madrasah & Training

Programmer

DD (Admin)

DD (Finance)

Asst. Dir. - 6

Research Officer - 4

Inspector - 8

Asst. Dir. - 2

Law Officer

Data Entry Operator

Admin. Officer

Accounts Officer

Librarian cum Doc. Officer

1 x Head Assistant / UD 2 x Auditor 4 x Office Assistant cum Computer Operator 1 x Care taker cum store keeper 4 x Driver 1 x Dispatch Rider 1 x Photo copy machine operator 4xMLSS 3 x Guard / Night Guard 1 x Gardener 2 x Cleaner

1 x Cashier 1 x Accounts Asst.

3 x Jeep 2 x Microbus 3 x Photocopier 20 x Computer 5 x Printer 1 x Scanner 2 x Duplicating machine 1 x Fax 3 x Steno set 4 x AC 1 x Refrigerator 1 x Generator 1 x Spiral Binding machine

1 x Head Assistant / UD 2 x Auditor 4 x Office Assistant cum computer operator 1 x Driver 4 x MLSS

20

This organogram was prepared by the committee established by MOE and is yet to be approved by MOE.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

APPENDIX 6: NEEDS ASSESSMENT CONSULTATION WORKSHOP


1. Power Point Presentation 2. Report of the Workshop 3. List of Participants

76

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 1. Power Point Presentation

Key Outputs of the TA


CD Action Plan (short & medium term) Madrasah Sector Study including comprehensive survey Madrasah Education Road Map Medium-Term Investment Proposal for Development of Madrasah Education

ADB TA 7206-BAN:Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

Capacity Needs Assessment Consultation Meeting,6 Dec 2009


Presentation by Dr.S A Chowdhury, International Consultant/Capacity Development

CD Planning Steps
PART I I. Review of Documents

CD Planning Steps (Contd.)


IV. Focus Group engagement process at BMEB - Focus Group Discussion - Interviews - Administer questionnaires (Why / What / How) - Business process - Knowledge Management - Resources( budget, human resources etc) V. Field Visits - Visits to regional education zones/ BMEB offices - Visits to madrasahs in zones: Aliya and Quomi VI. Findings - Summarize and interpret the results - Validation of the results through stakeholder/beneficiary consultation meeting on 6 December 2009.

- Past and new Education Commission Reports (Final draft 2009)


- Madrasah Education Ordinance 1978 - Various GOB reports on Madrasah - External agencies funded reports viz.USAID, EC etc

II. Stakeholders Engagement


BMEB,BMTTI,NCTB,DSHE,DPE,NAEM,MOE,MOPME

III. Business Meetings with the BMEB


Chairman ,Registrar, Controller of Examinations ,Inspector, Head of Curriculum and Textbook Wing, IT manager

CD Planning Steps
PART II I. Preparation of draft CD report/action plan : Short-Term Action Plan and Medium-Term Action Plan: January 2010 II.Revised and incorporated in Road map and Sector Investment Proposal

What is CD?
UNDP has defined CD as the process through which individuals, organizations and societies obtain, strengthen and maintain the capabilities to set and achieve their own development objectives over time
UNDP,Capacity Development- Practice Note, October 2008

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

CD Issues
Institutional Arrangements Knowledge and Skills Leadership Accountability

CD Formulation & Implementation Process

Implement and evaluate the CD plan

Engage stakeholders & assess the needs

Formulate CD plan to address the needs

Guidelines for CD Action Plan


Short-term CD Action Plan (duration: TA implementation period
only): Activities/inputs will include training workshops, study visits to regional countries, EMIS etc.May also include assisting the zonal offices network. Medium-term CD Action Plan (duration: 5-6 years investment period): Activities/inputs may include strengthening BMEB and linked organizations including restructuring BMEB introducing new business processes and mechanisms .Providing physical facilities, equipment, staff development including short-term and long-term training & fellowships, incremental staff, specialist servicesinternational & national for CD, provision of incremental recurrent costs etc.In addition to strengthening BMEB and zonal offices this may also include supporting the establishment of proposed Directorate of Madrasah Education.

Thank You!

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 2. Report of the Workshop Report: Group A 1. Short-term CD Plan: activities/inputs As per CDTA activities: Training workshops Study visits Developing EMIS for Madrasah education 2. Medium-term CD Investment Plan: activities/inputs Create additional manpower as required Upgrade EMIS (adequate personnel including system analyst) Strengthening nine zonal offices with creation of posts of DD,AD and assistant inspectors Provide training, equipment, office facilities, transports etc Provision of training : local and oversees Create dissemination, monitoring & evaluation of curriculum capacity at BMEB Create function of chain/linkage with DSHE field offices TTC/HSTTI should be accessible to Madrasah teachers for which posts may be created at TTC/HSTTI in this connection Physical facilities/ infrastructure of BMEB may be expanded SBA/MBA needs to introduce Madrasah/ibtedaye/junior Dakhil included in the general scholarship BMTTI CD Strengthening with all necessary facilities Training facilities upgraded DHSE: DD (special education) may be re-named as DD (Madrasah) Strengthen Madrasah wing by creating additional posts of One Director, 2 DD, 4 AD & district level staff Training of staff of Madrasah wing of DSHE Create functional linkage between BMEB, BMTTI and DHSE

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Report: Group B 1. Short-term CD Plan: activities/inputs Training of Madrasah Asst. Inspectors and related staff of BMEB and DSHE Training in office management, financial management, education management and ICT. Internet facility in the Madrasah and Zonal offices 2. Medium-term CD Investment Plan: activities/inputs Establishment of separate Directorate of Madrasah education (DME) Until the DME is established create on a priority basis new posts of Director/ Deputy Directors and Asst. Directors (at district level) under DSHE in the zonal offices. Establishing pre-service training colleges for Madrasah teachers Establishing a monitoring and evaluation wing for Madrasah in DSHE/BMEB Activate the Madrasah curriculum branch in NCTB Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah should be developed at per with Govt. Primary School. Convert the Zonal offices to Deputy Inspectors offices and create Asst. Inspector posts at district level. Facilities should be established to introduce business streams at Dakhil and Alim levels. Filling immediately all vacant teachers posts in Madrasah and create new posts as required. Equity in pay status of Madrasah super/principal (Alim Madrasah) with head teacher/ principal of secondary schools and colleges. (HSC level) There should be a public examination at the end of fifth grade (Ibtedaye). There should be equity in number and amount of scholarship and stipend between the Madrasah and general school.

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3. List of Participants No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Name of Participant Professor Md Yousuf Professor Rashid Ahmed Mr. K M Rafiqul Islam Mr. Abul Hossain Mr S M Bashir Ullah Mr. Md Siddiqur Rahman Md. Nazmul Huda Md. Shafiul Muznabin Md. Asraf Hossain Md. Hossain Ali Md. Quamrul Hasan Md. Khorshed Alam Md. Saleh Ahmed Shahjahan Ali Molla Md. Amir Uddin Md. Rafique Ullah A. N. M. Delwar Hossain Bhuiya Md. Sohrab Hossain Md. Abdul Matin Khan Md. Shafiqur Rahman Md. Ruhul Amin Shekh Abu Jafar Ahmed Md. Murshed Alam Mir Md. Anwar Hossain Md. Shafiqul Alam Md. Abu Hanif Md. Ruhul Amin Designation Chairman Registrar Deputy Director (P & D) Deputy Director (Special) Assistant Director (P & D) Assistant Director (Special) Controller of Examinations Inspector of Madrasah Deputy Registrar (Admin) Deputy Inspector of Madrasah Deputy Controller of Examinations (Exam) Deputy Registrar (Common) Deputy Controller of Examinations (Con) Accounts Officer ICT In-Charge Asst. Inspector of Madrasah Asst. Inspector of Madrasah Asst. Accounts Officer Sub-Assistant Engineer Assistant Registrar Asst. Controller of Examination Asst. Inspector of Madrasah Physical Education Officer Administrative Officer Asst. Controller of Examination Asst. Controller of Examination Asst. Inspector of Madrasah Office BMEB BMEB DSHE DSHE DSHE DSHE BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB BMEB Comilla Zone

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

No. 27. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

Name of Participant Mr. Mosharaf Hossain Md. Shahadat Hossain Mia Md. Zahidul Haque Siddiqe Md. Moazzem Hossain Md. Jahangir Alam Md. Nazrul Islam Md. Muzahidul Islam

Designation Asst. Inspector of Madrasah Asst. Inspector of Madrasah Asst. Inspector of Madrasah Asst. Inspector of Madrasah Asst. Inspector of Madrasah Asst. Inspector of Madrasah Asst. Inspector of Madrasah

Office Rangpur Zone Sylhet Zone Mymensing Zone Chittagong Zone Khulna Zone Barisal Zone Rajshahi Zone

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

ANNEX 2: MADRASAH SECTOR STUDY REPORT

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ANNEX 2
MADRASAH SECTOR STUDY [VOLUME 1]

ADB TA 7206-BAN

BANGLADESH: CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FOR MADRASAH EDUCATION

PREPARED FOR

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK & GOVERNMENT OF BANGLADESH

PREPARED BY MAXWELL STAMP LIMITED, BAN

In association with: EDUCATION FOR CHANGE, UK

JULY 2011

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

TABLE OF CONTENTS
METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES FOR THE MADRASAH SECTOR STUDY..................................... 89 SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................................ 89 SOURCES .......................................................................................................................................................... 89 THE IBTEDAYE SAMPLE SURVEY .................................................................................................................... 91 THE QOUMI MADRASAH SAMPLE SURVEY .................................................................................................... 91 THE QUALITATIVE STUDY .............................................................................................................................. 92 FOREWORD ...................................................................................................................................................... 94 ABBREVIATIONS............................................................................................................................................. 95 LEXICON OF TERMS...................................................................................................................................... 98 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................. 100 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 100 FINDINGS........................................................................................................................................................ 100 ACCESS .......................................................................................................................................................... 101 INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS ........................................................................................................ 101 QOUMI MADRASAHS ..................................................................................................................................... 102 QUALITY ........................................................................................................................................................ 102 INTERNAL EFFICIENCY ................................................................................................................................. 103 EQUITY........................................................................................................................................................... 103 SYSTEM PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................................... 104 FINANCE ......................................................................................................................................................... 105 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................................... 105 CHAPTER 1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 107 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.6 1.7 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 107 WHY STUDY BANGLADESH MADRASAH EDUCATION NOW? ........................................................... 107 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MADRASAH EDUCATION .............................................................. 107 THE ORIGIN OF MADRASAHS IN THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT ...................................................... 108 MADRASAHS IN BENGAL AND BANGLADESH ................................................................................... 108 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ALIYA AND QOUMI MADRASAHS ..................................................... 109 Aliya ................................................................................................................................................. 109 Qoumi............................................................................................................................................... 110 Outcomes From Two Systems........................................................................................................ 110 GROWTH OF ALIYA MADRASAHS AND THE REASONS FOR THAT GROWTH ................................... 111 MADRASAHS PAST AND PRESENT .................................................................................................... 113

CHAPTER 2 ..................................................................................................................................................... 114 ACCESS ............................................................................................................................................................ 114 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 114 2.1 ACCESS IN THE SCHOOL SECTOR.................................................................................................... 114 2.3 Access in the primary sector ...................................................................................................... 115 2.4 Ibtedaye Madrasahs ................................................................................................................... 115 2.5 Qoumi Madrasahs ...................................................................................................................... 115 2.6 SECONDARY LEVEL ACCESS AND PARTICIPATION ......................................................................... 116 2.6.1 Institutions and enrolments ....................................................................................................... 116 2.6.2 Divisional Disparities.................................................................................................................. 118 2.6.3 Gender Disparities ...................................................................................................................... 119 2.6.4 Factors affecting Access ............................................................................................................. 119 2.6.4.1 Private Costs of Schooling and Stipends.............................................................................. 120 2.6.4.2 Stipends ................................................................................................................................ 121 2.6.4.3 Scholarships......................................................................................................................... 121 2.6.4.4 Availability of resources ...................................................................................................... 122 2.6.4.5 Funding Status (The MPO issue) ......................................................................................... 123 2.6.4.6 Physical Facilities................................................................................................................ 123

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2.6.4.7 Enrolment Features.............................................................................................................. 125 SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................... 126

2.7

CHAPTER 3 ..................................................................................................................................................... 128 QUALITY ......................................................................................................................................................... 128 3.0 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................... 128 3.1 CURRICULUM.................................................................................................................................... 129 3.1.1 Schooling Organization .............................................................................................................. 129 3.1.1.1 Organization of the Aliya Madrasahs .................................................................................. 129 3.1.1.2 Organization of the Qoumi Madrasahs................................................................................ 130 3.1.1.3 Correspondence among the Three Systems.......................................................................... 130 3.1.2 Curriculum Organization .......................................................................................................... 131 3.1.2.1 Curriculum Subjects of the Primary General Education and Aliya Ibtedaye Madrasahs ... 131 3.1.2.2 Curriculum Subjects of Aliya Dakhil Madrasahs................................................................. 132 3.1.2.3 Curriculum Subjects of the Qoumi Madrasahs .................................................................... 132 3.1.3 Business Education and Information and Communication Technology................................ 133 3.1.4 Comparison of Curricula ........................................................................................................... 134 3.2 TEXTBOOKS ...................................................................................................................................... 135 3.2.1 Textbook Availability for Students ........................................................................................... 135 3.2.2 Textbook Comparison by Grade Level..................................................................................... 135 3.2.3 Curriculum and Textbook Development Capacity at the BMEB........................................... 137 3.2.3.1 Curriculum and Textbook Development at the BMEB ......................................................... 137 3.2.3.2 The NCTBs View of the BMEBs Curriculum Development Process ................................. 138 3.2.3.3 Education Watchs Observations on the Curriculum Development Process ....................... 138 3.3 TEACHER TRAINING ......................................................................................................................... 138 3.3.1 Pre-service Teacher Training Requirements and Profiles ...................................................... 138 3.3.2 In-service Teacher Training for Aliya Madrasah Teachers.................................................... 140 3.3.3 In-service Supervision of Teachers............................................................................................ 142 3.3.4 Certification of Teachers by NTRCA ....................................................................................... 142 3.3.5 Pre-service and In-service Teacher Training in Qoumi Madrasahs ...................................... 143 3.3.6 Classroom Practices of Teachers in Aliya Madrasahs............................................................. 143 3.3.7 Classroom Practices of Teachers in Qoumi Madrasahs .......................................................... 145 3.4 LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT ............................................................................................................... 146 3.4.1 Stakeholders Perceptions of Madrasah Students Achievements.......................................... 146 3.4.2 Different Strategies Adopted by Parents to Avail Good Education and Incentives ............. 147 3.4.3 Education Watch Conclusions about Student Learning in the Aliya Madrasahs and General Education Schools .................................................................................................................................... 147 3.4.4 Aliya Madrasahs Leavers Further Education and Work Opportunities ............................. 148 3.4.5 Findings from Interviews and Field Studies about Employment and Educational Opportunities for Qoumi Students......................................................................................................... 148 3.5 ANALYSIS OF THE ASSESSMENTS AND EXAMINATIONS USED IN THE MADRASAHS........................ 148 3.5.1 Madrasah-Based Assessment Implementation......................................................................... 148 3.5.2 Capacity of the Madrasahs to Implement MBA ...................................................................... 149 3.5.3 Organization of the BMEB Examinations ................................................................................ 149 3.5.3.1 Examination Policy for Aliya Madrasahs ............................................................................ 149 3.5.3.2 Quality of Examinations from BMEB and NCTB................................................................. 150 3.5.3.3 New Examination Policy for Aliya Madrasahs .................................................................... 151 3.5.4 Quality of the Dakhil Examination Questions.......................................................................... 151 3.5.5 Pass Rates for SSC and Dakhil Examinations.......................................................................... 152 3.5.6 Explanations for Lower Achievement of Madrasahs............................................................... 153 3.6 SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................... 154 CHAPTER 4 ..................................................................................................................................................... 157 INTERNAL EFFICIENCY ............................................................................................................................. 157 4.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 157 4.1 CYCLE COMPLETION, REPETITION, DROP-OUT.............................................................................. 157 4.1.1 Repetition and Dropout at Secondary Level ............................................................................ 157

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4.1.2 Cycle Completion Rates at Secondary Level............................................................................ 158 4.1.3 Internal Efficiency in Ibtedaye and Qoumi Madrasahs .............................................................. 159 4.2 EXAMINATION PASS RATES .............................................................................................................. 159 4.3 DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS (STUDENT: TEACHER RATIO) ........................................................... 161 4.4 UNIT COST OF A GRADUATE ............................................................................................................. 161 4.5 CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................................... 161 CHAPTER 5 ..................................................................................................................................................... 163 EQUITY ............................................................................................................................................................ 163 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 163 ACCESS IN CONTEXT ........................................................................................................................ 163 ATTENDANCE, PARTICIPATION, AND COMPLETION........................................................................ 165 QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, AND OUTCOMES ................................................................................... 167 TEACHERS AND MANAGERS ............................................................................................................. 170 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................... 171

CHAPTER 6 ..................................................................................................................................................... 172 PLANNING, MANAGEMENT, INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY............................................................... 172 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 172 6.1 SYNOPSIS OF PREVIOUS EDUCATION COMMISSION REPORTS ........................................................ 172 6.1.1 Kudrat-e-Khuda Commission Report, 1974............................................................................. 172 6.1.2 Mofiz Uddin Commission Report 1988..................................................................................... 173 6.1.3 National Committee on Education Policy 1997 ........................................................................ 173 6.1.4 Education Reform Expert Committee headed by Professor MA Bari................................... 174 6.1.5 National Education Commission Report 2003 ......................................................................... 174 6.2 EDUCATION POLICY AND PLANNING ............................................................................................... 175 6.2.1 Planning Capacity....................................................................................................................... 175 6.2.2 National Education Policy (NEP), 2010 .................................................................................... 176 6.2.3 Analysis of the Implications for Aliya Madrasah education of the NEP ............................... 177 6.3 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION, MONITORING AND EVALUATION FOR THE MADRASAH SECTOR IN BANGLADESH................................................................................................................................................. 178 6.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 178 6.3.2 Terminology ................................................................................................................................ 178 6.3.3 Management information........................................................................................................... 179 6.3.3.1 Registration of schools/madrasahs ...................................................................................... 180 6.3.3.2 Monthly payment orders ...................................................................................................... 180 6.3.3.3 Examinations........................................................................................................................ 181 6.3.3.4 Teacher qualification and career management.................................................................... 181 6.3.3.5 Surveys ................................................................................................................................. 182 6.3.4 The proposed integrated EMIS ................................................................................................. 182 6.3.4.1 Unique identifiers................................................................................................................. 183 6.3.5 Issues ............................................................................................................................................ 183 6.3.5.1 Ibtedaye Madrasah .............................................................................................................. 183 6.3.5.2 Qoumi................................................................................................................................... 184 6.3.6 Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) .......................................................................................... 184 6.3.6.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 184 6.3.6.2 School/ madrasah performance based management (PBM) ................................................ 185 6.3.6.3 Systemic M and E................................................................................................................. 185 6.4.6.4 Evaluation questions for madrasahs .................................................................................... 185 6.3.6.5 Capacity for information management ................................................................................ 186 6.5 BMEB: INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY ................................................................................................. 187 6.5.1 Context and analysis of institutional role ................................................................................. 187 6.5.2 BMEBs Staffing and Structure ................................................................................................ 189 6.5.3 Key Findings................................................................................................................................ 190 6.5.4 Road Map for BMEB ................................................................................................................. 191 6.5.5 Capacity Development Plan ....................................................................................................... 191 6.6 CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................................... 192

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CHAPTER 7 ..................................................................................................................................................... 194 FINANCE.......................................................................................................................................................... 194 7.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 194 7.1 THE MACRO-ECONOMIC SETTING................................................................................................... 194 7.1.1 Performance of Bangladesh in FY 2010.................................................................................... 194 7.1.2 Macroeconomic Forecast ........................................................................................................... 195 7.1.3 Poverty and Millennium Development Goals........................................................................... 195 7.1.4 Prospects for Education Spending ............................................................................................ 195 7.2 EDUCATION WITHIN PUBLIC SECTOR EXPENDITURE ..................................................................... 196 7.2.1 Education Expenditures compared to Neighbouring Countries............................................. 197 7.2.2 Inter-country Comparisons ....................................................................................................... 197 7.2.3 Education within Total Government Revenue and Development Expenditures................... 198 7.2.3.1 Revenue ................................................................................................................................ 198 7.2.3.2 Development Expenditure .................................................................................................... 198 7.2.4 Government Revenue and Development Budgets on Education Sub-Sectors ....................... 199 7.2.4.1 Revenue Budget for Education............................................................................................. 199 7.2.4.2 Development Budget for Education ..................................................................................... 200 7.3 EXPENDITURES PER STUDENT (UNIT COSTS) IN VARIOUS EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS........................................................................................................................................... 202 7.4 PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND MADRASAHS RECEIVING MPO SUPPORT .......................... 204 7.4.1 Private Costs................................................................................................................................ 205 7.5 OUTPUT OF MADRASAH EDUCATION EXTERNAL EFFICIENCY .............................................. 206 7.6 CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................................... 206 CHAPTER 8 ..................................................................................................................................................... 208 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................... 208 8.1 SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................... 208 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 208 Main Findings ....................................................................................................................................... 208 8.2 CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................................... 211 Overview................................................................................................................................................ 211 OBSTACLES TO QUALITY MADRASAH EDUCATION AND HOW THESE MAY BE OVERCOME. ....................... 211 8.3 THE WAY AHEAD ........................................................................................................................ 214

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METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES FOR THE MADRASAH SECTOR STUDY


SUMMARY The Terms of Reference for the TA required sample surveys of madrasahs, including Independent Ibtedaye and Qoumi Madrasahs, with a particular focus on comparison of the secondary madrasahs the Dakhil Madrasahs with the general education stream secondary schools. To prepare for analyzing the data from various databases and for formulating the surveys and qualitative study, the TA team visited madrasahs all over the country; discussed madrasahs with officials in the Ministry of Education (MOE), the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE), the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB), and many agencies and projects that had knowledge of madrasahs; and read the available literature on madrasahs in Bangladesh and in other countries. In addition to collecting its own data, the TA team was able to go beyond the TOR requirements because data were available from the 2008 national census survey of postprimary education institutions that Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) conducted. That survey included Dakhil Madrasahs and secondary schools. Below we set out the sources of the primary data that we refer to throughout this document. This is followed by a more detailed account of the two surveys we conducted and a note clarifying the approach used in the qualitative study. SOURCES The primary data for the Madrasah Sector Study (MSS) come from four sources that are denoted in the text as follows: BANBEIS, 2010a This source consists of 41 data summary tables from the 2008 database of post-primary educational institutions developed by the BANBEIS. The data summary tables were designed by the TA team and the TA commissioned the BANBEIS to prepare them. The BANBEIS itself published the National Education Survey (PostPrimary) - 2008 Statistical Report in 2009, but it was not available till May 2010. This latter publication is referred to as BANBEIS, 2009, to distinguish it from the 41 tables we used and was the main source for our earlier report: the Interim Madrasah Sector Study of July 2010. This BANBEIS, 2010a source includes 100% of the nation and hence there are no sampling errors1.

This is not to say that there are no errors whatsoever. The BANBEIS may possibly have made errors in recording data, in analyzing data, or in reporting data. Since the TA did not conduct this census, we did not have control over these possible errors, if they exist at all.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education BANBEIS, 2010b This source consists of 35 data tables created from the 2010 survey of 1104 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. The survey is based on a sample of 25% of the districts. The TA team designed the tables. Most of them were produced by the BANBEIS but the TA Team prepared some. The database resulting from this survey is held by both the BANBEIS and MSL. The report on the analysis of the summary tables is given in Appendix 10. The 25% sample is a large sample drawn randomly on the basis of districts. With care, generalizations from these data can be made to the national population of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. BANBEIS, 2010c This source consists of 60 data tables drawn from the 2010 census of 544 Qoumi Madrasahs. The TA team and the BANBIES staff designed the tables. The census was conducted within a 10% sample of districts in Bangladesh. However, the seven districts were not chosen randomly for reasons of time and resources. This technical shortcoming means that the results, although useful in understanding Qoumi Madrasahs in these seven districts, cannot be used to estimate with precision the Qoumi Madrasah situation in the nation because of possible sampling bias. For example, this study does not allow us to accurately estimate the total number of Qoumi Madrasahs in Bangladesh from the number found in the seven districts included in our census. Nevertheless, the findings are indicative of Qoumi Madrasahs in the large number found in the seven districts. Our census is the first such survey of Qoumi Madrasahs and, hence, holds significant interest in its own right. The database resulting from this census is also held by both BANBEIS and MSL. The report on the analysis of the summary tables is given in Appendix 11. BANBEIS, 2010d This source is the report of a qualitative study of 10 madrasahs. The qualitative study is not of course representative of the vast range of types, locations, and sizes of madrasahs. Its purpose was to conduct in depth interviews that would enhance the meaning of the quantitative surveys. References to this study and quotations from it, are found in several chapters. The full report is given as Appendix 10.9 to this report.

Mini-Studies
In addition, the TA team conducted 11 mini-studies of issues related to curriculum, textbooks, teacher training, and assessment that affect the quality of madrasah education. These studies were based on intensive study of, curriculum documents, textbooks, examination questions, interviews of key persons involved in all areas of the quality of madrasah education, Dakhil and SSC examination results available on the Internet, and published and unpublished articles and books. The TA team conducted studies of Dakhil Examinations and SSC Examinations based on random samples of 100 examinees from each group from the 2009 results. Evidence from these 11 studies is one of the bases of the findings reported in Chapter 3 in particular. The findings have also shaped the proposals for the Road Map for Madrasah Education. Nine of the mini-studies titles and brief descriptions of those are given in Appendix 3.1. The reports of the Dakhil and SSC studies are in Appendices 3.11 and 3.12.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education THE IBTEDAYE SAMPLE SURVEY The Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah survey was conducted using a sample of 25% of all districts in the country. Statistically, it followed a single stage stratified cluster sampling design, where the four greater (old) administrative divisions were considered as strata. Four districts were randomly selected from each of these strata. However, one district (Rangamati) from Chittagong Division was later dropped and replaced by Gopalganj from Dhaka Division because there is a very low incidence of madrasahs in this Hill Tracts district and because Dhaka is the largest division. Thus, 16 districts were selected randomly as the primary sampling units from the total of 64 districts in the country. All Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in all 116 upazilas within the selected districts were included in sample. (A list of all upazilas sampled within the selected districts is attached to Appendix 10 of this report). To conduct the survey of the madrasahs within the sampled districts, the survey planners began with a list of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs that was prepared by the DPE and the BMEB in 2002, and later updated by the BANBES during 2002-2005. The list was subsequently updated during the initial period of the survey fieldwork. As mentioned above, there were 1104 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs found to be active in the selected districts at the time of survey; all were included in this survey. However, three metropolitan thanas amongst the 119 upazilas/thanas do not have any Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs and hence the total number of upazila/thanas included in the survey is 116. One hundred sixteen enumerators under the supervision of 16 District Education Officers conducted the survey after training by the BANBEIS staff. The enumerators physically visited each Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah in the sample to collect data using a structured questionnaire. The timing of the survey was May-July, 2010. THE QOUMI MADRASAH SAMPLE SURVEY The Qoumi Madrasah Sample Survey was originally designed and budgeted to cover a 10% sample of all of the Qoumi Madrasahs in Bangladesh. However, there is no reliable source containing a list of all Qoumi Madrasahs in Bangladesh, nothing is available about the number of such institutions, and nothing is available about the number of Qoumi Madrasahs in different parts of the country. Hence, the population size and the sampling frame are unknown. The sampling frame must be known in order to design a sampling design from which sound scientific generalization may be made to the population sampled2. It is recognised that there are important regional variations reflecting, for example, the different religious traditions and/or presence of long-standing and influential religious institutions (including prominent madrasahs and/or mosques). This is likely to influence the types and the number of madrasahs in any area and lead to wide variations across the country. However, the numbers and types in various districts is only a guess. In these circumstances, it is not possible to design a meaningful stratified random sample from the national population of Qoumi Madrasahs. Instead the TA team chose to undertake a full survey (census) of the Qoumi Madrasahs in seven selected districts. These seven districts are more than 10% of the 64 districts in the country. The seven districts have roughly 12% of
2

Retzer, K. F. (2003) Introduction to Survey Sampling. Chicago: Survey Research Laboratory, University of Illinios at Chicago. Downloaded from http://www.srl.uic.edu/seminars/Spr03_UIUC/samplingS03.PDF.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education the all-age population of Bangladesh. Thus, this survey includes is significantly large in scope and can be used to confidently describe the Qoumi Madrasahs in these seven districts. The Befaqul Board played a part in helping the TA team prepare for the survey. It also helped to secure acceptance of the survey amongst the Qoumi Madrasah community that is, to a greater or lesser extent, wary of government involvement. This board collaborated with the TA team and the BANBEIS in designing the survey data collection instrument and provided the survey enumerators who visited the madrasahs. The BANBEIS staff supervised this enumeration work and did follow-up enquiries where needed. The seven districts were selected in consultation with the BANBEIS and the representatives of the Befaqul Board. They were: Brahmanbaria (Chittagong Division), Jhenaidah (Khulna), Madaripur (Dhaka), Maulavibazar (Sylhet), Mymensingh (Dhaka), Pirojpur (Barisal), Rajshahi (Rajshahi). Districts were chosen to facilitate the survey logistics and organisation, and to keep within budget. The survey was undertaken during June through August 2010 following piloting of the instruments and training of the enumerators. During the survey the BANBEIS and the CDTA representatives joined enumerators to monitor the work. Data were cleaned and entered by the BANBEIS into Access software. Tables were created using STATA, Excel, and SPSS. THE QUALITATIVE STUDY Qualitative evidence elicited from in-depth interviewing captures the perspectives and experiences of participants in madrasah schooling processes. The results derived from an analysis of these interviews complement the statistical evidence upon which the bulk of the Madrasah Sector Study is based. Careful attention to insiders perspectives and experiences help us generate a more detailed and layered understanding of what goes on inside madrasahs. The interview results also provide concrete and context-specific information that allowed us to better interpret and give substance to information obtained from our other investigations and our statistical data. Sixty students were interviewed for this study; twenty-one of the students were girls. The students were aged between 7 and 22 and enrolled in Class 1 to Fajil 3rd year and Post Graduation (for Quomi madrasahs). Five Aliya, three Ibtedaye, and two Qoumi Madrasahs were included in the Study. In addition to students, 40 guardians, 40 teachers, 10 educational administrators, and 10 members of Madrasah Managing Committees were interviewed. In all, 157 usable interviews were collected from the ten madrasahs. While this is a fairly large sample of interviews as far as qualitative studies are concerned, and while we tried to cover a wide range of institutions, we must be clear from the outset that this cannot (and should not) be read as a representative random sample of all madrasahs in Bangladesh. Our research strategy was to use purposeful sampling, which enabled an indepth analysis of ten madrasahs.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Under the guidance of an international qualitative research specialist, a core team of the BANBEIS staff developed the study questions, which then were piloted and revised. Research assistants were recruited and trained to carry out the actual interviews under the supervision of the core the BANBEIS team. The international consultant and the core BANBEIS team jointly conducted the data analysis.

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FOREWORD
The CDTA is required to produce a series of reports. In addition to an Inception Report and a Capacity Development Plan for Madrasah Education, both of which have already been produced, these reports are: A Madrasah Sector Study (the present document) A Road Map and Investment Program Draft Final and Final Reports

The final report has benefitted from comments made on the draft final report at three meetings of stakeholders held on March 8 and 29 and on May 28, 2011. The Honourable Minister of Education, Mr. Nurul Islam Nahid, was present at the latter two meetings. Written comments were also submitted by the Bangladesh Jamiatul Mudarreseen and by the Asian Development Bank. Observations on an Interim Madrasah Sector Study were made at a meeting with representatives of civil society on January 10, 2011. The observations and recommendations of the members of the three study tours of Indonesia and West Bengal have also been influential in the thinking of the technical assistance team as they constructed the final report of the project and the final version of the Madrasah Sector Study.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

ABBREVIATIONS
ADB AI BANBEIS BE B Ed BEDU BMEB BMTTI BNFE BNP BRAC BSCE CAMPE CDP CDTA C in Ed CQ DC DEO DIA DME DPE DSHE DTE EFA EIIN EMIS FGD GDP GER Asian Development Bank Assistant Inspector Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics Budget Estimate Bachelor of Education Bangladesh Examination Development Unit Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute Bureau of Non-Formal Education Bangladesh Nationalist Party Building Resources Across Communities (Formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) Bangladesh Central Service Examination Campaign for Popular Education Capacity Development Plan Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Technical Assistance Certificate in Education Creative Questions Deputy Commissioner District Education Office Directorate of Inspection and Audit Directorate of Madrasah Education (proposed) Directorate of Primary Education Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education Directorate of Technical Education Education for All Educational Institution Identification Number Education Management Information System Focus Group Discussion Gross Domestic Product Gross Enrolment Ratio

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education GPS HRP HSC HSTTI ICT JCE MBA M&E MCQ MLSS MMC MOE MOPME MPO NAEM NCTB NCCC NEP NER NGO NTRCA OMR PBM PEDP II PROG 3 PRSP PTI RE RNGPS SBM SEQAEP SESDP SSC STR Government Primary School Human Resource Planning Higher Education Certificate Higher Secondary Teacher Training Institute Information and Communication Technology Junior Certificate Examination Madrasah Based Assessment Monitoring and Evaluation Multiple Choice Question Menial Level and Subordinate Staff Madrasah Management Committee Ministry of Education Ministry of Primary and Mass Education Monthly Pay Order National Academy for Education Management National Curriculum and Textbook Board National Curriculum Coordination Committee National Education Policy Net Enrolment Ratio Non Government Organization Non-government Teachers Registration and Certification Authority Optical Mark Recognition Performance Based Management Primary Education Development Program II Program 3 (for Primary Education Development) Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Primary Teacher Training Institute Revised (Budget) Estimate Registered Non-Government Primary School School Based Management Secondary Education Quality Access Enhancement Project Secondary Education Sector Development Project Secondary School Certificate Student Teacher Ratio

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education TA TQIP TTC TVET UEO UNDP UNICEF UNO WB Technical Assistance Teaching Quality Improvement Project Teacher Training College Technical and Vocational Education and Training Upazila Education Officer United Nations Development Program United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund Upazila Nirbahi Officer World Bank

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LEXICON OF TERMS
Alim madrasah: higher secondary equivalent (classes XI- XII). Aliya madrasah: modeled on the Calcutta model3, and recognised by the government. Dakhil madrasah: secondary school equivalent (classes VI- X). Dawra-E-Hadith: a 2-year academic programme at the tertiary level of a Qoumi Madrasah that is said to be equivalent of Master Degree. A person who has passed Dawra-e-Hadith is considered to have expert knowledge in Quran and Hadith. Furqania/Hafizia and Nurani: Pre-primary elementary education with the goal of attaining basic knowledge of Islam and of memorizing the Quran. Fazil madrasah: equivalent to bachelors programmes (classes XIII-XV). Fiqh: Islamic Jurisprudence that is taught in Dakhil level. Forkania Madrasah: There are mosque-based non-formal madrasahs which disseminate regular Islamic teachings to children. These are also known as Maktab or Hafezia/Qiratia Madrasahs. Mujabbid: a specialization in Dakhil (secondary) level in which students study Quran, Hadith, Fiqh and Tajwid along with general subjects. Hadith: the collected sayings of the Prophet Mohammad. Ibtedaye Madrasah: primary education equivalent (classes I- V)), Independent (unattached) Ibtedaye Madrasah: Primary level madrasah that is not attached with a Dakhil or a higher level madrasah. Kamil Madrasah: equivalent to masters programme (class XVI). Manqulat: revealed knowledge. Maqulat: rational sciences, knowledge acquired through intellectual effort.

The Calcutta Madrasah, founded in 1781 under colonial auspices in order to create a loyal base among Muslims and being supported by government the curriculum: included both religious and secular subjects.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Madrasah: A religious school. Madrasa is written in various ways: madrasa, madrassa, madrasha, madrasah, madrassah, etc., sometimes the plural madaris is used. We have used the term madrasah, being the version adopted by the ADB, but we retain the original spelling when quoting directly from, and in the titles of, sources. Similarly, we have adopted Aliya, Qoumi, Ibtedaye as standards rather than Alia, Qomi/ Kwami, Ebtadaye/ Ibtadayee etc. Majlish-e-Sura: It is one of two committees that manage Qoumi Madrasahs. Majlishe Sura is the decision making body or advisory council that gives directives to the Majlishe Amela to carry out its decisions. Majlish-e-Amela: It is one of two committees that manage Qoumi Madrasahs. Majlishe Amela is the executive body responsible for implementing decisions taken in the Majlishe Sura. Maktabs: Islamic institutions that offer pre-primary elementary education with basic knowledge of Islam and memorising the Quran. Moulavi: Generally means any religious cleric or teacher who teaches Islam preferably in a school or a madrasah. It is sometimes used as a honorific religious title for a Muslim man. Mawlanas: Islamic religious expert/ madrasah teacher. Muzabbid: Agroup in Dakhil (secondary) level in which students study Quran, Hadith, Fiqh and Tajwid along with general subjects. Qari: This is a position of a teacher in a madrasah who usually teaches correct pronunciation of Quranic verses. Qoumi or Khariji: madrasahs modeled on the Deoband4 madrasah and independent of the state. Sunnah: The sayings and acts of the Prophet Mohammad. Upazila: the sub-district in the Bangladesh administrative machinery.

The Dar-ul Uloom Madrasah, founded in 1867, at Deoband in Uttar Pradesh, emphasised the study of manqulat or revealed knowledge.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION 1. The Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Technical Assistance Project had its origins before the election of the present government and before the rapid formulation and adoption of a National Education Policy in December 2010 (NEP 2010), the first comprehensive education policy since Liberation. The NEP 2010 presents a vision of a unified school system with a strong common core of subjects in the curriculum; a restructuring from a 5+5+2 system to a 8+4 system with the eight years being free and compulsory; and comparable standards in schools and madrasahs with students being assessed in the core general subjects with the same examination questions. 2. While this Madrasah Sector Study presents a report of the current status of madrasah education, what we can be reasonably certain of is that the future for most madrasahs may be quite different from the past. The reforming proposals in the NEP 2010 change the context for planning the future of madrasah education. That being said, the present document sets out to describe the access to and quality of madrasah education, particularly at secondary level, as it was in the period before the NEP 2010. It addresses issues of access, internal efficiency, equity, quality, management, and finance. It attempts to identify the most pressing needs for madrasah education and points the way towards a Road Map and Indicative Investment Proposal. This substantial documentation is timely because recognition of the existing state of madrasah education is necessary for the successful implementation of the NEP 2010. 3. The present report has been prepared on the basis of commissioned surveys, project-initiated studies, document reviews and analyses, through visits by the Technical Assistance team to almost 50 madrasahs of all types, and through interviews and discussions, both formal and informal, with key stakeholders. An Interim Madrasah Sector Study was presented in June 2010, and further drafts were shared with stakeholders in December 2010, March and May 2011. Feedback from stakeholders has further sharpened the current sector study. FINDINGS 4. Among the several reasons for studying madrasah education at the present time are that the number of madrasahs has grown rapidly since Liberation, while it is widely perceived that the quality of madrasah education falls short of general education in preparing students for a very competitive job market. Two discrete types of madrasahs exist: one type, the Aliya, is partly funded and supervised by government, and the other, the Qoumi, is privately funded and stands outside government control.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education ACCESS5 5. Access to forms of secondary education in Bangladesh is almost exclusively through non-government schools and Aliya-Dakhil Madrasahs. The reason is that there are only 317 government secondary schools and 3 government madrasahs in a total of almost 33,000 secondary level institutions. There is also a tiny Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) stream. Madrasahs are more common in rural areas than urban areas. Just under one fifth (18%) of all students at secondary level are studying in a madrasah, 2% in TVET, and the remaining 80% in the general education stream that includes government and nongovernment schools. The growth of Aliya Madrasahs since 1970 has been twice as fast as that of general education secondary schools. In 2008 there were approximately 1.7 million students studying in classes 610 in 9384 Dakhil madrasahs. 6. Gross and net participation rates at the secondary level are quite close averaging 44% and 42%, respectively, for boys, and 56% and 55.8%, respectively, for girls. Most students fall within the accepted age range of 11-16 years. The participation rates ignore students attending Qoumi Madrasahs because these are not included in BANBEIS surveys. National and divisional averages are summaries and do not reveal the wide variations in participation rates that exist at the district and the upazila levels. Gender parity has been achieved within both general education schools and Aliya madrasahs. Participation of students from higher income groups is more common in general education secondary schools than in madrasahs. Stipend schemes, which have long targeted girls, seem to be achieving their goals since girls have higher participation in both schools and madrasahs. The administration of the two scholarship schemes open to both school and madrasah students seems to favour greatly male school students. There are very few children with various disabilities in schools and even fewer in madrasahs. Dakhil Madrasahs have lower student-teacher ratios than general education secondary schools. Although Dakhil Madrasahs have lower class sizes, only 29% of their teachers are trained. Few madrasah teachers have had in-service training and the Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute has only a small capacity to offer in-service training. Approximately three quarters of all Dakhil Madrasah buildings are of poor or temporary construction. INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS 7. Some 94% of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are in rural areas. Although their numbers are declining, their numbers are still significant. We estimate that there are more than 4200 nationally. They provide education to an estimated 655,000 students. However, based on the survey of a random sample of 25% of the districts, 40% of the officially listed Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs within those districts had disappeared between 2002 and 2010. Some of them have been converted to Dakhil Madrasahs, some to Qoumi Madrasahs, and a small number to kindergartens. Most Ibtedaye Madrasahs are small with average enrolment of 153 students, an average of 4.5 rooms, and an average of 4 teachers. There is gender equity in enrolments, with girls accounting for 39% to 75% of enrolments in the sampled upazilas. There is considerable variation, however, between upazilas, Girls and boys benefit equally from stipends though there are significantly fewer stipend-receiving students in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs (less than 13% of all students) than would be

Documentation and details of our study of access can be found in Chapter 2.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education found in a comparable sample of primary schools (where 40% has been the recent norm). Only 11% of the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah teachers have had any teacher training. The madrasahs are in poor condition, with only 5% of rural Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs having pucca buildings. Most have water supplies and 63% of the water supplies have tested negative for arsenic (i.e., 37% of the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs either have not been tested and/or do not have safe water). Electricity is installed in 18% of the madrasahs. QOUMI MADRASAHS 8. The specially commissioned census of all Qoumi Madrasahs in 10% of the districts revealed the complexity of the Qoumi sector. The census findings cannot be used to scientifically estimate the national situation of Qoumi Madrasahs because the districts included in the census were not randomly sampled from the whole of Bangladesh. Nevertheless, the census of these seven districts does provide interesting and useful findings about Qoumi Madrasahs. (In addition, the research approach and data collection format used can form the basis for a future national survey of Qoumi Madrasahs.) The census revealed a wide range of Qoumi Madrasah sizes, age coverage, educational programmes, and physical facilities. Nine Qoumi boards were identified in the seven districts included in the census, but the overwhelming majority (355 of 544) of board-registered Qoumi Madrasahs are registered with the Befaqul Qoumi Madrasah Board (BEFAQ). Surprisingly, 35% are not registered. About 85% of students are boys but about 25% of the institutions accept girls. There is wide variation in the student-teacher ratio between madrasahs in rural, municipal and metropolitan areas. About half of the students attending Qoumi madrasahs are residential, with a substantial number benefiting from free boarding. The quality of the Qoumi Madrasahs facilities varies widely but over 90% of them have water, toilets, and electricity. This compares very favourably with Aliya Madrasahs. QUALITY6 9. A wide gap has existed in the curricula used in general education schools and in Aliya Madrasahs. Based on a careful study of curricula and textbooks it is concluded that the amount of content included in general education subjects has been less in Aliya Madrasahs textbooks than in the general education schools textbooks. Curricula, syllabi, and textbooks of the general subjects prescribed by the BMEB did not contain the same number of teaching units as those prescribed by the NCTB. These differences in the textbooks are especially important because it is the textbook that defines the differences in the content and amount of material taught to students in the two systems. This is because teachers use the textbooks as their primary teaching resources. Recent developments in the national educational policy have attempted to close the gap between the two systems. In the coming years, a common core of general education subjects will be taught in the two systems using the same textbooks and common examinations will be instituted for general education subjects. Once this policy is fully implemented, it will give a measure of comparability between secondary schools and Dakhil Madrasahs.

Documentation and details of our study of quality can be found in Chapter 3.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 10. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are supposed to follow the general education subjects curriculum similar to that used in government primary schools with the addition of religious education. Study of the general education subjects curricula and textbooks prescribed by NCTB and BMEB show that they are not the same. The BMEB prescribed curricula and textbooks include less content, have fewer teaching units, and have different approaches to gender equity. These differences along with poorly qualified and untrained teachers, with a general neglect of physical and learning resources, and with no instructional supervision or inspection, lead one to conclude that students in the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs have not experienced a curriculum comparable to that of students in government primary schools, and probably also not comparable to students in non-government primary schools. Generalizations concerning Qoumi curricula cannot be easily made since there is no single umbrella body for prescribing curricula and many Qoumi madrasahs are independent of any board. 11. The pass rates for the general education streams Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and the Dakhil Examination for ten years show Dakhil leavers to have a higher rate of passing their examination than the general education secondary school leavers have of passing the SSC. However, the curriculum, textbooks, and examination questions of the BMEB and NCTB were found to be so different that these examination results cannot be validly or meaningfully compared. In addition, because of the low requirements for students to be certified as passing an examination in either system, the reported pass rates are not indicators of the quality of student learning. INTERNAL EFFICIENCY7 12. Dropout at the secondary level is disturbingly high. The rates of cycle completion in the general secondary education stream are 42% for boys and 34% for girls; in the madrasahs the rates are slightly better 50% for boys and 36% for girls. These low completion rates for both systems represent a huge loss of money to the country and to the families who have invested for the future of their children. Although no data were collected in the survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs on dropout and repetition, they exhibit pattern of heavy enrolments in the early grades with a sharp decline in enrolment by Class 5 that is so typical of primary schools in Bangladesh. This suggests significant attrition in the course of the 5-years cycle. Dropout in Qoumi Madrasahs is thought to be very low perhaps because they are predominantly residential institutions and many students receive free board and some get free food. EQUITY8 13. Availability, proximity, and affordability have made madrasah education attractive to rural and poor parents who cannot afford the costs associated with other types of education. Madrasahs are particularly appealing where girls are concerned, when the benefits of moral and religious issues are added to lower household costs and stipends. Although girls are being enrolled in greater numbers, their wastage rate is higher than that of boys. Girls do not fare as well as boys in terms of performance, retention, and completion rates. Moreover, in the case of madrasahs, girls are being educated in a context where womens rights and
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Documentation and details of our study of internal efficiency can be found in Chapter 4. Documentation and details of our study of equity can be found in Chapter 5.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education access to full citizenship are not always fully supported. Girls educational achievements do not translate as well as boys into post-secondary education opportunities or higher salaries on graduation. Equity analysis shows that in Aliya Madrasahs, female teachers are rare and female education managers even rarer. Approximately 10% of all madrasah teachers are female and less than 3% of Dakhil Madrasahs have female superintendents or assistant superintendents. Vulnerable groups are not well represented either with very few madrasahs having recorded students with disabilities. Orphans are roughly 3% of all students in Dakhil Madrasahs. SYSTEM PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT9 14. The National Education Policy 2010 displays a commitment to bringing the Aliya Madrasahs, but not the Qoumi, into the framework of an overall education policy and plan. However, the implementation strategy is not yet fully developed. The capacity of the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board for policy analysis and technical planning is at present non-existent. Education policy and planning suffers when there is a dearth of reliable and up-to-date information. At present, the secondary sector, including the Aliya Madrasah sub-sector, has a somewhat disjointed system of information collection, processing, retrieval, and reporting. Although an integrated EMIS covering the main administrative, management, monitoring, and evaluation functions was specified in 2006/7, only one part, the management of the Monthly Payment Only (MPO), is functioning. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are not included in the annual census of primary schools nor are they surveyed during the irregular BANBEIS surveys of post-primary education institutions. Qoumi Madrasahs also fall outside the existing and proposed systems for data collection and analysis. 15. Implementation of the National Education Policy, along with the restructuring of schooling to an eight years primary cycle and four years secondary phase, will require substantial additional planning capacity and reliable up-to-date information. 16. Institutional analysis of the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB) showed that, although decisions are in principle autonomous, the BMEB frequently refers decisions to the Ministry of Education. Like other government organizations, a strict hierarchy in the BMEB inhibits lower level staff from contributing to institutional performance. Moreover, while almost all senior staff members are seconded from the Bangladesh Civil Service (education cadre), the BMEBs own staff members have no route for professional development and promotion. Human resource management is neglected. Overall, BMEB has inadequate numbers of high level and mid-level technical staff members who can plan, manage, monitor, and evaluate the more than 13,500 Aliya Madrasahs. A total absence within the BMEB of female professional staff members is noted. The TA has prepared a Capacity Development Plan (CDP) for madrasah education sector. The CDP is a medium-term proposal focusing on developing human resources and institutional capacity for the madrasah sector. The Road Map for madrasah education contains detailed proposals, also.

Documentation and details of our study of system planning and management can be found in Chapter 6.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education FINANCE10 17. Against a backdrop of a respectable growth rates in the GDP, the country over the past few years has consistently allocated only 2.0% 2.3% of the GDP to education. Educations share of the governments revenue budget has been in the range 15 19% during the period 2000 2008. Within the education revenue budget, madrasahs have held their share at about 11%. However, primary education took the lions share of the education development budget over the period 2000 2008. Secondary education, including madrasah education, fared poorly with steadily decreasing allocations from the development budget: when the effects of inflation are removed, the allocations in 2006/07 were less than in 2001/02. 18. Relative unit recurrent expenditures in non-government secondary schools and madrasahs have improved in the period 2005/6 to 2008/9. However, these recurrent expenditures are still significantly below the internationally accepted norm of recurrent expenditures per secondary level student: The norm is is to spend on secondary students twice that spent on primary students. The significance of low inputs per student, taken in the context of very high wastage through low completion rates of the secondary cycle, indicates that the secondary schools and madrasahs are possibly receiving insufficient resources to operate effectively or to produce their potential output. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS11 19. On the whole, students attending Aliya Madrasahs experience a lower quality of education. They have insufficient inputs provided by the government and the communities that manage those madrasahs. Moreover, with rare exceptions the perception of the public is also that madrasahs offer an inferior education. The MSS has identified six main obstacles that Aliya Madrasahs face in improving quality. These are A. The lack of adequate training in teaching methodology of the majority of madrasah teachers B. Failure to use the same textbooks and examination questions as general education schools for non-religious subjects at all levels of madrasah education C. The lack of capacity of the BMEB to plan, manage, monitor, and evaluate Aliya Madrasah education D. Failure of students to complete their education cycles E. Failure to teach Dakhil Madrasah students in good facilities that are equipped for learning F. Failure to teach Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah student in good facilities that are equipped for learning 20. The Road Map and Indicative Investment Proposal for Madrasah Education have detailed recommendations for each of these obstacles. Hence, we recommend

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Documentation and details of our study of finance can be found in Chapter 7.

Additional details of our conclusions and recommendations are found in Chapter 8, The Road Map document, and the Indicative Investment Proposal document. The latter two documents are included with the Final Report.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education a) A massive teacher-training program for 50,000 teachers over 6 years b) Adoption by madrasahs, after vetting, of the curriculum and textbooks of the National Curriculum and Textbook Board for general subjects, and revision of the textbooks for religious subjects c) A capacity development plan for the BMEB involving substantial local, international, and on-the-job training d) Conditional cash transfers for the poorest students in the poorest upazilas to encourage sustained attendance and to prevent dropout e) A re-building program at 120 Dakhil Madrasahs in the poorest areas to provide pucca facilities that can act as flagships to other communities 21. A package of improvements to some 200 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, including enhancement of facilities and materials, and teacher and head teacher training.

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CHAPTER 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION

There is no way we can understand the logic, strategy, and dynamics of civil society anywhere in the Third World unless we bring the transcendental back into our analysis. Religious devotion is a fundamental motive for many social movements in the South from Latin America to Africa and South Asia. Glasius and Kaldor, Global Civil Society Report, 2004, page 45, Quoted in Bano and Mair, 2007. 1.1 WHY STUDY BANGLADESH MADRASAH EDUCATION NOW?

22. A study of madrasah education in Bangladesh is timely for a number of reasons of which the following are pre-eminent: The number of madrasahs has mushroomed since Liberation. It is generally perceived that the quality of madrasah education falls short of that in general education. Whereas general education, especially at the primary level, has had substantial investments over the last two decades madrasah education has received little development aid. Recent deliberations of official education commissions have again raised the issue of mainstreaming of madrasah education. There is suspicion among segments of civil society that some madrasahs are the source of Islamic fundamentalist teaching.

23. The Terms of Reference agreed between the Bank and the Government of Bangladesh included activities intended to throw light on the first four of the above. The last factor is one which requires an altogether different methodology from that required by the other factors. Hence, the report is silent on the subject of the degree to which some madrasahs may be associated with fundamentalism. In the course of visits to almost 50 madrasahs no evidence emerged of fundamentalist teaching. 1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MADRASAH EDUCATION

24. Madrasah education is more than a thousand years old originating from Egypt (Anzar 2003: 3) and spreading over the Middle East, and South Asian countries making significant impacts while also evolving. It has also spread in Spain and African countries marking important developments of Islamic knowledge and philosophy. In 1067, Nizam-ul-Mulk established numerous madrasahs in Iraq where, in addition to providing Islamic knowledge, secular subjects including astronomy, architecture, philosophy, public administration, governance and many other fields of sciences were taught.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 25. In Bangladesh, madrasah education mainly offers conservative Islamic education preparing students for a rigorous religious life, and a preparation for life beyond this world. Despite its focus on Islamic education, however, this stream of learning, in the past and continuing today, has included some secular disciplines like jurisprudence, medicine, science, literature, and art. 1.3 THE ORIGIN OF MADRASAHS IN THE INDIAN SUB-CONTINENT

26. Madrasahs, as formal institutions for Islamic education came to India during the Delhi Sultanate (the 13th to 16th centuries in the Christian calendar). During that period no single model of madrasah pre-dominated, there being autonomy to decide what the curriculum should be. Generally, however, students were exposed to both rational sciences and revealed knowledge since they were intended for posts in the courts of rulers and in the practice of Islamic law. The colonial period (1757- 1947) saw a transformation in the institutions of Islamic education in the undivided Bengal. Under the East India Company the policy was not to interfere with local religious practices, though Christian missionaries were tolerated. In 1780, the Governor of Bengal, Warren Hastings, set up, initially from his own pocket, the Calcutta Madrasah that he intended for the sons of the elite so as to prepare them for positions in the evolving colonial administration. The curriculum adopted was Darsi-Nizami which made the rational sciences central to education and placed emphasis on students thinking for themselves. The Calcutta Madrasah was replicated at Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, and Hughli in the 1870s. At first, the Calcutta Madrasah was supported by government funds. A change of colonial education policy in the 1830s led to the discontinuance of that support, Western education institutions were established officially, and English was made the language of instruction. Around the same time English replaced Persian in the courts. 27. While the British encouraged one kind of Madrasah their actions had the unintended consequence of catalysing the creation of a wholly distinct form of madrasah the Darul Uloom or Deoband Madrasah. This madrasah was founded some 10 years after the Indian Mutiny in Deoband, a small town in Northern India. The founding mawlanas were reputed to have taken part in the mutiny. The core of the curriculum was and continues to be revealed knowledge, although a version of the Dars-i-Nizami curriculum was adopted. The Deoband Madrasah was set up in opposition to the colonially inspired Calcutta model and later followers of the Deoband Madrasah model became active in the struggle for Indian independence. The Deoband model spread over time and drew students from as far away as Bengal12. A point worth noting is that, since the aim of madrasah education was to define true Muslimness that could be achieved by following the true path, there were significant differences among the leadership of what constituted the true path. Hence, the movement, if we can term it that, was not uniform and differences still remain to be reconciled. 1.4 MADRASAHS IN BENGAL AND BANGLADESH

28. In 1915, a major change in curriculum was made to the Calcutta Madrasahs, by now numbering some hundreds, through supplanting Persian by English and introducing modern subjects such as mathematics, history, geography, and physical education. Madrasahs that adopted the new scheme curriculum were supported financially by the State while those
12

Riaz 2007 page 74.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education institutions that continued with the old scheme were left unsupported. At Independence of India in 1947 there were some five kinds of Islamic educational institution: old-scheme and new scheme madrasahs of the Calcutta tradition; madrasahs of the Deoband tradition; maktabs or pre-primary institutions, and Hafizia madrasahs which teach the memorisation of the Holy Quran. By the time of Liberation of Bangladesh in 1971, old scheme and new scheme madrasahs became the government-supported Aliya system; the privately supported Qoumi Madrasahs followed the Deoband tradition, and the Hafizia and maktabs continued. The present set of Aliya Madrasahs are therefore quite varied in their origins, some having been old scheme but now reformed while others have been established in the post-Liberation period when the growth, as we shall see below, has been explosive. As late as 1967, official figures showed that there were many more old scheme than new scheme madrasahs 1265 of the former and only 86 reformed madrasahs (Riaz, 2007, p 215). At the same time there were 3328 Deoband-style madrasahs of which the authorities knew little or nothing. 29. The madrasah system continued to be attached to the Islamic aspects of the Bangladeshi identity; so much so that it became synonymous with anti-westernization, and later with pro-Pakistani tendencies. Further, the neglect of the madrasah system during the time of colonization created an aura of backwardness about it compared to the modern educational system. This had a strong influence on the negative views of the educated middle class and elites of Bangladesh. They adopted the view, and for the most part continue to believe, that the madrasah system is a backward one, and that it must be replaced by the modern educational system. (Abdalla, Raisuddin, and Hussein, 2004: 7). 30. Soon after Liberation in 1971 the issue of madrasah education became a subject of political debate between those who wanted to assert Bangladeshi identity and those who wanted to assert a Muslim one. While generalisations are to be avoided when commenting on madrasahs in Bangladesh, the accepted position is that Qoumi Madrasahs are more attached to Muslim identity, with less regard for Bangladeshi identity. Their teaching is mainly in Urdu and Farsi (Persian) because those languages are perceived to assert the Indian-subcontinent Muslim identity. Madrasahs that seem to embrace a more Bangladeshi identity are most Aliya Madrasahs that teach in Bengali (Abdulla et al 2004). 1.5 1.5.1 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF ALIYA AND QOUMI MADRASAHS ALIYA

31. The Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB) oversees the Aliya system. There are five recognised levels that have their general education stream equivalents. Ibtedaye or primary level is a course of 5 years; Dakhil is a 5 year course of secondary level; Alim is a two years course at the higher secondary level, while the two-year Fazil and Kamil levels are equivalent to bachelors and masters programmes. BMEB examines candidates at Dahkil and Alim levels while the Islamic University examines at the higher levels. Transfer to the general stream is possible after Dahkil and Alim. Change is happening, however. For instance from 2010, Ibtedaye students began to sit for the primary leaving examination. The curriculum is an amalgam of secular and religious subjects13. All Aliya Madrasahs, except for
13

Chapter 3, Quality deals with the content of the curriculum at the Dakhil level.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education three, are managed by communities. Most teachers and some non-teaching staff receive monthly salary support (called MPO) from the government. Teachers are appointed by madrasah managing committees though they must now be certified by the Non-government Teachers Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA). (Details of institutions, enrolments, teacher numbers, and salary support are provided under Chapter 2, Access). 32. An important aspect of Aliya Madrasahs is that, in general, they are day institutions and operate on a calendar similar to secondary schools in terms of hours per day, days per week, and numbers of holidays. 1.5.2 QOUMI

33. The Qoumi Madrasahs do not form a system; rather the term is an umbrella for madrasahs of various kinds which adhere in part to the Deoband tradition. Since Independence both Pakistan and Bangladesh Governments have in effect left them to their own devices. As yet, their numbers are unknown, their student enrolments and yearly outputs of graduates uncounted, their sources of funds unidentified except in most general terms. Yet, they are not unchanging: the majority are now registered with one or other Qoumi Boards of which the main one, the Befakul Madarisil Arabia Bangladesh (Bangladesh Qoumi Madrasah Education Board), publishes textbooks which are widely used in the Qoumi Madrasahs and offers examinations. The Qoumi Madrasah curriculum can be characterised as subject-based rather than grade-based. The aim is to make the student proficient in fields of study that will ensure a graduates authority on Islamic life style. The pace and sequence of learning depend on both the institution and the learners ability. Students can be admitted as young as age six and graduate finally with a high level qualification at age 22 or later. There is a great deal of variety in how studies are conducted in Qoumi Madrasahs making generalisation difficult. What is clear is that, besides the aim of instilling a clear sense of morality and Islamic spirituality in their students, the Qoumis are, like Christian seminaries of old, in the business of training future spiritual leaders, that is they are vocational institutions. 34. In sharp contrast to the operations of the Aliya Madrasahs, Qoumi are generally boarding institutions, operate a whole day programme for 7 days per week, and are closed only for religious holidays at the two Eid celebrations. Many have orphanages attached. Some students, 18% in the survey commissioned by the CDTA Project, receive free food. 1.5.3 OUTCOMES FROM TWO SYSTEMS

35. Gupta (2010)14, writing of madrasahs in West Bengal, argues that debates about the usefulness of madrasah education in terms of its ability to train students for the job market continue to rage even today, reflecting, at root, two very different conceptions of education, and indeed of life and its very purpose. The situation in Bangladesh is that while Aliya Madrasahs prepare students in both secular and religious subjects, their outputs may not be able, because of lack of depth of knowledge, to compete with those of Qoumi Madrasahs in the religious education job market. On the other hand, Aliya students, boys and girls,
14

Gupta Nilanjana. Reading with Allah; Madrassas in West Bengal. New Delhi: Routledge, 2010. See http://madrasareforms.blogspot.com/2010/03/book-review-reading-with-allahmadrasas.html

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education generally, have the edge over Qoumi outputs when competing for positions in the modern labour market. Their main competition comes from those emerging from the general education stream. (See Chapter 3 on Quality.) A recent study carried out by World Bank (2010) reveals how student performance in both of Aliya and Qoumi system is poor in general subjects like Math and English. This finding obviously raises the issue of teacher quality. Most madrasah teachers are not included in an effective training network as will be documented in Chapter3. 1.6 GROWTH OF ALIYA MADRASAHS AND THE REASONS FOR THAT GROWTH

Figure 1.1: Growth of Aliya Madrasahs


Number of Madrasahs, 1970 to 2008
10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1970 1972 1975 1977 1978 1980 1981 1985 1990 1992 1995 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008

Number of Madrasahs

Year

Source: Riaz, Ali (2007, Table 4.3) up to 2005, remaining years from BANBEIS pocket book statistics.

36. The total number of Aliya madrasahs15 increased from 1,518 in 1970 to 9,384 by 2008 a six-fold increase. The 1980s experienced the steepest rise in the growth rate of madrasahs with the number of madrasahs more than doubling from 1981 to 1990 reaching a total of 5,793 institutions towards the end of 1990 from 2,466 in 1981. Enrolments of course, also expanded significantly. Appendix 1.1 shows the upward trends in madrasah institutions and enrolments over almost a period of 40 years.

Since Qoumi Madrasahs have no single umbrella body and do not need to register, there are no comparable statistics for Qoumi Madrasahs. The Government has not attempted to count or survey them. As part of this Bank TA a survey of 10% sample of the Qoumi Madrasahs was conducted. On the basis of the data thus generated, a essential characteristics of Qoumi Madrasahs are known. See Appendix 11.

15

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Table 1.1 Summarises the status of enrolments in Aliya Madrasahs as at 2008. Table 1.1 Consolidated Data for Enrolments in Aliya Madrasahs 2008. Section of Madrasah Attached Ibtedaye * Classes 1-5, in 9275 madrasahs Dakhil** Classes 6-10, in 9384 madrasahs Alim, Fazil and Kamil** Classes 11- 16 Enrolments 1 10 Enrolments 1 16 Boys 892,014 Girls 771,353 Total 1,663,367

771,112

897,316

1,668,508 227,603

146,519 1,663,126 1,809,645

81,084 1,668,749 1,749,833

3,331,875 3,559,478

Source: *BANBEIS 2009 Table 4.1.2. ** BANBEIS 2010 a Table 11 Enrolments by Class. 37. When the estimated enrolments in 2010 for Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are taken into account see Chapter 2 and Annex 10 a further 600,000 may be confidently added bringing the number of students in all Aliya Madrasahs to more than 4.1 million and in Classes 1 10 to more than 3.9 million. 38. Several reasons can be proposed for the very marked expansion of the Aliya Madrasah system since Liberation. First, a major, though unstated education policy, was in the period since Liberation, to freeze in the number of fully government education institutions at levels more or less as they were at Liberation in 1971. For instance, the number of Government Primary Schools (GPS) is today almost the same as in 1971. Soon after Liberation, the primary schools were nationalized and all teachers enjoyed the same conditions as other public servants. Similarly, there are only 317 Government Secondary Schools and 3 Government Aliya Madrasahs while there are almost 19,000 registered nongovernment secondary schools and approaching 9400 non-government Aliya Secondary Madrasahs. The effect of this education policy has been to hold down education charges on the public budget. Demand for education at all levels has been met by allowing communities to set up and manage schools and madrasahs as well as allowing NGOs to become education providers. Many of the non-government education institutions have government cash support for the payment of teachers salaries and, sometimes also, for meeting some investment costs. Student fees and community contributions expand the pool of resources at least in secondary schools. The education system of Bangladesh is a mosaic of types of schools, particularly at the primary level. As we will describe in Chapter 7 Bangladesh allocate a lower proportion of GDP to education than comparable regional states. 39. Another aspect of the policy of encouraging community or private development of pre-higher education is that, the demand for secondary school places in rural areas has to be met almost entirely by community efforts because 80% of the population lives in rural areas, whereas the old-established secondary schools are in urban and peri-urban areas.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Since all villages have mosques and most mosques have a maktab for preparing young children in the rituals of Islam, there is a ready route for development of madrasahs from pre-schools through the primary or Ibtedaye stage to Dakhil and beyond. 40. A second factor that encouraged the growth of madrasahs has been the steady move towards Islamization of Bangladesh. While it was not until 1988 that the initially secular state constitution was altered to make Islam the state religion, the process of making Islam the basis of socio-cultural life had been set in train only a few years after Liberation. The military regimes of Generals Zia and Ershad both embraced Islam for political and other ends. As will be reported in Chapter 2, almost half of the existing Aliya Madrasahs were founded in the period 1971- 1990. There was in that period the environment for the growth of madrasahs both Aliya and Qoumi. Very recently the present government reinstated that policy of Bangladesh as a secular state. 41. A third factor, which probably applies to both types of madrasah is parental choice: many parents prefer their children to be educated in madrasahs on the grounds that their children will be more securely grounded in Islam and will grow up to be good Muslims. For some parents the Muslim identity is perceived to be under threat by invading immoral and Western influences. 1.7 MADRASAHS PAST AND PRESENT

42. Madrasahs, faith-based educational institutions, have a long and complex history in Bangladesh. For some time there has been a bifurcation with one type, the Aliya, being partly funded and supervised by government and the other, the Qoumi, standing outside state control. The following chapters will attempt to portray the features of the Aliya Madrasah system, operating under the BMEB. Issues of access, quality, equity, internal efficiency, management, and finance will be addressed. Through surveying a 25% random sample of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, also part of the Aliya Madrasah tradition, insights have been gained on some of the feeder institutions to Dakhil Madrasahs. In addition, information on Qoumi Madrasahs has been compiled mainly through a 10% survey of Qoumi Madrasahs, the inclusion of a few Qoumi Madrasahs in the Qualitative Study and through visits to some Qoumi Madrasahs, observation and discussion with informed sources.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

CHAPTER 2

ACCESS
INTRODUCTION 43. Access and participation go together. Access has close links to the supply of places in educational institutions, whereas participation measures the expressed demand, through actual enrolment in education. Access will influence participation, for instance, when new or improved facilities come on stream. This chapter to a considerable extent takes a secondary school sector-wise view of access; then focuses on madrasah education as one of the three streams of secondary education, the others being general secondary and TVET. Material from the 25% survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs and from the survey of Qoumi Madrasahs is also presented where appropriate. However, the main focus is on the factors affecting access at the secondary level (classes 610) in the context of provision for the entire age group 11 16 in Bangladesh. While participation at primary level (Classes 1- 5) is nearly universal, the secondary education sector, including madrasah education and TVET, has a long way to go to catch up. The 2010 National Education Policy has a goal of universalising education up to Class 8. Secondary education will cover Classes 9 12. However, in this chapter where secondary education is mentioned, it is as presently conceived, i.e., Classes 6 - 10. The data on secondary schools and Dakhil madrasahs comes from the 2008 survey of all post-primary education instiututions undertaken by BANBIES on behalf of the Ministry of Education. No samples are involved. 2.1 ACCESS IN THE SCHOOL SECTOR

44. Taking the school sector to mean all classes from pre-school to Class 12, Bangladesh has a rich array of possibilities for parents and guardians looking for school places. Pre-school classes are found in primary schools, in Ibtedaye Madrasahs as well as in the NGO and private sectors. At the primary level there are 10 main types of primary schooling, including primary schooling within the Aliya Madrasah system, as well as in NGO schools. Qoumi Madrasahs are not one of the 10 recognised types of primary school though primary level of education is offered there, though not providing the broad national curriculum. At secondary level there is a narrower range of institutions: government secondary schools, non-government secondary schools, government madrasahs, nongovernment madrasahs (of which there are more than 9000), and an unknown number of Qoumi madrasahs. It is essential to consider briefly participation at the primary level since the flow of students from the final class of primary/ Ibtedaye provide the inputs to secondary education. In 2008, the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE) calculated the transition rate from primary to secondary as 97.5%, DPE 2010 Table 3.15. However, completion of the primary cycle is of the order of 60%: hence, the numbers who make the move to the present secondary cycle have considerable potential to grow.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 2.3 ACCESS IN THE PRIMARY SECTOR

45. When the participation rates at primary level are calculated, an estimate of Ibtedaye enrolments is included16. The Gross Enrolment Rate at primary level was given for 2009 as 103.5% and the net enrolment as 93.9, DPE, 2010 Table 1. As a result of our sample survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, DPE will be able to update their calculations of gross and net enrolment rates for 2010 using the estimates from the 2010 sample survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. 2.4 IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS

46. There are two types of Ibtedaye Madrasah. First, in 2008 there were 9279 attached Ibtedayes with 1,663,367 students (BANBEIS 2009, Table 4.1.2). Almost all higher madrasahs have Ibtedaye sections that deal with Classes 1- 5 i.e., they are equivalent to primary classes17. Second, there are the Independent Ibtedaye18 Madrasahs that are not attached to a higher madrasah. The CDTA commissioned a sample of 25% of those Ibtedaye Madrasahs. Based on this 25% sample, we estimate that, in Bangladesh, there are in 2010 some 427819 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs with 655,250 students20. Full details of the results of the 2010 sample survey are given in Appendix 10. 47. The present bifurcation of ministerial authority in the education sector places all (Aliya) madrasahs under the Ministry of Education (MOE). Responsibility for the Ibtedaye Madrasahs rests with the MOE21. However, Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are neither surveyed nor routinely supervised by the MOE. Until the CDTA sample survey, statistics for Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs were projected by BANBEIS from data collected in the early part of the decade by the DPE, working under the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education. 2.5 QOUMI MADRASAHS

48. Until now there has been no reliable data available on the Qoumi Madrasahs that do not have formal links to the government and have no regulatory framework as do Aliya Madrasahs. Hence, reliable estimates of how many institutions are there, and how many students of what ages study there, have not been available. The leading, but independent board, Befaqul Madarasil Arabia Bangladesh, known also as the Qoumi Board, claims to have 80% of all Qoumi Madrasahs registered. Were the Qoumi enrolments at primary and secondary levels to be included in the calculation of participation rates the rates would, of course, be higher. Hence, participation rates for both primary and secondary education have
The number of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs is given in DPE, 2010, Table 1.1 as 6744. On the basis of the sample survey done in 2010 that estimate is about 50% too high. Many madrasahs listed by official sources no longer exist. On the other hand, the estimated number of students in 2009 636,984 is only 6% lower than the estimate made on the basis of the 2010 sample survey. There is also a discrepancy in the numbers of Ibtedaye Madrasahs attached to higher madrasahs- DPE Table 1.1 shows 9233 whereas BANBEIS, 2009 shows 9279; enrolments are given as 1,352,831 in the former and 1,663,667 in the latter, 23% higher. DPE figures are for 2009 and BANBEIS for 2008. But the quoted source of DPE figures is BANBEIS. 17 There were 9381 higher madrasahs in 2008 of which 9279 had attached Ibtedaye sections. 18 Also called Unattached Ibtedaye Madrasahs. 19 Standard error of 77. 20 Standard error 12203. 21 It is understood that no decision has been taken on whether Ibtedaye Madrasahs will be transferred to MOPME.
16

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education to be interpreted with caution. There are at least 9 identified Boards in the seven Districts of the Qoumi survey areas: but, the overwhelming majority (355 of 544) of institutions that are registered with a Board are with Befaqul and, surprisingly, many are not registered: they may be lower level institutions that do not offer formal examinations. Some institutions use another more local board for regular tests but use Befaqul for terminal examinations. 49. Based on our sample, about 85% of students in the Qoumi Madrasahs are boys but about 25% of the institutions accept girls, either for single sex provision or in mixed institutions in which they are normally taught separately. Girls-only Madrasahs have a slightly better overall student-teacher ratio than boys-only or mixed madrasahs. But there is wider variation of student-teacher ratio in all types between institutions in rural, municipal and metropolitan areas. 50. The attached sections of Quomi Madrasahs provide a mix of pre-school and additional education with almost as many boys attending these sections (and a rather lower proportion of girls) than are formally enrolled. These may be students, who are also enrolled in other institutions, or in the case of pre-school students, proceed to other types of institutions subsequently. In such cases Quomis may essentially be providing the religious education that students and their parents seek as complementary to their learning in other institutions.. About half of the students on Quomi madrasahs are residential, with a substantial number benefiting from free boarding. Facilities vary widely: but, over 90% of the Quomis have water, toilets and electricity, a situation which compares very favourably that in Aliya Madrasahs. Full details of the Qoumi survey are found in Appendix 11. 2.6 2.6.1 SECONDARY LEVEL ACCESS AND PARTICIPATION INSTITUTIONS AND ENROLMENTS

51. In 2008 there were some 22,033 schools and colleges offering general secondary education including 317 schools and 252 colleges that are government-managed, 9384 madrasahs of which three are government-managed, and 3116 TVET institutions of which 335 are government-managed. Enrolments at the secondary level, i.e., Classes 6 to 10, are approximately 8.6 millions in general secondary of which 6.8 millions are in secondary schools, 1.7 million in madrasahs, and 71,000 in TVET institutions (BANBEIS, 2010a, Table 10) In both general secondary schools and madrasahs there is gender parity in enrolments: in fact girls outnumber boys in both streams. Of the total enrolments at the secondary level some 19% are in Dakhil classes, less than 1% in TVET, and the remaining 80% are in the general secondary stream. Table 2.1 summarises the key data on enrolments. 52. In order to estimate the participation rates at secondary level, enrolments in secondary schools, madrasahs, and in TVET institutions have to be considered. Moreover, in the case of secondary schools and madrasahs, those enrolments in primary grades (1 - 5) have to be excluded, while in all three types of institution enrolments in post-secondary classes have also to be excluded. Table 2.2 summarises data on participation rates.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Table 2.1: Percentage Enrolments in the Three Streams of Secondary Education, 2008 Stream General Madrasah TVET
Source: BANBEIS, 2010a Table 10

Girls 80.0 19.6 0.4

Boys 79.3 19.4 1.4

Both 79.7 19.5 0.9

The outstanding feature of this table is the low proportion of girls in TVET. Table 2.2 Gross and Net Enrolment Rates for Boys and Girls in Secondary Schools and Madrasahs, 2008 All Students Gross Enrolment Ratio, GER Net Enrolment Ratio, NER
Source: BANBEIS, 2010a, Table 10. Note: Only enrolments in the secondary level equivalent classes are measured here.

Girls 56.0% 55.8%

Boys 44.2% 42.0%

49.8% 48.5%

53. In 2008 the estimated school age population (11- 16 year olds) was 17.19 millions the gross enrolment rate for all students was almost 50% and the net enrolment rate was 48.5% (see Table 2.2). If enrolments in Qoumi Madrasahs were added to those in the three official streams of secondary education, then the GER and NER would, of course, be higher. Noteworthy are the gross and net enrolments of girls which stand at 57% and 55.8%, respectively, and therefore well in advance of boys enrolment which lags behind at only 42% for the net enrolment ratio and 44.2% for the gross enrolment ratio. There are, therefore, just 2 percentage point difference for boys and no difference in the GER and NER for girls. When one compares these with the same ratio for primary education, one can infer that generally the secondary students are within the correct age group of 11- 16 years. In primary, there is a 10 percentage point difference between the GER (103.5%) and NER (93.9%) indicating many students who are younger or older than the specified official age range of 6 10 years (DPE, 2010, Table 1.1). 54. There are striking variations in participation rates between the six administrative divisions with Barisal having the highest and Sylhet having the lowest participation rates at approximately 70% and 42% for the GER respectively (see Section 2.2.2 below). 55. Access to both secondary schools and Dakhil Madrasahs has increased markedly in the last quarter of a century. If we separate junior secondary schools (Classes 6 - 8) from secondary schools (Classes 6 - 10) the compound growth rates over the period 1983 2008 have been 2.7% and 3.33% per year respectively for junior secondary and secondary schools. In the same period, the number of Dakhil Madrasahs has expanded at a compound rate of 5.83%. (Appendix 2.2). However, non-government secondary schools have higher

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education average enrolments than madrasahs: junior secondary schools average 143 and secondary schools average 399 (BANBEIS 2009, Table 1.1). The average enrolment in a madrasah is 202 of whom 104 are girls (Ibid Table 4.3.2). Hence, while there has been more growth of madrasahs than of secondary schools, madrasahs have roughly half the enrolment of secondary schools, the number of extra seats in both sectors has been of a similar order of magnitude. Madrasahs are overwhelmingly rural institutions and may fill gaps in provision of secondary schooling in areas where communications are difficult, population less dense than in areas covered by secondary schools and where there are more very poor households. More is said on access factors below, Section 2.6.4. 2.6.2 DIVISIONAL DISPARITIES

56. To compare more objectively the possibility of access to secondary level institutions in different Divisions, a ratio was created of the number of secondary level institutions per 100,000 of population. While nationally there are 15 general secondary institutions and 6 Dakhil level madrasahs per 100,000 of population, at the divisional level there are variations of 11 to 20 for general secondary institutions and 4 13 for Dakhil Madrasahs. The larger variation of madrasahs is worth noting since it is evidence of clustering of Aliya madrasahs in certain areas. Barisal has the largest concentration of both secondary schools and madrasahs and this factor must explain at least in part, why Barisal Division has a high participation rate. Table 2.3 shows the key data participation for three of the six administrative divisions. 57. If we use enrolments instead of institutions, nationally for every 100,000 of population 6004 persons have access to a secondary education, 1312 persons have access to madrasahs, and only 162 persons have access to TVET (Appendix 2.3). Again the divisional disparities are large and interesting. The range for general secondary is from 7137 persons per 100,000 of population in Khulna to 4783 persons per 100,000 of population in Sylhet. For access to madrasahs, the range is much greater with Barisal having 2483 persons and Sylhet at 858 persons about two-thirds less per 100,000 respectively. Dhaka division has 930 persons per 100,000 in madrasahs, perhaps reflecting easier access to general secondary education in Dhaka Division. Table 2.3: Comparison of Indicators for Selected Divisions, 2008 Indicators Barisal GER, All Students GER, Girls Ratio of Secondary Schools per 100,000 of population Ratio of Madrasahs per 100,000 of population 62% 70% 20 Three Divisions Dhaka 44% 50% 11 Sylhet 38% 42% 12

13

Source: BANBEIS, 2010a, Tables 1 and 10.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 58. The above table shows that the high participation rate in secondary level education in Barisal is associated with an even higher female participation rate and high availability of secondary schools and madrasahs. There are even more madrasahs per 100,000 of population in Barisal than secondary schools in both Dhaka and Sylhet. A disaggregation of both institutional access and enrolment by district may suggest why Dhaka Division has such poor performance ratios. It may be that the Dhaka average is decreased by the high incidence of institutions that are not counted, e.g., the English medium and other private schools and Qoumi Madrasahs. Barisal is pre-dominantly rural and may not have the concentration of households that aspire to an English medium of instruction such as to encourage providers to set up such schools. Sylhet has the reputation of being relatively wealthy with many communities benefitting from overseas remittances. The low participation rate there is another puzzle: enrolments in Qoumi Madrasahs may be larger relative to other Divisions, though our survey cannot provide evidence. 2.6.3 GENDER DISPARITIES

59. Gender parity has been achieved and slightly surpassed in the general stream with 53.7% of all secondary level enrolments in junior secondary schools, secondary schools, and secondary sections of colleges being female (BANBEIS 2008. Table 2.1.1.). However, disparities in access for girls across divisions are observed. There are divisional variations, with Rajshahi having the lowest representation of girls 50.5% - and Chittagong the highest at 55.5%. In junior secondary schools, girls account for more than 61% of enrolments. In Dakhil Madrasahs girls account for 58% of all enrolments.22 Of all secondary schools, 19% are girls-only institutions, and 2% for boys, with the remainder co-educational23. Perhaps surprisingly the vast majority, 84%, of Dakhil Madrasahs are co-educational with 15% for girls-only and less than 0.5% for boys only. Hence access for girls is varied and may be catering to parents and guardians who prefer single sex institutions as well as those who are content with co-education. In contrast, 75% of Qoumi madrasahs are for boys only, 22 % for girls only and 3% are mixed in the sense of both boys and girls are enrolled but taught separately. See Appendix 11 for details of enrolment in Qoumi Madrasahs. 2.6.4 FACTORS AFFECTING ACCESS

Table 2.4: Date of Establishment of Secondary Schools and Madrasahs Dates of Establishment of Institutions <1947 Secondary Schools Madrasahs 11% 7% 1947 -71 28% 19% 1972- 90 24% 47% 1991 2000 31% 22% 2001 2008 6% 4%

Source: figures adapted from BANBEIS 2009 Tables 2.2.3 (a) and 4.2.4 (a)
22 23

The weighting of girls declines steeply in the higher madrasahs: Alim 51%; Fazil 41%; Kamil 22%. In Bangladesh there are two varieties of co-education; co-education (separate) and co-education (together). In the latter mode, boys and girls are taught within the same class. For secondary schools and madrasahs the most common type is co-education (together). Only 8 Dahkil Madrasahs out of 5705 which are co-educational operate the separate mode. (BANBEIS, 2008, Tables 2.2.1and 4.2.2.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 60. Table 2.4 shows the dates of establishment of the current secondary schools and madrasahs. We can observe that, while up to Liberation in 1971, secondary schools were being established more often than madrasahs, the period 72 90 saw a doubling of the rate of madrasahs compared to secondary schools, then a further increase in the rate of establishment of secondary schools followed in the last 7 years by a tailing off of new establishments. Data from the sample survey of Qoumi madrasahs shows that 44% of the samples were established in the period 1983 2000 while in the last decade 28% have been established. It appears that the period after the coming to power of military governments was a golden age for the founding of madrasahs, both Aliya and Qoumi. The acceleration within the last decade accords with commonly made observations of the mushrooming of Qoumi Madrasahs. Data on the existence of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, in contrast, points to a decrease in their numbers over the past decade. The sample survey noted that 40% of those on the official lists in the early 2000s had disappearedin 2010, some converting to Qoumi Madrasahs, some to higher Aliya Madrasahs, and some no longer in existence24 (See Appendix 10). 61. Distance from home is one factor affecting the enrolment of students, especially for girls, where concerns for safety and modesty are paramount. Both non-government secondary schools and madrasahs have undeniably met much of the demand for secondary level in rural areas where there are only 77 Government Secondary Schools25. Rural enrolments in secondary schools amount to 78% of all enrolments and 22% are in urban areas (BANBEIS, 2009 Table 2.3.5). Madrasahs are more common in rural than urban areas and more accessible than secondary schools: 93% of madrasahs are classified as rural and the remainder in municipalities and metropolitan areas (BANBEIS 2009, Table 4.1.5). The rural madrasahs contain 87% of enrolments (ibid, Table 4.3.4). 2.6.4.1 Private Costs of Schooling and Stipends 62. Private costs of schooling range from transport to uniforms and from fuel for night study to private tutors. These costs are borne by households and are not routinely recorded. Payments to private tutors are generally the most prominent item in the private costs of schooling at the secondary level. Private resources as provided by parents, individuals, and communities contribute significantly to the financing of education. According to Education Watch, 2006, private costs constitute from 56% to 71% of the total costs of education for an individual student at the secondary level. The same source highlights (i) private expenditure for students in urban areas is higher than in rural areas in government and non-government schools and madrasahs; (ii) per student private expenditure in an urban government school is twice of that in a rural area; (iii) urban non-government (MPO) schools and madrasahs cost approximately one and a half times that of rural equivalents; and (iv) private expenditures for an individual student, in both rural and urban schools, rise as the student reaches subsequent higher classes. See Chapter 7 and Appendix 7.8 for details.

40% disapperance might have happened over several decades. The list of the early 2000s was not updated for any closures rather it just added newly established institutions. 25 There are 317 Government Secondary Schools and 3 Government Kamil Madrasahs. In 2010 the government launched a project to establish one government secondary school in each Upazila. A total of 306 will be required.

24

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 2.6.4.2 Stipends 63. It has been recognised in Bangaldesh for more than 15 years that modest stipends given to girls make a difference to their enrolment and attendance at secondary level through offseting some of the private costs. In 2008 almost 33% of students received stipends in Dakhil Madrasahs. Of these more than 96% were girls26(BANBEIS 2010a Table 39). The various female stipend schemes have been going on for more than a decade. Only in the last year have poor boys been included in the present stipend schemes27. In the past, with female students in both the general and madrasah streams benefitting, there was a reduction in private costs for girls and those lower costs must be one factor in encouraging enrolment (and attendance). See also Chapter 7, Finance. 2.6.4.3 Scholarships 64. For students in both general secondary and higher madrasahs there is also a scholarship scheme which may, for the lucky few who benefit, contribute to sustaining enrolment over the cycle. The data from the 2008 national survey of post-primary education institutions show some very odd features. Madrasah students are well under-represented in the scholarship awards with girls even less well represented than boys in the awards of scholarships. Table 2.5 shows the disparities in awards. Table 2.5: Scholarship Awards to Secondary and Madrasah Students, 2008 Participation in the scholarship exam Sec Schools Total N % Girls N % Boys N % 776411 Students awarded a "Talent Pool" scholarship Sec Schools Madrasahs 17848 2.30% 8983 2.25% 715 0.61% 196 0.41% Students awarded a General Scholarship Sec Schools 30441 3.92% 15266 3.83%

Madrasahs 117291

Madrasahs 844 0.72% 258 0.54%

398565

48174

377846

69117

8865 519 15175 586 2.35% 0.75% 4.02% 0.85% Percentage of All Scholarship Holders that Attend Madrasahs 3.9% 2.1% 5.5% 2.7% 1.7% 3.7%

Total Girls Boys


Source: BANBEIS 2010a. Tables 40 and 40b

65. As shown in the above Table, boys are awarded more scholarships than girls for both the talent pool and the general scholarship. In terms of the total numbers of scholarships holders, madrasah students overall receive 3.9 % of the talent awards, and 2.7 % of the

26 27

It remains unexplained why any boy received a stipend in 2008. It may be due to inaccurate reporting. More detail on the current stipend schemes is available in the Madrasah Education Road Map.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education general awards, while madrasah students are approximately 20% of all students at the secondary level. 2.6.4.4 Availability of Resources 66. Foremost among the resources in education are teachers and physical facilities. Numbers of teachers across secondary schools and madrasahs will be treated here and their qualifications (taken as a proxy for quality) will appear under Quality, Chapter 3. First, we note that there is only one teacher training institute for madrasah education while there are 155 Teacher Training Institutions for the general stream with 134 offering bachelors, 6 offering masters level courses, and a further 25 providing other categories of teacher training (BANBEIS 2009, Table 8.1). 67. Second, the student: teacher ratio (STR) in secondary schools, 33, is roughly double that of Dakhil madrasahs, which is 18 (Appendix 2.4). The STR is an indicator of the distribution of teachers over the country as well as a strong pointer to the average class size. In secondary schools the mean value of the STR hides very large inter-district variations that range from a low of 19 to a high of 56. In madrasahs the range is narrower, ranging from 12 to 28. Variations within a single district, that is, at the Upazila level, are also illustrated with reference to one upazila in Appendix 2.4 Table 2. Such variations in inputs have to be interpreted in the context of a secondary education sector which has been nationally unplanned but locally managed by communities. 68. Although there is an administrative system for government recognition of both nongovernment secondary schools and madrasahs, it does not ensure equality in the national distribution of teachers. Minimum enrolments are specified for rural and urban nongovernment schools. However, once academic recognition and government financial support are given, enrolments may increase or decrease without change to the established figure for teachers. This can result in very unequal student: teacher ratios and class sizes. The lower STR in madrasahs may be one factor in parents decision to opt for madrasah education because with fewer students per teacher a more personal approach to student learning is possible. 69. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs also have lower average STR than primary schools. The 2010 sample survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs found a STR of 34. DPE data for 2009 puts the STR at 52 for Government Primary Schools and 46 for Registered Non-Government Primary Schools (Appendix 10, Tables 14 and 15). However, most primary schools operate a two-shift system which results in a reduced STR and class size in practice. 70. The student teacher ratio in Qoumi madrasahs is even more favourable than in Aliya Dakhil madrasahs. The Qoumi sample survey found the average STR to be approximately 21 in boys-only madrasahs,15 in girls-only, and, with a variation that we can attribute the small sample, 20 in coeducational (mixed) madrasahs. See Appendix 11. Whether the lower STR equates to better teaching remains unclear.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 2.6.4.5 Funding Status (The MPO issue) 71. Because there has been a de facto policy of holding more or less constant the number of fully supported government secondary schools at 317 and madrasahs at 3, government has created an alternative mechanism to support, but not to manage, the secondary education sub-sector. Institutions that meet certain minima for enrolment, and certain standards of facilities and community involvement, are granted enlisted status that gives the institutions a specified number of posts for teachers and other employees: 13 teachers and three support staff. The government pays a Monthly Payment Order (MPO) for those posts. Initially the MPO was paid at a rate of 70% of the monthly salary: now it is 100%. All other recurrent costs of an institution are met by financial support from the community and, in the case of secondary schools, from student fees. Institutions with MPO enlistment status are also more likely to benefit from government projects to improve physical facilities. Teachers on MPO have no annual increments. MPO is increased only when there is a general increase in public service salaries. In 2008 85% of secondary schools28 and 78% of all levels of madrasahs were MPO enlisted. A school or madrasah with MPO enlistment is likely to attract better qualified teachers and have a resulting higher status. Substantial differences emerge when the incidence of MPO enlistment at district and upazila levels are considered29. Appendix 2.5 shows a range from 40% to 92% of teachers receiving MPO in the 64 districts and, for example, from 0% to 80% of the upazilas within one district. Additional information on MPOs is given in Chapter 7, Finance and Costs. 72. The MPO entitlement is only Taka 500 per month (US $ 7) for Ibtedaye teachers. That MPO amount compares very unfavourably with teachers in Dahkil and with teachers in non-government primary schools. Although 30% of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are under MPO, only 17% of the teachers are under MPO. Female teachers with MPO are less than 13% of all female teachers (Appendix 10, Table 10.11). 2.6.4.6 Physical Facilities 73. We can compare the various facilities of general secondary schools and Dakhl madrasahs. Approximately three quarters of Dakhil Madrasahs are judged as semi-pucca (i.e., some permanent materials) or kachha (i.e., temporary and made of local materials) (BANBEIS 2009 Table 4.2.17). Table 2.6: Percentages of Secondary School and Dakhil Madrasah Buildings of Various Structures, 2008. %age of each Type of Construction Pucca Semi-pucca Kachha 38.17 38.24 23.59 24.76 35.76 39.31

Institution Sec Schools Madrasahs

Number 18293 6609

Source: Appendix 2.7 Table 2a

For Junior Secondary Schools, the figure is 90.6%; for Secondary Schools it is 83.7% (BANBEIS 2009, Table 2.2.7). For Dakhil Madrasahs the figure is 76%. 29 The MPO enlistment process is only partly technical. It is highly politicised since it represents one highly visible way a politician can show his constituents what he/she has achieved.

28

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 74. There are clear differences in the proportions of schools and madrasahs that have pucca and kachha facilities. Only one quarter of madrasahs have pucca buildings while almost 40% of secondary schools have pucca facilities. These percentages are almost exactly reversed when it comes to the proportions of kachha buildings. 75. Key utilities for an educational institution are water and electricity, while the availability of a library and books are core characteristics of any educational institution. Table 2.7: Secondary Schools and Madrasahs Compared with Respect to Availability of Utilities and Library Facility Electricity Tube Well Separate Library Books per Institution Junior Secondary 32% 84% 11.4% 528 Secondary 80% 92% 29.7% 972 Dakhil Madrasah 57% 89% 12.6% 895

Sources: For Schools, BANBEIS 2009 Tables 2.2.10, 2.2.11and 2.2.13. For Madrasahs, ibid Tables 4.2.13 and 4.2.14

76. Electricity supply is clearly a problem in all three types of educational institution and is an impediment to ambitions to implement ICT in the curriculum. Libraries as separate spaces are rare and, only in secondary schools are there are approaching 1000 books per institution in all a paltry and inadequate number by any standards. Data on the category of books religious and general literature was not collected. Further details on facilities are in Appendix 2.7. 77. Other evidence on the comparative facilities comes from a sample survey in 2004. Education Watch, 2005, Table 1.5, shows that, using a sample of schools representing government secondary schools, non-government (private) secondary schools, and Dakhil madrasahs, 90% of government schools were in good condition, while only 68% of private secondary schools and 35% of madrasahs had good buildings. Of government schools, 88% had electricity and fans in classrooms but only 35% of private schools and 10% of madrasahs were similarly favoured. In government schools, 70% had science labs but only 31% of private schools and 7% of madrasahs had science labs. However, investment in madrasahs over the period 1992 2009 has amounted to 18% of all secondary level investments and is in line with the proportion of all secondary level enrolments in madrasahs. Details of physical facilities are in Appendix 2.7. 78. Of the rural Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, less than 5% of structures were deemed pucca and almost two-thirds of the rural Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are kachha-built. In stark contrast, 68% of GPS are pucca-built (Appendix 10, Table 10.18). 79. Some 84% of all Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs have toilets, and 98% of those under municipalities have toilets. However, separate toilets for girls are rare with only 18% of

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs having separate toilets for girls. Those madrasahs in cities and metropolitan areas have facilities that are superior to the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in rural areas. Just less than 18% of all Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs have electricity supply, with better provision in metropolitan, municipality, and upazila madrasahs (83%, 58% and 49%, respectively), whilst of the rural madrasahs only 15% have an electrical supply (Appendix 10, Table 19). 2.6.4.7 Enrolment Features 80. Who attends secondary schools and who attends madrasahs? Three factors will be discussed here: social status of students; urban and rural residence of students; and the income level of the households from which students come. 81. First, enrolments in the secondary general stream are mostly right-age enrolments. Students below the official start age of 1130, account for only 5% of all enrolments and they are confined to Classes 6 and 7 (BANBEIS, 2009, Table 2.3.16). Over-age students are just over 3% of all those enrolled and are present in Classes 8 10, showing the effect of repetition, see also Chapter 4. Table 2.8: Characteristics of Students in Secondary Schools and Madrasahs in Percentages of All Enrolments Categories of Students Working % age Secondary Schools: Boys and Girls Secondary Schools: Girls Madrasahs: Boys and Girls Madrasahs: Girls 11.4 10.3 11.6 10.5 Landless (Guardians) % age 11.5 11.7 10.4 9.9 Ethnic % age 1.11 1.0 0.04 0.02 Disabled % age 0.33 0.31 Na Na Orphans % age Na Na 3.3 3.0

Source: For Schools BANBEIS 2009 Table 2.3.3; For Madrasahs, BANBEIS 2010a commissioned Table 18.

82. Second, we observe in Table 2.8 little difference between schools and madrasahs in the proportions of working students and those of landless families. Given the nature of the curriculum, one would not expect many non-Muslim students in madrasahs and that is what we find. Disabled students seem not to be recorded in madrasahs which, however, have small but significant numbers of both boy and girl orphans. (Qoumi madrasahs more frequently have orphanages.) In the Qoumi survey it was found that around half of those attending madrasahs are residential while around one in five students get free lodging (boarding and food). Though the number of orphans cannot be equated to the number of students receiving free board and food it is likely the two figures are closely related.
30

Since birth registration is very low the reliability of ages is low.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 83. Third, Aliya Dakhil Madrasah enrolments are predominantly rural enrolments. The access to madrasahs in rural areas is higher than in urban areas. Dakhil Madrasah enrolment in rural areas is 93% of all enrolments and for urban areas enrolment is only 7%, with no difference in participation by boys and girls (BANBEIS 2009 Table 4.1.5). Secondary enrolments are 78% in rural areas and 22% in urban area (Ibid Table 2.3.5). Qoumi Madrasahs are also mainly rural (81% of the sample), though there is a substantial percentage (16%) in municipalities and in metropolitan areas (3%). For Qoumi Madrasah enrolments, see Appendix 11. 84. Fourth, the income levels of students in general secondary education and in Dakhil Madrasahs show some contrast and support the view that madrasahs serve the poor, at least in the rural areas. Table 2.9 shows that in the proportions of students from the poorest households (i.e., taken as less than Taka 20,000 per year)31 there are 10 percent more students enrolled in madrasahs than in secondary schools. Also, the percentage of students coming from the richest households (i.e., annual income in excess of Taka one lakh) is 63% higher in secondary schools than in madrasahs and 68% higher for girls. Table 2.9 Percentages of Students from Households with Various Income Levels Annual Income All Students Madrasahs Secondary Schools Madrasahs Secondary Schools Tk 20,00050,000 36.21 36.34 36.35 36.55 Tk 50,000 Tk 100,000 16.76 21.09 15.71 20.39

<Tk 20,000 39.56 30.37 41.31 31.87

Tk100,000 7.47 12.19 6.63 11.20

Girls

Source: BANBEIS, 2010a, Tables 19 and 20.

85. Appendix 2.6 shows inter-district variations and illustrative upazila differences in the proportions of enrolments from the lowest and highest household income brackets. The averages at national and district levels hide many variations at lower levels. Tentatively, we can conclude that madrasah enrolment is higher in the poorest upazilas and the poorest income families use madrasahs more than secondary schools. 2.7 SUMMARY

86. There were in 2008 approximately 2.3 million students in Aliya Madrasahs, including those in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. There were an unknown number of students in Qoumi Madrasahs. Access to forms of secondary education is almost exclusively through non-government schools and Dakhil Madrasahs. Gross and net participation rates are quite close being around 44% to 42%, respectively, for boys and 56% to 55.8%, respectively, for girls showing that most students fall within the accepted age range of 11- 16 years. These rates ignore those students attending Qoumi Madrasahs. National and divisional averages for gross and net enrolment hide wide variations at district and upazila levels. Gender parity has been achieved within both general education and madrasahs. Participation of the higher income groups is more common in secondary schools than in madrasahs. The stipend
31

This is the lowest category of annual income in the data collection instrument administered by BANBEIS.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education schemes that have long targeted girls seem to be associated with higher participation by girls. The administration of the two scholarship schemes seems to favour greatly male students in secondary schools. Children with various disabilities are few in secondary schools and madrasahs. In Independent Ibtedaye madrasahs only 0.4% of students were classified as disabled (BANBEIS, 2010b Table 13.1). Dakhil Madrasahs have lower student: teacher ratios than secondary schools and consequently lower class sizes. Student teacher ratios in Qoumi Madrasahs are of the same order of magnitude as those in Dakhil Madrasahs when enrolments in the attached sections are taken into account. In the following chapter the issue of the qualifications of the teachers is addressed. Physical conditions in general secondary schools, while not of a high standard, are generally superior to the conditions of madrasahs in terms of structures and availability of electricity and the existence of separate libraries. 87. Participation in school education is generally held to be in part related to the quality of the teaching and learning environment. The curriculum, including the learning materials, the quality of teaching, assessment procedures are at the heart of the education process. The following chapter addresses a range of issues related to quality of education in general and madrasah education.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

CHAPTER 3

QUALITY
3.0 INTRODUCTION

88. This chapter analyzes the quality of madrasah curricula, textbooks, teacher training, and examinations up to 2010. It compares the quality of these madrasah educational elements with the quality of the corresponding elements that are used in the general education schools. The analysis of curriculum focuses primarily on general education subjects such as Bangla, English, mathematics, science, and social science; we do not analyze the content of the religious subjects. In 2010, the Bangladesh government approved a National Education Policy (NEP 2010) that impacts curricula, textbooks, teacher training, and examinations. At the time of this writing that policy was in the process of being refined and implementation was incomplete. However, the NEP 2010 is reflected in this report to the extent possible. The NEP 2010 is also taken into account in the road map document that is separate from this sector study. 89. Data utilized for this chapter. Our analyses in this chapter are based on information from a variety of sources. (1) The CDTA conducted nine studies to evaluate the quality of curriculum, teacher training, and examinations. Appendix 3.1 lists these studies, which are available from Maxwell Stamp Ltd. (2) The CDTA gender specialist analyzed a sample of textbooks to identify gender content issues. The complete results of this analysis, beyond those employed in this chapter, are reported in Appendix 5. (3) The CDTA visited 48 Aliya and Qoumi Madrasahs to interview teachers and principals, using a questionnaire to gather information about textbooks, curriculum, teacher training, and educational practices. These visits allowed the CDTA team to observe firsthand a sample of madrasah educational settings. A list of the madrasahs visited by the team is reported in Appendix 8. (4) In depth interviews of students, teachers, principals, management committees, and guardians from 10 madrasahs (including two Qoumi Madrasahs) were conducted; the full report is found in Appendix 9. We draw on this report in this chapter as well. (5) The CDTA team drew on information from a BANBEIS quantitative surveys of 1,104 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs completed in 2010. (6) The CDTA team also conducted a quantitative survey of 544 Qoumi Madrasahs serving 58,432 students. The results of these surveys are reported in several chapters of this sector study report, including this chapter. (7) We also reviewed relevant printed materials including government reports, government and board websites, policy statements, madrasah brochures, curriculum materials, textbooks, newspaper reports, and research studies and reports prepared by others under the sponsorship of various international donors. A list of many of the references consulted is shown in Appendix 12. (8) In addition, the CDTA interviewed officers and staff members from various educational entities and projects including MOE, DSHE, NCTB, BMEB, BMTTI, SESDP, and TQI among others. Information from these interviews is incorporated in this chapter, as well as in other chapters.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 90. Overview Madrasah students, up to 2010, may have had access to education, but they have not had the same opportunity to learn as did students in general education schools. This chapter will describe how madrasah students received lower quality instruction in general education subjects than students in the general education schools. A major factor is the amount of time allocated to teaching both religious subjects and general education subjects: The length of the school day is relatively fixed, so madrasahs teachers have devoted less time teaching each subject in the general education curriculum than have teachers in general education schools, in order to make the time to teach religious subjects within the timeframe of the academic day. This shortening of content coverage is reflected both in the madrasahs textbooks as well as in class time devoted to teaching these subjects. The quality of the teachers, as judged by the proportion with teacher training, under whose guidance madrasah students learn has been poorer than in other sectors of the educational enterprise, thus resulting in students receiving in general poorer instruction. Similarly the content and formats of the madrasah student assessment system have not been the same as in the general education system. This has resulted in madrasah students being evaluated differently than their counterparts in the general education schools. Taken together, these findings lead to the conclusion that the madrasah students have had less opportunity to experience quality education and less opportunity to learn general education subjects than students in the general education schools. This chapter elaborates on these issues. 3.1 CURRICULUM

91. This section discusses the curricula used in the madrasahs as of 2010, including the Qoumi Madrasah, and compares these curricula to the general education curricula. Textbooks are discussed separately in Section 3.2. Before understanding the curricula, however, readers should familiarize themselves with the organizations of the Aliya Madrasahs, the Qoumi Madrasahs, and the general education schools. These are summarized in the next paragraphs: Details are presented in the appendices referenced in the paragraphs that follow. 3.1.1 SCHOOLING ORGANIZATION

3.1.1.1 Organization of the Aliya Madrasahs 92. Until 2010, the Aliya Madrasah education system consisted of six levels: Ibtedaye (primary), Junior Dakhil (junior secondary), Dakhil (secondary), Alim (higher secondary), Kamil (bachelors degree), and Fazil (masters degree) (see Appendix 3.2 for grades and ages of students). The Ibtedaye Madrasahs are of two types: Independent Ibtedaye (not attached to a madrasah offering instruction beyond Class 5) and Attached Ibtedaye Madrasahs (attached to madrasahs offering instruction beyond Class 5). Historically, Independent Ibtedaye are upgraded to Attached Ibtedaye once they start offering Dakhil level instruction. The vision of the NEP 2010 is to have a unified curriculum for all schools and madrasahs as well as restructuring the educational system from a 5+5+2 organization to an 8+4 organization. If this vision is implemented in the future, some of the implications specified in this chapter for improving the quality of education in the madrasah sector may need to be reinterpreted to match whatever organizational structure emerges.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 3.1.1.2 Organization of the Qoumi Madrasahs 93. The curricula and organizations of the Aliya Madrasahs and the Qoumi Madrasahs are quite different (see Appendices 3.3 to 3.6, Appendix 10, and Appendix 11). Aliya Madrasahs have a grade-based curriculum and teach both religious and general education subjects. The Qoumi Madrasahs, being private educational institutions that, unlike the Aliya Madrasahs have no obligations to follow any of the general education curricula developed by government, teach primarily religious subjects at all levels of education. They may be allboys, all-girls, or mixed boys and girls (usually teaching boys and girls in separate classrooms or buildings). The CDTA survey found that 20% of the Qoumi Madrasahs in its sample were all-girls, and 3% were mixed. It should be noted that the CDTA survey found that about 80% of the Qoumi Madrasahs are in rural areas; about half of their students are residential (see Appendix 11). 94. Qoumi Madrasahs follow an Islamic education curriculum organized as shown in Appendix 3.6. Although general education schools and Aliya Madrasahs have inherited organisational structures from the British colonial system, Qoumi Madrasahs have not. They continue the much older traditions of Muslim education. For example, there is often a more flexible curriculum organization based less on grade levels and age and more on students progressing according to their achieved competencies. As a result, classrooms may include learners with very different ages (Appendix 11). 95. The CDTA survey found the Qoumi Madrasahs organizations to be quite variable. For example these madrasahs range from small pre-school facilities, often linked to a mosque, with four or five children and offering religious teaching a few hours a day, to large institutions with several thousand residential students of all ages, offering the highest level of degree study, and with an international reputation for Islamic scholarship. The Qoumi Madrasahs may range from focusing solely on traditions of Islamic teaching such as memorizing the Quran or becoming a public reader of the Quran, to networks of schools working to a curriculum that includes general education subjects that integrated with the religious studies that is approved by a Qoumi board (see Appendix 11 for additional details). 3.1.1.3 Correspondence among the Three Systems 96. Table 3.1 shows the correspondence between the educational stages of the general education schools, the Aliya Madrasahs, and the Qoumi Madrasahs. It must be remembered that all schools and madrasahs do not offer every level of education.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Table 3.1 Grade level correspondences among the three systems Grade level 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 General Education Schools Terminology Aliya Madrasahs Terminology Qoumi Madrasahs Terminology IBTEDAYE or PRIMARY MAKTAB (1) Assafaul Awal to Assaful Khamis MUTAWASSITTA DAKHIL SECONDARY: Senior HIGHER SECONDARY/COLLEGE DEGREE KAMIL POST GRADUATE TAKMIL TAKHASSUS ALIM FAZIL SANABIA AMMA SANABIA ULIA FAZILAT

PRIMARY

IBTEDAYE

SECONDARY: Junior

Source: Appendix 11. An Account of the Situation of Qoumi Madrasahs in Bangladesh in 2010, Section 1.3

3.1.2

CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION

97. The curricula, syllabi, and textbooks for the general education schools are developed under the direction of the National Textbook and Curriculum Board (NCTB). For the Aliya Madrasahs, the development of curriculum and textbooks for both religious subjects and general education subjects has been under the direction of the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB). When the National Education Policy 2010 is implemented, textbook development for the general education subjects may change so that the NCTB develops these textbooks for madrasahs as well, although BMEB may still have some input into their contents. Some Qoumi Madrasah boards prepare textbooks for madrasahs register with them. 3.1.2.1 Curriculum Subjects of the Primary General Education and Aliya Ibtedaye Madrasahs 98. At the primary level the Ibtedaye Madrasah curriculum adds religious subjects to the BMEB-defined general education curriculum (Appendix 3.4). However, because the length of the academic day has the same number of hours for the general education and the madrasah educational systems, the Ibtedaye accomplished teaching all the general education subjects and all the religious subjects by abbreviating the teaching time for the general education subjects. The result was that the general education subjects have been condensed and their content has been abbreviated. 99. Recent educational policy and practice has mandated that all Aliya Madrasahs and general education schools use the same textbooks for nonreligious subjects and that similar (but not identical) public examinations be administered. English in the madrasahs, however,

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education may have fewer hours of instruction (i.e., marks 100) than general educations (i.e., 200 marks). See Section 3.1.3 for further details. 3.1.2.2 Curriculum Subjects of Aliya Dakhil Madrasahs 100. Students at the Dakhil level could register in one of four groups: (a) general group (88% of the students were registered in 2010), (b) science group (11%), (c) mujabbid group (0.6%), and (d) hifzul Quran group (0.0002%)32. Appendix 3.5 compares the Junior Dakhil and Dakhil subjects for each group. Each group has compulsory and optional subjects. Although some subjects taught to the four groups are different, the curricula of all groups have most of the BMEB versions of the general education subjects in common. It should be noted that although all four options are available in Dakhil Madrasahs, not every Dakhil has students registered in all four groups at any point in time. Registrations of the mujabbid and hifzul Quran groups are very small, together totally less than 1% of the registrants. 101. It is not clear why so few students have registered in science. The explanation may lie in a combination of factors including the lack of qualified teachers, the absence of science labs, the teaching methods used, and teachers misunderstanding of the importance of science for students wishing to work in the private job market. A needs assessment conducted by Secondary Education Sector Development Project (SESDP) concluded that (a) currently taught science is not made practical or interesting to students and (b) that, although students prepared in science and mathematics have more job opportunities in Bangladesh, teachers are misinformed and tell students that business and commerce will have more job opportunities (Kennedy and Kabir, 2009).33 In addition, a survey of madrasah students, teachers, heads, education officers, and community leaders (SESDP-TACT, 18 August 2010) found that these stakeholders indicated a need for serious curriculum and textbook revisions that include strong general education components along with religious subjects so that madrasah students would be on a par with general education students when applying for higher education and for jobs. It seems that there is widespread agreement that Aliya Madrasah education needs a great amount of improvement in the quality of teachers, curriculum, and textbooks if these madrasahs are to prepare their students for Bangladeshs future. 3.1.2.3 Curriculum Subjects of the Qoumi Madrasahs 102. The Qoumi Madrasah curriculum is organized by religious subject rather than by class or grade. The Qoumi Madrasahs attempt to teach all of the subjects in their syllabuses and are not restricted by the age of the student or the time in which a subject should to be completed. Appendix 3.6 provides some indication of the subjects in the curriculum at the Qoumi Madrasahs.

These percentages were calculated from the table titled, Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board Results of Dakhil Exam 2010, provided by the BMEB Exams Controller, August 2010. 33 In the workplace, regardless of sector, jobs have increasingly required knowledge of mathematics, science, and technology; so all students should acquire this basic knowledge, even if they are not streamed or specializing in these subjects. Manufacturing, industrial, and service jobs increasingly need literate and technologically skilled workers. Bangladesh will continue to need scientists and medical personnel in the future, and if madrasah students do not have the prerequisites for entering these professions, they will not be able to participate in this aspect of the nations development.

32

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 103. The literature reports very little systematic research about the curriculum in the Qoumi system but the CDTA interviews reveal that Qoumi Madrasahs are very variable in their curricular offerings. Some focus almost completely on religious learning and exclude other subjects (notably Bangla, Maths, the Sciences, and English). Others, while not ignoring the completeness of religious learning, explicitly include these general education subjects, basing the teaching on religious interpretation and integrating them within the religious context of the madrasahs. This variation from one Qoumi Madrasah to another is due to several factors: (a) differences in religious interpretations of the appropriateness of various subjects for life accomplishments, (b) on resources available to the local madrasah, and (c) on the availability of educational staffing. This variation makes generalizations about Qoumi Madrasahs difficult. As an illustration of a Qoumi Madrasah that includes general education subjects in its curriculum, consider the Jamea Madania Islamia, a Qoumi Madrasah under the umbrella of Befaqul Madarasil Arabiah Bangladesh board. It offers English, Bengali, mathematics, and science up to the SSC level. Every year about 25-30 students take the public SSC examination of the NCTB either as private candidates or registering through neighbouring Aliya Madrasahs. Students are prepared through tutorial classes without any charge. Those who pass the SSC exam can either move to the general education schools for higher education or remain in the madrasah system. There is also limited facility for training in ICT and motor mechanics.34 104. The Qoumi board under which a madrasah operates produces curriculum and sometimes textbooks. The boards also register institutions students for examinations and set and mark those examinations. There are purported to be around 20 Qoumi Madrasah boards operating in Bangladesh, of various sizes and serving geographical or sectarian subgroups. In the CDTA study of Qoumi Madrasahs, nine boards were represented in the sample and 30% of the Qoumi Madrasahs were not registered with any board. The largest board, Befaqul Madarisil Arabiah, referred to as the Befaqul Board (BEFAQ), had registered 59% of our sample madrasahs. The BEFAQ has national coverage for terminal exams through several affiliated sub-national boards. These sub-boards may provide their own half-year or end-of-year tests. 3.1.3 BUSINESS EDUCATION AND INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

105. Although there is a perceived need for Business Education (BE) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the Aliya and Qoumi Madrasahs have found it difficult to implement teaching subjects in these areas. At the time of this writing, the Aliya Madrasahs had not yet received formal permission from MOE to offer BE. Implementing BE and ICT requires additional space, including computer labs, new library facilities, and teachers trained in these specialized technical subjects. Teaching ICT requires reliable and a stable electrical current with no voltage surges that would destroy sensitive computer equipment. The BANBEIS (2009) reports that only 65% of Aliya Madrasahs have electricity. New facilities and hiring new teachers are not currently financially possible for many Aliya Madrasahs without government support. As of this writing, government had not yet released

November 2009. Note on Field Visit to Sylhet Madrasahs. Dhaka: ADB TA Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Project.

34

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education teacher recruitment regulations for BE in the Aliya Madrasahs. Therefore, any teacher whom an Aliya Madrasah hired in BE would not receive MPO (see Appendix 3.7). 3.1.4 COMPARISON OF CURRICULA35

106. Well organized curriculum documents and guides should describe the sequence and content to be taught; learning outcomes and performances expected of students; suggestions for teachers for conducting lessons; guidelines for monitoring and evaluating student learning; and suggestions for preparing teaching materials, including textbooks, Our analysis of a sample of the curriculum reports at the Ibtedaye and Primary (Grade 4), Junior Dakhil and Junior Secondary (Grade 7), and Dakhil and Secondary (Grade 9) levels lead us to conclude that the curricula prepared by the BMEB are inferior to the curricula prepared by the NCTB. In Bangla, English, Mathematics, and Science, the BMEB curriculum documents for Grades 4 and 7 contained considerably fewer lessons, statements of learning outcomes, and content topics to be taught. At Grade 9, the BMEB and NCTB documents tend to be quite similar for these four subjects, however. 107. The BMEB and NCTB Social Studies curricula were significantly different in Grades 4 (see Appendix 3.1, Study B), The BMEB Grade 4 curricula focused almost exclusively on Muslim and Bangla culture and history, essentially leaving out topics related to other world cultures and contemporary social issues. The NCTB curriculum included Muslim and Bangla topics, but covered world cultures and contemporary issues as well. 108. The curriculum documents developed by the NCTB were generally more detailed than those developed by the BMEB in discussing the topics to be taught, the guidance they give to teachers for how to teach, the guidance they give to textbook writers on how to prepare textbooks and teaching aids, and in their descriptions of formats and methods for assessing students learning. In addition, oftentimes the NCTB curriculum documents, more so than the BMEB documents, reflect more systematic and contemporary approaches to organizing the subject matter in a curriculum and in suggesting how skills and knowledge can be acquired in a subject area (see Appendix 3.1, Study B). 109. There is a new development, however. Beginning in 2011 BMEB should use the NCTB textbooks and general education curriculum from Class 1 up through Dakhil36. Thus, in these subjects, the curricula should be the same. At the Alim and higher levels, it will be for each madrasah to decide whether to use NCTB textbooks. Books and curricula for religious subjects are supposed to remain with the BMEB, as they are now. However, an examination reform, known as creative questions, is supposed to be introduced in religious subjects: Islamic Studies in 2011, and in the Quran syllabus in 2012. Follow-up studies will need to be done in the future to determine the extent to which these educational policies were implemented.

See Appendix 3.1, Study B. While this statement was true when it was written in August 2010, we are given to understand, that as of March 2011, only a core of general subjects will be common across streams. Apparently the policy and implementation are still under development.
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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 3.2 TEXTBOOKS

110. The major instructional resource for teachers is the textbook. Teachers teach from and to the textbooks. The curriculum guides are generally unavailable to madrasah teachers, and, even if they were available, teachers would require some training to understand and use them appropriately. As discussed previously, a great many of the madrasahs do not have trained teachers. In the following paragraphs we present an analysis of the textbooks prepared for Aliya Madrasahs and general education schools. Our analyses focus on textbooks learning objectives and content coverage. Because of the large number of subjects and grades, and our limited time and resources, the analyses sampled representative grades and subjects, namely: grades 4, 7, and 9; and science, social studies, mathematics, English, and Bangla. Twelve textbooks were analyzed. 3.2.1 TEXTBOOK AVAILABILITY FOR STUDENTS37

111. Our survey estimates that in the Ibtedaye Madrasahs on average there is only between one and two textbooks per student (Appendix 10 Table 10.3). However, Ibtedaye Madrasahs teach between 5 and 10 subjects (Appendix 3.4). Thus, ideally, every student should have 5 to 10 textbooks (i.e., each student should have one textbook per subject). To make matters more difficult for students, 25% of the Ibtedaye Madrasahs report that they have no textbooks at all and 47% report having no other educational books in their madrasahs. Thus, even though BMEB distributes textbooks, few Ibtedaye Madrasah students have them for every subject and there is a serious shortage of textbooks in Ibtedaye Madrasahs, 3.2.2 TEXTBOOK COMPARISON BY GRADE LEVEL38

112. Our analyses of the sample of textbooks from several subjects and several grades used in schools and Aliya Madrasahs until 2011 (Study F in Appendix 3.1) showed that there are significant differences in the content and amount of material contained in the textbooks of the general education schools prepared by NCTB and the textbooks of the Aliya Madrasahs prepared by BMEB. Textbooks prepared under both organizations were collected and reviewed for Grades 4, 7, and 9 and for the following subjects: Bangla, English, Mathematics, and General Science and Social Science. Textbooks were compared on the criteria of: (1) learning objectives, (2) content coverage, and (3) amount of teaching time devoted to a subject. These differences in the textbooks define the differences in the content and amount of material taught to students, and the content that appears in the examinations in the two systems. 113. Figure 3.1 compares the number of textbook lessons for three classes and three subjects. The number of textbook lessons is important because teachers and trainers follow the textbooks as the primary resources to develop and deliver instruction to students. Fewer lessons in a textbook means less time is devoted to teaching students that subject. The horizontal bars in the figure show the number of lessons in a textbook. As can be seen, NCTB textbooks have the greater number of lessons. In each subject, therefore, there are many fewer lessons for Aliya Madrasah teachers to teach than for general education schoolteachers to teach.
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Appendix 3.1 Study F. Appendix 3.1 Study F.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Figure 3.1 Comparison of the number of lessons in textbooks prepared by BMEB and NCTB

Source: Appendix 5 Gender Audit of Madrasah and General Education Stream Textbooks 114. In general, the mathematics textbooks of NCTB and BMEB were most similar, and we would expect students from the two systems to have similar learning in this subject assuming that the teaching quality in the two systems is identical, which may not be the case. In Bangla and social science, the BMEBs textbooks tend to contain more religiously based content than do NCTBs textbooks. In Bangla, English, and general science the amount of content covered is greater in the NCTBs textbooks than the BMEBs textbooks. As was mentioned previously, from 2011 Dakhil students are supposed to use the NCTB textbooks for social science, general science, physics, chemistry, biology, general mathematics, and higher mathematics. 115. Description of content coverage of textbooks is a proxy for the breadth and depth of what is taught in Bangla, English, mathematics, and social and general science because textbooks are the primary resources that teachers use for teaching students. Therefore, from our textbook analysis, it appears that up through the 9th grade, what is taught in the general education subjects in the two systems is not comparable. The general education schools teach more content and in greater detail than do the Aliya Madrasahs. However, the tendency will be for the Aliya Madrasahs to use NCTB textbooks for general education subjects at all levels from 2011. This may improve the learning of students if the Aliya Madrasahs teachers are prepared to use the textbooks properly. 116. Textbooks also differ in the way they represent women.39 BMEB textbooks tend to have fewer lessons and stories in which males and females participate as equals in leadership, social, and work situations. BMEB textbooks have fewer lessons and stories that centre on women or depict them in other than in traditional roles. The BMEB textbooks for Bangla, English, and Social Studies often depict both males and females in traditional
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Information based on Appendix 5 Gender Audit of Madrasah and General Education Stream Textbooks.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education religious contexts rather than depicting them in a broader social or community context, as do the NCTB textbooks. 3.2.3 CURRICULUM AND TEXTBOOK DEVELOPMENT CAPACITY AT THE BMEB40

3.2.3.1 Curriculum and Textbook Development at the BMEB 117. In order to assure quality, curricula and textbooks should be developed by professional developers and writers who have had pedagogical training and who follow systematic processes. Although the BMEB employs a small number of curriculum specialists full-time, it employs part-time larger numbers for curriculum development during revision cycles. Many of those employed have masters degrees and teaching experience in their subject. However, most persons do not have pedagogical degrees or specific training in curriculum development and textbook writing. Thus, BMEB has not had a well-qualified core of full-time curriculum developers. 118. Training for writing textbooks and teaching materials is especially important in Bangladesh since teachers generally do not receive copies of the curriculum documents from either board. Rather, textbooks are their only teaching guides. Similarly, in-service training agencies, such as the Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute (BMTTI), use textbooks as the primary resource when conducting teacher-training programs. Thus, we conclude that, on the whole, the NCTB curriculum documents and textbooks for general education subjects are much better. 119. The Ministry of Education has received some help in curriculum development and teacher curriculum guides. The SESDP has completed a needs assessment for curriculum development and proposed training for textbook writers. The Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project (TQI-SEP) has developed training manuals for teachers for some subjects. Thus, at a project level at least, some work has already been done in this development area. 120. The SESDP also completed a needs assessment for curriculum reform (Kennedy and Kabir, 2009). Representatives from stakeholder groups were interviewed, including individuals from universities, the private sector, government and ministries, secondary school teachers, college principals, NGOs, and Chambers of Commerce and Industries. The study found the need for changes in curriculum organization and content, textbooks revisions, and classroom practices in: (a) science education, (b) thinking and speaking skills, (c) English skills, (d) mathematics and physics education, (e) workplace education, (f) career guidance, (g) curriculum goals and datedness, (h) moral and ethical education, (i) vocational skill development, (j) computer resources and learning, and (k) issues related to a unified curriculum. Since Aliya Madrasahs have a significant role in the education of secondary students, these findings should have great importance for curriculum, teaching, and textbooks in Aliya Madrasahs. 121. New developments resulting from the NEP 2010, however, imply that Aliya Madrasahs should use the NCTB textbooks and curriculum. If the implication is true, further
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Appendix 3.1 Study A.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education capacity building for BMEB in the area of curriculum development, for general education subjects, is less viable as an investment, except in the four religious subjects, because that capacity exists already in NCTB to produce the curricula and textbooks. 3.2.3.2 The NCTBs View of the BMEBs Curriculum Development Process41 122. The NCTBs position is that a curriculum should be national in scope, prepared in a systematic way, based on a study of social and educational needs, tested out in real classrooms, and developed using a continuous process rather than as a single event. In NCTB staffs opinion, the BMEB curriculum fails to meet criteria for systematic curriculum development. 3.2.3.3 Education Watchs Observations on the Curriculum Development Process 123. The Nath et al. (2007) Educational Watch report focused on secondary education (Appendix 3.8). It concluded that the NCTB curriculum and textbook preparation process is more organized than the BMEB and that the National Curriculum Coordination Committees (NCCC) common learning objectives are followed mostly by the NCTB. The report also concluded that the BMEB secondary textbooks contents are not adequate for students to learn required competencies in language, mathematics, and general science. Further, Sharp distinctions exist between the streams in relation to the examination system, mark distribution [i.e., emphasis] among core and elective subjects, question paper preparation and assessment procedures, which is a serious obstacle to establishing equivalency among the streams. The conclusions of the Nath report may be less relevant for future Aliya Madrasahs, however, if these madrasahs use the NCTB textbooks and curricula for general subjects (Section 3.3 below) and the two systems come closer together. It is too soon to determine the degree to which this will happen in the near future. 3.3 TEACHER TRAINING

124. This section provides an analysis of training for Aliya and Qoumi Madrasahs teachers and compares that training to teachers in general education schools, which include government and non-government secondary schools. 3.3.1 PRE-SERVICE TEACHER TRAINING REQUIREMENTS AND PROFILES

125. The Ministry of Education sets the requirements for teacher training. In this section we consider the teacher-training profile of Aliya Madrasah teachers at the primary and secondary levels. 126. Primary teachers training requirements differ by gender: Women must have 10 years of schooling, plus hold a Certificate in Education (C in Ed); men must have 12 years of schooling, plus hold a C in Ed. Primary Training Institutions (PTI) offer the C in Ed as a oneyear course for primary teachers. There are 55 (including one non-government) PTIs in Bangladesh. All PTIs have an average of 200 seats for the trainees. Both first and second shift training are provided there.42 The C in Ed is required to teach in primary but the
41

Based on The madrasah curriculum conundrum: minute of a meeting with the NCTB, 10 March 2010. Dhaka: ADB TA: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Project. 42 Download on 8 June 2010 from http://www.mopme.gov.bd/Nape_frm.htm

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education requirement has not been strictly enforced in the Ibtedaye Madrasahs, where only a few are thought to have this qualification. Both Ibtedaye Madrasah and primary general education school teachers are eligible to participate in the C in Ed training, but few madrasah teachers pass the admissions test for the training. One suggestion is that a PTI may reserve 20% of the seats for Ibtedaye Madrasah candidates.43 127. Our survey of 4,800 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah teachers indicated that 89% had no training in teaching methodology, not even a short in-service training such as that offered by BMTTI (see Appendix 10 Table 10.13). This survey also indicated that only 6% of the trained teachers in the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah held the Bachelor in Education (B. Ed.) qualification. If one considers all Ibtedaye Madrasah teachers (attached and independent madrasahs), only 0.6% hold the B. Ed qualification and only 0.8% hold the C in Ed qualification (Appendix 10 Table 10.13). The conclusion is that if one wants to improve the quality of education in Aliya Madrasahs then providing Ibtedaye Madrasah teachers with quality training in subject matter and pedagogy is a critical need. 128. Secondary teachers must have 14 years of schooling, hold a Bachelor of Education (B Ed) degree, and hold an NTRCA44 certificate in their teaching subjects. Secondary teachers are required to attain the B Ed degree from a teacher training college or university (see Appendix 3.14 for the teacher-training syllabus). For Aliya Madrasah teachers the B Ed would require a one-year course after completing the Fazil/Kamil level, but government has not finalized the equivalency of these levels to general education. The candidate must specialize in two general education or madrasah subjects. Currently, there are no persons in the teacher training colleges teaching the madrasah subjects, Islamic studies, or Arabic for the B Ed courses. Few Aliya Madrasah teachers receive the B Ed qualification. 45 129. About 30% of current teachers in Aliya Madrasah are Kamil (the top level) graduates who were educated in Aliya Madrasah, followed by secular graduate degree holders (24.3%); the lowest percentage is that of senior secondary certificate holders (4.3%). Overall, only 29% of the secondary level madrasah teachers are trained (B.Ed., M. Ed46., B. P Ed., B. Ag. Ed.), whereas in general education schools, the overall is 58% trained (BANBEIS, 2010, Table 13). The data, however, also show that madrasah teachers have had far less access to teacher training facilities than those in general education (Bano, 2007, p 8). 130. Owens, Cumming, and Ahmed (2009) and Nath et al. (2007) indicate that only 50% of the madrasah teachers they interviewed said that they had specific training in teaching methodology. This lack of specific training in teaching methodology was also borne out by our own interviews with BMTTI and BMEB. (See Appendix 3.1 Study I.)

12 November 2009. Summary of the Meeting with the Principal of BMTTI. Dhaka: ADB TA: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Project. 44 NTRCA is the Non-Government Teachers Registration and Certification Authority. 45 Information in this paragraph is based on 12 November 2009. Summary of the Meeting with the Principal of BMTTI. Dhaka: ADB TA Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Project. 46 M Ed is the Master in Education. BP Ed is the Bachelor in Physical Education. B Ag. Ed is the Bachelor in Agricultural Education.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 131. Interviews from the CDTA qualitative study (Appendix 9) illustrated the kind of training that madrasah teachers have. (See the box containing illustrative quotes from teachers.) The educational attainment of the teachers interviewed is very variable with most of them having studied in and graduated from the madrasah sector. However, a few are also graduates from the general education stream. It is interesting to note, in the last two quotes in the box, that the educational path of some of the teachers is not unlike that of their students where individuals move back and forth from the two streams throughout their student life. Also, similar to students interviews, financial matters informed and shaped the teachers educational choices.

I graduated from Kapashia Degree College under the Open University (35-year old Ibtedaye female teacher). I took the SSC in 1985 from Manikganj. I Passed HSC in 1988, and graduated in 1990 from Dhaka. I passed my masters from Jagannath University, Dhaka in 1992 (40-year old Aliya female teacher). I passed Fazil in 1988. I have studied in madrasahs since the primary level (38-year old Aliya male teacher). I passed the Kamil examination and I am Hafez-e-Quran (39-year old Aliya male teacher). I started my education from a government primary school. After that I studied in two madrasahs up to class seven. Later I was admitted in this madrasah and completed my Alim degree [sic]. I further studied Fazil and graduated from Moulvibazar Government College as a private candidate (29-year old Aliya male teacher). At the primary level, I studied in a primary school. Then I began my Qoumi education and completed it in 1994. From both Bangladesh and India, I obtained a Daorah-e-Hadith degree (40year old male Qoumi teacher). I passed Dakhil from Gafargaon and Alim from Kapasia. I cherished a dream to study more, but due to a financial handicap, I could not continue. When I got this job, I could not pursue my

132. The Ministry of Education, through project initiatives, has recently become involved in teacher training. The Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project (TQISEP) has developed a condensed certificate program, the Secondary Teaching Certificate (STC), as an in-service program. It is described in Appendix 3.14.47 This training was recently opened to Aliya Madrasah teachers under certain conditions. 3.3.2 IN-SERVICE TEACHER TRAINING FOR ALIYA MADRASAH TEACHERS48

133. The Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute (BMTTI) conducts only inservice training for Aliya madrasah teachers and principals. Since 2002, approximately 20,000 Aliayah Madrasah teachers have received in-service training. Approximately 3,500

Summary of July/August Meetings with Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project (TQI I SEP), 29 July 2010 and 1 August 2010. 48 Information in this section is based on 12 November 2009. Summary of the Meeting with the Principal of BMTTI. Dhaka: ADB TA Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Project.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education teachers are trained each year. The current facility accommodates 265 persons. This provides a limitation on the number of teachers that can be trained in BMTTI. 134. Senior Aliya Madrasah teachers (Alim, Fazil, Kamil) can be given a four-week course in one of the following: Communication in Arabic, Bengali, Communication in English, Science, Physics, or Chemistry. Assistant Aliya Madrasah teachers (Dakhil) can be given a four-week course in one of the following: Communication in Arabic, Communication in English, Mathematics, or Science. Recently, the government proposed to the BMTTI a twoweek training in English, management, and administration. 135. The BMTTI also provides in-service training for Dakhil, Alim, Fazil, and Kamil principals consisting of three weeks of management and administration. The principals in these training courses, however, are taught neither how to supervise teachers instruction nor how to provide instructional leadership in their madrasah. 136. Ibtedaye Madrasah teachers do not have a regular in-service training program. Our survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah teachers indicated that only 2% of them had received in-service training at BMTTI (Appendix 10, Table 10.13). The observations from the Qualitative Study (Appendix 9) that are extracted and presented in the box, illustrate the type of in-service training teachers and administrators have received.

The vast majority of our respondents among the teaching staff declared that they had little to no training in education. This finding corroborates where data show that, among Aliya teachers, only a quarter claims some form of teacher training and such training may be a very short course: I got no professional training in education. But I have gathered some knowledge from the experience of teaching as a private tutor (21-year old male Ibtedaye teacher). Most learn on the job and about half of the teachers interviewed recounted that they had participated in at least one short training session either provided in-house as it seems to be often the case for Qoumi Madrasahs or by the BMTTI. Yes, I have attended Nurani training on teaching from Jummapara Madrasah (27-year old male Qoumi assistant teacher). I attended in BMTTI training of 27 days in 2006 (44-year old male Ibtedaye assistant Moulovi). Interestingly, administrators, it seems with the noted exception of Ibtedaye administrators have had greater access to basic training in administrative techniques: During my study in Kamil, I did a 6 months course in Arabic. Besides, I completed the Principal training course 18th batch from the Madrasah Teacher Training Institute (33-year old male Aliya Vice Principal)

137. The Teacher Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project (TQI-SEP) has provided support for in-service training of thousands of teachers through three in-service components (head teachers, school management committees, and classroom teachers)

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education implemented through the TTCs and at the local level.49 However, before July 2010, the Aliya Madrasah teachers were not considered in this projects purview. From now on some Aliya Madrasah secondary teachers will be included in the training, especially for the STC (see Appendix 3.12). This is a three month condensed course: Two months residential training which included professional studies, teaching methodology, psychology, student assessment, and subject matter learning in two subjects, plus one month teaching practice. It is specifically for teachers not holding a B Ed. 3.3.3 IN-SERVICE SUPERVISION OF TEACHERS50

138. The Aliya Madrasah teacher profile and recruitment policy is such that underqualified teachers are in most of the madrasahs (Study H, Appendix 3.1). This fact argues strongly that academic inspection and supervision for existing teachers needs thorough review and improvement. 139. Information about the existing practices of teacher inspection and teaching supervision was obtained from Study I, Appendix 3.1. Eighty percent of the operational personnel of BMEB, BMTTI, and Special Education Section of DSHE do not have a certificate C in Ed or B Ed. Because of this lack of training in educational methodology, these persons are unable to inspect teachers in a way that permits teachers to improve. For example, in the DSHE Special Education Section, two officers perform the routine work of disbursing madrasah teachers MPO and investigating allegations of impropriety. The inspectors are neither academic nor teaching improvement inspectors. The BMTTI faculty members, DSHE officers, and BMEB officers, were asked about teaching supervision in interviews and appeared to lack an understanding of the concepts behind teacher supervision that could improve teaching quality. The BMTTI modules and the BMEB documents we inspected did not contain any topics regarding teaching supervision that could be helpful to principals or senior teachers. The TQI-SEP and the SESDP project both have teacher supervision components though the madrasah sector has not been included up till now. 3.3.4 CERTIFICATION OF TEACHERS BY NTRCA51

140. The Non-government Teacher Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA) conducts certification examinations annually for non-government secondary and higher secondary level teachers and certifies them for teaching in junior secondary/secondary/higher secondary/Dakhil/Kamil madrasah/vocational institutions. The NTRCA began only in 2010 to examine and register Attached Ibtedaye Madrasah teachers52. The NTRCA certifies prospective teachers for: the posts of (1) assistant teacher for junior secondary, secondary, and higher secondary schools, madrasahs, and vocational

Summary of July/August Meetings with Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project (TQI I SEP) 29 July 2010 and 1 August 2010. 50 Appendix 3.1 Study I. 51 Based on an internal CDTA NTRCA Report by Harunur Rashid Khan, following interviews, April 19 2010. 52 There is no similar kind of examination required for teachers entering registered non-government primary schools (RNGP).

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education institutions, (2) assistant moulavi (religious teacher)53 for Dakhil Madrasahs, and (3) trade and junior trade instructor for vocational education centres. 141. The NTRCA exam is of 200 marks: 100 marks is allocated for four compulsory subjects such as Bangla, English, math, and general knowledge, and 100 marks from any of the 21 optional subjects or any of the 18 optional subjects for vocational level teaching. If a candidate passes, the candidate becomes a registered teacher. Schools and Aliya Madrasahs select from the list of registered teachers to fill posts. Registered assistant teachers and physical education teachers can join either secondary general schools or Dakhil Madrasahs. Similarly, assistant moulavi can also join either of these two streams. Data are not available as to how many of the Aliya Madrasahs teachers have been examined and registered by NTRCA. 3.3.5 PRE-SERVICE AND IN-SERVICE TEACHER TRAINING IN QOUMI MADRASAHS

142. During visits to Qoumi Madrasahs the CDTA team was told that thus far BEFAQUL does not require formal teacher training. The Qoumi Madrasah authority would like to train the teachers but it lacks fund, experts, and materials so it cannot arrange such training. 143. One Qoumi Madrasah reported that their teachers do not receive formal in-service training but the senior teachers do mentor the junior teachers informally. Apparently, there are meetings of teachers in which students progress is discussed and teachers discuss ways to improve the learning of individual students.54 It is not known how widely this mentoring practice is used in the Qoumi Madrasahs throughout the nation. Further, in a team visit to the BEFAQUL, Madarisil Arabia Board (BEFAQ), the Board reported that it provides teacher training through a travelling team of three itinerant trainers (primary, secondary, and Quranic).55 The extent of this itinerant in-service program has not been studied. 3.3.6 CLASSROOM PRACTICES OF TEACHERS IN ALIYA MADRASAHS

144. Current classroom teaching practices reflect both the training of the current teachers and the modification of teachers classroom behaviour based on the realities of teaching environment in which they find themselves working. Resources and time constraints did not permit the CDTA team to conduct systematic scientific observations of madrasah teachers classroom practices. However, we cite comments from other studies that have conducted direct observation of classroom practices. The following observations are based on studies of teachers classroom practices in the Aliya Madrasahs during the past several years: (1) Teaching practices in the madrasahs emphasize rote learning and conformity, and do not encourage critical thinking or analysis. (Choudhury I H 2007); (2) Urban schools are more interactive with students than rural schools. The majority of all types of secondary schools teachers reported they explained the topic then followed this by question and answer method of teaching (Nath et al 2007); (3) ..the education in madrasah is better. Now my son pays more attention to school, there is more pressure from the madrasah for
53

Moulavi generally means any religious cleric or teacher who teaches Islam preferably in a school or a madrasah. It is sometimes used as an honorific religious title for a Muslim man. 54 Field Visits to Madrasah in Chittagong 16th and 17th November 2009. Dhaka: ADB TA Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Project. 55 Based on Summary of Meeting with Bangladesh Qoumi Arabic Board: 13 October 2009. Dhaka: ADB Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Project.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education him to do his homework. He is taking responsibility for his own education and reading now. (Parent, peri-urban South) (GRM International 2009,p.86); (4) I like the madrasah the best because now I have learnt so much about religion. And here I am bound to pay attention to school because there is very strong supervision and pressure from the teachers. And it is close to home. Now we are reading 11 subjects, and if there is something I dont understand I can raise it with the teacherhe is very helpful and makes whatever I dont understand clear to me. Also, now when I have been ill ... the teacher came to see me, and the school asked my class friends to come and look after me (Ibid p.86); (5) Cost in government school is lower than in madrasah but I have decided to send my son to madrasah anyway They take more care and take action if the child does not attend regularly. (Mother, periurban South) (ibid p.86); (6) Some students (urban South) go to the madrasah during the day and to an NGO for working children in the evening, were they do drawing and other activities. (Ibid p.72); (7) About 62% of the government, urban private, and urban madrasahs report having games and sports for secondary students; only about 33% of the rural private and madrasahs report having games and sports (Nath et al 2007); (8) In secondary schools, 21-22% of the urban and rural madrasahs students report that their teachers physically punished them. (GRM International 2009 p.86-87); (9) In secondary schools, 33% of the urban and rural madrasah students report that their teachers mentally abused them; on the other hand, 36% of private school secondary students, and 39% of government secondary school students report that teachers are mentally abusive. (Nath et al 2007); (10) Recently, the courts in Bangladesh have ruled that abuse of children in schools is a human rights violation; a MOE circular asks district education officers and upazila secondary education officers to take action against teachers who use corporal punishment (The Daily Star, August 10, 2010, p1,15). 145. The CDTA qualitative study interviewed students from several madrasahs, discussing discipline and punishment with them. The study found that discipline was strict and students were required to abide by many rules and regulations. Absence and lateness are highly discouraged as well as any movement inside or outside the classroom. Overall, madrasahs seem to be highly monitored spaces where students have little to no choice in the ways in which they go about their daily routines. Differential treatment along age and gender lines is noted particularly in terms of school uniforms and the separation of boys and girls for instruction in the higher classes (Appendix 9). The box contains illustrative quotes from students.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education We need to follow numerous regulations, such as timely attendance, remaining within class without frequent movement to the outside [of the classroom]. We have to bring assigned home work (female student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah). Students are to follow numerous rules. They must seek permission to go outside the classroom, wear burka, and attend the assembly (female student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah). We are to report to the madrasah by 9.30 am and wear a white uniform; Male students wear a panjabi and cap and female student wear the burka. Attendance is checked, as daily attendance is compulsory. In the classroom, a screen is used to separate male and female students (male student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah). Disciplinary rules extend beyond the walls of the madrasah. Many leisure activities are prohibited in madrasahs (also see Appendix 9, Section 4.1 on students schedule). Interestingly, several (older) students mentioned that their madrasah also prohibited political activities. It must be noted that madrasah disciplinary practices are rarely contested by students in our interviews and seem to be understood by students as a way to instill desired Islamic manners and behaviors: Singing, dancing, and playing musical instruments in the madrasah or outside are prohibited, as Islam does not approve of it (first year male student in Fazil Madrasah). Only books written on Islam are allowed in this madrasah (male student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). The quote above illustrates the closed-society quality and the inward focus that characterizes certain madrasahs. We know that most madrasahs have libraries with limited book holdings. 1 As many madrasahs seek to transform their curriculum and want to use computers, we find this reluctance to read broadly anomalous and somewhat contradictory. Besides academic education, teachers provide teachings on manner. We all wear a white uniform. Female students have to wear the burka (female student in Dakhil madrasah). Assembly is compulsory. Students are to be regular in attending their class, saying prayer, and must be dressed in the madrasah uniform. Going outside [the Madrasah] is discouraged and political activities are not allowed. Watching TV is also discouraged (male student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). Students, in our interviews, often recount occurrences of physical punishment as part of the disciplinary regimen of madrasahs.1 It must be noted, however, that resorting to these kinds of disciplinary practices vary greatly from one madrasah to another. Interestingly and most troubling perhaps, the occurrence of beatings is most often mentioned by younger students enrolled in Ibtedaye Madrasahs.
Source: Appendix 9, Report of the Qualitative Study

3.3.7

CLASSROOM PRACTICES OF TEACHERS IN QOUMI MADRASAHS

146. We could not find any systematic classroom observational studies about teaching practices in Qoumi Madrasahs although there is widely held perception that they use rotelearning and teacher-centred didactic instruction. There is anecdotal evidence of stern discipline, including physical punishment and practices that have been described as mentally

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education abusive. The extent of such practices in Qoumi Madrasahs is not known. In this context it is important to note that, despite government policy initiatives, even very recent ones, children in all types of educational institutions in Bangladesh are reportedly at high risk of corporal punishment and abusive behaviour from teachers. 3.4 LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT

147. Learning outcomes of students are often taken as one measure of the quality of education they receive. If two systems student learning outcomes are to be compared, it is necessary for the comparisons to be based on administering the same examination questions to samples of students from each system. Madrasahs students and general education schools students, however, currently take different sets of questions that assess different content and at different depths of knowledge. Because these examinations are different, it is not valid to compare learning outcome attainments of students from the two systems by using the examinations that were administered to students up until 2010. This CDTA did not have the resources and time to develop a common examination and administer it to samples of students from both systems. We did, however, develop an analysis of the achievements of the madrasah students in relation to achievements of general education students as perceived by stakeholders. 3.4.1 STAKEHOLDERS PERCEPTIONS OF MADRASAH STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENTS

148. From informal conversations and comments at various functions, the general perception is that students leaving both the Aliya and Qoumi madrasahs have lower levels of learning in the general education subjects, have received a narrower education, and that these make it difficult for them to gain admission to higher education or to employment in better jobs in the private sector. Generally, it is perceived that madrasahs educational achievements are very variable. For example, at the Dakhil level, the lowest [achievement] is found in rural madrasah, it is better in private urban madrasah, and the best in the government urban madrasah (Owens et al 2009 p.19). As was noted in the section on teacher training, meetings with government officials revealed that few madrasah candidates for teacher training colleges pass the examinations for admission. A common official view is that it is necessary to mandate a quota of 20% of the places for madrasah leavers who apply to teacher training colleges. 149. The SESDP conducted a survey and interviewed students, teachers, madrasah heads, guardians, madrasah management committees, education officers, and upazila chairmen in 30 model and 34 non-model madrasahs in all districts. Respondents were unanimous in their view that a revised curriculum and better textbooks are essential to providing equal opportunity for madrasah students to access and succeed in higher education and to obtain good jobs. In addition to religious subjects, Bangla, English Mathematics, Science, ICT, Geography, History, Economics, Government and Civics, and Physical Education were perceived by stakeholders to be moderately or extremely important for madrasah education. Skills such as self-direction, teamwork and cooperation, social and cultural skills, and leadership were also viewed as important to develop in a madrasah curriculum. These data argue for a strong and revised curriculum for madrasahs. However, as was discussed previously in Section 3.2, a new curriculum and new textbooks will do little

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education good if they do not find their way into the hands of teachers and students. Delivery of these materials to those who need them has been a problem in the past. 3.4.2 DIFFERENT STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY PARENTS TO AVAIL GOOD EDUCATION AND INCENTIVES 56

150. Students parents often want the best education for their students but because of the location in which they live or the limits of their own financial resources, the education they desire is not easily obtained. As a result, parents have used various strategies to obtain better education for their children. The strategies often involve educating students in both general education schools and madrasahs, as well as in NGO schools at primary level. There are significant levels of transfer between schools making the notion of dropout at the primary level more opaque than a simple numerical analysis might reveal. Appendices 3.8 and 3.9 summarize of some of these parental strategies. The box shows statements from students who were interviewed as part of the Qualitative Study reported in Appendix 9.

I studied in a government primary school from class one to five (male student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). I studied in primary school from class one to five (female student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah). I completed my primary level of education from Raninbari Chandpur government primary school (third year male student in Fazil Madrasah). Before my admission to this madrasah, I studied in Narayanpur government primary school up to class five (male student of Class 10/Science in Dakhil Madrasah). I was admitted in this madrasah in Class 6. Before that I studied in Dewanpara BRAC school up to primary level (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). Source: Appendix 9, Report of the Qualitative Study.

3.4.3

EDUCATION WATCH CONCLUSIONS ABOUT STUDENT LEARNING IN THE ALIYA MADRASAHS AND GENERAL EDUCATION SCHOOLS

151. Nath et al. (2007) drew the following conclusions about secondary education including madrasahs: (1) Government schools in urban areas have better facilities, teachers, and learning provisions. The second best are urban private schools, then urban madrasahs, and last are rural private schools and madrasahs. (2) According to the achievement tests administered, poor facilities, poor teaching, and poorly implemented curricula lead to poor learning outcomes. Children of better off families are able to send their children to better schools and they have better success in attaining secondary education, thus widening the inequality between social strata. (3) The poorly constructed madrasah curriculum at the secondary level has resulted in graduates who are poorly prepared for the future. (4) After Grade 7, girls do not pursue education as equally as boys in spite of the government special stipend program that encourages girls to continue schooling. (5) The current system prepares too small a proportion of secondary graduates with the education necessary for the workplace or higher education.

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Extracted from GRM International 2009.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 3.4.4 ALIYA MADRASAHS LEAVERS FURTHER EDUCATION AND WORK OPPORTUNITIES

152. Nath et al. (2007) conducted a 10-year follow-up interview study of secondary school graduates (see Appendix 3.8). They found that 90% of government school graduates entered further education, 87% of urban private, 71.5% of rural private, 80.8% of urban madrasahs, and 62.5% of rural madrasahs. More of those who studied science (53%) went on to further education, than did those whose focus was humanities (35%). 153. The study also found that there was no movement from the general education stream to the madrasahs, but that 25% of the madrasahs students went to the general education stream. They also found a bias against women in earnings, regardless of the type of educational institution from which they graduated. 3.4.5 FINDINGS FROM INTERVIEWS AND FIELD STUDIES ABOUT EMPLOYMENT AND EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR QOUMI STUDENTS57

154. The CDTA interviewed teachers and administrators in Qoumi Madrasahs. They indicated that most Qoumi Madrasah graduates find employment in the religious sector in either Bangladesh or in the Middle East. Islamic scholars are in demand in the religious sector. If graduates are literate in Arabic then graduates from the better and established Qoumi Madrasahs are in demand in Arabic speaking countries. Some graduates are employed as Qoumi Madrasah teachers. Others may start their own madrasahs. Some become imams or mufti in local communities. 155. There is very little opportunity for Qoumi Madrasah graduates in the (general) job market, because their certificates are seen as not equivalent to the Aliya madrasahs or general education schools, mainly because most of the Qoumis do not teach enough of the general education subjects. The Qoumi certification of Sanabia is not seen as equivalent to the Aliya madrasah or general education school certification, and thus is not considered by employers and higher education institutions. Some Qoumi madrasah teachers and students, however, think that the status of the Qoumi madrasah education should be equivalent to general education and Dakhil level. 156. To overcome these obstacles, some Sanabia Amma (roughly Classes 9 and 10) Qoumi Madrasahs students sit for the SSC or Dakhil examinations as private candidates. Successful students may able to apply for jobs and also seek admission into intermediate level or Alim level education because a SSC or Dakhil pass certificate is considered for job as well as for higher-level study. 3.5 ANALYSIS OF THE ASSESSMENTS AND EXAMINATIONS USED IN THE MADRASAHS58 MADRASAH-BASED ASSESSMENT IMPLEMENTATION

3.5.1

157. The Ministry of Education has introduced school-based assessment into the general education schools. In the madrasahs it is called madrasah-based assessment (MBA). From
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Appendix 3.1 Study C. Appendix 3.1 Study E.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education an educational perspective, MBA should consist of both formative and summative assessment of students. The teacher should conduct formative assessment while teaching each lesson for purposes of improving student learning (especially through giving students effective feedback about how to improve their current learning) and for providing information to help the teachers improve their own teaching. A teacher conducts summative assessment at the end of each term or year for purposes of giving marks or grades. 158. To implement school-based assessment, schools have primarily used summative assessments in the form of three formal examinations: the end of the first term, the end of the second term, and the end of the academic year. Test and examinations to select candidates for [taking the] SSC or Dakhil examinations was also common. However, some schools and madrasahs also introduced monthly, fortnightly or weekly examinations (Nath et al 2007 p. xxxi). Nath et al (2007) report that 50% of the general education schools, urban madrasahs, and urban private secondary schools have introduced monthly examination systems; while 38% of rural madrasahs report using monthly exams, and only 13% of rural general education schools do so. 3.5.2 CAPACITY OF THE MADRASAHS TO IMPLEMENT MBA

159. At present, MBA is limited to summative assessments in the form of three end-ofterm examinations in an academic year59. Training in using MBA is not included in the BMTTI in-service training pro-grams. The BMTTIs instructors informed us that there is no MBA material in the modules. All the interviewees reported that neither BMEB nor BMTTI provided verbal or written guidance to trainees on MBA. When asked about the pedagogical aspects of MBA, all the respondents said they did not know anything about it. The entire BMTTI faculty interviewed thought that they needed in-depth training of MBA and its pedagogical implications. It appears that BMEB lacks capacity to implement MBA, perhaps because of the lack of professional pedagogical competence among the staff. 3.5.3 ORGANIZATION OF THE BMEB EXAMINATIONS

3.5.3.1 Examination Policy for Aliya Madrasahs 160. Until now, each board in Bangladesh, including the BMEB, set its own examinations. Recently, government placed the examinations for Fazil and Kamil examinations under the Islamic University of Kushtia, rather than the BMEB. This policy also recognized that students successfully completing this universitys examinations have earned recognized bachelors and masters degrees in Islamic specializations. Such recognition also allows Kamil students to sit for the Bangladesh Central Service Examination (BCSE), success on which is necessary to be eligible to be considered for the civil service. 161. Government has stated that the various BMEB and Bangladesh Examinations Development Unit (BEDU) examinations are to be considered equivalent, thus making the completion of each educational level in the two systems equivalent, since successful completion depends on passing the respective examinations. Unfortunately, the
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General secondary school-based assessment ought to include much more that term examinations. It should also include: class work and homework, class tasks and practical work, assignments, presentations, group work, behavior/morals/honesty, selected library work, and co-curricular participation and achievement.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education examinations content and format have not been the same or comparable in the recent past. The analysis that follows explains why it would be inappropriate, therefore, to consider, at least up to 2010, the different examinations to be equivalent in the sense that evaluate students over the same content and depth of knowledge of the subject. 162. We have been told that for the general education subjects taught in the madrasahs at the Dakhil and Alim levels, from now on, the examination questions will be set by the Bangladesh Examinations Development Unit (BEDU) and will be the same ones used by general education students for SSC and HSC. BMEB will continue to set the questions for the religious subjects. 163. At the primary level, the examination unit within DPE has set the general education schools Grade 5 exam. In the past, BMEB set and administered its own Grade 5 Primary Shomaoni examination, including exams for the general education subjects. From November 2010, however, there has been a national primary leaving examination that was also administered to Ibtedaye Madrasahs, but it is unclear at the time of writing whether identical questions were asked of the students in the two systems.60 3.5.3.2 Quality of Examinations from BMEB and NCTB 164. For examinations before 2010, the CDTA team collected, reviewed, and analyzed examination questions for different grades, from NCTB and from the BMEB (see Appendix 3.1 Study G). The findings indicated that the Aliya Madrasahs questions in five subjects for Grade 7 were based only on content recall, and did not assess the learning outcomes and thinking skills espoused in the curriculum. The Grade 9 questions reflected some of the curriculum educational aims, but more than 70%-80% were content recall questions. 165. Grade 4 questions contained questions that included: explaining the meaning, frame sentences, fill up the gap, and writing essays. In mathematics, traditional question formats were used. In social studies, questions included multiple choice, matching, fill up the gap, short question answer, and writing descriptions. These are very conventional question formats, too. 166. The NCTB exams from primary level to higher secondary level for two end-of-term examinations and one annual examination were reviewed. On the whole these examinations assessed the subject matters objectives, aims, contents, and learning outcomes. However, most of the questions focused on the subject matter content and the learning outcomes. At all levels the examinations include a variety of question formats including multiple-choice, short answer, fill in the gap, matching exercises, and essay questions. The BEDU will expand the use of CQs in forth coming years, to include madrasahs also. But thus far, there is much room for improvement of the BEDU examinations, especially in assessing students depth of knowledge of a subject.
We received contradictory responses to our inquiries from different parties. Perhaps the examination policy was in the process of being formulated. Some have said that from 2011 on BMEB will set the questions, as previously, but give them to DPE to administer at the same time as the Grade 5 exam. The BMEB teachers will mark the madrasah students scripts and BMEB will send the results to DPE to publish along with the general education Grade 5 results. If this is true, then nothing will have changed from the past, and the examinations will continue not to be educationally comparable.
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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 3.5.3.3 New Examination Policy for Aliya Madrasahs 167. Recently, the BMEB stated it will begin using the general education textbooks in the madrasahs and presumably the students will sit for the exams set by Bangladesh Examinations Development Unit (BEDU). The BMEB stated that creative questions (CQ) would be used in Islamic Studies from 2011 and in Quran Studies in 201261. The BEDU will expand the use of CQs in general education subject papers. Madrasah students will sit for examinations in the general education subjects the same days as the general education students. 168. Beginning in November 2010, both general education and madrasah Grade 8 students sat for the new Junior Certificate Examination (JCE) as per the 2010 National Education Policy approved by Cabinet on 31 May 2010. There are 9 subjects: Bangla Papers 1 and 2, English Papers 1 and 2, General Mathematics, General Science, Samajik Bigyan (Social Science), Religion, Krishi Shikhha (Agricultural Science)/Home Economics; no practical exams. Academic transcripts not certificates will be issued (The Daily Star, 10 August 2010, pp. 15, 16). 169. However, the BMEB has told CDTA team members will develop, administer, mark scripts, and publish the results for this new examination, albeit at the same time as the JSC for the general education Grade 8 students. It is not clear whether this is a temporary arrangement; nor is it clear whether the SSC and Dakhil examinations will continue beyond 2012.62 Officials are currently discussing whether there should be three required public examinations (JCE, SSC, and HSC) for general education secondary students under the National Education Policy of 2010. So the examination policy is still in flux as of this writing. 3.5.4 QUALITY OF THE DAKHIL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

170. The questions for Grade 9 and 10 in Bangla, mathematics, social science, and chemistry were analyzed. In Bangla: creative types of questions were included in 4 different questions; the rest were conventional questions. In mathematics: 50% questions were for algebra, 25% questions were for geometry, and the other 25% were for trigonometry. The nature and characteristics of questions were conventional. In social science: the questions were one-sentence answer questions and short answer questions. There were no multiple choice questions or creative type of questions63. In chemistry: the questions were (1) onesentence answer questions, (2) short answer questions, and (3) essay type questions. Thus, the results of the madrasah question analysis showed that out of the three elements of the curriculum (aim, content recall, and learning outcomes), the Dakhil examinations assessed mainly recall of content. Continued use of only conventional questions formats may hinder students development of their analytical capacity since they will be motivated only to
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See the footnotes for Section 3.5.4 for an explanation of the creative question format. Summary of meeting with Mr. Abu Jaffar, Inspector of Madrasah, BMEB on 11 August 2010. Also, personal conversations with a Dhaka Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education staff member. 63 Creative questions (CQ) are sometimes called structured questions. They begin with a scenario followed by several questions, each one increasing in more difficult skills. The SSC exams used SQ and multiple-choice (MC) in Bangla and Religious Studies in 2010 and will expand to other subjects gradually by 2013. CQs are supposed to account for 40% of the marks and replace current essay questions and non-MC items. Dakhil madrasah will use theses formats for Bangla and Islamic History 2011; and add Social Science, Chemistry, Geography, and Quran subjects in 2012. CQ question development and examples are found in Hossain (2009).

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education memorize content in order to pass examinations. Although all science examinations have 100 marks, there are no practical (laboratory) questions in the Dakhil examinations. The SSC examinations have 25 of the 100 marks devoted to practical questions. The reason for this lack in the Dakhil is that most madrasahs do not have science labs, and thus students do not receive adequate lab instruction.64.As a result, students learning of science is reduced. 171. In 2011, Dakhil will introduce creative questions in two subjects (Islamic History and Bangla) and in three additional subjects (Quranic studies, social science, and chemistry) in 2012. Also BMEB should be using use the general education textbooks and curriculum for several subjects beginning in phases from 2011. In 2010 the JCE (grade 8) and SSC and Dakhil are supposed to be identical examinations (except, perhaps for the religious subjects). 3.5.5 PASS RATES FOR SSC AND DAKHIL EXAMINATIONS

172. The pass rates for the general education Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and the Dakhil for ten years are shown in the table in Appendix 3.10. The trend is for the Dakhil leavers to have a higher rate of passing their examination than the secondary school leavers. A similar trend in higher examination passing rates for Alim madrasah students compared to passing rates for general education on the Higher Education Certificate (HSC) examination has been reported by BANBEIS 65 over the period 1997-2002 and cited by Abdalla, Raisuddin, and Hussein (2004). The fact that the scores on the religious papers were consistently higher than scores on general subjects in the general education schools, does not, however, affect pass rates under the current rules for determining passing. 173. A student who attains the minimum passing score (currently 33% correct) or higher on each paper will pass the exam. Passing rates are not raised or changed by how high scores on the papers. Thus, since the content assessed by the two systems is different and since the pass rate does not reflect degree of learning, using pass rates from these noncomparable examinations as indices of quality of students learning outcomes in not a valid practice. 174. In other sections of this chapter we noted that the curriculum and textbooks of the BMEB and NCTB were different, and that the BMEB curriculum and textbooks for Bangla, English, social studies, and science were not as comprehensive and detailed as those of the NCTB66. This would mean that the Dakhil examination would be similarly less comprehensive and detailed than the SSC examination in the past. Thus, the higher pass rate by the Dakhil examination takers would likely be explained by the Dakhil examination being easier. From an analysis of the questions in the examinations described in the preceding section, we saw that the Dakhil questions were less challenging and more straightforward content questions than the SSC.
In new developments, the examinations will be changing as described above. General education subject examinations will be those prepared by the BEDU, and CQ questions will be introduced into some of the religious subject papers. However, BMEB will continue to set the questions for the new JSC examination, as well as for Dakhil examination (at least through 2012). Thus, low quality questions may continue to be developed by BMEB. 65 Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS). (2002). Statistical Profile on Education in Bangladesh. Dhaka: BANBEIS Publications n. 350. Pages 56-65. 66 Appendix 3.1 Studies B and F.
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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 175. Research, in which identical exam papers were administered to both general education and madrasah students, showed rural and urban Grade 10 madrasah students far behind general education and private school students; and Grade 8 rural Aliya students slightly behind rural general education students in mathematics and English, but ahead of rural general education students in general knowledge and Islamic Studies. Nath et al. (2007) report that when the same questions was administered to Grade 10 students in Bangla, English, Mathematics, and Everyday Science, the pass rate for general knowledge was 68%, urban private 50%, rural private 23%, urban madrasahs 19%, and rural madrasahs 8%. Thus, it appears that although the pass rates are higher, the Dakhil students learn less of the general subject knowledge than general education students. 176. It is important to calculate average scores rather than pass rates in order to identify the level of learning outcomes. Our own analysis of the Dakhil results (Appendix 3.11) shows that Dakhil students score higher in Bangla and religious subjects than they do in other general education subjects, with English and Mathematics being the lowest scoring areas. We found a similar result when we analyzed SSC examination results (see Appendix 3.12). These results are consistent with those of other studies that conclude that Bangladesh students relative to learning other subjects least learn English and mathematics. 177. The World Bank administered a set of identical questions to rural Grade 8 students (see Appendix 3.13). In mathematics rural general secondary students performed slightly better than rural Aliya madrasah students, and both performed better than rural Qoumi students; in English rural general education school students scored higher than rural Aliya students and both are better than rural Qoumi students. However, in both Islamic studies and general knowledge, rural Qoumi students scored higher than both rural general education and rural Aliya students. Thus, it appears that in all secondary streams students learn English and mathematics most poorly. 178. Abdallah et al (2004) have a somewhat different interpretation of the seemingly higher results for the madrasah results over the general education results: The fact that Madrasah students have relatively higher rates of passing what are considered by the government to be equivalent examinations to those taken by students of the general education system seemed to contradict observations made by various interviewees. Specifically, among most members of the educated public there is a belief that Madrasah students are not as smart as those graduating from general education schools. (Pp. 2829). 3.5.6 EXPLANATIONS FOR LOWER ACHIEVEMENT OF MADRASAHS

179. It must be recognized that there is a great variance in the achievement of madrasahs. Some score very low on the average while others score rather high. The explanation for differential performance cannot be explained by this CDTA study. The time and resources allocated to this CDTA did not permit in depth studies of schools and the reasons why they succeed or fail. We visited classroom only casually and did not conduct systematic classroom analyses. Nor did we conduct systematic in depth interviews of principals, school committees, pupils, guardians, and teachers to determine how their attitudes and the learning atmosphere they create for the students relate to learning achievement outcomes.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 180. One approach to conducting such (at least partially explanatory) study is to conduct regression research in which one correlates achievement outputs on identical examinations with indicators of factors expected to improve achievement. High and low achieving madrasahs can be contrasted on these factors to identify those that contribute to student learning the most. Based on the results, researchers can then recommend which factors to implement in all madrasahs. 181. The Asian Development Bank has already conducted such a study in Bangladesh. In 2000, it sponsored a national study of a stratified representative random sample of government and registered non-government primary schools through the Primary School Performance Monitoring Project (PSPMP). The ADBs study found that the Teaching and Learning Processes factor (e.g., using a variety of teaching strategies, frequent assessment and feedback, and effective homework strategies) was most important in explaining primary school achievement. This factor was followed in order of importance by School Learning Climate, Outside Inputs (e.g., community and government inputs), and Enabling Conditions (e.g., teacher qualifications and motivations). This study required researchers to visit school, record details of schools in depth, observe classrooms, and interview teachers, parents, school management committees, and principals. Videos were taken of classroom teaching and analyzed. 182. The Asian Development Bank sponsored the publication in 2001 of four reports of the research so that future researchers in Bangladesh can the methodology as a model to study explanations (at least correlates) of achievement: (1) Primary Education in Bangladesh Findings of PSPMP: 2000, (2) Improving the Quality of Primary Education in Bangladesh: A Strategic Investment Plan, (3) Users Manual: Implementing the Primary School Performance Monitoring Model, and (4) Technical Manuals: Development of Instruments, Sampling Techniques, and Data Analysis.67 Additional suggestions are found in the Final Report of this CDTA, Annex 3, Appendix 11. 3.6 SUMMARY

183. General education subjects textbooks and curricula produced by BMEB are of lower quality than those produced by NCTB. The curriculum documents are less detailed, provide little guidance to teachers, and have less complete content compared to the corresponding NCTB curricula. The textbooks correspondingly contain fewer lessons, have more abbreviated content, focus more on religious interpretations, and depict more traditional roles for women than the corresponding NCTB textbooks. The BMEB curriculum and textbook development capacity has been recognized in several reports as thin and inferior to the corresponding capacity of NCTB. Chapter 6, Section 6.5 summarises the various capacities of BMEB. 184. These differences in the textbooks define the differences in the content and amount of material that has been taught to students in the two systems. Recently, however, the BMEB has stated that the madrasahs will use the NCTB textbooks and curricula for all grades beginning in 2011. Further, the new education policy currently under consideration by
Copies of these reports may be obtained from the Academy for Educational Development, Global Education Center, 1825 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, DC 20009, or from the Asian Development Bank.
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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education government would align the two systems with regard to the general education curricula (but not the religious curricula.) 185. Regardless of the textbooks similarities or differences in the two systems, it appears that there are too few textbooks in the hands of students in madrasahs. On average, an Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah has only 1 or 2 textbooks per student, even though it may teach 5 to 10 subjects. Further, 25% of the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs report that they have no textbooks at all. Thus there is a shortage of textbooks for these madrasah students. 186. Business Education and Information and Communication Technology is usually not taught in Aliya Madrasahs because they do not have the faculties, equipment, and qualified teachers to do so. 187. Qoumi Madrasahs often do not teach general education subjects regularly and focus mainly on preparing students in religious learning and practice, although there is great variability in what these madrasahs teach. 188. Madrasahs have a lower student-teacher ratio than general education schools and consequently lower class sizes, though their teachers are much less likely to be well trained. Eighty-nine percent of the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah teachers have had no training whatsoever, not even the short in-service training offered by BMTTI. Only between 1 and 2% of all Ibtedaye teachers have B. Ed or C Ed, even though this is a government regulation. Overall, only 29% of the Aliya Madrasahs teachers have the necessary qualifications. 189. The one in-service teacher training facility for madrasah teachers, the Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute (BMTTI), conducts only short in-service training for Aliya madrasah teachers and principals. For general education school teachers there are more than 100 teacher-training institutions (14 of which are government TTCs). Only the 14 government TTCs offer both pre- and in-service training. Madrasah teachers have been permitted to join secondary teachers in TQIs Secondary Teaching Certificate training program only after 2010. The NTRCA examines and registers madrasah and secondary teachers who hold B. Ed. or C in Ed qualification. Thus, in-service training is not reaching most of the Aliya Madrasah teachers. 190. The quality of the BMEB examinations is inferior to those produce for general education students. The questions focus mainly on memorization of content and since the students cover less general education subject content, they are easier than the general education schools examinations. The new Education Policy 2010 requires some examination changes for Aliya Madrasahs, but it is unclear how these changes will be implemented in the coming years. 191. The pass rates for the general education Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and the Dakhil for ten years show that Dakhil leavers to have a higher rate of passing their examination than the general education secondary school leavers. However, these pass rates could not be used to validly compare students learning outcomes in the two systems or evaluate the two systems because the examination questions, even for same-named subjects, were different so the examinations results cannot be validly compared. Further, the

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education BMEB curriculum and textbooks for Bangla, English, social studies, and science have not been as comprehensive and detailed as those of the NCTB. This means that the Dakhil examinations in general subjects have been similarly less comprehensive, less detailed, and easier than the SSC examination. Thus, the higher pass rates by the Dakhil examination takers likely means that the Dakhil examinations were easier. The fact that the scores on the religious papers were consistently higher than scores on general subjects in the general education subjects, does not affect pass rates under the current rules for determining passing. 192. Research done buy others, however, in which identical exam papers were administered to general education and to madrasah students, showed rural and urban Grade 10 madrasah students are far behind general education and private school students; and Grade 8 rural Aliya students are slightly behind rural general education students in mathematics and English, but ahead of rural general education students in general knowledge and Islamic Studies. All institutions averages are lowest in English and mathematics, not just the madrasahs. 193. We may conclude that up to 2010 Aliya Madrasah student have received an education in the general subjects that was inferior to that received by students in general education schools. They have lower quality textbooks, generally untrained teachers, and poor quality examinations. The hope is that the New Education Policy of 2010 will provide students in madrasahs with better opportunities to learn.

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CHAPTER 4

INTERNAL EFFICIENCY
4.0 INTRODUCTION

194. Internal efficiency refers to the relative effectiveness of an educational system in assuring that all students that enter the education system complete it in a timely and not wasteful manner. Measures of internal efficiency include repetition, dropout, and cycle completion rates, and examination success (the last is largely discussed in the Quality chapter). 195. We distinguish internal from external efficiency. External efficiency refers to the fitness of the students that are output from the system for their roles in society and in the labour market. Although we recognize the importance of external efficiency of both the secondary schools and Dakhil Madrasahs, neither resources nor time were available to address the issue. We begin this chapter by discussing measures of internal efficiency in the secondary cycle, i.e., classes 6 10. 4.1 CYCLE COMPLETION, REPETITION, DROP-OUT

196. The internal efficiency of general education schools in Bangladesh is widely considered to be very poor. For instance, for over more than a decade the rate of students completing the primary cycle has been stubbornly resistant to change, in spite of all the efforts to improve resource allocations and enhance educational quality. The Annual Sector Performance Review of 2010 put the cycle completion rate of those who entered Class 1 in 2005 and reached Class 5 in 2009 as just below 60%68. 4.1.1 REPETITION AND DROPOUT AT SECONDARY LEVEL

197. Figure 4.1 shows repetition and dropout rates for both General Secondary Schools and for Dakhil Madrasahs. In both systems at Class 6, the repetition rates are almost identical at 4-5% for boys and girls. By Class 10, however, repetition rates increase to 11% for both boys and girls in the general secondary education school, while in Dakhil Madrasahs both boys and girls repetition rates remain at the same levels as in Class 6 (i.e., 4%). 198. Dropout rates are roughly the same in both systems at Class 6, ranging from 8-11%. However, by Class 10, dropout increases dramatically in both systems. In general secondary education, dropout is 28% for boys and 39% for girls. In the Dakhil Madrasahs, it is 21% for boys and 37% for girls. These large increases from Class 6 to Class 10 demonstrate that both systems are not internally efficient, especially for assuring that girls complete their
68

DPE, 2010 page 29, Section 2.2.2.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education education through Class 10. (We note that there is a curious dip in the dropout rate in Dakhil Madrasahs at Class 8 with boys showing a 0.7% dropout rate and girls a 5.9% dropout rate (BANBEIS, 2009 Table 4.3.11). in general secondary schools drop-out of boys at Class 8 was 12.9% and for girls 15.5% in the same year (BANBEIS, 2009, Table 2.3.14.) Table 4.1 Repetitions and Dropout Rates for General Secondary Schools and Madrasahs, 2008

Source: BANBEIS 2009, Table 2.3.14 and Table 4.3.11.

4.1.2

CYCLE COMPLETION RATES AT SECONDARY LEVEL

199. Secondary cycle completion rates measure the percentage of those who start in Class 6 and reach Class 10 in five or more years, regardless of repetition. These are shown in Table 4.1. Table 4.2 Comparative Cycle Completion Rates, General Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs, 2008. Boys General Secondary Schools Dakhil Madrasahs 42% 50% Girls 34% 36%

Source: BANBEIS, 2009 Table 2.3.15 and Table 4.3.12. 200. In the General Secondary Schools, cycle completion rates are higher for boys than for girls; the same is true for Dakhil Madrasahs (See Table 4.2). However, cycle completion rates for Dakhil compared to general education, are slightly better for boys (50% against 42%) but around the same for girls (36% against 34%). Although the overall completion rates at secondary level are very poor, the completion rates in Dakhil Madrasahs are slightly better than in the general secondary schools. The government stipend schemes for girls69,
69

In 2008, boys were not included in the secondary stipend schemes.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education intended to pull girls into secondary schools and retain them, seems to have less influence on girls as they reach the end of the secondary cycle than what one may term push factors70 . 4.1.3 INTERNAL EFFICIENCY IN IBTEDAYE AND QOUMI MADRASAHS 201. We can say little about the internal efficiency of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. The data collection format for the sample survey did not include questions of repetition, dropout, etc. However, as shown in Appendix 10, Table 4, enrolments over the grades have a pattern that is similar to primary schools, with heavy enrolment in Classes I and 2, and a rapid fall-off in enrolment in the upper classes. This pattern is indicative of high dropout. Interestingly, the enrolment pattern in Attached Ibtedaye Madrasahs is different. They have a more even spread of enrolments and similar proportions of enrolments in Classes 1 and 5, indicative of some repetition in the final grade (see Appendix 10 Table 5). 202. No data were collected on dropout and repetition in Qoumi Madrasahs. Data collected in the Qualitative Study suggest that wastage in Qoumi Madrasahs is not serious, however, possibly because many are boarding institutions that feed and/or house students without cost or at subsidised rates.

Guardians are not aware [of the importance of keeping children in madrasah]. Besides, poverty and the erosion of rivers are pushing students to dropout. Girls start dropping out from Class 7, and from Class 6 and 7 boys from poor families start to think about earning a living and begin to drop out (40-year old male Aliya Superintendent). Source: Appendix 9, The Qualitative Study

4.2

EXAMINATION PASS RATES

203. In Chapter 2 we explain why using and comparing Madrasah and general education examination pass rates are extremely poor and invalid ways of evaluating the efficiency or the quality of the two systems. They should not be used for such purposes. However, for sake of completeness, we discuss examination pass rates briefly. 204. Students who get to the end of Class 10 have to pass the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) in the general stream and the Dakhil exam in the madrasah stream. If a student attains a mark of 33% or higher in each subject, the student is awarded a pass for the exam. The questions on the SSC are different than the questions on the Dakhil exam. Thus, although the same criterion of 30% per subject is used by both systems, the differences in the question asked in the two systems invalidate comparisons of passing rates for evaluating the quality of learning outcomes.

70

Factors such as early marriage, the need to contribute to domestic work, and income-earning opportunities all push girls out of education whereas stipends and free tuition pull them in.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Table 4.3 Examination Pass Rates in 2008 for General Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs. %age of students Registered in Class 9 who Subsequently Complete Class 10 Boys General Secondary Schools Dakhil Madrasahs Girls %age of Class 10 students that Register for the Class 10 Exam and Subsequently Pass it Boys Girls

91

83

67

51

88

79

69

58

Sources: BANBEIS, 2009, Table 2.3.12 and Table 4.3.9. 205. Table 4.3 summarizes data for 2008. The first two columns of the table show the percentage of registered Class 9 students who complete Class 10. In both systems the Class 10 completion rates are fairly high, although the rates are 3% to 4% lower for Dakhil Madrasahs than for general secondary schools. Girls Class 10 completion rates are lower than boys in both systems, but girls in Dakhil Madrasahs have a slightly lower Class 10 completion rate than girls in general secondary schools. It is worth pointing out that cycle completion rates (discussed earlier) for both general secondary schools and Dakhil Madrasahs are significantly lower than the results shown in Table 4.3. For instance, the secondary cycle completion rate is 34% for girls in general secondary schools. The reason is that the secondary cycle completion rate uses Class 6 admissions rather than Class 9 registrations as shown in Table 4.3. 206. The second two columns of the table show the percent of Class 10 completers who pass their respective examinations. In the general secondary stream 67% of the boys who register for the SSC pass it; only 51% of girls pass it. In the madrasah stream, the pass rates for boys were 69% and for girls it was 58%. Thus, in 2008, the pass rates and their gender patterns are very similar, although the Dakhil Madrasah students pass their examination at a slightly higher rate. Because of the differences in the SSC and Dakhil examination questions and curricula we cannot draw conclusions from the two pass rates about achievement or learning expectations, since the content that students are expected to learn in the two systems is different. However, the table can be used to compare the relative proportions of those who complete their respective (but different) programs successfully. 207. In Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, examination pass rates mean very little since there has been no national standard examination. From November 2010, however, there has been a national primary leaving examination that was also administered to Ibtedaye Madrasahs, but it is unclear at the time of this writing whether identical questions were asked of the students in the two systems. (We received contradictory responses to our inquiries from different parties. Perhaps the examination policy was in the process of being formulated.)

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 208. Many Qoumi Madrasahs are reported to register with one of the Qoumi Boards so that their students can have a recognised certificate. In our sample survey of Qoumi Madrasahs, almost 30% were unregistered indicating that for a sizeable proportion of students the status of attaining a certificate from a Board is not a high priority. There is no dataset showing comparative rates of passing for the various Qoumi Boards. 4.3 DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS (STUDENT: TEACHER RATIO)

209. Generally, in a well planned education system, with equity as one guiding principle, the normally scarce resource of teachers would be distributed in a way which, along with the provision of physical facilities, would give rise to a student teacher ratio (STR) that would vary only slightly between schools and administrative units (in Bangladesh these units are upazilas, districts and divisions). In Chapter 2, it was noted that the average STR at the division level obscured large variations between districts, and at the district level the average hides disparities between upazilas. It is reported by government officials that some schools have very low STR and others very high. One probable cause is that once a madrasah or school achieves the required minimum enrolment, the allocation of the MPO posts is standardized, no matter how large the enrolment is. The disparities in STR across the country affect secondary schools and Dakhil madrasahs equally. 210. The STR in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs is lower than the STR in primary schools indicating that, at least on the face of it, class sizes are lower in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. (Most primary schools run two shifts so that the actual class size may be only half of the STR value.) The STR is very variable across different districts with a range of more than 100%. Appendix 10 Table 14 has the details. Again, we observe an almost non-existent government control only 30% of the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are MPO-enlisted. Hence, 70% have no government oversight. 4.4 UNIT COST OF A GRADUATE

211. Whenever there are high rates of repetition, dropout, and failure the unit expenditure per cycle graduate increases. The very poor internal efficiencies of both the general secondary school and the Dakhil Madrasah systems represent a significant loss of investment to the country and, perhaps more so for households since private costs have been observed to exceed public costs of secondary schooling. Chapter 7 shows the relative unit costs of education in different kinds of education. 4.5 CONCLUSIONS

212. In both general education and madrasah streams repetition and drop-out are very common for both boys and girls. The cycle completion rates of the general secondary are 42% for boys and 34% for girls. For madrasahs, the rates are slightly better for boys at 50% and around the same for girls at 36%. Furthermore, when success on the final examinations SSC for the general stream and Dakhil for madrasah students is taken into account, the final two years represent a great lost opportunity since significant proportions do not complete Class 10 and of those who do, many fail the exams. Boys who pass the SSC are 67% of those who register for the SSC. For the Dakhil female students only a 58% pass of those who registered for the exam in Class 10.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 213. The reasons for poor cycle completion and high dropouts were not pursued within the surveys. The Qualitative Study did seek to discover the reasons, while the background reading of other studies in Bangladesh suggested that poverty, early marriage for girls, and precarious family income-earning activities are the main factors in Bangladesh leading to withdrawal of students from school. It may be also that if students perceive they have little chance to pass the examination they will dropout in Class 10 without attempting the exam.

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CHAPTER 5

EQUITY
5.0 INTRODUCTION

214. In 1990, Bangladesh signed the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Like other international human rights instruments, the Convention demands that states follow supranational norms, in this case, norms related to the rights of children. Article 28 of the convention demands that signatory states recognize the right of the child to education (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, November 1989). As a signatory of the convention, Bangladesh expounds the principle of equal opportunity to education for all children. Despite a strong equal opportunity discourse and marked progress accomplished in terms of educational access (especially at the primary level), and gender parity in enrolments at the primary and secondary level, educational equity is still lacking in Bangladesh. 215. This chapter summarizes findings delineated throughout this report and in other studies to highlight the question of educational equity in the madrasah sub-sector. In particular, issues of educational access, secondary school enrolment and completion, private costs, quality of education, and levels of participation of various vulnerable groups are discussed. 5.1 ACCESS IN CONTEXT

216. Access to education in Bangladesh largely depends on family background. At the primary and secondary levels, availability of and access to schooling correlate strongly with students socio-economic background, the parents educational attainments, and the geographic location of the students families: Children from well-to-do families, who heave educated mothers, and who live in urban areas have substantially greater educational opportunities. In contradistinction, children with disabilities, street children, working children, children from poor families, and children living in urban slums and remote rural areas have lesser educational opportunities. This trend has long-term consequences becasue educational advantages and disadvantages may be transmitted across generations as a result of social circumstances. (UNICEF 2009, p. 49). 217. In terms of enrolments at the secondary level, it is clear that opportunities have increased for several traditionally underrepresented groups. This has been done almost exclusively, however, through the increased enrolment of underrepresented students in nongovernment schools and madrasahs.71 The gains made in enrolling female students have
71

It is important to reiterate here that madrasah enrolments are predominantly rural enrolments. Indeed, the level of access to madrasahs in rural areas is higher than in urban areas. For instance, Dakhil madrasahs in rural areas enroll 93% of all Dakhil students (BANBEIS 2009 Table 4.1.5). In comparison, 78% of secondary school students are enrolled in rural areas and 22% in urban areas (Ibid Table 2.3.5).

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education been the most spectacular.. Indeed, in all three streams of education at the secondary level gross enrolment rates are around 46% for boys and 57% for girls (see Chapter 3). It must be noted, however, that national figures often mask large disparities that exist between geographic areas in the country.72 218. It is important to note at the outset that when schools and madrasahs are accessible both in terms of distance and private costs, parents will send their children to school or madrasah. This is particularly important for girls who tend to be the first ones to be held back when accessibility is compromised. Our own study shows that high participation rates in secondary level education (with higher female than male participation) correlate with high availability of secondary schools and madrasahs. This is clearly the case, for instance, in the Barisal division (See Chapter 1). 219. Strengthening Education in the Muslim World (June 2003) suggests that one of the strengths of madrasahs in most of the countries studied is that they are highly accessible. In several countries the dearth of appropriate schools in close proximity to where girls live might explain low enrolment rates of girls in madrasahs. If schools are far from a girl's home and parental supervision, guardians and parents fear that she will be harassed, molested, raped, or abducted on her way to school (Bureau for Policy and Program Coordination 2003, p. 8). While the majority of parents in all of the countries studied enrol their children in secular schools, there is a growing trend for parents to send their children to the expanding number of madrasahs that might better match their educational preferences, especially where the safety of their daughters are concerned (Bureau for Policy and Program Coordination 2003, p. 14). 220. The rapid expansion of madrasahs in Bangladesh since the 1970s can be seen as a supply factor in the growing participation of girls at both the primary and the secondary education level.73 It must be noted here that BANBEIS survey of Qoumi Madrasahs documented that these institutions include both single-sex madrasahs for boys and girls, and a few co-educational madrasahs that serve both groups, albeit usually in separate facilities. Girls-only madrasahs represent just over 20% of all surveyed madrasahs, while coeducational madrasahs are only 3%. It is safe to say, then, that Qoumi madrasahs are institutions that primarily serve a male student body. 221. Chapter 2 concluded that madrasah students may have access to education, but they may not have the same opportunity to learn. Indeed, our findings indicate that all madrasah students, regardless of their gender, geographic location, or socio-economic status, may have less opportunity to experience quality education than students enrolled in the general education stream. We must add here that location, poverty, gender, and the
Such disparities are also found at the primary level. For instance, our own Report of the Survey of Independent Ibtedaye shows that girls are just fewer than 51% of total enrolments. However, the Report also points out that there is considerable variation between upazilas. Indeed, the proportion of girls in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs ranges from 39% to 75% depending on the upazila surveyed (See Appendix 10). 73 The study further stated that for some poor families, the decision of whether schooling is affordable is often based on the gender of their children. If there is a nearby public school of sufficient quality, poor parents are likely to take the financial burden to ensure that their sons receive the education needed to enter the labor market. On the contrary, poor parents are often less willing to educate their daughters due to high opportunity costs of sending them to school.
72

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education complex ways they interact not only affect the quality of the education that madrasah students receive, but also the very processes that shapes these students educational experiences and their future life chances. It is to some of these issues that we now turn. 5.2 ATTENDANCE, PARTICIPATION, AND COMPLETION

222. Our study documented little difference between schools and madrasahs in the participation rates of working students and students of landless families. The income levels of students in the two main educational streams at the secondary level show some contrast and seem to indicate that madrasahs serve the poorest students, at least in the rural areas (see Chapter 2, Table 2.7). Madrasahs also serve small but significant numbers (roughly 3% of all students in Dakhil Madrasahs) of both female and male orphans who are normally residential students. 223. Given the nature of the Islam-centered curriculum, very few non-Muslim students are enrolled in madrasahs. Our study also documented that few ethnic minority students are found in madrasahs. For instance, the Report of the Survey of Independent Ibtedaye found only 52 tribal students in a total enrolment of 169,097 (BANBEIS, 2010b, Table 14b). 224. The differential treatment of children with disabilities certainly reflects inequality in education. In our study little information was obtained about students with disabilities, as they seem not to be accounted for in most madrasahs. Less than 0. 4% of the students enrolled in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, for instance, are classified as having disabilities. Seventy-five percent of those so classified are girls and the majority of them are found in Class 1. The striking gender imbalance among thus classified students is worth noting here.74 It is difficult to surmise, however, the reasons for the larger numbers of girls among students with disabilities in these institutions: Could it be that Ibtedaye Madrasah staff members are quicker to label girls disabled than their male counterparts? Other studies have shown that parents tend to hide children with disabilities and are more likely to seek care for boys than for girls. Interview data also suggest that parents and school authorities discriminate against children with disabilities (UNICEF 2009, pp. 40-41). Whatever the reason might be, whether students with disabilities in Ibtedaye Madrasahs are discriminated against or are not receiving the education they need, they seem to drop out from these institutions early. 225. A review of the literature indicates that in recent years the proportion of girls attending primary and secondary schools in Bangladesh has shown a spectacular increase. In primary schools, girls outnumber boys in enrolment, attendance, retention, and completion rates.75 A gender gap that favours girls is found regardless of the socio-economic status of the families and maintained beyond the primary cycle: girls continue to have higher rates of attendance and enrolment in secondary schools.

In contrast, in primary schools in 2009 boys with mild disabilities numbered 28% more than girls. DPE, 2010. Final Draft of the 2009 Primary School Census, Table 2.14. 75 For instance, in 2009 the gross enrolment rate for girls in primary schools was 107.1, while for boys it was 100.1. Also, it took 7.9 years on average for girls to complete the primary cycle and 8.5 years for boys. DPE Annual Sector Performance Report 2010.

74

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 226. Our sector study corroborates these findings and shows that, with gross enrolment rates of 45.8% for boys and 57% for girls in all three streams of secondary education (Classes 6-10), boys in Bangladesh now lag behind in secondary education.76 It must be noted, however, that dropout rates are higher for girls after Class 6, and that far fewer girls than boys complete the cycle (Nath et al. 2008, p. 65, and Chapter 3). When we compare students present at boys-only and girls-only Qoumi Madrasahs on the day on which our survey was administered, the results show some gender disparities in attendance patterns especially at the Sanabiya Ammah (secondary senior) with more boys present on the day of the survey. This pattern is, however, reversed at the Mufti level (Appendix 11 Table 11.18).77 227. The prevalence of child marriage and dowry cause social and economic pressures to arrange girls' marriages early and play against the future prospects of girl's education: As girls get older, the dowry amount families have to pay increases. Therefore, the longer girls and young women remain in school and unmarried, the more likely they are to become a financial liability for their families (UNICEF 2009, p. 64-65). Girls, therefore, are often withdrawn from school due to the continuing practices of early marriage and dowry (Ibid, p. 10). These gendered customs, combined with economic factors, have a negative impact on the education of girls in general and poor girls more specifically.78 The quote below, from our own qualitative study, illustrates this phenomenon. 228. We have an acute dropout problem here. The students whose parents work in garment factories drop out most. Though we do not take any tuition fee, students from poor families drop out from here. This is because they cannot afford to buy books or dresses. We, the teachers, try to help them. We give needy students books from our personal collections. But when a girl is married off, there is nothing we can do. They do not drop out from any particular class. Most of them leave the madrasah either because they are getting married or because they are going to work in garment factories [] Many a student stops study after passing Dakhil from here (55-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). (Appendix 9 Inside Madrasahs: A Qualitative Study) 229. The growth of madrasahs can be said to have increased educational access for girls throughout Bangladesh especially at the secondary level and in rural areas in particular. In the madrasah sub-sector, girls outnumber boys both at the primary and secondary levels. Girls in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, for instance, account for almost 51% of all enrolments (Appendix 10, Table 4). Female enrolment is even more striking at the secondary level, where girls account for 58% of enrolled students in Dakhil madrasahs. However, as seen in Chapter 2, the proportion of girls declines sharply in the higher madrasahs (BANBEIS, 2009, p. 15, Table-4.3). 230. Stipends have proven to be very effective in increasing girls' enrolment and retention rates. Since its inception in 1995, the Bangladesh's Female Secondary School Assistance Project (FSSAP), which offers stipends to female students in both the general and madrasah streams, is an excellent example of a way to increase girls' enrolment at the secondary level
Some experts are even suggesting that a new trend in education may be emerging, wherein boys are now at greater risk than girls (UNICEF 2009, p.49). 77 The survey did not provide a gender breakdown for coeducational institutions] 78 Poor boys also leave schools, but to take positions in the very low end of the labor market.
76

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education (Bureau for Policy and Program Coordination 2009, p. 17). It is too early to say whether a similar scheme for boys will diminish disparity in terms of access and enrolments since only in the last year have poor male students been included for stipends (See Chapter 2). 231. As discussed in Chapter 4, in the general secondary education stream, repetition is high for both boys and girls (BANBEIS, 2009 Table 2.3.14). In particular, dropout rates are alarmingly high for girls at around 7% in class 6 and almost 40% in class 10. Interestingly, for boys the figures are higher than girls at the lower level with nearly 10% of them dropping in class 6 (28% by class 10). Overall cycle completion rates are 42% for boys and only 34% for girls (BANBEIS ibid, Table 2.3.15). 232. Repetition, dropout, and completion rates in Aliya Dakhil Madrasahs are different from the general education stream. Repetition is lower at approximately 4% for boys and girls throughout the cycle. In higher classes, drop-out rates increase and difference becomes more marked between boys and girls: from 11% and 11% at Class 6 to 29% and 37% at Class 10 for boys and girls, respectively (See BANBEIS, 2009 Table 4.311). Cycle completion rates are higher for boys (50%) than for girls (36%). To summarize, cycle completion rates for Dakhil, compared to general education, are slightly better for boys and around the same for girls (see Chapter 3). 5.3 QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, AND OUTCOMES

233. A gender audit conducted for selected BMEB and NCTB textbooks revealed clear differences in the representation of women and depiction of gender roles. For instance, although BMEB textbooks depicted both men and women, men tended to get more coverage underscoring a certain androcentric bias in the madrasah curriculum. Moreover, issues such as religious customs, conduct, and culture that reinforce traditional gender roles were often present in BMEB textbooks (see Appendix 5.1). 234. Disparity in educational attainment is more pronounced in the higher levels of the secondary cycle because children from poorer families tend to drop out earlier. Moreover, children from poorer families attend secondary institutions that have poorer facilities. CAMPE's assessment of learning achievements in Bangla, English, mathematics, and science found that performance of students in secondary school was strongly correlated with household food security status and educational level of parents, especially that of mothers (UNICEF 2009, p. 50). 235. Our qualitative study documented that the ways in which girls experience their education in madrasahs are shaped both by internal gender inequities and outside gendered social norms. Indeed, the male domination that characterizes madrasahs, the androcentric quality of the curriculum, and the gendered social practices that structure girls everyday life create barriers that hamper their motivation and opportunities to pursue further learning. This, in turn, affects girls learning outcomes and their life chances after they graduate. Included below, is an excerpt from the Qualitative Study that illustrates, how the overall lack of playtime in madrasahs might be experienced differently by girls whose mobility inside and outside madrasahs is often curtailed by social and religious customs that demand girls partake heavily in the domestic labour of their household and remain unseen outside the domestic sphere. We suggest that such gendered mechanisms are bound to have a

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education negative impact on the educational attitudes of girls enrolled in madrasahs, hamper their educational performance, and compromise their educational attainment in the long term.

Generally I do not play, but sometimes when we gather with other friends we play ludu or carom (female Dakhil examinee). After lunch I go to a private tutor with six other female students and come back home. I perform household tasks like folding clothes, picking up, etc. Then I seat to study till 9:00 pm [] I do not have time to play. Besides, my mother scolds me for playing. I play inside our house with dolls and cooking utensils. I play only once in a day (female student of Class 7 in an Aliya Madrasah). Source: Appendix 9 Inside Madrasahs: A Qualitative Study

236. While not unique to the madrasah sector (but certainly accentuated by the early rising for morning prayers, which might not be the case for all students enrolled in general education schools), these intense rhythms with little time for children to socialize and play should be a source of concern. Indeed, there is almost no playtime built in the day for students enrolled in madrasahs (this is made worse by material conditions in some urban madrasahs, where there might be no space in which to play, and by the vacation schedule of Qoumi Madrasahs that only observe religious holidays). This lack of playtime is particularly acute for girls, for whom play is often confined indoors and curtailed by what seems a greater amount of time spent helping their mothers in the home and possibly the lack of secure outdoor playing areas. 237. Perhaps, because this form of leisure is acceptable for most girls (in part because it keeps them in the home), TV looms large in the play world of the girls interviewed for this project:

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I watch TV in my neighbors house (female student of Class 6 in an Aliya Madrasah). After the Asar prayer I watch TV and play with my sister (female student of Class 10 in an Aliya Madrasah). Not surprisingly, boys are much less restricted in their movements outside the madrasah and their home. While, they also help their parents, boys seem to manage to carve out more leisure time after madrasah than their sisters and female neighbors. During tiffin period, after completing my prayer, I play for a little while. We play sums, cricket, and musical chairs. We cannot play football because we do not have a play ground (male student of Class 7 in an Aliya Madrasah). I am a resident student [] after the Asar prayer sometimes we play games or go for a walk [] We can play near our madrasah. We do not have our own playground. Therefore, we play on another playground (male student of Class 10/Science in a Dakhil Madrasah). After class, I offer my prayer. Then, I take a bath and take my meal and sit to study. In the afternoon we play games till evening. After playing, I come home back [home] and wash my face and hands. Then, I sit to prepare my lessons. After the Isha prayer, I take my meal and go sleep (male student of Class 2 in an Ibtedaye Madrasah). In the afternoon I wander here and there till evening. Then after returning home, I wash my face and hands. Then, I sit to prepare my lessons. After the Isha prayer, I take my meal and go sleep (male student of Class 4 in an Ibtedaye Madrasah). After the Asar prayer, we pray cricket or football (male student of Class-Hifz in a Qoumi Madrasah). After the Asar prayer we get a break. During this time I walk here and there (male student of Class 9 in a Qoumi Madrasah). Source: Appendix 9 Inside Madrasahs: A Qualitative Study

238. Our study demonstrates that in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs girls have consistently lower failure rates than those of boys and girls counted together, and, therefore, are more successful in the examinations than boys (Appendix 10, Tables 10.7 and 10.8). 239. This gender gap in favour of girls higher pass rates, however, disappears at the secondary level. Indeed, in an assessment of learning achievements of students in Class 10, Education Watch 2007 found that boys did significantly better than girls in all types of secondary institutions. This disparity was least pronounced in the government schools and most pronounced in rural madrasahs (UNICEF 2009, p. 49). 240. Schools and madrasahs must also be measured in their ability to deliver equal educational outcomes. In this respect, we can see that disparities along economic, rural-

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education urban, and gender axes still linger in Bangladesh. It has been noted that over a quarter of the graduates from secondary school do not go beyond the secondary cycle. Madrasahs and rural madrasahs in particular, have the lowest proportion of students accessing further education after they graduate. 241. Interestingly, female students seem to be ahead of their male counterparts in attaining further education (Education Watch, 2007 p xxxi). However, over half of the women who did not go on, reported that they had to stop their study due to marriage (only 2% of the men stated this reason for stopping their study). Moreover, a bias against women in earnings after graduation was observed for all types of educational institutions (see Chapter 4). 5.4 TEACHERS AND MANAGERS

242. In Aliya Madrasahs, female teachers are rare and female education managers even rarer.79 Approximately 10% of all teachers are women and less than 3% of Dahkil Madrasahs have female superintendents or assistant superintendents. It must be noted, however, that women are still very poorly represented among teachers in both the general and madrasah education sectors with the poorer representation in madrasahs. The percentage of female teachers is 22% and 9%, respectively, in schools and madrasahs.80 Moreover, our study highlights a pattern in which female teachers are less likely than their male counterpart to receive MPO support. Again, this is true in both education sectors: In general education, 22 % of teachers are female, but only 19% of teachers who receive MPO are female; in Dakhil Madrasahs, 9% of teachers are female, but only 7% of teachers who receive MPO are female (see Chapter 7, section 7.5).81 243. The basic formal educational qualification of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah instructors is rather low but equivalent to that found in the other streams of primary education (Nath et al. 2008). Most teachers in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs have an Alim (HSC equivalent) educational qualification. A gender gap, similar to that found in other streams, is also noted in terms of the facultys educational attainment. Female teachers, in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, are less educated than their male counterparts. Indeed, the vast majority (83%) of female teachers have only Dakhil (SSC equivalent) or Alim educational levels (compared to 60% for male teachers). Moreover, a significant numbers of male teachers have obtained high levels of madrasah education, with more than 19% having Fazil (BA) and 16% Kamil (MA) educational qualifications (for women the proportions are 8% and 3%, respectively).82

In Bangladesh primary teachers training requirements differ by gender. While men must have 12 years of schooling, plus hold a Certificate in Education (C Ed), women need only have 10 years of schooling, plus hold a C Ed (See Chapter 3). Even though this measure might have helped in the recruitment of female teachers in primary schools, we must point out that it inscribes gender discrimination into the education system. 80 This is also true at the primary level. In Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, for instance, female teachers account for 18% of all teachers. 81 In Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs 17% of all teachers receive MPO. For female teachers the proportion of MPO recipient is only 13%. 82 Our study also showed that female teachers tended to be younger than their male counterparts suggesting that women teachers in Ibtedaye Madrasahs tend to take posts in these institutions having completed their school education while male teachers continue study until they are older and have higher qualifications.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 244. Womens participation in all levels of management within the madrasah sector is a source of concern. Womens membership in the Madrasah Managing Committees (MMC) is low despite the co-educational nature of most Aliya Madrasahs. In 2008, for instance, 87% of all Aliya Madrasah Managing Committees had no female representation (BANBEIS, 2010 Table 16). Even in girls-only madrasahs, female membership of MMCs is reputed to be very low. A similar situation is found in Ibtedaye Madrasahs where among over 11,000 committee members, only 800 (7.1%) are women and half the management committees have no female representative (BANBEIS, 2010b Table 13). Such gender imbalance contrasts with the general education stream where government regulations have insured a minimal female representation (see Appendix 10). Furthermore, a total absence of female staff within the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board is also a cause of concern (see Chapter 7). 5.5 CONCLUSION

245. Madrasahs are community-based institutions. Most of them are located in rural areas, where no government school especially at the secondary level exists close by. Madrasahs tend to be more affordable than government schools. Some offer free or low-cost education and others even provide free boarding. Needless to say, this is particularly appealing to poor families who cannot afford to pay for school fees and supplies. Our qualitative study corroborates this fact. The madrasahs selected for the study enrol poor children from families living in the surrounding community. In addition, most Qoumi madrasahs have orphanages on the premises where children receive free accommodation, food, and tuition (UNICEF 2009). Availability, proximity, and affordability have made madrasah education attractive to rural and poor parents who cannot afford the costs linked to other schooling. The madrasah option is particularly appealing when parents are concerned about girls, and when moral and religious issues are added to the financial ones listed earlier. 246. Without doubt we must applaud the fact that girls are getting educated in greater numbers. However, they have done so by entering non-governmental schools and madrasahs, which do not perform as well as government schools. Moreover, in the case of madrasahs, girls are being educated in a context where womens rights and access to full citizenship is not always supported. This, in the end, can only compromise the gender parity principle embraced by Bangladesh. It can impair the country in meeting UN Millennium Development Goal 3, which calls for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women.

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CHAPTER 6

PLANNING, MANAGEMENT, INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY


6.0 INTRODUCTION 247. This chapter addresses a number of disparate management-related topics. First, there is a review of the efforts of various official education commissions to address the place of madrasah education in the context of the wider education policy. Second, there is a resume of the new National Education Policy and an analysis of the possible implications for madrasah education. Third, we deal with management information that is a crucial aspect of both sound educational planning and of monitoring the system performance. Finally, we consider capacity and institutional development concerns of the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board. 248. Since Liberation in 1971 there have been five education commissions83 that have tried to formulate a national education policy: all addressed madrasah education. Whilst the various governments have failed to adopt any of the recommended policies of those commissions there have been tacit policies for the education sector. Madrasah education has, as shown in Chapter 2, expanded hugely and mainly as a result of governments financial support to Aliya madrasahs by means of Monthly Payment Orders, MPO, for most teachers and some other staff, as well as some infrastructural improvements. Qoumi Madrasahs have also expanded without any government interference in their management, curriculum or funding. Aliya Madrasahs, especially, at the Dakhil (secondary) level are treated like the non-government secondary schools. However, since Liberation there have been persistent calls for madrasahs to move closer to mainstream education. The following review focuses on the main contributions to the madrasah question of the various commissions. Interestingly, in all the reports of the Education Commissions there is only one mention of Qoumi Madrasahs in the National Education Commission Report of 2003 (p. 271), where there is a single word entry Qoumi in a list of separate types of madrasah. 6.1 6.1.1 SYNOPSIS OF PREVIOUS EDUCATION COMMISSION REPORTS KUDRAT-E-KHUDA COMMISSION REPORT, 1974

249. The Kudrat-e-Khuda Commission was formed in 1972, headed by an eminent scientist and educationist Dr Kudrat-e-Khuda. The report devoted a chapter to madrasah education and envisaged radical reform and restructuring to harmonize this stream with the general education system of the country. The argument was that, to keep pace with the modern life and its demands, madrasah education had to be shaped in accordance with the
Kudrat-e-Khuda Education Commission Report, Ministry of Education, GoB, 1974. Mofiz Uddin Education Commission Report. Ministry of Education. GoB, 1988. Shamsul Haque National Committee on Education Policy. Ministry of Education, GoB, 1997. M A Bari Education Reform Expert Committee Report. Ministry of Education. GoB, 2002. Maniruzzman Mia National Education Commission Report. Ministry of Education. GoB, 2003.
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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education reforms proposed for general education. Madrasah students were to study eight years for primary education and then three years vocational religious education. Then in Classes 9 and 10, they were to study compulsorily four subjects, such as, Bangla, English, Math and General Science. After this stage students could join three year degree course followed by two year Masters degree course (Kudrat-e-Khuda Education Commission Report, 1974. Chapter 11, pp. 57-59). 6.1.2 MOFIZ UDDIN COMMISSION REPORT 1988

250. Due to regime change, Kudrat-e-Khuda Commissions recommendations were not implemented. In 1979, the government decided to review the previous report through an Advisory Council for National Education headed by Professor Mofiz Uddin Ahmed and its Interim Education Policy Recommendations were published in 1988. In this report, Islamic Education and Worldly Education were viewed as complementary rather than as separate components. Harmonization of these two through an academic framework was proposed for madrasah education. 251. Meanwhile, Ibtedaye and Forkania Madrasahs had increased substantially due to social demand as alternative feeder institutions that were approved by the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board. These madrasahs were supported by donations from the community and grants from the government but neither of these sources was sufficient nor regular. It was noted that there was a shortage of qualified and trained teachers in these madrasahs, and that infrastructure and learning materials were typically inadequate. Lack of monitoring was also very typical. This commissions report put forward 12 recommendations for Ibtedaye Madrasahs, ranging from proposals for separate teachers training institutes, free textbooks for all students and gradual nationalization of the Ibtedaye Madrasahs. 252. For Dakhil and Alim Madrasahs, the report made eight recommendations, including: From Class 9 of Dakhil, there should be four sections, such as; Arts, Science, Muzabbid, and Hifzul Quran; and in Alim: Arts, Science, and Muzabbid sections should be introduced; Dakhil Junior Scholarship, Dakhil and Alim Examinations were to be conducted by the Madrasah Board; Medium of instruction was to be Bangla; in Arabic literature class, Arabic would be used; and. Vocational courses would be introduced to increase employability of the madrasah graduates,

6.1.3

NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION POLICY 1997

253. The government formed a 56-member committee, known as the Professor Shamsul Haque Committee, and worked through 19 sub-committees in various fields of education. and The committee made the following major observations and recommendations for madrasah education:

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Madrasah education should be viewed as an integral part of the national education system. Steps towards curriculum change were recommended; A structure of eight years Ibtedaye, two years Dakhil, and two years Alim followed by three/four years Fazil and one/two years Kamil was suggested; Equal facilities for female students of madrasah system should be ensured. The Report suggested setting up more female-only madrasahs to increase the number of female students; Other major recommendations included using Bangla as medium of instruction at all stages, using the same assessment process as in general education, developing the physical infrastructure, and reorganizing thje Madrasah Board, creating a Director position at DSHE (National Committee on Education Policy 1997. pp. 86-89).

6.1.4

EDUCATION REFORM EXPERT COMMITTEE HEADED BY PROFESSOR MA BARI

254. In 2002, the incoming administration set up an Education Reform Expert Committee headed by Professor MA Bari to identify immediately implementable areas in the education sector. There were seven subcommittees worked for various fields of education but no separate subcommittee for madrasah education. A key recommendation was: 255. Madrasah curriculum has to be modernized and time befitting in such a way that graduates obtaining certificates and degrees can get a job by taking part in many competitive civil and private job recruitment tests. (Education Reform Expert Committee Report 2002:10). 6.1.5 NATIONAL EDUCATION COMMISSION REPORT 2003

256. This commission is known as Professor Maniruzzaman Mia Commission. As did the Mofiz Uddin Report, this commission affirmed its view that life-focused and faith-based educations are mutually complementary in the madrasah education system. One of the two characteristics is fundamental and the other one is subject to change or reform. Its objective is to make students competent in worldly and eternal knowledge for ensuring an ideal citizen and helping them become real Muslims by practice and belief (National Education Commission Report 2003: 270). 257. Among the policy recommendations were: There should be a separate Directorate of Madrasah Education; All disparities including stipend between mainstream education and madrasah education were to be gradually eliminated; Madrasah students should follow the same general curriculum as mainstream students; and, Gradually Ibtedaye Madrasahs should be nationalized.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 258. Summing up the previous Commissions, four important proposals for madrasah education emerge as common: New structure with 8 years of Ibtedaye, 2 years Dakhil and 2 years Alim education, Mainstreaming and modernizing madrasah curriculum, Same student assessments as with general education stream, and Linking madrasah education to labour market demands.

259. However, none of the above proposals was implemented by the successive governments. Any structural change in madrasah education was not possible without corresponding change in the structure of mainstream education84 due to its equivalence with the latter but the remaining recommendations were possible had the government wanted to implement them. 260. When the new coalition government was installed in early 2009 another commission was set up to review the education sector. The work of all the previous commissions was studied and clear links to earlier reports are observed in the 2010 National Education Policy, NEP. Their proposals are reviewed below in Section 6.3.2. First, we examine the planning machinery for the secondary education sector since implementation of the NEP depends to a large extent on existing planning systems and capacity. 6.2 6.2.1 EDUCATION POLICY AND PLANNING PLANNING CAPACITY

261. At Liberation, Bangladesh adopted the socialist central planning as the basis for economic development. Since then there have been many development plans in which there have been chapters on education and training. After a gap of a few years a Sixth Development Plan is, at the time of writing, in preparation. That plan will be set within the Perspective Plan for Bangladesh, 2010 2021. The Planning Commission is the apex body for planning across all sectors. Within each ministry there is also a planning section: in the education sector, both the Ministry of Education (MoE) and Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MoPME) have planning sections. In addition, there are planning divisions within the two directorates of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) under MoE, and of Primary Education (DPE) under MoPME. There is no planning structure within the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board, BMEB. The work of planners in the two ministries focuses on the implementation of sectoral investment decisions of government while the planners in the directorates prepare and monitor proposals for new projects in line with Planning Commission procedures. Their proposals are processed and vetted by the ministries planners for further processing and approval by the Planning Commission. The number of planning specialists from the economics cadre is low; normally the Chief, equivalent to Joint Secretary and Deputy Chief Planning are economists. Other officers are deputed to the planning divisions of DSHE and DPE from BCS (Education) cadre.

The 1974 and 1997 commissions recommended for 8 years of primary or basic education, and 4 years secondary education.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 262. At the sub-national level ie at Divisional and District level there is virtually no planning capacity. Officers at that level are focused on implementation, monitoring and data collection. 263. In short, there are the rudiments of a system for planning with an established Planning Commission with procedures for all parts of the program and project cycles and there are planning sections of the ministries and directorates. What has been lacking is an overall long term vision and framework for the education sector. In 2002 primary education began to move from a project to a program approach to development: its Primary Education Development Program II covered a large part of the primary education sector. Secondary education proceeds without an overall plan and currently has a plethora of separate development projects. 6.2.2 NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY (NEP), 2010

264. On June 1, 2010 the Government announced a National Education Policy (NEP), which is perhaps the most comprehensive policy since Independence and covers all sectors of education85. It has important implications for madrasahs both Aliya and Qoumi. The latter were given only one passing mention in the draft of September 2009 but the synopsis86 announces that All educational institutions of the country have to be registered with the government to gain legality. This suggests a requirement previously not placed upon Qoumi Madrasahs. (Daily Star June 1, 2010). However, there remains no move on the part of Government to have a regulatory mechanism for Qoumi Madrasahs. 265. The main features of the NEP that have impact on Aliya madrasahs are: Some compulsory subjects will be introduced to primary and secondary levels of general, madrasah, and vocational education in order to establish a unified schooling system. Among the compulsory classes will be religion and ethics for students up to Class 8. Free education up to Class 8 (previously to Class 5) in government and government-funded institutions. Compulsory primary education is to be extended up to Class 8 making secondary education 4 years from Classes 9 to 12. Students of primary and secondary levels in madrasahs are to study the curriculum and syllabus, common to the new primary education cycle (1 to 8) and in the secondary cycle there will be three streams general, madrasah, and vocational. Qoumi madrasah leaders are to be invited to form their own commission consisting educationists and experts in the field and to formulate an outline plan with recommendations for the government to consider. The student assessment methods used in general education stream should also be followed in madrasah education stream.

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The NEP was approved by the National Assembly on 7 December 2010. As yet the full policy is not available in English.

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266. The proposals in the NEP, 2010, may be considered under the headings of curriculum, facilities, and teachers. Briefly, the curriculum of the primary education level, perhaps better termed basic education level, will have to be articulated up to Class 8 and will include subjects presently taught in junior secondary schools. That curriculum will be more aligned to the present primary and junior secondary than Ibtedaye and junior Dakhil, although the requirement for religion and ethics for all students up to Class 8 may be more easily interpreted in madrasahs than in the general stream schools. At the new secondary level, Classes 9-12, there remain important unresolved issues concerning the balance of religious and general subjects in the 2009 draft policy both streams were to be allowed to elect a few subjects while all, including the TVET students, were to have a common core curriculum. The process of formulating this new curriculum and related exams will be with the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB), which will have to negotiate with the BMEB concerning its involvement in the process of curriculum and textbook development. 267. Facilities cover not only buildings but also resources necessary for teaching and learning. As discussed within Chapter 2, madrasahs have somewhat poorer physical facilities than private secondary schools and only the few government secondary schools have more or less satisfactory facilities for modern education. The NEP envisages expanding all primary level institutions by three classrooms to cope with the increased number of classes. Since there are already classes within Junior Secondary Schools, Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs, which a substantial proportion of school age children attend, that strategy risks wasteful building. Two issues emerge: firstly, how to accommodate those children not currently going on to secondary level (possibly 40-50% of those aged 11-1387) and secondly, how to improve poor physical facilities and achieve parity of provision between Aliya madrasahs and general education schools. 268. National policy prioritises the use of digital technologies but the vision of the GOBs Digital Bangladesh initiative88, for example, has to start with educational institutions having electricity. In 2008, only some 57% of Dakhil madrasahs had electricity and even fewer Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs had it as low as 15% of rural madrasahs (see Appendix 10, Table 19). In 2005, only 10% of madrasahs had a furnished science laboratory (Education Watch 2005 Table 1.5). A dedicated room for a library is not common while access of students to library books, as opposed to textbooks, is extremely poor.. 269. Teacher availability and qualifications is a challenge with many dimensions, including: how to upgrade madrasah teachers whose basic education does not allow them access to the existing teacher training courses; how to deal with the differences in conditions of service of teachers in government, non-government schools, and madrasahs; how to cope with the backlog of vacant teacher posts: 10% estimated vacant posts in secondary schools in 2008 (BANBEIS, 2009); how to optimise the use of MPO (or other subvention modality) across schools; and, how to provide in-service training for teachers and heads of institutions. (There is sporadic in-service training for teachers and heads of institution most often funded
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The 8 years basic education cycle will cover age groups 6 13 years. http://www.boi.gov.bd/about-bangladesh/government-and-policies/digital-bangladesh-overview

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education under development projects. What is lacking at secondary level is an institutionalised system for providing professional development of teachers.) 270. The future of the BMEB, must be considered in light of commitments to common core curricula and a unified schooling system. If, as stated in the NEP, Ibtedaye Madrasahs are to be included within the 8-year compulsory cycle, and if Classes 9 and 10 of Dakhil Madrasahs are taken within a new secondary cycle of four years, some functions of the BMEB may be more efficiently combined with those undertaken by DPE and DSHE. The BMEB may remain as an examination board either for religious subjects or for all subjects taken within the new Dakhil and Alim madrasahs. However, with NCTB having primacy in curriculum matters and if the two directorates, DPE and DSHE, take over inspection, supervision and support of Ibtedaye and higher madrasahs, respectively, the BMEBs mandate looks set to change. 271. There is no mention of a proposed Directorate of Madrasah Education in the NEP; however the Ministry of Establishments is presently reported to be considering that option. In Chapter 8 we consider further the implications of the NEP, particularly the machinery for implementing the changes required for madrasah education. 272. We move now to consider matters closely allied to policy and planning; namely data availability monitoring and evaluation with particular reference to the status of information on madrasahs of all kinds. 6.3 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION, MONITORING AND EVALUATION FOR THE MADRASAH SECTOR IN BANGLADESH. INTRODUCTION

6.3.1

273. Management information concerning the madrasahs and post-primary general schools, is not systematically collected, stored, and used in Bangladesh: there are disjointed information sub-systems; and information failures undermine administration, management, monitoring and evaluation. 274. The discussion here mainly concerns the Aliya Madrasah sector: we have very little insight into the information practices within the Quomi system although The Bangladesh Quomi Madrasah Board (Befaqul), which is widely claimed to be the largest Quomi Board, reports using computer systems to hold lists of institutions and students for processing examinations and for registration of schools and students. 6.3.2 TERMINOLOGY

275. Generally speaking all madrasahs, whatever the highest qualification they offer, include an Ibtedaye section: there are less than 10 higher-level institutions recorded in BANBEIS 2009 that do not include an Ibtedaye section. Madrasahs with only an Ibtedaye section are widely referred to as unattached or independent Ibtedaye. Madrasahs offering post-Ibtedaye courses are individually categorised by the highest level qualification offered (Dakhil, Alim, Fazil or Kamil.) and collectively as higher madrasahs.

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276. It is important to recognise that there has not been a systemic approach to administrative and management information in the general secondary sector, and that it is now characterised by duplication of core data (e.g. lists of schools) to support different administrative functions or business process (for example, MPO, school registration, or examinations). Lists have been renewed irregularly and there is no system of periodic updating or of reconciliation. 277. Information derives from different sources, for example the examination boards consolidate application forms from schools and create school and studentdata sets annually. For many functions, including critical functions such as processing monthly payment orders (MPOs), the main source is the irregular sector surveys conducted by BANBEIS, such as the 2008 survey of post primary institutions. Updating this data to reflect changing circumstances is nominally the role of the District Education Officer (DEO), but is undertaken on an ad hoc basis. The DEOs have very limited resources and capacity to visit schools for inspection or for regular periodic updating in between the snapshot surveys. 278. BMEB receives updated information at the time of renewal of registration of institutions. This information is currently kept as paper records. 279. Higher level Aliya Madrasahs are included in all the main business processes of DSHE alongside the general secondary schools. For example, higher-level madrasahs are included in the data for allocating MPOs, and they were included within the recent BANBEIS secondary surveys, albeit using a slightly different data collection form to reflect different terminologies and with their statistics reported separately. However the information collected from madrasahs and general secondary schools is comparable. 280. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, which are under the charge of the DSHE and are meant to be registered with the BMEB, have not been included in these processes. DSHE runs a separate MPO data-set for their subventions and they were not included in the survey undertaken by BANBEIS of all post-primary education institutions in 2008. Since 2003, they have not been included in the annual school surveys undertaken by MOPME/DPE, so up-todate information about them is not available to the system. Our survey of this sub-sector suggests that their number is rather fluid, in that institutions change status or disappear without giving notification. Details are reported in Appendix 10. 281. The inadequacy of the information systems for general secondary and Aliya Madrasahs have been recognised for many years and steps have been taken since 2006 to design and implement an integrated information system for administration, management, monitoring, and evaluation. Initial specification work by DSHE was supported by the Secondary Education Sector Improvement Project (SESIP) and external support has continued into Secondary Education Sector Development Project (SESDP), albeit with implementation delays and consequent loss of momentum. (Higher madrasahs are included alongside general schools within the design modules.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 282. The proposed system design includes an annual update, based on a new data collection form that will be completed and coded at the District Education Office. Separate forms for general schools and madrasahs reflect different terminology but cover completely comparable data. 283. The sources and purpose of information within main management processes are described below. Developing these processes so that they integrate with the new EMIS, without duplicating data, will be the main challenge over the next few years, but it is one that applies equally to the general secondary and (higher) Aliya Madrasahs. 6.3.3.1 Registration of schools/madrasahs 284. BMEB registers madrasahs on the basis of a form that captures the characteristics of facilities, resources, teaching staff, etc. that are pertinent to the criteria for registration89. Registrations have to be renewed every 5 years. BMEB reports that it keeps an internal database of registered schools but that it has not updated it from the renewal forms for the last 2 years. There were no new registrations for about 3 years from 2004/5 in keeping with a higher-level decision. 285. The renewal of a madrasahs registration is not used as the opportunity to review facilities and performance and take appropriate action. The BMEB has argued that it does not have the district level capacity to undertake a realistic audit of schools at renewal. (This view is supported by the observation that BMEB has only 9 assistant inspectors for the entire country. They have no transport, no computer, and only two support staff.) 6.3.3.2 Monthly payment orders 286. Monthly payment order (MPO) processing is considered the most critical process and has high public and political profile (ensuring that a local school/madrasah is included in the MPO list is an established form of patronage by politicians). MPO payments are not made to all teachers in registered institutions, whether they are general secondary schools or madrasahs90. It is a two-stage process to be first registered and then enlisted on to the MPO list before starting to receive the funds. 287. MPOs are made to teachers, based on a database of recipient teachers, although the entitlement derives from the school being enlisted. The MPO payment runs are currently undertaken using one of the modules of the new EMIS, which has been expedited and, for security91, probably will be operated independently in DSHE. This module includes higherlevel madrasahs alongside general secondary schools. MPOs for Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are also processed within DSHE using a separate computer application and dataset. 288. The data on schools and madrasahs in the MPO system are based on BANBEIS 2008. Those for the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are based on the 2006 BANBEIS survey. In each case there is ad hoc updating according to circumstances and demands
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There is wide perception that these criteria are not rigorously enforced. See Chapter 2 for information on numbers of institutions and teachers receiving MPO. 91 This of course risks loss of transparency in MPO decision-making and administration.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education originating from the institutions. The unreliability of this data provides a context and excuse for politicised wrangling as to which institutions should be included in the MPO list. 6.3.3.3 Examinations 289. There has been significant integration of systems across the examination Boards for processing and publication of SSC, Dakhil, HSC, and Alim results and there is a shared computer centre, a common approach to processing optical mark recognition (OMR) answer forms, and a common portal for web-access to results and top-level statistics (http://www.educationboard.gov.bd/).This integrated system was supported by the Planning Division, Ministry of Planning under its Support for ICT Task Force Progamme (http://www.sict.gov.bd/index.php ). 290. The Boards, including BMEB, are therefore using data on schools and madrasahs and have some data on individual students who are candidates, including a unique identifier, but this is only used within the examination system (no other systems keep student-level records). However, individual student data are not integrated into computer files in ways that would allow statistical analyses for purposes of evaluating student learning outcomes for projects, programs, etc. 291. A new examination the Primary Leaving Examination - at Class 5 was conducted in 2009. Students from attached and unattached Aliya Ibtedaye took a Class 5 examination in 2010. BMEB sets the papers which are different from those used for general primary students. The Independent Ibtadaye Madrasahs present a particular challenge given the lack of reliable data about them. The fact that the BMEB sets a different examination with different questions than the general education Class 5 examination means that the MOE continues to have no way to evaluate the student leaning outcomes of the two systems in a comparable way. Thus, there is no data-based way to make policy decisions about how to improve students learning in the madrasah relative to the general education schools. 6.3.3.4 Teacher qualification and career management 292. There have been significant steps in Bangladesh to manage the teachers in both the general and madrasah sectors. The Non-Government Teachers Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA) was formed in 2008 and has the responsibility for registering teachers on the basis of professional tests. They maintain a computerised list of registered teachers. 293. NTRCAs brief includes madrasah teachers but it does not keep separate data for madrasah teachers who have been registered and certified for teaching or of those among the registered teachers who work in madrasahs. The certification itself is not specific to the general or madrasah sub-sectors: a qualified assistant teacher may join either a general secondary school or a madrasah.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 6.3.3.5 Surveys 294. BANBEIS has conducted surveys of institutions when requested and funded92. The last post-primary survey was in 2009, the results being made public in December 2010. The 2008 survey (results were published in 2010) included higher level madrasahs and their attached Ibtedaye sections but not the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. BANBEIS undertook a national survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in 2006 and this is used as the basis for reporting on primary age institutions and enrolments. 295. BANBEIS has also undertaken project specific surveyssuch as the annual survey for the Secondary Education Quality and Access Enhancement Project, SEQAEP, that looks at key indicators for that project in its intervention and control areas. It does raise the question as to whether the number of different surveys could be reduced if an annual automated and systematic data-collection/updating was introduced. 296. All reporting since 2001 has used the 2001 national census as the basis for population data, including age cohort data required for net enrolment calculations. The census was undertaken by Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS, http://www.bbs.gov.bd/ ). 6.3.4 THE PROPOSED INTEGRATED EMIS

297. An integrated EMIS covering the main administrative, management, monitoring and evaluation functions was specified in 2006/7. The design is for a collection of 17 modules that will share common data, avoiding duplication, present user-friendly ways to update data, and to provide online reporting and analysis. Implementation has been delayed by hardware and connectivity constraints, compounded by issues around ownership of the data. 298. The original modules are currently being modified to provide a web-based user interface behind a single portal93. This has been commissioned by DSHE with the intention that remote officers will be able to update data (for example following a school visit) and make use of reports to undertake trend and benchmark analysis. This is work in progress and is receiving support from SESDP. 299. The defined modules are: Education Institution Management; Project Proposal Management; Library Management; File Management; Employee Management; Inventory Management; Employee Monitoring and Evaluation; Document Archiving Management; Message Communication System; Training Management; Monthly Pay Order (MPO) Management; Project Management; Payroll Management; GIS Application; Project and Monitoring and Evaluation; . 300. The modules will all include the higher-level madrasahs, with terminologies adapted for titles of teaching staff, examinations, etc. In these and in general schools the system will allow information on primary sections to be captured. Independent Ibtedaye are not included and there are no plans to do so. There has been no consultation with DPE on the data structure for primary and Ibtedaye sections that could be included.

92 93

Funds for such activity are normally from the development not revenue budget. www.emis.bd.gov, although at the time of writing this portal was not working.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 301. Only the MPO module is currently functioning but DSHE reports that the next module to go live will be that concerning institutions; this was to become operational, on line, in mid 2010, populated initially with data from the BANBEIS 2008 survey and then updated annually: updates may be made online by DEO computer operators. At the time of this writing this work has not been completed. 302. It is not clear whether the design of the modules and integrated interface will allow for export of data-sets for other purposes, such as extended analysis, policy decisions, and research. 6.3.4.1 Unique identifiers 303. Since 2006 there has been an agreement to introduce a unique Education Institutional Identification Number (EIIN) across all agencies: this is a pre-requisite for integrating administrative systems. The EIIN coding format is a 12 digit number with subcodes that show division/district/upazila/mouza/type of school/nn (each of two digits). This allows for up to 99 types of institutions and includes the different types of madrasah. 304. Teachers have a unique identifier within the MPO system reportedly different from that used by NTRCA though possibly reconcileable. 305. Students do not have unique identifiers until the age of 18. Students are given a number for their examinations but this is not used elsewhere. (There is no suggestion to include individual student level data in the new EMIS: this is a missed opportunity). 6.3.5 ISSUES

6.3.5.1 Ibtedaye Madrasah 306. The data on both the attached sections and the Independent Aliya Ibtedaye Madrasahs are problematic. DPEs Annual Sector Performance Reports (the 2010 report based on 2009 data was published in May 2010), uses and references BANBEIS 2008 for attached Ibtedaye sections (and for the analogous primary sections of general secondary schools), and uses BANBEIS 2006 for the unattached Aliya Ibtedayes. 307. BANBEIS 2008 shows that there are 9279 attached Ibtedaye sections (which is 105 less than their count of post-primary madrasahs), and 6173 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs (a figure which is referenced as sourced from the BMEB). DPEs Annual Sector Performance Report, ASPR, 2010 references BANBEIS 2008 and quotes similar (but not identical) figures (9233 and 6744 respectively). DPE has apparently extrapolated the second figure and the associated enrolments94. 308. DPEs Annual Sector Performance Review 2010 has also referenced the 2006 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) to estimate that the proportion of children in nonformal schools and madrasahs that are not included in their data. The estimate of about 8.5% of children who are out of school i.e. are not captured by the annual primary school
Appendix 10 to this MSS shows that based on a 25% sample of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs there are 4416 (+/ - 72) Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in 2010.
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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education census and other official sources. This 8.5% sets upper bound of primary aged children in Quomi madrasah. 309. The statistics concerning primary-age provision in government supported/registered madrasahs (attached or unattached) are incomplete and out of line with DPE's annual datacollection and reporting cycle. DPE was not involved in specifying the survey instrument that was used in 2008 and 2006 and notes that some of the data needed for their indicators (including, for example, repetition rate) is not available. 6.3.5.2 Qoumi 310. The head of Befaqul, the largest Qoumi Board, reports that they have a list of 15,000 Quomi madrasahs and that this is held on computers. This Board has decentralized the registration and examination activities to sub-national sub-Boards, each of which has some operational autonomy: the umbrella Board takes overall responsibility for curriculum and exam setting. The latter would be expected to generate and to utilise institutional data, particularly for post-primary institutions. However, little more is known about the collection and uses of information within the Qoumi Boards. A proposal is made in the Road Map to assist the Qoumi Boards in developing their record keeping systems. 6.3.6 MONITORING AND EVALUATION (M&E)

6.3.6.1 Overview 311. Within DSHE there are two agencies that have responsibilities for monitoring and evaluation: Performance Monitoring and Quality Assurance Department (PMQA) is linked to the Planning, and the Monitoring and Evaluation Wing95. The PMQA is intended to support the introduction of institutional performance-based management (PBM), and to interpret and present the outcomes to the planning and policy-making process of the MOE. 312. Monitoring and evaluation to inform sector management and planning has not become institutionalised in DSHE and is seen as a project-specific task to monitor the activities and progress of project interventions at the behest of the concerned development partner(s). Whilst the Monitoring and Evaluation Wing (MEW) has a remit to monitor and evaluate DSHE activities, it was established to ensure evaluation of the Secondary Education Quality and Access Enhancement Project (SEQAEP), and this is its major role at the moment. The SEQAEP has conducted a rigorous baseline study of the project areas and is undertaking annual surveys of impact. Within all the work of the MEW, including for SEQAEP, madrasahs are included alongside general schools. 313. BMEB does not have a structure or nominated personnel for systemic monitoring and evaluation.

95

Several discussants, revealingly, referred to these as the ADBs and the WBs respectively.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 6.3.6.2 School/ madrasah performance based management (PBM) 314. DSHE is trialling and intends to roll out an institutional PBM. It involves school selfassessment against 45 indicators that will give weighted individual and overall scores for the school. School self-evaluation will be subject to external inspection to validate processes and scores, and the resulting data will be collected, consolidated and entered into one of the modules in the proposed EMIS.Since the design philosophy of the proposed EMIS allows for data export, it should be sufficient for school, district, and national levels to prepare institutional data showing performance trends, benchmarking, and aggregates at all levels. 315. The PBM will include higher level madrasahs with formats to reflect different terminologies. They will use the same list of indicators for self-evaluation though these indicators do not include any references to the religious work of the madrasahs. 316. The development of PBM was supported by the Secondary Education Sector Improvement Project, SESIP, and has been simplified and progressed under SESDP. Although BMEB has been consulted and represented in this work, it is not clear that BMEB has recognised the intended national scope (i.e., beyond those model madrasahs being developed under SESDP) or the potential value of the resulting data for monitoring the network of schools and madrasahs. 6.3.6.3 Systemic M & E 317. The proposed EMIS is seen as the opportunity to improve systemic monitoring and evaluation to analyse performance and inform planning. However, it is recognised that in both DSHE and BMEB there is limited incentive and very limited capacity to analyse and act on systemic data. 6.4.6.4 Evaluation questions for madrasahs 318. Whilst the Aliya madrasahs are to be fully integrated within the proposed systems and will be susceptible to the same analyses and evaluations as general schools, there remain evaluation questions that are unique to the madrasahs role. They might include: How will potential employers and admission personnel of higher education institutions perceive madrasah applicants even when the examinations are the same for students in general eductation streams? Will equivalence follow? How easily and with what success can students transfer between the two systems, including for degree level study? Equivalence, which is a policy goal, is an elusive concept across two distinctly different educational experiences that have different facilities and levels of quality. How are potential employers or continuing education providers interpreting the espoused equivalence?

319. The degree of ease with which students can transfer between madrasahs and general education, and their success after such transfer is an indicator of equivalence and a crucial feature of the policy of mainstreaming. It would be valuable to track students as they move between the two streams, particularly at the primary-to-secondary change and after

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education class 10. This would involve a long-term cohort study around the transfer, progress, and movement into the world of work. Such a study is proposed in the Indicative Investment Proposal. 6.3.6.5 Capacity for information management 320. It has proved challenging to develop and maintain the technical capacity for information systems within the public sector in Bangladesh as competent personnel can find positions in the private sector with more attractive terms. The decision to sub-contract development work on the EMIS portal sought to address the weaknesses, but then exposes the lack of capacity to manage and steer such a contract.

DSHE
321. DSHE has a systems analyst and programmer working on EMIS. There is a poor physical environment for their systems, which, among other things, are susceptible to power outages. 322. DSHE has demonstrated very limited capacity to use management information for administration, monitoring, or to inform policy decisions. The District Education Officers, DEOs, of DSHE lack funds and personnel to visit schools and this limits the expected validity of the data that is collected by field level offices. The DEOs do have a computer operator who may be able to use the online data collection functions of the future.

BMEB
323. The BMEB has one person in charge of ICT.BMEBs capacity to design, maintain or use information systems is negligible. The BMEBs field level representation is particularly weak and unable to undertake fieldlevel information tasks. Much of the computerisation of examination work has been undertaken by the joint Boards Computer Centre which BMEB uses as a service provider.

BANBEIS
324. The BANBEIS is considered the organisation most capable of managing information systems, and has created the infrastructure and operational environment. However its capacity is low in relation to the scale of tasks it is given.. BANBEIS has built an appropriate physical environment for data-management, but lacks staff to interpret data and integrate findings into the political discourse.

DPE
325. The DPE has succeeded, over the last 5 years, in developing the capacity and organisation to undertake an annual round of data-collection and analysis. They have upazila level field staff and an established procedure for data collection. They have had external support for analysis and reporting, but overall DPE has managed over the last few years to move along the path that the MOE should now follow, to provide annual, valid systemic data in a timely way.

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6.4

Moving towards Capacity Development in Madrasah Education

326. There are many shortcomings in the existing systems and human capabilities in the field of information management and use in the planning and policy making in the secondary education sector. These deficiencies are part of much wider lack of both institutional capacities that seriously affects the BMEB and will impede the kind of developments that the NEP envisages. We turn now to consider in detail the issue of building capacity in madrasah education. 6.5 6.5.1 BMEB: INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY96 CONTEXT AND ANALYSIS OF INSTITUTIONAL ROLE

327. A number of government institutions are involved in policy making, management, and operation of madrasah education with the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB) at the centre of all activities. The Ministry of Education (MOE) is responsible for developing policies for madrasah education (MOEs madrasah wing is headed by a Joint Secretary); its Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) administers the government subvention known as Monthly Pay Order (MPO) through which government funds to teachers, including madrasah teachers, are channelled97. MOE also decides policy on free textbooks; it distributes free text books to Ibtedaye madrasah through its network of District Education Officers (DEO). BMEB develops madrasah curriculum and designs textbooks for madrasah education with the assistance of the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB). The Directorate of Inspection and Audit (DIA) carries out financial inspection and audit of government funds for the madrasahs. The Bangladesh Bureau of Education Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) and Education Management Information System (EMIS) Wing of DSHE compile and analyze information and statistics for those madrasah thatare registered or government funded. 328. Under the 1978 Ordinance, BMEB was envisaged as an autonomous institution and empowered for the organization, regulation, supervision, control, development, and improvement of madrasah education in Bangladesh. The ordinance assigned a number of functions to BMEB including To design, adapt, and prescribe courses of instruction at Ibtedaye, Dakhil and Alim (primary, secondary and higher secondary levels) of madrasah education; To hold and conduct, and regulate public examinations at the end of Dakhil and Alim madrasah education; To confer, withhold, and withdraw recognition for Ibtedaye, Dakhil, and Alim madrasahs based on inspection reports conducted by DSHE, BMEB, or any authorized inspectors;

This section in based on the institutional assessment of BMEB in late 2009 and early 2010. The details are fully explained in the Report of the Capacity Development Plan, provided as Annex 1 to the Final Report of TA 7206. 97 In addition to administering MPO, DSHE performs other functions such as granting time scale to teachers, meeting audit objections from DIA, correcting date of birth of beneficiaries, and taking disciplinary actions.

96

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education To cause inspection, and prescribe the mode and manner of such inspection of madrasah; To regulate administrative matters including the creation and abolition of posts; To make provisions for buildings, premises, furniture, equipment, books and other materials to effectively perform its tasks.

329. BMEB is headed by a Chairman and comprises 12 other members some of whom are ex-officio while the rest are nominated members. The Board conducts its business through a system of committees, such as finance committee; staff selection and recruitment committee; academic committee; curriculum and courses of studies committee; etc. Under the Chairman, who is the chief executive officer (CEO), there are four functional departments/units: (i) Administration, Registration and Accounts; (ii) Inspection, (iii) Examinations; and (iv) Curriculum and Textbook Wing. All professional and support staff are assigned to these departments/wings.. Administration, Registration and Accounts department has been allocated 62 staff, Examinations department 66 staff, and Inspection department has 46 staff including the zonal office staff. The Curriculum and Textbook Wing is the smallest unit comprising only one professional staff and two support staff despite the priority accorded to curriculum and textbook development for madrasah education. 330. There are nine education zones in the country where DSHE has offices. BMEB has established its zonal offices, generally in the same premises as DSHE with shared facilities, but with extremely limited support. BMEB zonal offices are in Barisal, Chittagong, Comilla, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, and Rangpur. The zonal education office acts as the agent of BMEB. 331. The zonal office usually has a complement of 3 staff including one Assistant Inspector, a data entry operator, and one Menial Level Subordinate Staff (MLSS). The Assistant Inspector heads the zonal office and is tasked with a wide range of functions, though in practice the AIs current role is essentially limited to collecting and remitting fees and collectables from madrasah, distribution of transcripts, and inspection for the purpose of registration or renewal of registration. 332. The new NEP mandates that a core of the same mainstream general subjects curriculum, designed by NCTB, be used in madrasahs from Ibtedaye to Alim. Madrasah students will also be assessed by applying the same standards and methods as mainstream students. However, BMEB will have the authority to design and approve the curriculum for religious subjects at Ibtedaye to Alim levels as well as conducting assessments (similar to the regional boards) in general subjects taught at madrasahs98. This is what was done by BMEB up till 2010 when textbooks in general subjects taught at madrasahs are the modified versions of NCTB textbooks, and the examinations reflected these condensed curricula and textbooks. For detailed analysis see Chapter 3, section 3.1.4.

Although not explicitly mentioned in the National Education Policy (Chapter 6), BMEB authorities tend to interpret that the authority for student assessment for public examinations of the Aliya madrasahs will continue to be BMEBs responsibility. Interview given to the TA Team by Chairman, BMEB, 5 October 2010.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 333. The Ministry of Education has developed a proposal for the establishment of a Directorate of Madrasah Education (DME) that is being considered by the Ministry of Establishment.99 If established, DME will have functions similar to other directorates namely, DSHE, DTE and DPE. However, the division of labour between BMEB and proposed DME has not yet been worked out by MOE. In the event that DME is established, BMEBs functions will be largely similar to eight regional Boards of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. This will call for repositioning the BMEB with appropriate organisational arrangements including restructuring, staffing, and new roles. 334. The staffing pattern of madrasahs varies according to the types. An Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah is usually comprised of four teachers including a headteacher but with no support staff; a Dakhil Madrasah has an average of 16 teachers including a superintendent, and 3 support staff; and an Alim Madrasah has 21 teachers including a principal and 3 support staff100. All teachers and support staff under full MPO system are graded according to government teacher salary scales. 335. Each madrasah is required to have a madrasah managing committee (MMC) comprising 13 members including the chairperson and vice-chairperson based on government regulation governing the formation of MMC. Previously the chairperson used to be nominated by the member of the parliament of the relevant constituency; however, under the new regulation of 2009101 he or she will be elected by the MMC members. The MMC decides the policy and management of the individual madrasah. Two members are ex-officio and one member is nominated by the Deputy Director of DSHE. Interested groups such as teachers, donor groups, founder groups, etc elect others. In 2008, some 87% of madrasahs had one or other kind of committee (BANBEIS, 2010, Table 15). The MMC is widely reported to be dominated by local elites. 336. Womens membership in the MMC is known to be low despite most Aliya madrasah being co-educational. In 2008, 87% of all Madrasah committees had no female representation (BANBEIS, 2010 Table 16). Even in girls only madrasah female membership of MMCs is likely very low102 6.5.2 BMEBS STAFFING AND STRUCTURE

337. An examination of the current structural arrangement of divisions/units shows that this is essentially based on functional responsibility, viz. (i) administration, registration, finance and accounts; (ii) examinations, issuance of certificates and transcripts; (iii) inspection; and (iv) curriculum and textbooks, etc. There is no specific organizational home for quality assurance and control, maintenance of standards, human resource development and management, evaluation and monitoring, and research and development. The BMEBs management style is like other government departments in Bangladesh in that authority is vested in the highest level and there is little delegation so that the apex is overburdened with routine work as files flow upwards for decisions on even the most routine matter.
99

Based on interviews conducted in October 2010 by the TA team with Joint Secretary (Madrasah), MOE. According to MOE, its likely that DME will be established in the new fiscal year 2011-2012. 100 Not all teachers and support staff are given MPO status. See the chapter on Access The MPO Issue. 101 The gazette notification of 17 June 2009 per SRO No 158-Law/2009. 102 Based on female madrasahs visited by the TA team.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 338. BMEB was established rapidly in 1978 almost from scratch. Although reforms took place in the management of general secondary schools, no significant efforts were made at BMEB to improve overall management in important areas such as: human resources management; financial management, budget preparation and execution; audit and control; educational soft and hardware development, viz. curriculum and textbooks; quality assurance and accreditation etc. These should now be addressed in a systematic and sustainable way. 339. BMEB has an authorized workforce of 182 personnel for management, professional/technical, clerical, and support staff. However, the principal weakness is the imbalance in the staffing of mid to senior level technical/professional staff versus lower level sub-professional/support staff. Of the 182 positions only 4 are senior level staff, 5 are deputies, 32 mid-level technical-professional staff and the rest 141 are lower-level support staff. All senor staff positions are routinely filled through deputation from BCS cadre officials. 340. A limiting factor for BMEBs regular staff is the lack of opportunity to move upwards in their careers, and this is coupled with the absence of a professional development program. This inhibits staff morale and the capacity to grow within the organization. 341. Reforms of madrasah education through decentralization, and mainstreaming have been given high priority by the government and it is reflected both in public pronouncements as well as in the NEP. Despite the shortage of staff and lack of institutional support there is an apparent commitment of the senior management of BMEB to progress along the direction of the reforms agenda with the assistance of development partners. 342. Shared values are essential in an institutional culture that binds all its employees with the vision and objectives of the organization. BMEBs sub-sector wide goals, objectives and strategy do not appear to be adequately internalized by its personnel. 6.5.3 KEY FINDINGS

343. Lack of institutional and staff capacity in policy analysis, planning, and management of madrasah education are among the major bottlenecks to building and delivering effective madrasah education services across the country. There is also a lack of capacity in mastering modern educational curriculum and textbook development techniques, and in a understanding modern views of the teaching learning process. Zonal education officers also lack knowledge of education, teacher supervision, and educational management. Restructuring the central BMEB, developing technical staff and institutional capacity, and empowering the zonal education offices should be a focus in the development agenda for madrasah education. 344. Interventions should include: capacity development for educational policy formulation, educational planning, and managing education at the central and zonal levels; human resource development programs for managerial, supervisory, and professional staff including recruitment and training of female staff; developing effective logistics and physical inputs to support improved management capacity; and developing the technical capacity of staff for developing curricula, teachers guides, textbooks, and valid examinations.

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345. In the context of the NEP and the objective of mainstreaming madrasah education, a stakeholders workshop was organized to share ideas and explore opportunities for mapping madrasah education in the medium to long term103. The workshop focused on five areas for future reform: (i) new structures of school and madrasah education; (ii) unified curriculum & assessment system; (iii) teacher training and development; (iv) equity in education; and (v) future role of BMEB. The first four themes are covered in earlier respective chapters of this study, this chapter deals only with the BMEB. The Madrasah Education Road Map will contain proposals on each of these areas as well as recommendations for the NEP Implementation Committee. 346. The NEP offers new opportunities for strategic development of BMEB in directions that contribute to mainstreaming madrasah education, focusing on equity and quality. If mainstreaming can be implemented it will enhance the public image of madrasahs in the country as places of education and learning. 347. The strategic directions endorsed by the workshop include: decentralization of BMEB following the paths of the BISE regional education boards with a revised mandate and supported by institutional strengthening; strengthening the eight existing zonal offices and merging them with regional BISE in the short-term. Later, when the BMEB is decentralized, zonal offices will form part of the regional BMEB. The restructuring of BMEB will be consistent with the growth and development of mainstream education in the country. However, this will require the amendment of the existing Ordinance that provides the legal basis for BMEB. 348. The proposed reforms need both institutional strengthening and personnel capacity development of BMEB to yield and sustain desired results. A targeted capacity development plan is proposed to support and institutionalise the reforms agenda. 6.5.5 CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN

349. Capacity development is understood here as the need to adjust policies and regulations to: reform institutions; modify working procedures and coordination mechanisms; increase the skills and qualifications of personnel; and change the value systems and attitudes in a way that meets the demands and needs of the madrasah education sectors priority policies, programs and services. Capacity development plans for the BMEB are consistent with national capacity development approaches and are based on the following: management training to foster institutional development, training in modern educational practices needed to improve teaching and learning in the madrasahs; training for key professional and technical skills; and

Stakeholders Workshop on Road Map for Madrasah Education, National Academy of Educational Management, Ministry of Education, 13 October 2010.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education developing a service-oriented bureaucracy that is flexible, demand-driven and responsive to the needs of the society and economy.

350. Bangladeshs experience in capacity development in education sector was analyzed in the context of external inputs in past decades and on-going support in primary and secondary education, as well as the governments capacity development plan for the public sector104 351. On the basis of a needs assessment105 validated by the stakeholders, an indicative capacity development plan (CDP) for BMEB and allied institutions, including DSHE106, is designed to address urgent staff development needs in strategic and technical areas and to install appropriate systems and processes over the medium-term. The proposed CDP will support restructuring of BMEB including its decentralization. 352. The CDP has three components: (i) an initial short-term staff development program through regional study visits, (ii) a medium-term capacity development plan that includes comprehensive staff training/fellowships and installation of appropriate systems and procedures to support BMEBs restructuring through (iii) a targeted technical assistance package. Appendix 6.1 presents a schematic diagram of key skills training, Appendix 6.2 provides a summary of staff development and fellowship program, and Appendix 6.3 presents a summary of the TA package. 353. The estimated cost of the medium-term CDP is provided in the Indicative Investment Proposal for Madrasah Development (2011-2015). 6.6 CONCLUSIONS

354. The place of madrasah education in the national education system has been considered several times since Liberation. But none of the major recommendations of the various education commissions were implemented by the succeeding governments. Only in the 2010 National Education Policy does there seem to be commitment to bringing Aliya Madrasahs, but not Qoumi, into the framework of an overall education policy and plan. However, the implementation strategy is not yet fully clear. Whereas there is a regulatory system for Aliya Madrasahs and that is operated by BMEB, there is no similar mechanism for Qoumi Madrasahs which operate outside Government authority 355. The capacity of the BMEB for policy analysis, technical planning, and development of effective educational materials and examinations is non-existent. The planning expertise that will be needed for effective implementation of the NEP as it affects madrasahs will have to come from DSHE and MOE, though both these organisations have in the past had a project focus rather than a sectoral or program focus. 356. Education policy, planning and administration suffer from a dearth of reliable and upto-date information. At present, the secondary sector has a disjointed system of information collection, processing, retrieval and access. There has been no regular collection of data
104 105

GOBs capacity building policy and strategy are elaborated in the Revised PRSP, August 2009. This included beneficiary survey and focus group discussions (FGD) conducted in October-December 2009. 106 As and when it is established the DME will be supported under CDP.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education and the infrequent surveys undertaken by BANBEIS provide the main source of data, often outdated. Although an integrated EMIS covering the main administrative, management monitoring and evaluation functions was specified in 2006/7 only one part is functioning. This system will include the Aliya Madrasah alongside general secondary schools and offers the way forward for more accurate and timely information. However, independent Ibtedaye and Quomi Madrasahs fall outside the proposed system. There are strong reasons for entrusting data-collection concerning primary-aged children, including those in madrasahs, to DPE, which has demonstrated adequate capacity. 357. The BMEB will, whatever the scale, scope, and pace of reform of the education system, require substantial institutional strengthening including repositioning itself in the context of new educational architecture: a medium-term draft capacity development plan (CDP) for madrasah education is briefly described. The proposed CDP is flexible and anchored in a wider context of evolving madrasah education improvement; it will support both the institutional requirements, and individual professional management skills development in madrasah education.

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CHAPTER 7

FINANCE
7.0 INTRODUCTION 358. The material of this chapter is set within the present macro-economic situation of Bangladesh. It includes, for a period of about a decade, an analysis of the public sector expenditures with particular reference to educations share of GDP; and it provides details of the government revenue and development expenditures on education in current and constant terms. Multi-country comparisons will be made using education expenditures as percentage of GDP. Education expenditures are analysed across the main sectors before focusing on expenditures on madrasahs. Revenue expenditures per student across different types of education including madrasahs are compared. A comparison is shown of the trends in the numbers of private schools and madrasahs having support from the government in terms of MPO. Finally there is consideration of the possible contribution of madrasah education to the ecomomy and to society, what is referred to as external efficiency. 7.1 THE MACRO-ECONOMIC SETTING

359. The global economy gradually started to recover from the middle of 2009 after experiencing the adverse impacts of the economic recession of 2008, which lead to the worst global financial crisis since 1930s. The economy of Bangladesh has exhibited positive real GDP growth rates of 5.7% in 2008-09 and is reported to have been 5.83% for year 2009-2010107. The country is estimated to achieve a GDP growth rate of 6.7% for year 201011, based on the emerging macroeconomic indicators108. Appendix 7.1 shows the medium term outlook. 7.1.1 PERFORMANCE OF BANGLADESH IN FY 2010

360. Export growth decelerated during the first half of FY 2010, however rebounded during the second half of the year. Growth performances of industries such as: electronics, engineering products, leather products, and pharmaceuticals are positive during FY 2010. The agriculture sector is expected to rise by 3.0% and the construction sector has also displayed positive growth due to the higher demand for housing. Growth in key service sectors, such as hotels and restaurants, transport and communication, real estate, public administration, defense, education, health, and social services has been positive. However growth rates in trade transport and communications and financial intermediations have been less than in the previous fiscal year. The growth of the service sector is expected to increase from 6.3% in FY 2009 to 6.5% in FY 2010109. 80.2% of the GDP is derived from consumption. The rise in consumption is driven by remittance induced demand and a budgetary stimulus including higher social safety-net spending.
107 108

http://www.tradingeconomics.com/bangladesh/gdp-growth Medium Term Macroeconomic Framework, Chapter 2, Table 2.2 109 Medium Term Macroeconomic Framework, Chapter 2, Paragraph 2.10

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 7.1.2 MACROECONOMIC FORECAST

361. The GDP growth outlook from the Medium Term Macroeconomic Framework is estimated to be 6.7% in FY 2011. This is gradually expected to increase to 8.0% in FY 2014 and remain the same in FY 2015. The agriculture sector is expected to sustain 4-5 percent growth annually by increased productivity. The 8.0% GDP growth projection in the medium term are based on increasing the level of Annual Development Plan expenditure to 6.0% of GDP, implementing investment projects in the power and infrastructure sectors and raising investment to 32.0% of GDP. 7.1.3 POVERTY AND MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

362. Bangladesh has made progress towards achieving poverty reduction and realizing MGDs. Per capita GDP increased from USD 277.0 in 1992 to USD 621.0 in 2009. The national headcount rate of poverty measured by the USD 2.0 a day declined from 58.8% in 1991 to 40.0% in 2005. However, large variations in the incidence of poverty continue to exist between urban and rural areas, with levels of poverty falling faster in the rural areas. The poverty gap ratio has declined from 17.2% in 1990 to 9.0% in 2005. The poverty situation did not improve much after 2005 because of the setback caused by devastating natural catastrophes such as the cyclones, Sidr and Aila. 363. As far as primary education is concerned, the net primary enrolment rate increased from 60.5% in 1990 to 93.9%110 in 2009 and is projected to reach 100% by 2015111. 364. Primary cycle completion rate has increased from 40.0% in 1990 to 59.7% in 2009112 and Adult Literacy rate has risen from 35.3% in 1991 to 59.1% in 2008. 2009 data suggests that there have been a higher number of girls than boys in both primary and secondary education. However, the ratio of male to female students in tertiary education is 100:61. 365. Infant mortality has been halved from 94 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 40 per 1,000 live births in 2007. The human development index in 1995 was 452 and increased to 543 in 2007. The average life expectancy at birth has increased to 65.4 years in 2006. It is estimated that over 97.8% of the population have access to safe drinking water and about 40.0% of the population have access to an improved sanitation system. 7.1.4 PROSPECTS FOR EDUCATION SPENDING

366. Education allocation is to increase by 13.5%113 in FY 2011 from the previous years budget. Governments revenue budget is planned to increase by 11.0% in FY 2011 compared to fiscal year 2010 and Development Budget is set to increase by 25.5%. The total budget for Ministry of Primary and Mass Education has increased by 17.8%114 in FY 2011 and is projected to rise by 11.0% in FY 2012 and by a further 13.5% in FY 2013115.

110 111

DPE, 2010 Table 1.1 Medium Term Macroeconomic Framework, Chapter 1, Table 1.2 112 Para 2.2.2 DPE (2010) Annual Sector Performance Review. 113 Education Budget Data from Budget 2010-11, Statement II, Ministry of Finance. 114 Ibid. 115 Projected Data from Medium Term Budgetary Framework: Ministry of Education, Ministry of Finance.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 367. The total budget for the Ministry of Education has increased by 10.2% in FY 2011. It is projected to rise by 14.7% in FY 2012 and by a further 13.5% in FY 20139. In FY 2011, 83.0% of the total budget for the Ministry of Education is coming from the Governments revenue budget, while the rest 17.0% is from the development budget. 7.2 EDUCATION WITHIN PUBLIC SECTOR EXPENDITURE

368. In most cases reference is to budget allocations and expenditures from budget allocations. The reason is that up-to-date actual expenditures are not readily available. In the public sector, budgets are revised towards the end of the fiscal year (July 1 June 30). The revised budget estimates are taken to be within at most a few percent of actual expenditures. Wherever possible the Revised Budget Estimates have been used. Notes to the Appendices show when budget estimates (BE) and revised budget estimates (RB) have been used. 369. Education in Bangladesh is primarily state financed and managed; though there is large private sector which is receives government subsidies. The budget of the government is comprised of two components: Revenue expenditure and Development expenditure. Total government Revenue Budget allocations in the period 1998/9 to 2010/11 over the past decade have been in the range 7.5% to 11.3% of GDP, while the education sectors share of that revenue expenditure has ranged from13.9% to 18.1% (Appendix 7.2 Table 1). Governments Development Expenditures ranged from 3.4% to 6.5% of GDP. The education sectors share of total Government Development Expenditures has fluctuated with a low of 11% and a high of 21.1% (Appendix 7.2, Table 2). 370. Total Education Budget as a proportion of GDP hovered within a narrow band of 1.92 to 2.30 percent between 1998-99 to 2010-11; 2000-01 to 2004-05 it showed a decline in this proportion however from then on a steady increase can be noticed. Figure 7.1 illustrates the decade long pattern and Appendix 7.2, Table 3 has the details. Figure: 7.1: Education as a Proportion of GDP, 1998/99 2010/11

Source: Appendix 7.2

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 7.2.1 EDUCATION EXPENDITURES COMPARED TO NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES

371. Bangladesh showed the lowest public education expenditure of 2.3% of GDP among the 6 South Asian countries in 2006, as shown in Table 7.1 and details are in Appendix 7.2. Following Bangladesh is Pakistan, with 2.9% and India, with 3.3%. 7.2.2 INTER-COUNTRY COMPARISONS

Table 7.1: Education Expenditures in 10 Asian Countries as a Proportion of GDP, 2006 Bangladesh

Philippines

Korea Rep.

Malaysia

Thailand

Pakistan

2.3

2.5

2.9*

3.3

3.8*

4.0

4.2

4.7

5.1*

5.3*

Source: Data and Statistics from Edstats, the World Bank Website Note: * indicates 2008 figures.

372. Besides the proportion of GDP allocated to education another indicator of a countrys commitment to education is the Mingat ratio. It is defined as the ratio of the revenue expenditure per student to the GDP per head. Mingat studied, for a large number of countries, the relationship of revenue expenditure per head for various levels of education to GDP per head and found quite a good fit. For primary the ratio is in the order of 10% for many countries. It is 20% for secondary schools. The Mingat ratio is used to gauge how well a country performs compared to others, regardless of their level of GDP per head. On this indicator Bangladesh performs well at the primary level, as shown in Appendix 7.3, Table 1 with a ratio of 11%. (It has a poorer Mingat ratio at secondary level as will be shown later.)

Vietnam
197

Bhutan

Nepal

India

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 7.2.3 EDUCATION WITHIN TOTAL GOVERNMENT REVENUE AND DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURES

7.2.3.1 Revenue Figure 7.2: Proportion of Gov. Revenue Expenditure by Sector, 2000-01 to 2007-08
Proportion of Revenue Expenditure by Functions
% of Revenue Expenditure
25 20 Public Service 15 10 5 0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Education Social S Agriculture

Year

Source: See Appendix 7.4, Table 1.

373. The proportion of education expenditure in the governments revenue budget fell steadily during 2000-01 to 2004-05 from 17.4% to 15.4%. It increased in the next two years to 19% but fell back again to 16.3% in 2007-08. Public Service, on the other hand, has less than half the share of revenue budget that it had at the beginning of the decade. As the share of general public service declined from 21.3% to 9.5%, many of the other functions gained a higher share, namely education, agriculture and social security. Share of agriculture increased from 3.3% to 7.3% and social security rose from 1% to 3.1%. 7.2.3.2 Development Expenditure Figure 7.3: Proportion of Development Expenditure by Functions, 2000-01 to 2007-08
Proportion of Development Expenditure by Functions
% of Development Expenditure 25 20 Agriculture 15 10 5 0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Year Transport Comm. Education Physical P.

Source: See Appendix 7.4, Table 2.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 374. Education and transport claimed the largest shares of development expenditure share at the beginning of the decade but fell over the years. Education began the decade with a share of 14% of the development expenditures but fell to 10.7% towards the end of 2008. Interestingly the 2010 budget allocates 12.8% to Education and Information Technology. Physical planning consisted of a 9.1% share in 2003-04 but grew to 12.3% by 2007-08. Allocations of development funds depend on a number of factors, including the erratic nature of the project cycles, emergency spending following natural calamities, availability of funds from development partners, changes of government etc. Allocations from development budget will always fluctuate more than revenue spending which is mainly on salaries and allowances and has its own internal momentum. 7.2.4 GOVERNMENT REVENUE AND DEVELOPMENT BUDGETS ON EDUCATION SUB-SECTORS

375. We now turn to consider the use of both revenue and development budget allocations within the education sector. 7.2.4.1 Revenue Budget for Education Figure 7.4: Government Revenue Expenditures on Main Sub-sectors of Education, 2003- 2008

Proportion of Gov. Revenue Budget on Types of Education


Rev enue B udg et o n E duca tio n (% 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Year 2006-07 2007-08 Primary Secondary College Madrasah

Source: Appendix 7.6

376. First, we observe that revenue expenditures on madrasahs has hardly moved as a proportion of total revenue while primary has fallen from a high share of 34% to a low of 26%; secondary educations allocations have moved around the 20% mark while Colleges have similar allocations to madrasahs. Second, in absolute numbers and taking account of

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education inflation, allocations have increased, as shown in Figure 7.5116. Of course, enrolments have also been increasing: hence the increase in per student allocations may not have been as impressive. (See below under Unit Expenditures) Figure 7.5: Revenue Budget Allocations to Main Sectors of Education in Constant Prices.

30000 25000 20000 Tk.m. 15000 10000 5000 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Year 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

Government Recurrent Budget in Constant Terms

Primary Constant Secondary Constant

Source: Appendix 7.5 Note: Secondary is an abbreviation for Secondary and Higher Education and includes Aliya Madrasah education.

7.2.4.2 Development Budget for Education 377. Figure 7.5 shows the movement of budget allocations to primary and secondary education over a period of seven years. After inflation rate has been accounted for, the allocation for primary education has increased by 32.6% in real terms over the period. Primary education began the decade with a 57% share of all education budget allocations. Although its share dipped in 2004/05 to 30%, by 2007/08 it had regained its priority position and had almost two thirds of the entire education development budget. (In fact the low of 30% may not have been as drastic as it looks for, among the other categories of spending is an allocation, amounting to 30% of the total to MOPMEs own projects. Tables 4 and 5 of Appendix 7.5 provide the details.) By contrast, the allocations for secondary education in real terms in the period have decreased, being 34.4% in 2001, falling to 27.1% in 2005-06 and declining further to 16.6% in 2007-08. Figure 7.6 illustrates the movement of allocations. Details are in Appendix 7.5. Figure 7.7 below shows that real increases in development budget allocations to primary education have occurred though not to secondary and higher education in the period 2001- 2008. Madrasah education is absorbed within secondary and higher education.

Constant prices: A deflator has been used in the series to adjust the data for inflation. The current data series, which takes inflation into account, has been converted into a constant series of data which adjusts for inflation. A base year of 1995-996 prices has been used, which means that the changes in prices can be compared over time with reference to the prices in the base-year, i.e. 1995-1996.

116

200

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Figure 7.6: Percentage Allocations of Government Development Budget on Education by Sub Sectors, from 2001-02 to 2007-08

Percentage Allocation of Government Development Budget on Education


70 60

Primary
50 40 30 20 10 0 2001-02* 2002-03* 2003-04* 2004-05 2005-06* 2006-07* 2007-08

Secondary & Higher Technical University

Year

Source: Appendix 7.5

Figure 7.7: Development Budget Allocations to Primary and Secondary & Higher Education in Constant Prices

16000 14000 12000 10000 Tk.m. 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2001-02

Government Development Budget in Constant Terms

Primary Constant Secondary Constant

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05 Year

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

Source: Appendix 7.5

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7.3

EXPENDITURES PER STUDENT (UNIT COSTS) IN VARIOUS EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Table 7.2: Expenditures per Student on Non-Government Secondary Schools and Madrasahs at Constant Prices

200001

2002-03

2005-06

200809

Change over base year (2000-01)

Taka per Student 2002-03 2005-06 Non-Government Secondary School Non-Government Madrasah 200809

884

824

1334

1615

93%

151%

183%

1111

1056

1524

1742

95%

137%

157%

Source: See Appendix 7.7

378. By removing the effect of inflation on the money values of unit expenditures we can trace the movement of unit expenditures in the two sub-sectors of greatest interest in the present Madrasah Sector Study. First, between 2000/01 and 2002/03 the real resource inputs to both non-government secondary schools and non-government madrasahs fell by 7% and 5% respectively. The recovery in 2005/06 was sharp and high with a 51% increase for secondary schools, and 37% increase for madrasahs, compared to the base year. In 2008-09 there was a further rise in real resources of 83% in non-government schools and 57% in madrasahs. These real inputs per student represent only those inputs from government and do not reflect community contributions in cash or kind. (Education Watch, 2006, has good data on household contributions.) Moreover, only revenue expenditures are counted here. 379. All types of educational institution experienced a rise in revenue expenditure per student in constant terms except for Cadet Colleges and public universities during the period 2000-01 to 2005-06. What is important in considering resource inputs per student are the relative inputs in different kinds of institution. As a rough rule of thumb, globally a secondary student is expected to cost about twice a primary student, a vocational student about 3 or 4 times the primary student and a university student approximately 10 times that of a primary student. The table below shows the ratios for Bangladesh for two years, 2005/06 and 2008/09.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Table 7.3: Ratio of the Revenue Cost per student in different types of institutions with respect to per student revenue cost in Government Primary Schools Type of Institution 2005-06 (Ratio) Government Primary School117 Gov. Secondary School Non-Gov. Secondary School Gov. Madrasah Non-Gov. Madrasah Government College Non-Gov. College Cadet College Teacher Training College Public University
Source: Appendix 7.7 * 2008-09 indicates the recurrent cost per student in primary education which was Tk. 2,051 (USD 29.3) in current terms calculated by dividing the total government revenue budget on primary and mass education by the total number of primary students in 2008-09.

2008-09 (Ratio) 1* 5.2 1.3 5.9 1.4

1 3.8 1.1 4.7 1.2 3.1 4.2 41.3 7.7 24

380. Table 7.3 shows that n 2005-06, for one university student 24 primary students could be funded. In 2008, a student in a government secondary school (only 317 of these) cost 5 times as much as a single primary school student. We can observe that between 20005/6 and 2008/9 there has been an improvement in the inputs to secondary level institutions relative to primary schools. A student in a non-government secondary school costs about 30% more than a primary student while a madrasah student costs the government 40% more than a primary school student. There are only three government (Kamil) madrasahs hence the marked increase in relative per capita expenditures may be due to falling enrolments. What we can infer is that there is substantial inequality in the inputs by level and management of education. Non-government schools and madrasahs have very similar unit expenditures almost certainly due to the formula used to allocate MPO posts - the main modality for government support to private institutions.

Government Primary Schools number about 37,672 and are the best funded from public sources of all 81,508 primary education institutions. Figures from DPE, 2010 ASPR Final Draft, Page 10.

117

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 7.4 PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND MADRASAHS RECEIVING MPO SUPPORT

Figure7.8: Number of Non-Government Institutions which are entitled to MPOs, from 1991-92 to 2007-08

18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0


19 91 -9 19 2 92 -9 19 3 93 -9 19 4 94 -9 19 5 95 -9 19 6 96 -9 19 7 97 -9 19 8 98 -9 19 9 99 -0 20 0 00 -0 20 1 01 -0 20 2 02 -0 20 3 03 -0 20 4 04 -0 20 5 05 -0 20 6 06 -0 20 7 07 -0 8

Number of Non-Government Institutions with MPOs

Schools Colleges Madrasahs

Unit

Year

Source: Appendix 7.8

381. The majority of the non-government secondary schools (85%), colleges and madrasahs (78%)118 have MPO support. (Figures from BANBEIS, 2010 Tables 2.2.7 and 4.1.6) An allocation of MPO posts is given and both teachers and other staff are included. Figure 7.8 shows that in a period of almost two decades MPO enlistments, as the process is termed, have increased the numbers of MPO enlisted secondary schools by almost 60%. Madrasah enlistment has increased by 53%. In the period since 2004 the numbers have plateaued because of a government decision to halt temporarily the enlistment process. In 2010 the Government gave permission for new MPO enlistments. 382. Not all teachers and other staff in a MPO enlisted institutions receive MPO support. In the period of 16 years from 1991/92 Teachers with MPO support in secondary schools have increased by 59% whereas there are 77% more madrasah teachers with MPO support. (Colleges have displayed impressive growth in MPO enlistment of 400% in institutions and teachers/ staff). MPO enlistment is a complex process. There is a slight hint of bias against female teachers. In secondary schools nationally 22% of teachers are female but only 19% receiving MPO. In madrasahs 9% of teachers are female and 7% receive MPO (BANBEIS, 2010 Table 13. Figures for male and female teachers taken together are that 76% in secondary schools and 77% in madrasahs receive MPO. In line with disparities noted for GER, STR and other indicators, there are disparities at all levels down to Upazila in the gap between the percentage of female teachers and the percentage who receive MPO. Only in one upazila, Titas in Comilla District, where 8% of teachers in madrasahs are female and 9% of those who get MPO are female does there appear to be equality of treatment of female teachers.
118

For Dakhil Madrasahs the figure is slightly less at 75.91% with MPO, BANBEIS, 2009 Table 10.6.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 7.4.1 PRIVATE COSTS

383. Private costs have been shown (Education Watch, 2006) to account for more than half of the total cost of education for an individual student at the secondary level. Private expenditures in government and non-government (MPO) schools and madrasahs rise with subsequent higher classes across both rural and urban areas. Private costs in Class 10 are approximately 2.7 times that in Class 6. Expenses for private tutors and school items such as books, stationery, uniforms, and the like, account for the highest proportions of total private costs. Details are in Appendix 7.8. In urban government secondary schools, 44-49% of the total private expenses were devoted to private tutor expenses whereas in rural institutions it was 36-38%. In urban madrasahs 23-33% was spent on private tuition, whereas in rural madrasahs it was 16-21%. Private expenses in the average madrasah are approximately half of a government school in urban areas, possibly indicative of the lower income groups from which madrasah students are drawn. One has to question why there is such a large allocation of household expenditures to private tuition. The government is against teachers offering their services to their students for financial gain outside school hours. Hence, the problem is acknowledged. Confidence of parents is low, it seems, in the ability of teachers to get the best out of their students especially in the highly competitive entry processes for the best schools and colleges.

My private tutor teaches me Bengali English and Mathematics (female student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye madrasah). I go to a private tutor from 4:30 pm to 5:30 pm and come back at 6:00 pm (female student of Class 10 in Aliya madrasah). My madrasahs madam is my private tutor. She teaches me all the subjects (male student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye madrasah). To appear in the scholarship examination I took coaching from one of our teachers without any fees. Coaching time was set before or after school sessions. (female student of Class 6 in Aliya madrasah). Source: Appendix 9, Inside Madrasahs: A Qualitative Study

384. Not all students spend on tuition fees and private tutors as suggested by Table 6, Appendix 7.8. Some proportion of secondary students did not take private tuition: 12% in government schools, 15% in non-government (MPO) schools, and 31% in madrasahs. This may be attributed to the fact that some students studied on their own, some could not afford to go to private tutors, and, as Reality Check 2010 suggests, some students were tutored by their elder siblings and cousins while others went to tutors who taught them free of charge. The average private tuition costs, as (depicted in Appendix 7.8) are therefore higher for those students who actually engage fee-charging private tutors.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 7.5 OUTPUT OF MADRASAH EDUCATION EXTERNAL EFFICIENCY

385. Expenditures on education represent, in summary, the inputs to education. The : outputs of education are many and various, ranging from literacy and numeracy, to informed citizens, and skilled labour able to compete in the national and global economies. Specifically what are the societal and economic benefits of madrasah education? The surveys and qualitative study did not include labour market studies or tracer surveys of students leaving madrasahs. (The latter are proposed in the Road Map for Madrasah Education.) However, there are several points that can be made in regard to the value of madrasah education at the secondary level to society. First, without the initiative of communities to establish madrasahs, and in the absence of a comprehensive network of government educational institutions, many millions of children would have no education beyond primary schooling. Second, in general, Aliya Madrasahs serve rural and the poorest people. Without madrasahs the rural poor population would lack opportunities for further education and many jobs. Third, the ethos of madrasahs is such as to make them userfriendly to students even when the teachers often lack higher level qualifications and teacher training. Fourth, related to the foregoing points the accessibility of the many small madrasahs for the poor and for girls in particular in rural areas provides educational opportunities which otherwise would be denied. Fifth, while the government supports the majority of recognised secondary madrasahs the fact is that households also have to fund the considerable private costs of schooling. The existence of madrasahs therefore allows private investment in education. Sixth, madrasahs main mission is to cultivate pious and socially responsible citizens. Their popularity must be explained in part by their success in promoting that mission. 7.6 CONCLUSIONS

386. Even considering the slowdown in global economic growth Bangladesh has maintained GDP growth and, because of declining birth-rates some increase in GDP per head. Government forecasts of revenue growth and expenditures for the next two fiscal years show increases. Educations share of the present 2010/11 budget is up 13.5% in current terms on last years allocation. 387. Against this positive picture, the country has consistently allocated only 2.0% - 2.3% of GDP to education. This is low compared to other regional countries. The figure may underestimate the total national resources allocated to education since there are considerable private household expenditures which are not captured in the standard calculation which counts only public sector inputs. The ambitious National Education Policy will require successive larger commitments to education assuming that there is capacity to absorb the increases in funding. 388. Educations share of government revenue budget has moved erratically in the range 15 19% in the period 2000 - 2008. If education is to gain a larger share other sectors will experience decreases. Within the education revenue budget madrasahs have held their share at about 11% while primary education dipped in the last year for which we have data. Primary education took the lions share of the education development budget over the period. Secondary education, including madrasah education, fared poorly with steadily decreasing allocations. This point is made clear when, stripping out the effects of inflation;

206

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education the allocations to secondary education, including madrasahs in 2006/07 were less than in 2001/02. 389. Relative unit recurrent expenditures in non-government secondary schools and madrasahs have improved in the period 2005/6 to 2008/9 but are still some way below the internationally accepted norm of expenditure per head on secondary level students being twice those in primary schools. (Government secondary schools meet and surpass that norm). 390. While no specific research was conducted on the output or value of secondary madrasahs, their accessibility and attractiveness to the poorest and rural peoples is evidence of their status in the eyes of those who use them. Moreover, without the madrasahs the government would either have to invest considerable amounts in setting up secondary schools or deny millions of young people a secondary education.

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CHAPTER 8

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


8.1 SUMMARY

Introduction 391. Any education system that has more than 4 million students, as do the Aliya Madrasahs, deserves careful and relentless study. This MSS is a beginning. Madrasahs have a long and complex history in Bangladesh. The place of madrasah education in the national education system has been the subject of official study and concern since Liberation. From 1970 to 2008 the total number of Aliya Madrasahs increased six-fold. The growth of Qoumi Madrasahs is reputed to have been as great as those of Aliya Madrasahs, though no statistics are available. Main Findings 392. Access to the three forms of secondary education, general, madrasah and technical/ vocational, is almost exclusively through non-government schools and madrasahs. Gross and net participation rates are quite close, showing that right age enrolment is common and that of the order of 50% of the 11-15 age group are in one or other of the three streams of secondary education. However national and divisional averages, hide wide variations in participation at district and upazila levels. Gender parity has been achieved within both general education and madrasahs: girls gross enrolment rate being 12 percentage points ahead of boys in the secondary sector as a whole. Participation of the lowest income groups is more common in madrasahs than in secondary schools. Children with various disabilities are few in schools and in very low numbers in madrasahs less than 0.4% in Independent Ibtedaye. 393. Madrasahs Dakhil, Independent Ibtedaye, and Qoumi - all have lower studentteacher ratios than secondary schools and consequently lower class sizes, though their teachers are much less likely to be well trained. The one teacher training facility for madrasah teachers, the Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute (BMTTI), conducts only short in-service training for Aliya madrasah teachers and principals. For general education there are more than 100 teacher training institutions offering both pre- and inservice training. Just over 10% of all teachers in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs have a teacher training qualification and the majority have no more than Dakhil, SSC, Alim or HSC education qualifications. 394. A wide gap existed up to 2011 in the curricula of general education and Aliya Madrasah education and between Aliya and Qoumi forms of madrasah. The amount of content included in general subjects has been less in Aliya madrasah textbooks than in the general education textbooks. Curricula, syllabi and textbooks of the general subjects prescribed by BMEB did not contain the same number of teaching units as the general

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education education curricula. These differences in the textbooks defined the differences in the content and amount of material taught to students in the two systems. Generalisations concerning Qoumi curricula cannot be easily made since there is no single umbrella body for curricula and many Qoumi madrasahs are independent of any board. In the sample survey 30% of Qoumi madrasahs were not registered with any board. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are supposed to follow a similar curriculum as in primary schools with the addition of religious education. With poorly qualified and untrained teachers, a general neglect of physical and learning resources and no supervision nor inspection, it is difficult to conclude that students in those institutions experience the kind of primary education provided in non-government primary schools. 395. The pass rates for the general education Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and the Dakhil for ten years show Dakhil leavers having higher rates of passing their examination than the general education secondary school leavers. Since the curriculum and textbooks of the BMEB and NCTB are different, and since the BMEB curriculum and textbooks for Bangla, English, social studies, and science were found to be neither as comprehensive nor as detailed as those of the NCTB, and since the examination questions are different, strictly speaking the pass rates in Dakhil and SS exams are not validly comparable. 396. In both general education and Aliya madrasah streams, repetition and dropout are very common for both boys and girls. The rates of completion of the general education secondary cycle are 42% for boys and 34% for girls. For Dakhil Madrasahs the rates are slightly better for boys at 50% but around the same for girls at 36%. These rates represent a huge loss of resources for the public and families. The less than 50% completion rate for students in secondary cycle, including madrasahs, approximately doubles the cost of producing a secondary graduate. Private costs of education on average exceed those expenditures made from the public purse. 397. Facilities in the Aliya Dakhil Madrasahs are in general poorer than those in the nongovernment secondary schools. Approximately 25% of madrasahs have pucca facilities compared to 40% of non-government secondary schools. Three-quarters of madrasahs have semi-pucca or kaccha facilities. Only 5% of rural Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs (the most common type) have pucca buildings while 63% have kachha buildings. Both madrasahs and secondary schools suffer from the lack of electricity, only 57% of Dakhil Madrasahs have electricity and 13% have dedicated libraries. Where there are libraries, there are few books. Just fewer than 18% of all Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs have electricity supply. Qoumi madrasahs have surprisingly good physical facilities with 85% of rural Qoumi Madrasahs having electricity and 47% having libraries. 398. Availability, proximity, and affordability have made madrasah education attractive to rural and poor parents who cannot afford the costs linked to other types of education. Madrasahs are particularly appealing where girls are concerned and where moral/religious issues are added to the financial ones listed earlier. Against this backdrop, girls are being enrolled in greater numbers though their wastage rate is high and higher than that of boys. However, they have done so by entering non-government schools and madrasahs, which do not perform as well as the few government secondary schools and madrasahs. Moreover, in

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education the case of madrasahs, girls are being educated in a context where womens rights and access to full citizenship are not always fully supported. 399. The capacity of the BMEB for policy analysis, technical planning and development of effective educational materials and examinations is non-existent. BMEB lacks sufficient skilled manpower and management skills to plan and manage a system with more than 13000 (Aliya) madrasahs. Education policy and planning suffers when there is a dearth of reliable and up-to-date information. At present, the secondary sector, including the Aliya Madrasah sub-sector, has a somewhat disjointed system of information collection, processing, retrieval and access. Although an integrated EMIS covering the main administrative, management, monitoring, and evaluation functions was specified in 2006/7, only one part is functioning. Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are not included in the annual census of primary schools nor are they surveyed during the irregular BANBEIS surveys of post-primary education institutions. Qoumi Madrasahs also fall outside the existing and proposed systems for data collection and processing. 400. Against a backdrop of a respectable growth rates of GDP, the country has consistently allocated only 2.0% - 2.3% of GDP to education. This is low compared to other countries in the region. The ambitious National Education Policy will require successively larger funding commitments to education as well as greater capacity in terms of human resources and operational systems to absorb those increases should they materialise. 401. Educations share of government revenue budget has remained in a range 15 17% in the past 5 years. Within educations share of the revenue budget, madrasahs have held their share at about 11%. Primary education, not including Ibtedaye Madrasah education, took the lions share of the education development budget over the period 2001 - 2008. Secondary education, including madrasah education, fared poorly over the period 20012008, with steadily decreasing allocations of real resources when the effects of inflation are removed, the allocations in 2006/07 were less than in 2001/02. 402. Unit recurrent expenditures in non-government secondary schools and madrasahs are of the same order of magnitude as those of government primary schools and about half of the internationally accepted norm. Internationally, expenditure per head on secondary level students is twice that in primary schools. 403. Thus, though Bangladesh allocates a relatively low proportion of GDP to education, there is huge scope for effective use of the allocated funds by improving the internal efficiency of its education system. The external efficiency of secondary education and madrasah education was not addressed in the Terms of Reference of the Project. Questions such as what is the value to society and the economy of madrasah education need to be addressed. Also, how well do madrasah outputs fit the job market? The Road Map will propose actions to tackle these important questions.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 8.2 CONCLUSIONS

Overview 404. If there is one overarching conclusion to the various surveys, studies, interviews and background reading, it is that at present students attending Aliya Madrasahs are in general experiencing a lower quality of education in terms of the inputs provided by the government and the communities which manage those madrasahs. Moreover, with rare exceptions the perception of the public is also that madrasahs offer an inferior education. What are the major obstacles to improving the quality of education on offer in madrasahs? How can these be overcome? Before responding to these questions it is well to highlight the fact that the government itself, through the adoption of the National Education Policy 2010, has signalled that it wants to address the problem. However, it will take many years to implement actions to correct the present inequalities in provision between madrasahs and general secondary schools. The following proposals are intended to deliver improvements in quality in the immediate future, say six years, and are fully compatible with the NEP 2010 in so far as the as yet incomplete implementation mechanism can be interpreted. Obstacles to quality madrasah education and how these may be overcome We list the major obstacles in order of importance for improving quality below along with suggestions for overcoming these obstacles. Obstacle (A.) The lack of adequate training in teaching methodology of the majority of madrasah teachers. This sector study has identified the large number of madrasah teachers who do not meet the minimum standards the MOE has established for primary and secondary teachers as the prime obstacle for improving the quality of Aliyah Madrasah education. These teachers, nevertheless, are and continue to be employed as madrasah teachers. They lack both in-depth understanding of the subject matter they are teaching and the pedagogical methodology for teaching it. The NEP 2010 cannot succeed in the Aliyah Madrasahs until this obstacle is overcome. Madrasah students who attempt to learn under the tutelage of poorly educated and poorly prepared teachers cannot be expected to have the same quality of education as their peers in the general education stream. Our recommendation is to invest in a rapid teacher-training project that will train many madrasah teachers in a four-month condensed Diploma in Teaching program that is modelled after the 12 month B. Ed. degree program and builds on work done in the Teaching Quality Improvement Project. This training would comprise two months of residential training devoted to professional studies and teaching methodology for the two subjects that the teacher will teach, one-month of supervised teaching practice in a school or madrasah supervised by the teacher training college staff, and one-month of supervised teaching practice in the home school supervised by a master teacher from a nearby school or madrasah or by the principal. Special efforts should be undertaken to include as large a number of female teachers as possible in this program. It should begin immediately in order to be ready for the full NEP 2010 implementation. The program should be managed as a project over a 6-year period with a goal of training approximately 50,000 Dakhil Madrasah teachers. This will be a very massive undertaking but will have very large

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education payoff for the madrasah education system. Details of this suggested program are presented in Section 4.2 of the Road Map. Obstacle (B.) Failure to use the same textbooks and examination questions as general education schools for non-religious subjects at all levels of madrasah education. The sector study analyzed textbooks and examination for general education subjects taught at all levels of madrasah education through class 10. The textbooks are the prime (and often the only) tools teachers use to teach general education subjects and examinations are largely based on the textbooks. In Aliyah Madrasahs both textbooks and examination questions for the general education subjects are inferior to those used by teachers in the general education stream. The NEP 2010 cannot be a success in Aliyah Madrasahs under these circumstances. Madrasah students who attempt to learn with inferior textbooks and to study less content cannot be expected to have the same quality of education as their peers in the general education stream. Our recommendation is to use the same textbooks and examination questions in both education streams, but to have the textbooks and examination questions vetted before using them to assure they are appropriate for students in all streams of education, are not offensive to religion, are not offensive to women and minorities, are gender balanced, and that the subject matter is current and relevant to the world in which the students will find themselves upon graduating. This is an advisory recommendation to the NEP 2010 Implementation Committee and the details of the recommendation are in Section 4.3 of the Road Map. Obstacle (C.) The lack of capacity of the BMEB to plan, manage, monitor and evaluate Aliya Madrasah education. BMEB has oversight of more than 13500 madrasahs including the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. Chapter 6 set out an analysis of the present capacity of BMEB based upon the institutional review of BMEB that is fully reported in Annex 1 to the Final Report. BMEB is under-resourced in terms of higher and middle level manpower and lacks both modem management systems and staff with appropriate skills to plan and manage a huge undertaking which has more than 4.1million students. Bearing in mind that the functions of BMEB are bound to change in the course of implementation of the NEP there is still an urgent need to increase the capacity of BMEB so as to be able to handle the changes and, through enhanced planning skills, shape some of those changes. Our recommendation is a major capacity development for madrasah education, including for the BMEB, including local and international training and technical assistance. Chapter 6, section 6.5 and Appendices 6.1- 6.3 summarise the proposals for strengthening the management capacity of madrasah education. Further treatment of these proposals appears in the Road Map and Indicative Investment Proposal, Section 5. Obstacle (D.) Failure of students to complete their education cycles. The sector study demonstrated that too few madrasah (and general education) stream students complete their education cycle. The situation is worse for secondary school girls than for boys but for both genders and for both streams of education failure to complete is

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education a terrible wastage of the countrys educational spending and intellectual potential. Quality education cannot occur if students do not attend classes or drop out before completing their education cycle. The NEP 2010 will require more schooling at the primary level (up to class 8) and restructuring of secondary education as classes 912. Such restructuring will likely increase the dropout rate without some incentives for students to complete their education cycles. When madrasah students complete less education they cannot be expected to have the same quality of education as their peers in the general education stream. Our recommendation is to provide incentives to the poorest of students, who are most at risk in failing to complete their education. Our suggestion is to identify the poorest children in the poorest upazilas and to provide them with cash transfers for stipends, exam fees, and tuition fees, and to increase stipend rates each year for each student who remains in school after Class 8. If providing more stipends is considered unnecessary because there is a virtual 100% coverage of upazilas, we propose as an alternative to institute a madrasah feeding program. The details of our suggestions are given in Section 3.1.3 of the Road Map. This proposal will of itself go only a short way to reducing drop-out. Other recommendations such as teacher training, adoption of textbooks with full coverage of the national curriculum, improved physical facilities and overall a much improved management of madrasahs will have a major impact. Obstacle (E.) Failure to teach Dakhil Madrasah students in good facilities that are equipped for learning. Our sector study finds that too many Dakhil Madrasahs are temporary buildings or permanent buildings in poor repair. Too many madrasahs are without electricity, so that ICT and other digitally based instruction for modern Bangladesh is denied to the student who must learn in such buildings. Many students are forced to learn in madrasahs that do not have proper toilets or do not have separate toilets for males and females. Libraries for reading and learning often do not exist. Science labs are rare, computer labs virtually nonexistent. The NEP 2010 cannot be a success in Dakhil Madrasahs under such conditions. Dakhil Madrasah students, attempting to learn under such dismal conditions, cannot be expected to have the same quality of education as their peers in the general education schools. Our proposal is to upgrade by re-building up to 120 selected rural Dakhil Madrasahs so that these can act as flagships or examples for communities that plan to establish new or to upgrade existing facilities. In order to have a wide distribution of these flagship Dakhil Madrasahs, we recommend that the madrasahs be selected from those upazilas with the highest proportion of very poor families. The facilities to be upgraded in these re-built flagship madrasahs should include sufficient classrooms, a separate library, a science lab, a teachers room, toilets for males and females, electricity with outlets for computers, electric fans, classroom furniture and fixtures, library books for all subjects, and equipment for teaching and learning, including computers and electronic teaching aids such as projectors. Details of this proposal are found in Section 2.3 of the Road Map. Obstacle (F.) Failure to teach Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah student in good facilities that are equipped for learning. The Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs (IIMs) teach up to Class 5 and serve the children of the poorest rural communities. The MOE cannot

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education support the IIMs in terms of in-service training, teaching supervision, and resources (other than the inadequate 500 Tk allowance for some teachers, which is received by only 17% of IIM teachers). These primary cycle institutions fall between the two ministries of education and are supported by neither. Though the students get textbooks there are few other items to support their learning. Our estimate is that there are approximately 650,000 students in the IIMs. These students study in very poor buildings, only 5% of which are pucca-built. The students must learn under the same poor learning conditions as described for the Dakhil Madrasahs in Obstacle D above. As with the Dakhil Madrasahs, the NEP 2010 cannot be a success in the IIMs under such conditions. The IIM students attempting to learn under such dismal conditions cannot be expected to have the same quality of education as their peers in the general education scheme or in the registered non-government primary schools. Our proposal is to provide a package of support to upgrade the IIMs to a point where students can learn in adequate facilities that are reasonably conducive to learning. We propose that the IIM facilities be enhanced and that learning materials provided for 200 of the poorest IIMs; that teachers in these IIMs be trained in a condensed course to teach the basic subjects; that these IIM head teachers receive management training; and that these IIM teachers be motivated by giving them special annual allowances that are dependent for motivation on their performance and continued service. The details of this suggestion are provided in Section 6.2 of the Road Map. 8.3 THE WAY AHEAD

405. For all the uncertainties surrounding the implementation of the NEP, and especially its potential impact on madrasah education, this sector study has shown that there are serious shortcomings in madrasah education. These are in order of importance: the qualifications and training status of teachers in madrasahs both Independent Ibtedaye and Dakhil Madrasahs; curriculum and textbooks; management, including monitoring and supervision and physical facilities. There is a strong case for these deficiencies in resources physical and human - and in management systems to be given priority before the full scale re-structuring of the school system. This report shows how Dakhil Madrasahs, relative to secondary schools, have been neglected significantly in teacher training and teacher development, in terms of management and planning, also in aspects of their physical facilities; and finally in the areas of curriculum, textbook, and examination development. The NEP includes a vision of a new core curriculum for both schools and madrasahs. Hence, for the medium term the urgent priority is for a national program of curriculum development, together with the additional required resources, that embraces the three streams of secondary education general, madrasah and TVET. 406. However, unless there are earmarked funds for madrasahs to meet the immediate deficiencies in teacher education and training, in management, and in facilities, the likelihood is that, whatever sectoral development programs emerge to meet the implementation needs of the National Education Policy, madrasahs will not receive the scale of support which will be needed to bring them to standards comparable to secondary schools. In addition, without this enhancement to resources and management, when the full scale implementation of the NEP begins madrasah education may not be at the starting line.

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MADRASAH SECTOR STUDY REPORT

[VOLUME 2]

APPENDICES

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

Table of Contents
Appendix 1 .......................................................................................................................... 223 Appendix 2.1 ....................................................................................................................... 224 Appendix 2.2 ....................................................................................................................... 225 Appendix 2.3 ....................................................................................................................... 226 Appendix 2.4 ....................................................................................................................... 228 Appendix 2.5 ....................................................................................................................... 231 Appendix 2.6 ....................................................................................................................... 234 Appendix 2.7 Physical Facilities and Learning Resources........................................................................ 239 Appendix 3.1 Studies of Issues Related to Curriculum, Teacher Training and Assessment .................... 246 Appendix 3.2 Structural organization of the current Aliya Madrasah education system ........................... 249 Appendix 3.3 Comparison of the primary level of education for government primary schools, Aliya madrasah primary, and Qoumi madrasah primary.............................................................. 250 Appendix 3.4 Subjects Taught at Each Grade in the Government Primary Schools and in the Ibtedaye Madrasah Schools A, B....................................................................................................... 251 Appendix 3.5 Comparison of the Subjects Taught at the Junior Dakhil and Dakhil Levels for various groupings ............................................................................................................................ 252 Appendix 3.6 Examples of curriculum subjects taught in Qoumi Madrasah (Subject in parentheses dare found only in a few Qoumi madrasah)................................................................................. 253 Appendix 3.7 Business Education and Information and Communication Technology .............................. 254 Appendix 3.8 Education Watch Observations on the Curriculum.............................................................. 255 Appendix 3.9 Strategies used by parents trying to find quality schooling ................................................. 258 Appendix 3.10 Pass Rates for Secondary School Certificate and Dakhil Examinations............................. 259 Appendix 3.11 Average Dakhil Examination Results for General Students in 2009 Examination .............. 260 Appendix 3.12 Average SSC Examination Results for Humanities Students in 2009 Examination of the Dhaka Board ....................................................................................................................... 262 Appendix 3.13 Average Grade 8 Students Scores on Special World Bank (WB) Tests for Rural Secondary Schools ............................................................................................................................... 264 Appendix 3.14 Comparison of the B. Ed. and STC programs..................................................................... 265 Appendix 5 Gender Audit of Madrasah and General Education Stream Textbooks .............................. 268 Appendix 6.1 Schematic presentation of the staff development plan for BMEB/ DME ............................. 271
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Appendix 6.2 Summary of Staff Development and Fellowship Program................................................... 272 Appendix 6.3 Summary of Technical Assistance Package ....................................................................... 273 Appendix 7.1 Some Macro-economic data ............................................................................................... 274 Appendix 7.2 Allocations of GDP and Revenue to Education................................................................... 275 Appendix 7.3 International Comparisons .................................................................................................. 278 Appendix 7.4 Bangladesh Sectoral Shares of Revenue Budget ............................................................... 281 Appendix 7.5 Education Sub-sectoral shares of Revenue & Development Budgets ................................ 283 Appendix 7.6 Revenue Budget Allocations to Types of Education ........................................................... 290 Appendix 7.7 ....................................................................................................................... 293 Appendix 7.8 Private Costs ....................................................................................................................... 296 Appendix 7.9 MPO Enlistment 1991 - 2008 .............................................................................................. 302 Appendix 8 List of Madrasahs visited by the Team................................................................................ 304 Appendix 9 Inside Madrasahs: A Qualitative Study ............................................................................... 307 Appendix 10 An Account of the Situation of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in Bangladesh in 2010.. 357 Appendix 11 An Account of the Situation of Qoumi Madrasahs in Bangladesh in 2010. ......................... 267 Appendix 12 REFERENCES CONSULTED............................................................................................. 407

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List of Tables
TABLE 1.1: NUMBER OF ALIYA MADRASAHS, STUDENTS AND THEIR RESPECTIVE GROWTH RATES FROM 1972 TO 2008............................................................................................................................................................223 TABLE 2.1.1: DIVISIONAL GROSS AND NET PARTICIPATION RATES AT SECONDARY LEVEL FOR STUDENTS .......224 TABLE 2.1.2: DIVISIONAL GROSS AND NET PARTICIPATION RATES AT SECONDARY LEVEL FOR GIRLS ..............224 TABLE 2.2.1: NUMBER AND PERCENTAGES OF GROWTH OF JUNIOR SCHOOLS, SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND DAKHIL MADRASAHS BASED ON YEARS 1983, 1999, 2003, 2005 AND 2008.............................................................225 TABLE 2.3.1: DIVISIONAL DISPARITIES IN ACCESS: INSTITUTIONS ......................................................................226 TABLE 2.4.1: STUDENTS, TEACHERS AND STR IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND MADRASAHS IN 64 DISTRICTS ....228 TABLE 2.4.2: STUDENTS, TEACHERS AND STR IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND MADRASAHS IN PIROJPUR DISTRICT ...................................................................................................................................................................230 TABLE 2.5.1: PROPORTION OF TEACHERS RECEIVING MPOS AT SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND DAKHIL MADRASAHS IN 64 DISTRICTS ..........................................................................................................................................231 TABLE 2.5.2: PROPORTION OF TEACHERS RECEIVING MPOS AT SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND DAKHIL MADRASAHS IN FARIDPUR DISTRICT................................................................................................................................233 TABLE 2.6.1: PROPORTION OF STUDENTS WITH FAMILY INCOME LEVEL TK. 100K-200K ANNUALLY ................234 TABLE 2.6.2: PROPORTION OF STUDENTS WITH FAMILY INCOME LEVEL TK. 100K-200K ANNUALLY IN PATUAKHALI DISTRICT, IN SCHOOLS AND MADRASAHS .............................................................................236 TABLE 2.6.3: PROPORTION OF GIRLS WITH HIGHEST AND LOWEST FAMILY INCOME LEVELS BY DISTRICT ........236 TABLE 2.6.4: PROPORTION OF GIRLS WITH FAMILY INCOME LEVEL 100K-200K ANNUALLY IN PABNA DISTRICT, IN SCHOOLS AND MADRASAHS .......................................................................................................................238 TABLE 2.7.1: PHYSICAL FACILITIES OF DAKHIL MADRASAH ...............................................................................239 TABLE 2.7.2A: COMPARISON OF SECONDARY SCHOOL AND MADRASAH IN NUMBER OF DAKHIL MADRASAHS HOUSED IN OWN OR RENTED BY BUILDING TYPE AND BUILDING CONDITIONS..............................................241 TABLE 2.7.2B: NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF INSTITUTION HAVING DIFFERENT FACILITIES BY TYPE AND MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................................................242 TABLE 2.7.3: COMPARISON OF THE INVESTMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND DAKHIL MADRASAHS DURING THE PERIOD 1992-2009 AND NUMBER OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES DEVELOPED......................................................243 TABLE 2.7.4: LEARNING FACILITIES OF ONE DAKHIL MADRASAH (FROM SESDP 30 MODEL MADRASAHS COMPONENT) ..............................................................................................................................................245 TABLE 3.13.1 AVERAGE PERCENTAGE CORRECT IN WB RURAL GRADE 8 SAMPLE (STANDARD DEVIATIONS IN PARENTHESES). ...........................................................................................................................................264 TABLE 7.1.1: CRITICAL MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS OF BANGLADESH ..........................................................274 TABLE 7.2.1: GDP AND GOVERNMENT REVENUE BUDGET ALLOCATIONS FOR EDUCATION AT CONSTANT PRICES, 1998-99 TO 2010-2011 ...............................................................................................................................275 TABLE 7.2.2: GDP AND GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT BUDGET ALLOCATIONS FOR EDUCATION AT CONSTANT PRICES, 1998-99 TO 2010- 2011..................................................................................................................276 TABLE 7.2.3: TOTAL GOVERNMENT BUDGETS, TOTAL EDUCATION BUDGETS AND THEIR PROPORTIONS ...........277 TABLE 7.3.1: KEY EDUCATIONAL FINANCIAL INDICATORS IN SOUTH ASIA, 2006...............................................278 TABLE 7.3.2: PUBLIC EDUCATION EXPENDITURE AS A PROPORTION OF GOVERNMENT SPENDING, GROSS PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT RATES IN SOUTH ASIAN 2006 ....................................................279 TABLE 7.3.3: ASIAN COUNTRY WISE PUBLIC EDUCATION EXPENDITURE AS A % OF GDP ..................................280 TABLE 7.4.1: PROPORTION OF REVENUE EXPENDITURES BY SECTORS, 2000-01 TO 2007-08 ..............................281 TABLE 7.4.2: PROPORTION OF DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURES BY SECTORS, 2000-01 TO 2007-08 .....................282 TABLE 7.5.1: GOVERNMENT REVENUE BUDGET ON EDUCATION BY SUB SECTORS, FROM 2001-02 TO 2007-08 .283 TABLE 7.5.2: PROPORTION OF GOVERNMENT REVENUE BUDGET ON EDUCATION BY SUB SECTORS, FROM 2001-02 TO 2007-08 .................................................................................................................................................284 TABLE 7.5.3: GOVERNMENT REVENUE BUDGET ON EDUCATION BY SUB-SECTORS FROM 2001-02 TO 2007-08 IN CURRENT AND CONSTANT TERMS ..............................................................................................................285

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TABLE 7.5.3 (CONTINUED..) : GOVERNMENT REVENUE BUDGET ON EDUCATION SERVICES BY SUB-SECTORS FROM 2001-02 TO 2007-08 IN CURRENT AND CONSTANT TERMS .........................................................................286 TABLE 7.5.4: GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT BUDGET ON EDUCATION BY SUB SECTOR, FROM 2000-01 TO 2006-07 ...................................................................................................................................................................287 TABLE 7.5.5: PROPORTION OF GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT BUDGET ON EDUCATION BY SUB SECTORS, FROM 2001-02 TO 2007-08 ...................................................................................................................................288 TABLE 7.5.6: GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT BUDGET ON EDUCATION BY SUB-SECTORS FROM 2001-02 TO 200708 IN CURRENT AND CONSTANT TERMS .....................................................................................................288 TABLE 7.6.1: GOVERNMENT REVENUE BUDGET ON TYPE OF EDUCATION, 2003-04 TO 2007-08, IN CURRENT AND CONSTANT PRICES ......................................................................................................................................290 TABLE 7.6.2: PROPORTION OF GOVERNMENT REVENUE BUDGET ON TYPES OF EDUCATION, 2003-04 TO 2007-08 ...................................................................................................................................................................292 TABLE 7.7.1: UNIT RECURRENT EXPENDITURES ON TYPES OF EDUCATION INSTITUTION ....................................293 TABLE 7.7.2: RATIO OF THE RECURRENT COST PER STUDENT IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF INSTITUTIONS WITH RESPECT TO PER STUDENT RECURRENT COST IN GOVERNMENT PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN 2000-01, 2002-03, 2005-06 AND 2008-09 ......................................................................................................................................................294 TABLE 7.8.1: ANNUAL PRIVATE EXPENDITURE FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS: GOVERNMENT, NON-GOVERNMENT (MPO) AND MADRASAHS IN TAKA, RURAL, 2005: TAKA PER STUDENT PER YEAR .....................................296 TABLE 7.8.2: ANNUAL PRIVATE EXPENDITURE FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS: GOVERNMENT, NON-GOVERNMENT (MPO) AND MADRASAHS IN TAKA, URBAN, 2005: TAKA PER STUDENT PER YEAR.....................................297 TABLE 7.8.3: URBAN TO RURAL RATIO OF ANNUAL PRIVATE EXPENDITURE FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS: GOVERNMENT, NON-GOVERNMENT (MPO) AND MADRASAHS ..................................................................298 TABLE 7.8.4: RATIO OF ANNUAL PRIVATE EXPENDITURE FOR CLASS VI TO SUBSEQUENT CLASSES FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS: GOVERNMENT, NON-GOVERNMENT (MPO) AND MADRASAHS, RURAL, 2005 ......299 TABLE 7.8.5: RATIO OF ANNUAL PRIVATE EXPENDITURE FOR CLASS VI TO SUBSEQUENT CLASSES FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS: GOVERNMENT, NON-GOVERNMENT (MPO) AND MADRASAHS, URBAN, 2005......300 TABLE 7.9.1: NUMBER OF NON-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS WHICH ARE ENTITLED TO MPOS, FROM 1991-92 TO 2007-08 ......................................................................................................................................................302 TABLE 7.9.2: NUMBER OF TEACHERS AND EMPLOYEES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS WHO ARE ENTITLED TO MPOS, FROM 1991-92 TO 2007-08 .............................................................................................................303 TABLE 10.1: SUMMARY DATA ON 1104 INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS IN THE SAMPLE. .......................359 TABLE 10.2: INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS WITH MPO IN THE SAMPLE, BY DIVISION. .........................360 TABLE 10.3: MEMBERSHIP OF MANAGEMENT COMMITTEES OF INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS .............360 TABLE 10.4: ENROLMENTS IN THE INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS IN THE SAMPLE .................................361 TABLE 10.5: COMPARISON OF THE STRUCTURE OF ENROLMENTS IN INDEPENDENT AND ATTACHED IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS AND GOVERNMENT PRIMARY SCHOOLS ................................................................................361 TABLE 10.6: PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS IN INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS BY CLASS AND AGE IN THE 2010 SAMPLE...........................................................................................................................362 TABLE 10.7: EXAM FAILURE BY GRADE IN 2009 FOR INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS ..............................363 TABLE 10.8: CLASS 5 PASSES BY DIVISION ..........................................................................................................363 TABLE 10.9: PERCENTAGES OF STUDENTS WHO HOLD STIPENDS. .......................................................................364 TABLE 10.10: ATTENDANCE OF STUDENTS ON THE DAY OF THE SURVEY BY DIVISION .......................................365 TABLE 10.11: NUMBER & PERCENTAGE OF TEACHER IN INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS BY POSITION HELD. .........................................................................................................................................................367 TABLE 10.12: QUALIFICATIONS OF MALE AND FEMALE TEACHERS IN SAMPLE OF INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS ...............................................................................................................................................368 TABLE 10.13: TYPES OF TRAINING RECEIVED BY TEACHERS OF DIFFERENT AGES .............................................369 TABLE 10.14: DISTRIBUTION BY AGE GROUP OF TEACHERS IN INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS, 2010 ....370 TABLE 10.15: AVERAGE STUDENT: TEACHER AND STUDENT:CLASSROOM RATIOS AND THEIR RANGES IN INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS .......................................................................................................371 TABLE 10.16: DISTRICT VARIATIONS IN STR AND SCR FOR INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS, 2010 ........372 TABLE 10.17: STUDENT-TEACHER RATIO IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS, 2005-2009 .....................................................372

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TABLE 10.18: MAIN FEATURES OF THE SAMPLE INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS BY LOCATION ..............373 TABLE 10.19: INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS WITH KEY UTILITIES BY LOCATION .................................375 TABLE 10.20: AVAILABILITY OF USEABLE LEARNING RESOURCES IN INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS 2010. ...................................................................................................................................................................376 TABLE 10.21: FEES AND CHARGES IN IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS ............................................................................378 TABLE 10.22: INCOME OF RURAL INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS ...........................................................379 TABLE 10.23: INCOME OF INDEPENDENT IBTEDAYE MADRASAHS BY LOCATION ................................................379 TABLE 11.1: MADRASAHS IN THE SAMPLE BY DIVISION AND DISTRICT ..............................................................387 TABLE 11.1A: MADRASAHS BY LOCATION ...........................................................................................................387 TABLE 11.2: MADRASAHS BY DISTRICT AND TYPE OF ENROLMENT .....................................................................388 TABLE 11.3: MADRASAHS ACCORDING TO HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION OFFERED ..........................................388 TABLE 11.4: SUMMARY OF MADRASAHS BY HIGHEST LEVEL ...............................................................................389 TABLE 11.5: NUMBER OF INSTITUTION BY LOCATION (DISTANCE) AND DISTRICT ...............................................390 TABLE 11.6 REGISTRATION OF INSTITUTIONS BY DISTRICT (N=544) (NUMBER IN PARENTHESE) ........................391 TABLE 11.6A: REGISTRATION WITH DIFFERENT BOARDS .....................................................................................391 TABLE 11.7: NUMBER OF INSTITUTIONS BY LOCATION AND PERIOD OF ESTABLISHMENT ....................................392 TABLE 11.8: MANAGEMENT COMMITTEES AND THEIR MEMBERSHIP ...................................................................393 TABLE 11.9: OTHER ACTIVITIES ..........................................................................................................................394 TABLE 11.10A: MADRASAHS THAT CHARGE SESSION CHARGE AND FEES ..........................................................395 TABLE 11.10B: FEES CHARGED BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION....................................................................................395 TABLE 11.11: TYPES OF LAND OWNERSHIP .........................................................................................................396 TABLE 11.12: NUMBER OF ROOMS OF INSTITUTE BY DISTRICT ...........................................................................397 TABLE 11.13: MADRASAHS HAVING KEY FACILITIES ...........................................................................................397 TABLE 11.14: FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................................398 TABLE 11.15: TEACHERS BY DESIGNATION .........................................................................................................399 TABLE 11.16: NO. OF TEACHER AND STAFF BY GENDER BY DISTRICT ................................................................399 TABLE 11.16A: TEACHERS BY GENDER AND TYPE OF SCHOOL .............................................................................400 TABLE 11.17: STUDENT TEACHER RATIO BY LOCATION AND ENROLMENT TYPE ..................................................401 TABLE 11.18: STUDENTS BY MAIN LEVEL, ATTENDANCE 2010 ............................................................................402 TABLE 11.19: BOARDERS IN RESIDENTIAL MADRASAS (STUDENT BY BOARDERS) 2010 .....................................403 TABLE 11.20: LEVEL-WISE EXAMINATION RESULTS (2007-2009) BY SEX ...........................................................404 TABLE 11.21: LEVEL-WISE RESULT BY GRADE (DIVISION) BY SEX .....................................................................405

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List of Figures
FIGURE 2.2.1: GROWTH OF INSTITUTIONS, 1983 TO 2008 ....................................................................................225 FIGURE 2.3.1: DIVISIONAL DISPARITIES IN ACCESS: INSTITUTIONS .....................................................................227 FIGURE 2.7.1: COMPARISON OF SECONDARY SCHOOL AND MADRASAH IN NUMBER OF DAKHIL MADRASAH HOUSED IN OWN OR RENTED BY BUILDING TYPE AND BUILDING CONDITIONS AND % UNDER EACH CATEGORY ...................................................................................................................................................................242 FIGURE 2.7.2: COMPARISON OF SECONDARY SCHOOL AND MADRASAH IN NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF INSTITUTION HAVING DIFFERENT FACILITIES BY TYPE AND MANAGEMENT .................................................242 FIGURE 2.7.3: COMPARISON OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND DAKHIL MADRASAHS DURING THE PERIOD 1992-2009 AND NUMBER OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES DEVELOPED....................................................................................243 FIGURE 2.7.4: COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL FACILITIES DEVELOPMENT COST IN % OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND DAKHIL MADRASAHS DURING 1992 - 2009.................................................................................................244 FIGURE 2.7.5: COMPARISON OF NUMBER OF INSTITUTION AND CLASS OF SSC AND DM.....................................244 FIGURE 7.1.1: UNEMPLOYMENT AND POVERTY RATES IN BANGLADESH.............................................................274 FIGURE 7.3.1: ASIAN COUNTRY WISE PUBLIC EDUCATION EXPENDITURE AS A % OF GDP .................................280 FIGURE 7.5.1: GOVERNMENT RECURRENT BUDGET FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN CURRENT TERMS, 2001-02 TO 2007-08 ......................................................................................................286 FIGURE 7.5.2: GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT BUDGET FOR PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN CURRENT TERMS, 2001-02 TO 2007-08 ..................................................................................................289 FIGURE 7.7.1: RATIO OF GOVERNMENT RECURRENT COST PER STUDENT IN DIFFERENT INSTITUTIONS WITH RESPECT TO RECURRENT COST PER STUDENT IN GOVERNMENT PRIMARY SCHOOLS ...................................294 FIGURE 7.7.2: GOVERNMENT RECURRENT COST PER STUDENT BY TYPE OF EDUCATION, 2005-06 AND 2008-09 IN CURRENT TERMS ........................................................................................................................................295

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Appendix 1
Table 1.1: Number of Aliya Madrasahs, Students and their respective Growth Rates from 1972 to 2008 Year Number of Aliya Madrasahs Students Growth Rate of Aliya Madrasahs In the intersurvey period % age 1970 1972 1975 1977 1978 1980 1981 1985 1990 1992 1995 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008 1518 1412 1830 1976 2329 2684 2466 3739 5793 5959 5977 7096 7279 7651 7820 8410 8819 9215 9361 9384 283380 400000 291191 375000 423000 380013 388000 638926 996996 1278240 1837013 2935348 3112205 3299107 3398043 3438707 3499035 3453221 3475046 3559478 -6.98 29.6 7.98 17.9 15.2 -8.1 51.6 54.9 2.87 0.30 18.7 2.78 5.11 2.21 7.54 4.86 4.49 1.58 0.25 Growth Rate of Students In the intersurvey period % age 41.2 -27.2 28.8 12.8 -10.2 2.10 64.7 56.0 28.2 43.7 59.8 6.03 6.00 2.99 1.20 1.75 -1.31 0.63 -45.4

Source: Data pertaining to years 2006, 2007 and 2008 from BANBEIS pocket books and BANBEIS website. Number of madrasahs for 2004 and 2005 are taken from BANBEIS pocket books. Unattached Ibtedaye madrasahs are not included in this data series.

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Appendix 2.1
Table 2.1.1: Divisional Gross and Net Participation Rates at Secondary Level for Students Division Gross Participation Rate (%) Barisal Chittagong Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Sylhet Bangladesh
Source: BANBEIS 2010a, Table 10

Net Participation Rate (%) 58 52 42 55 52 36 49

61 55 44 57 54 38 51

Table 2.1.2: Divisional Gross and Net Participation Rates at Secondary Level for Girls

Division

Gross Participation Rate (%)

Net Participation Rate (%) 68 62 49 63 57 41 55

Barisal Chittagong Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Sylhet Bangladesh


Source: BANBEIS 2010a, Table 10

70 63 50 64 59 42 57

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Appendix 2.2
Table 2.2.1: Number and Percentages of Growth of Junior Schools, Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs based on years 1983, 1999, 2003, 2005 and 2008 Compound Compound Average Average Growth Growth 1983 1999 2003 2005 2008 Rate, Rate, 1983-2008 2003-2008 (Units) Junior Schools 2073 (Units) 2846 (Units) 3982 (Units) 4322 (Units) 3458 (%) 2.07 (%) -2.78

Secondary Schools Dakhil Madrasahs Total

6780

12614

13404

14178

15298

3.31

2.68

1645

4890

5995

6688

6779

5.83

2.49

10498

20350

23381

25188

25535

3.62

1.78

BANBEIS, 2010a, Table 5

Figure 2.2.1: Growth of Institutions, 1983 to 2008

Growth of Institutions, 1983 to 2008


30000

Junior Schools

Number of Institutions

25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1983 1999 2003 2005 2008

Secondary Schools Dakhil Madrasahs Total


Year

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

Appendix 2.3
Table 2.3.1: Divisional Disparities in Access: Institutions

Barisal Chittagong Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Sylhet Estimated Population (In Lakh) 2008 General Education Institutions/ 100000 of Population Madrasah Institutions/ 100000 of Population TVET Institutions/100000 of Population Professional Education Institutions/100000 of Population Teachers Education Institutions/100000 of Population Total Public and Private Institutions 92 20 283 12 467 11 170 19 348 21 84 12

Total 1445 15

13

0.7 0.1

0.4 0.1

0.6 0.2

0.8 0.1

1.4 0.1

0.3 0.1

1 0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

3166

5202

7707

4676

10867

1372

32990

Source: BANBEIS, 2010a, Table 1

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Figure 2.3.1: Divisional Disparities in Access: Institutions

Educational Institutions per 100000 Population by Division


25 Institutions per 100000 Population 20 15 10 5 0
a i ha ka ng et al ar is ln ah Sy lh hi t ta Kh u D aj B sh To t go al

General Education Madrasah TVET Professional Education Teachers Education

Division

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Appendix 2.4

Table 2.4.1: Students, Teachers, and STR in Secondary Schools and Madrasahs in 64 Districts StudentTeacher Ratio in Secondary (Ratio) StudentTeacher Ratio in Dakhil

District

(Ratio) 16 20 20 17 16 17 16 22 23 24 21 24 24 14 27 24 13 19 25 17 21 19 21 19 17 19 18 19 21 18 23 23 18 19 15 19

Barguna Barisal Bhola Jhalokati Patuakhali Pirojpur Bandarban Brahamanbaria Chandpur Chittagong Comilla Coxs Bazar Feni Khagrachhari Lakshmipur Noakhali Rangamati Dhaka Faridpur Gazipur Gopalganj Jamalpur Kishoreganj Madaripur Manikganj Munshiganj Mymensingh Narayanganj Narsingdi Netrakona Rajbari Shariatpur Sherpur Tangail Bagerhat Chuadanga

31 34 28 28 27 26 26 53 48 40 44 36 42 34 46 46 29 32 36 34 37 32 44 41 44 46 31 45 39 34 35 49 30 34 29 36

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

District

StudentTeacher Ratio in Secondary (Ratio)

StudentTeacher Ratio in Dakhil

(Ratio) 15 20 17 18 17 18 17 22 15 13 13 15 15 17 15 15 15 14 17 15 15 14 16 12 27 28 18 22 18

Jessore Jhenaidha Khulna Kushtia Magura Meherpur Norail Satkhira Bogra Dinajpur Gaibandha Joypurhat Kurigram Lalmonirhat Naogaon Natore Nawabganj Nilphamari Pabna Panchagarh Rajshahi Rangpur Sirajganj Thakurgaon Habigang Maulvibazar Sunamgang Sylhet Grand Total

29 31 31 33 31 28 34 31 29 22 23 25 23 29 27 26 31 25 36 21 25 24 34 19 56 47 41 40 33

BANBEIS, 2010a, Table 13

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Table 2.4.2: Students, Teachers and STR in Secondary Schools and Madrasahs in Pirojpur District

Upazila

StudentTeacher Ratio in Secondary

StudentTeacher Ratio in Dakhil

(Ratio)
Bhandaria Kawkhali Mathbaria Nazirpur Pirojpur Sardar Nesarabad Zianagar
BANBEIS, 2010a, Table 13

(Ratio) 15 13 16 17 17 17 23

24 28 30 25 28 24 24

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Appendix 2.5
Table 2.5.1: Proportions of Teachers Receiving MPOs at Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs in 64 Districts

District

Percentage of Teachers Receiving MPOs in Secondary Schools

Percentage of Teachers Receiving MPOs in Dakhil Madrasahs

Barguna Barisal Bhola Jhalokati Patuakhali Pirojpur Bandarban Brahamanbaria Chandpur Chittagong Comilla Coxs Bazar Feni Khagrachhari Lakshmipur Noakhali Rangamati Dhaka Faridpur Gazipur Gopalganj Jamalpur Kishoreganj Madaripur Manikganj Munshiganj Mymensingh Narayanganj Narsingdi Netrakona Rajbari Shariatpur Sherpur Tangail Bagerhat Chuadanga Jessore Jhenaidha

(%) 87 89 72 92 88 90 40 73 86 69 79 64 79 64 82 71 58 53 78 75 83 73 85 88 77 80 78 62 81 78 81 79 67 81 87 72 81 78

(%) 88 86 76 92 89 87 65 73 84 72 84 69 72 51 80 80 32 75 67 90 77 74 84 90 63 77 86 79 88 85 79 72 75 79 83 70 81 68
231

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

District

Percentage of Teachers Receiving MPOs in Secondary Schools

Percentage of Teachers Receiving MPOs in Dakhil Madrasahs

Khulna Kushtia Magura Meherpur Norail Satkhira Bogra Dinajpur Gaibandha Joypurhat Kurigram Lalmonirhat Naogaon Natore Nawabganj Nilphamari Pabna Panchagarh Rajshahi Rangpur Sirajganj Thakurgaon Habigang Maulvibazar Sunamgang Sylhet
BANBEIS, 2010a, Table 13

(%) 77 70 77 56 87 80 73 80 79 72 78 74 83 79 83 73 81 73 75 77 76 74 70 71 76 63

(%) 74 63 76 59 73 70 82 76 73 78 84 70 71 60 73 75 70 72 68 81 72 62 77 70 67 65

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Table 2.5.2: Proportions of Teachers Receiving MPOs at Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs in Faridpur District

Upazila

Percentage of Teachers Receiving MPOs in Secondary Schools

Percentage of Teachers Receiving MPOs in Dakhil Madrasahs

(%)
Alfadanga Bhanga Boalmari Char Bhadrasan Faridpur Sadar Madhukhali Nagarkanda
BANBEIS, 2010a, Table 13

(%) 85 72 78 100 62 50 48

89 89 82 74 71 75 78

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Appendix 2.6

Table 2.6.1: Proportions of students with Family Income Level Tk. 100K-200K Annually

Districts

%age of School Students with Family Income Level Tk 100k-200k per year

Barguna Barisal Bhola Jhalokati Patuakhali Pirojpur Bandarban Brahamanbaria Chandpur Chittagong Comilla Coxs Bazar Feni Khagrachhari Lakshmipur Noakhali Rangamati Dhaka Faridpur Gazipur Gopalganj Jamalpur Kishoreganj Madaripur Manikganj Munshiganj Mymensingh Narayanganj Narsingdi Netrakona Rajbari Shariatpur Sherpur Tangail Bagerhat Chuadanga Jessore

(%) 6.14 7.02 4.88 5.62 6.46 7.14 10.98 11.55 9.14 13.31 10.04 10.17 10.78 8.31 8.10 9.03 6.63 21.64 6.79 13.19 5.16 4.81 10.68 6.14 9.11 14.80 8.51 11.55 9.25 8.06 4.96 7.92 5.16 7.46 3.84 7.09 6.89

%age of Madrasah Students with Family Income Level Tk. 100k200k per year (%) 4.98 5.83 3.71 5.45 4.18 6.03 6.03 7.00 5.23 7.73 6.16 8.36 8.47 5.72 5.61 7.29 6.11 11.8 3.53 5.88 4.61 3.96 5.97 6.96 4.66 11.2 5.10 7.48 7.30 6.21 3.20 4.95 4.22 2.89 3.81 5.62 4.17

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

Districts

%age of School Students with Family Income Level Tk 100k-200k per year

Jhenaidha Khulna Kushtia Magura Meherpur Norail Satkhira Bogra Dinajpur Gaibandha Joypurhat Kurigram Lalmonirhat Naogaon Natore Nawabganj Nilphamari Pabna Panchagarh Rajshahi Rangpur Sirajganj Thakurgaon Habigang Maulvibazar Sunamgang Sylhet TOTAL
Source: BANBEIS, 2010a, Table 19 & 20

(%) 6.74 6.00 6.22 6.81 5.00 5.12 5.38 8.60 7.29 4.32 5.51 4.37 5.32 6.51 4.99 5.70 7.15 8.56 5.85 6.26 5.15 5.99 6.61 9.90 9.22 9.27 12.17 8.83

%age of Madrasah Students with Family Income Level Tk. 100k200k per year (%) 4.15 3.21 5.31 5.66 5.76 5.56 3.38 5.32 4.07 1.82 5.61 2.74 3.65 4.75 4.49 2.62 3.65 5.34 4.27 2.47 2.84 3.21 4.66 5.98 9.64 6.92 6.53 5.13

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Table 2.6.2: Proportions of Students with Family Income Level Tk. 100k-200k annually In Patuakhali District, in Schools and Madrasahs %age of School Students with Family Income Level Tk. 100k-200k Annually %age of Madrasah Students with Family Income Level Tk 100k200k Annually (%)

Upazila

(%)
Bhupal Dashmina Dumki Upazila Galachipa Kala Para Mirzaganj Upazila Patuakhali Sardar
Source: BANBEIS, 2010a, Tables 19 & 20

8.45 4.54 3.73 3.31 4.46 6.96 8.84

6.80 1.84 7.87 3.05 1.31 2.07 2.99

Table 2.6.3: Proportions of Girls with Highest and Lowest Family Income Levels by District %age of Female School Students with Family Income Level Tk 100k200k Annually (%) 6.12 6.46 5.17 5.38 5.86 6.80 9.44 10.23 7.67 13.95 8.94 8.69 8.69 8.33 7.00 8.50 6.32 18.98 6.15 12.34 4.76 %age of Female Madrasah Students with Family Income Level Tk. 100k-200k Annually (%) 4.06 4.55 3.77 2.74 3.74 5.21 5.11 6.54 4.40 7.68 5.62 8.91 7.97 5.44 5.26 7.73 4.67 11.77 2.73 4.92 5.25

Districts

Barguna Barisal Bhola Jhalokati Patuakhali Pirojpur Bandarban Brahamanbaria Chandpur Chittagong Comilla Coxs Bazar Feni Khagrachhari Lakshmipur Noakhali Rangamati Dhaka Faridpur Gazipur Gopalganj

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Districts

Jamalpur Kishoreganj Madaripur Manikganj Munshiganj Mymensingh Narayanganj Narsingdi Netrakona Rajbari Shariatpur Sherpur Tangail Bagerhat Chuadanga Jessore Jhenaidha Khulna Kushtia Magura Meherpur Norail Satkhira Bogra Dinajpur Gaibandha Joypurhat Kurigram Lalmonirhat Naogaon Natore Nawabganj Nilphamari Pabna Panchagarh Rajshahi Rangpur Sirajganj Thakurgaon Habigang Maulvibazar Sunamgang Sylhet TOTAL

%age of Female School Students with Family Income Level Tk 100k200k Annually (%) 4.32 10.18 7.93 8.72 13.22 8.11 11.43 9.69 8.18 4.76 7.08 4.31 6.87 3.48 5.86 6.15 6.42 5.47 5.92 5.96 4.16 4.12 4.60 7.38 6.50 3.73 4.69 3.46 4.79 5.91 4.85 4.84 6.51 7.31 5.01 5.07 3.89 5.38 5.96 9.63 9.14 8.54 12.41 8.15

%age of Female Madrasah Students with Family Income Level Tk. 100k-200k Annually (%) 2.92 6.55 6.69 3.19 9.27 4.52 6.38 7.48 5.91 2.71 4.47 3.70 2.61 3.17 5.69 4.12 4.24 2.93 5.41 5.25 6.16 5.05 3.05 4.95 4.15 1.67 4.39 2.89 3.10 3.98 4.63 2.63 3.27 4.15 3.54 2.15 3.16 2.83 3.81 4.97 10.63 6.40 6.09 4.70

Source: BANBEIS, 2010a, Table 19 & 20

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Table 2.6.4: Proportions of Girls with Family Income Level 100k-200k annually in Pabna District, in Schools and Madrasahs

Upazila

%age of Female School Students with Family Income Level Tk 100k200k Annually (%)

%age of Female Madrasah Students with Family Income Level 100k-200k Annually (%)

Atgharia Bera Bhangura Chatmohar Faridpur Ishwardi Pabna Sadar Santhia Sujanagar
Source: BANBEIS, 2010a, Tables 19 & 20

6.81 10.84 2.52 7.76 5.60 7.85 7.13 3.15 12.24

10.50 3.60 3.78 2.27 4.78 1.38 3.74 4.86 5.34

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Appendix 2.7 Physical Facilities and Learning Resources


Introduction
The following tables present information on aspects of the physical facilities of learning facilities in Dakhil Madrasahs. Where possible the related cost for the items is given. Column 4 under that Table2.7.1 shows that in the early projects the construction are nearly similar providing three rooms, during the period of 1992 to 2009, 9886 rooms, 4297 tube wells and 7714 toilets have been constructed. Table 2.7.2a shows that how Madrasahs are housed in terms of building type and the conditions of the buildings. Table 2.7.2b shows the facilities at secondary schools and Dakhil madrasahs. Table 3 sums up and compares the past investment in secondary schools and madrasahs. Learning Facilities in Table4 shows that, for the new Model Madrasahs priority is giving to computers, science and vocational education equipment.
Table 2.7.1: Physical facilities of Dakhil Madrasah No. of Sqm. per Item of works per Madras Madrasa Madrasah ah h 1 2 3 4 Renovation & 440 200 Civil works Class Development of room-3 selected non govt. Tube-well 2 high School Latrine 2 project (3rd Furniture revision) 19922001 Development and 803 200 One Storey Building Rehabilitation of with 3-Storey Secondary Foundation Education 1993Class Room-3 2001 separate toilet-2 Tubewell-1 Extension of 120 270 One Storey Building Existing Building with 3-Storey of Selected Foundation Educational Class Room-3 Institutions separate toilet-2 1999-2001 Tubewell-1 IDB Assisted 209 One Storey Building Madrasah with 2-Storey Development Foundation 1996-2003 C lass Room-3 separate toilet-2 Tubewell-1 Name of Project Cost per Sqm. Total cost per Madrasah Taka 6 7,81,300.00 22,270.00 52,000.00 7,000.00

5 4312.85

4005.00

8,01,000.00

6481.481 17,50,000.00

10,00,000.00

239

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education 5 Construction of 195 Educational Institution Building and Reconstruction of very old Building(40 year and above) 19942004 Development of 1735 Selected Madrasah (Govt.Non Govt.)19982005 IDB Assisted 135 Madrasah Development 2000-2003 Construction of 90 flood shelter on raised ground in different Educational Institutions to be used as flood shelter Centre Secondary 30 Education Sector Development Project (SESDP) 2008-2009 389 270 One Storey Building 6481.481 17,50,000.00 with 3-Storey Foundation Class Room-3 separate toilet-2 Tubewell-1

One Storey Building with 3-Storey Foundation Class Room-2 separate toilet-2 Tubewell-1 One Storey Building with 3-Storey Foundation Class Room-3 with sanitary and water supply 3- Storey Building with 4-Storey Foundation Class Room-4 with sanitary and water supply

11,10,000.00

14,95,000.00

32,76,000.00

554.31

10 Introduction of 100 Dakhil (vocational) courses in selected Madrasah (Phase1) 2004-2008

225.0

Construction of 3- 12607.48 69,88,456.00 Storey building with 74- Storey foundation (G.F. Class room-2 & Science Lab, F.F.ICT Lab and 2nd F. Library) with water supply sanitary and electric work One Storey new 8675.555 19,52,000.00 building on four Storey foundation or horizontal/vertical or both as required. 1. Workshop-2, class room 2 2. Trade inspector office-2 3. Store 4. Toilet-2 Including water supply sanitary and electric work

Source: EED, DSHE and DTE

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Table 2.7.2a: Comparison of secondary schools and Dakhil Madrasahs in Number of Dakhil Madrasahs housed in own or rented by building type and building conditions

Ownership

Building Type Semi Pucca

Building Conditions Abandoned

Rented

Kacha

Pucca

Worn

Total

Total

Public Secondary Schools Private Total % Dakhil Madrasahs Private Total %

310 17983 18293 96.40 6609 6609 97.49

7 676 683 3.60 170 170 2.5

317 18659 18976 100.00 6779 6779 100

313 12362 12675 38.17 3757 3757 24.93

149 12548 12697 38.24 4290 4290 35.76

23 7808 7831 23.59 4717 4717 39.31

485 32718 33203 100.00 12754 12754 100

281 11648 11929 31.65 4024 4024 30.28

267 12648 12915 34.26 4793 4793 36.07

120 8768 8888 23.58 3299 3299 24.83

77 3229 3306 8.77 1077 1077 8.1

46 610 656 1.74 96 96 0.72

791 36903 37694 100.00 13289 13289 100

Source: BANBEIS 2009, Table 2.2.14 & 4.2.16,17,18

Total

Type of Institution

Management Own

Repairable

New

Old

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Figure 2.7.1: Comparison of secondary schools and Dakhil Madrasahs in Number of Dakhil Madrasahs housed in own or rented by building type and building conditions and % under each category

Source: BANBEIS(Table-2.2.16) 2008


Table 2.7.2b: Number and Percentage of institution having different facilities by type and Management
Type of Management Total Play Electricity Tube Tap Trans Common Gas Canteen Audio Madrasah ground well Room ins. port Dakhil Private 6779 6344 3883 6034 605 67 438 58 88 79

100

93.58

57.28

89.01 8.92 0.99

6.46

0.86

1.3

1.17

Source: Source, BANBEIS: National Education Survey (Post primary) -2008 table 4.2, 14

Figure 2.7.2: Comparison of secondary schools and Dakhil Madrasahs in Number and Percentage of institution having different facilities by type and management

Source: BANBEIS: National Education Survey (Post primary) -2008 table 4.2, 14

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Table 2.7.3: Comparison of the Investment in Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs during the period 1992-2009 and number of physical facilities developed. Category of institutions Total No. No of Institution Development investment done Physical Facilities developed 1/2/3 Storey building with 2/3/4 Storey foundation Total cost in Lakh

Secondary Schools

18756

15102

Class Room 46159 2.46 Class room10056 1.48

Toilet 30306 1.61 Toilet 7714

Tube 212831.84 Well 17442 0.93 Tube well4297 0.63 46103.51

Average Dhakil Madrasah 6779

0.8 3830

Average
Source: EED and DTE

0.56

1.14

The following figures shown the various comparisons between Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs in terms of their physical facilities.
Figure 2.7.3: Comparison of Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs during the period 1992-2009 and number of physical facilities developed.
60000 46159 40000 30306 18756 15102 6779 0
To ta l No . No o f Cl a s s Ro o m I n s ti tu ti o n D e ve l o p me n t i n ve s tme n t done To i l e t Wa te r Fa ci l i ti e s

20000

17442 10056 7714 4297

3830

Seconda rySchool s

Dha ki l Ma dra s a h

Source: EED and DTE

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Figure 2.7.4: Comparison of Physical Facilities Development Cost in % of Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs during 1992 - 2009

Totalcostin%
Dhakil Madrasah 18% Secondary Schools 82%

Source: EED and DTE

Figure 2.7.5: Comparison of number of Institutions and Classrooms of Secondary Schools and Dakhil Madrasahs

ComparisonofNumberofInstitutionsandClassroomsofSSCandDM

180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 TotalIns
Source: BANBEIS (Table-2.2.16) 2008

SecondarySchool Dakhil

ClassRoom

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Table 2.7.4: Learning Facilities Provided at Model Madrasahs component) Category of Category of User Institution 1. Office Equipments 1 Dakhil 2. Computer Lab Equipment Madrasah & consumable

One Dakhil Madrasah (From SESDP 30 Item per user category Cost Taka

3. Physic Lab Equipment & consumable 4. Chemistry Lab Equipment & consumable 5. Biology Lab Equipment & consumable 6. Geography Lab Equipment & Consumable 7. General Math 8. Agricultural Science 9. General Science 10. Books 11. Furniture (Computer, Science Lab & Library) 12. Sports & Games
2 Dakhil Vocational

PC-20; Printer-2; UPS- 13,60,000.00 10; IPS-2; Surver-1; Multimedia Projector-1 28 Items 69 Items

24 Items Chart 16 & Map 19 5 Items 5 Items 9 Items 5 Items

2,40,000.00 (Total price from 2 to 9) 2,40,000.00 7,84,000.00 N/A

1. Office Equipments 2. Computer Lab Equipment Consumable Science equipments I. General Physics
II. Heat III. Light IV. Sound V. Magnetism VI. chemistry

PC-1 & accessory 10 Items 7 Items

N/A necessary 119,200

56,000 44000 7 34,500 4 12,000 8 7 31,500 33,000

3. Trade: Two trade minimum

Listed trade 31 no. every trade have 12,66,000.00 different listed 3,09,500.00 equipments 4. Furniture 50,000 Listed furniture 90 Items 5. Books BTEB publish 50 books 6. Other Learning Modes, NA Maps & Charts 7. Other learning charts & NA books
Source: 1. Introduction of Dakhil (Vocational) courses in selected Madrasah (PP-Phase-1) 2. SESDP

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Appendix 3.1 Studies of Issues Related to Curriculum, Textbooks, Teacher Training, and Assessment
The following studies were designed and undertaken by the international and national curriculum and teacher training specialists.

STUDY A. Capacity of BMEB To Develop Quality Curriculum And Textbooks.

Reviews and analyzes of the capacity of BMEB to develop curriculum and textbooks. It concludes that textbook and curriculum writers have little training in teaching methodology, and the materials produced provide little guidance to help teachers teach the material. The physical quality of the BMEB textbooks is poor. It is suggested that for general education subjects, the madrasah students use the NCTB textbooks and follow that curricula.
STUDY B. Comparison of the Quality of the BMEB and the NCTB Written Curricula and their Impact on Student Learning and Career Options

Written curriculum documents for grades of 4, 7 and 9 were analyzed for five subjects: Bangla, English, Mathematic, Social Science, and General Science. The curriculum documents developed by the NCTB are generally more detailed in their discussion of the topics to be taught, the guidance they give to teachers for how to teach, the guidance they give to textbook writers on how to prepare textbooks and teaching aids, and in their descriptions of formats and methods for assessing students learning. In addition, oftentimes the NCTB curriculum documents reflect more systematic and contemporary approaches to organizing the subject matter in a curriculum and in suggesting how skills and knowledge can be acquired in a subject area.
STUDY C. What Happens to Students Graduating from Madrasahs Compared to Students Graduating from General Education

Based on visits to nine Qoumi madrasahs and discussions with managers and teaching staff, it is concluded that employers and higher education authorities do not recognize the certificates obtained by Qoumi completers. The Qoumi education contains less coverage of general education subject, few contact hours regarding general education subject instruction, and non-equivalent student evaluation techniques. Some students overcome these obstacles by sitting for the SSC and Dakhil examinations as private candidates.
STUDY D. Current Status of Business Education and Information and Communication Technology Curriculum Implementation in the Madrasahs.

A questionnaire and interview study with the BMEB revealed that the madrasah have found it difficult to implement the Business Education and ICT curricula for several reasons. First, implementation requires additional space in a madrasah, including computer labs and new library facilities. In addition, new teachers trained in these specialized and technical subjects need to be hired. New facilities and hiring new teachers are not currently possible for many Madrasahs due to lack of government approval of new teachers and to financial constraints.

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STUDY E. Study to Determine the Capacity for Madrasah Teachers to Implement Madrasah Based Assessment

A questionnaire study and interviews were conducted with BMTTI teaching staff members. (1) Madrasah based assessment (MBA) is not included in the BMTTI in-service training pro-grams. (2) BMTTI does not prepare separate syllabi for inservice training for teachers, superintendents, and principals of madrasah. BMTTIs training modules have been treated as syllabi. (3) The BMTTIs teachers informed us that there is no instance of MBA finding a place in the modules. (4) All the interviewees reported that neither BMEB nor BMTTI provided any kinds of either verbal or written guidance on MBA. (5) When asked about the pedagogical aspects of MBA, all the respondents said they did not know anything about it. (6) All the faculty members of BMTTI requested the CDTA team members to provide training materials on MBA, especially the pedagogical aspects, because they had little knowledge of BMA.
STUDY F. Study to Determine the Difference Between the Madrasah and General Education Textbooks and the Implications for Teacher Training

Textbooks prepared under NCTBs guidance and textbooks prepared under BMEBs guidance were collected and reviewed for Grades 4, 7, and 9 and for the following subjects: Bangla, English, Mathematics, and General Science and Social Science. These textbooks were compared on the criteria of: (1) learning objectives and (2) content coverage. The differences in the textbooks define the differences in the content, amount of material taught to students, and the content of the examinations in the two systems. In general, the general education schools and madrasahs mathematics textbooks are most similar. In Bangla and social science, the madrasah textbooks tend to contain more religiously based content than do the general education textbooks. In Bangla, English, and science the amount of content covered is greater in the general education schools textbooks. Further, the general education schools textbooks include more general science content than the madrasahs textbooks. From this textbook analysis, it appears that up through the 9th grade, the two systems are not comparable. The general education schools teach more content at a greater detail than do the madrasah.
STUDY G. Study to Compare the Examinations Used in the Madrasahs with those Used in General Education to Determine How they reflect the Aims, Content, and Desired Learning Outcomes of the Curriculum

Examination questions were collected for Dakhil and for secondary general education examination questions. Qoumi madrasahs visited did not provide examination questions. The end of term and annual examination questions of Grades 7 and 9 in the subjects of Bangla, English, mathematics, social science, and general science were analyzed. Madrasahs question analysis results showed that out of the three (aim, content, and learning outcomes) only content was tested. Continued use of only conventional questions formats may hinder students development of their analytical capacity. In general education schools examinations, the contents and the learning outcomes are for the most part assessed by the questions. The general education schools examinations used a variety of question formats including MCQ, fill in the gap, creative questions, essays, and short answer. The general education schools questions appeared to cover the curriculum better and to use more challenging questions.
STUDY H. Study Compare the Teacher Training and Teacher Profiles of MadrasahaAnd General Education Teachers

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education From a desk review of documents, madrasah visits, and questionnaires and interviews with BMTTI and BMEB staff, this study concluded the following: (1) a very small percentage of madrasah teachers in general subjects have B.Ed or M.Ed. (33%). Out 24 faculty members in the madrasahs visited, 8 had B.Ed. (2) teachers working in madrasah as general education subject teachers, do not feel encouraged to peruse B.Ed. (3) Madrasah religious subjects (Arabic, Fiqh, Hadith, Usul Fiqh) teacher-educators posts are created in the existing Govt. and Private Teacher Training Colleges. (4) The Bangladesh Madrasah Teachers Training Institute at present offers only in-service training of 3-4 weeks duration. At present BMTTI is organizing in-service training of Aliah Madrasah teachers and senior teachers for Bangla, English, Math, General Science, and Social Science along with management for duration of 3 weeks. There is no program for pre-service teacher training in BMTTI. (5) Government will provide BMTTI some funds for the training of Ibtedaye teachers. (6) Visits to Qoumi Madrasah in Chittagong, Dhaka, Rongpur and Rajshahi revealed that teacher training has not been provided by Befaqul Madrasil Arabia Bangladesh. The Qoumi Madrasah authority is interest to impart training for the teachers but lack funds, experts, and materials could not arranged for such training.
STUDY I. Determine the Existing Practices of Teacher Inspection and Teaching Supervision

Relevant personnel from the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB), the Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute (BMTTI), and the Special Education Section of The Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) were interviewed. (1) Eighty percent of the operational personnel of these three organizations do not have a certificate in Education (C in Ed) or Bachelors in Education (B. Ed). Because of this lack of training in educational methodology, these persons are unable to inspect teachers in a way that permits teachers to improve. The inspections tend to focus on fault-finding rather than how to improve teaching and students learning. (2) The madrasah teacher profile and recruitment policy is such that under-qualified teachers are in most of the madrasahs. This fact argues even more strongly that academic inspection and supervision for existing teachers needs thorough review and improvement since the teachers are not well prepared to teach. (3) During the interviews of the faculty members of BMTTI, the officers of the DSHE, and the BMEB officers were asked about teaching supervision. They simply responded, What is teaching supervision? How it was done? For what purposes? etc. This expresses their lack of understanding of the concepts behind teacher supervision. (4) The National Curriculum and Teacher Training Consultant separately interviewed the heads of the three organizations. They informed the consultant that they did not have adequate knowledge of the supervision concepts, but academic supervision is essentials for the qualitative improvement of classroom teaching and effective management of madrasah. (5) The inservice training contents of the modules for teachers, senior teachers, superintendents, and principals were reviewed but they did not contain any material on inspection and teaching supervision. (6) The documents provided by the BMEB were also thoroughly reviewed but these did not contain any topics regarding teaching supervision.

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Appendix 3.2 Structural Organization of the Current Aliya Madrasah Education System
Name Level Early Childhood Grades Age 4-5 Exam

Ibtedaye Junior Dakhil

Primary Junior Secondary

1-5 6-8

6-10 11-13

Primary Shomaoni (Grade 5 exam) Junior Certificate Exam from 2010 (set by BMEB) Dakhil exam Alim exam Bachelors exam set by Islamic University of Kushtia Masters exam set by Islamic University of Kushtia

Dakhil Alim Kamil

Secondary Higher Secondary Bachelors Degree

9-10 11-12 2 - 4 yrs

14-15 16-17 18-19/20/21

Fazil

Masters Degree

1 - 2 yrs

19/20-21/22

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Appendix 3.3 Comparison of the Primary Level of Education for Government Primary Schools, Aliya Madrasah Primary, and Qoumi Madrasah Primary
Government Primary (A)
Provides 5-year primary education for children aged 711 years and follows the Government curriculum throughout.

Aliya Madrasah Primary


Provides a 5-year Ibtedaye primary education for ages 711; follows the BMEB curriculum consisting of religious subject and modified general education curriculum.

Qoumi Primary
Provides a 5-year Ibtedaye primary education for ages 7-11; emphasis is on religious studies but includes Bangla, mathematics, English, geography, social studies, and history; does not follow either NCTB or BMEB curriculum but some madrasah use NCTB textbooks. Large classes of mixed ages depending on the subject taught and the progress of students.

Five classes with different teachers for different subjects.

Variable depending on the location and availability of teachers. Many follow the same pattern as the government schools. Teacher student ratios vary. Rural schools have small rations. Mostly general-purpose classrooms with desks for students, chalkboard. Few teaching resources. Some inservice teacher training provided by BTTI; focus seems to be on content; traditional pedagogy prevails in the classroom Students are prepared for the BMEB Class V exams. A few students take the public examinations as private candidates. Mostly fixed hours and shifts.

Teacher: student ratios vary but average 1:45 and may be as high as 1:90. Purpose built classrooms, equipped with desks and benches for students and teacher, blackboard and teaching resources. Recent teachers training promotes joyful learning but often more traditional pedagogy prevails. Students are prepared for Class V public examinations. Scholarship students coaching provided. Option for flexible timing but rarely adopted. Teachers are required to have one year Teachers Certificate. May be recruited outside the community.

Usually very large in city schools; smaller in rural schools. Mostly general-purpose classrooms.

No systematic teacher training; sometimes mentoring in a local Qoumi Madrasah occurs.

Students take exams prepared locally by teachers. A few students sit for the public examinations but this is not the rule. Mostly fixed hours and long days, especially in residential Qoumi Madrasahs. No government requirements for teacher training apply

Certificate in Education is a requirement but it has not been implemented

(A) Column one extracted from GRM International (2009). Bangladesh Reality Check Annual Report 2008: Listening to Poor Peoples Realities about Primary Healthcare and Primary Education. GRM International, Sida Publication, page 115.

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Appendix 3.4 Subjects Taught at Each Grade in the Government Primary Schools and in the Ibtedaye Madrasahs A, B
Government Primary
Class I Bangla Mathematics English

Ibtedaye Madrasah
Bangla Mathematics Arabic Aquaid and Fiqh Quran & Tajbid Bangla Mathematics Arabic Aquaid and Fiqh Quran & Tajbid

Government Primary
Class IV Bangla Mathematics English General Science Social Science Islamic Studies Buddhist Religious Studies Hindu Religious Studies Christian Religious Studies

Ibtedaye Madrasah
Bangla General Mathematics English General Science Social Studies Quran & Tajjbid Aquaid and Fiqh Arabic Urdu (optional), Persian (optional)

Class II Bangla Mathematics English

Class III Bangla Mathematics English Social Science General Science Islamic Studies Hindu Religious Studies Buddhist Religious Studies Christian Religious Studies

Bangla Mathematics Arabic English Aquaid and Fiqh History Stories of prophets General Science Geography Quran & Tajjbid Urdu (optional), Persian (optional)

Class V Bangla Mathematics English Social Science General Science Islamic Studies Hindu Religious Studies Buddhist Religious Studies Christian Religious Studies

Bangla General Mathematics English Social Studies General science Quran & Tajbid Aquaid and Fiqh Arabic 1st and 2nd papers

Information about the subjects taught in the government primary schools was downloaded on 7 June 2010 from the Bangladesh Ministry of Education website http://www.nctb.gov.bd/book.php?cat=4&subcat=35

Information about the subjects taught in the Ibtedaye Madrasahs was adapted from Madrasah Education Board of Bangladesh. Curriculum and Educational Textbook Department. Plan and Curriculum for Ebtidai through Eighth Dakhil Grade. 1990-1991 which appeared in Table 13, page 27, of Abdalla, A., Raisuddin, A.N. M., and Hussein, S. (2004). Pre-Primary and Primary Education in Bangladesh. Contract Num. HNE-I-00-00-0038-00. Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity, United States Agency for International Development. Dr. Abdus Sattar, Assistant Inspector of the BMEB, provided the information in that table to BEPS, but was not specified by class. Also updated by a handout from Mr. Abu Zafar from BMEB, August 2010.

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Appendix 3.5 Comparison of the Subjects Taught at the Junior Dakhil and Dakhil Levels for Various Specialization Groups
Grades 9-10: General Group Compulsory 1 Quran & Tajbid 2 Hadith 3 4 5 6 Agaid & Fiqh Arabic 1 & 2 Bangla English Grades 9-10: Science Group Compulsory Quran &Tajbid Hadith and Fiqh Arabic 1 & 2 Bangla English General Mathematics Physics Chemistry Elective (any one) Biology Higher Mathematics Additional (Any one) Biology Higher Mathematics ICT Higher English Agriculture Science Home Economics Social Science Basic Trade Economics Grades 9-10: Hifzul Group Compulsory 1 Quran & tajbid 2 Hadith 3 4 5 6 Fiqh Arabic 1 & 3 Bangla English Grades 9-10: Muuzabbid Group Compulsory 1 Quran & Tajbid 2 Hadith 3 4 5 6 Fiqh Arabic 1 & 2 Bangla English

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3

Grades 6-8 Compulsory Quran & Tajbid Aqaid and Fiqh Arabic 1 & 2 Bangla English General Mathematics Social Science General Science Elective (any one) Agriculture Science Home Economics ICT

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

7 General Mathematics 8 Social Science Islamic 9 History

7 Hifzul 8 Tajbid (Nasar and Nazam) 9 Islamic History

7 Qiraat (Tartil and Hadar) 8 Tajbid (Nasar and Nazam) 9 Islamic History

4 Urdu 5 Persian 6 Physical


Education

Additional (Any one) 1 Agriculture Science 2 Home Economics 3 ICT 4 Civics 5 Basic Trade 6 Economics 7 Higher Math 8 Higher English 9 1 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0

Additional (Any one) 1 Agriculture Science 2 Home Economic 3 ICT 4 Mantiq 5 Urdu 6 Persian 7

Additional (any one) 1 Agriculture Science 2 Home Economic 3 ICT 4 Mantiq 5 Urdu 6 Persian 7

Source: Madrasah Education Development Specialists (19 January 2009). Madrasah Education Development Strategy: Final. (Secondary Education Sector Development Project (SESDP). Technical Assistance. ADB Loan No. 2266-BAN (SF). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Directorate of secondary and Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Annex 15. Updated August 2010

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Appendix 3.6 Examples of Curriculum Subjects Taught in Qoumi Madrasahs (Subjects in Parentheses are found only in a few Qoumi madrasahs)
Educational Level Subjects Years

Furkania/Hafizia (Pre-primary) Marhalatul (Ibtedaye)

Arabic language, Quran recitation, Hifz, (i.e., memorizing the entire Quran) elementary Bengali language, and simple arithmetic Reading and memorizing Quran, Hadith, Fiqh, religion, syntax, Arabic language, English, Bangla, (Urdu), (Persian), mathematics, geography and science, Islamic knowledge, Biography of great personalities, (Computer study), (Spoken English), Spoken Arabic, Khuluq el Hassan (i.e., Decent Morals), (physical education), and (Islamic Calligraphy). Arabic Literature, Grammar, Fiqh, Osulul Fiqh, Bangla (9), Bangla Grammar, History, Mantik (Philosophy), Science, Tajweed (recitation), English and Grammar, Mathematics and Geometry, (Urdu), (Persian) Bengla, History, Arabic, usil-i-fiqh (explanatory law), Mantiq (logic), Tafir (exegesis), Faraiz (inheritance law). Tafir (exegesis), ursil-i-Quran, ursil-i-hadith (expalanation of the sayings of the Prophet), Fiqh, Arabic Hadith courses (Dawrah Hadith), al-Quran, Tafsir, Fiqh

3-5 years 5 years

Marhalatul mutawassitah (Dakhil) Marhalatul Sanubiah Ulyia (Alim) Marhalatul Fazielat (Fazil) Marhalatul Taqmil (Kamil)

2 2

Sources: Based on information obtained from field visits to madrasahs and from Abdalla, A., Raisuddin, A.N. M., and Hussein, S. (2004). Pre-Primary and Primary Education in Bangladesh. Contract Num. HNE-I-00-00-0038-00. Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity, United States Agency for International Development; and from Ali Riaz (2008). Faithful Education: Madrasahs in South Asia. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Note there are several variations in how the curricula are classified in Qoumi Madrasahs.

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Appendix 3.7 Business Education and Information and Communication Technology


A questionnaire study regarding the teaching of Business Education (BE) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at the Dakhil level was conducted with BMEB administrators. Responses to the questionnaire were analyzing and are summarized below: 1. Currently, Business Education has been introduced neither in Aliya nor in Qoumi Madrasahs. However, ICT (Computer Education) is introduced in the Dakhil (all) and Aliya (some) Madrasahs. ICT is not in all Qoumi Madrasahs. 2. Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board has prepared a curriculum for BE and ICT. 3. The same ICT curriculum and textbook, prepared by the NCTB, are being used by Aliya Madrasahs and general education schools 4. The curriculum and the textbooks of ICT are meeting the present day requirements for this subject. 5. In each Aliya Madrasah, there is only one teacher, a bachelor degree holder, who has computer training 6. Most of the Aliya and Qoumi Madrasahs do not have adequate computer facilities in relation to the number of students and the space for a computer laboratory is very limited. 7. The students, their guardians, and their teachers have been putting pressure on the BMEB to introduction BE into the Aliya Madrasahs. If this effort is successful, it may also open-up opportunities for school leavers to get jobs and for more madrasah students to engage in higher study. 8. The reasons that BMEB gives for not introducing BE are: (a) most of the Aliya Madrasahs do not have proper physical facilities, (b) do have qualified teachers, and (c) the government has not yet taken up a policy decision for the introduction of BE.

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Appendix 3.8 Education Watch Observations on the Curriculum


I. Findings: Curriculum of Secondary Education (Nath et al. 2007, p xxxvi xxvii)

The madrasah stream of secondary education is less organized in terms of curriculum, textbook preparation and their implementation when compared to the general stream. Although the National Curriculum Coordination Committee (NCCC) adopted a common set of learning objectives for secondary education, these are mostly followed only in the general stream. Close examination of textbooks used clearly shows a difference between the two streams. The content is not adequate for the madrasah students to acquire required skills and competencies in basic subjects like Language, Mathematics and General Science. Sharp distinctions exist between the streams in relation to the examination system, mark distribution among core and elective subjects, question paper preparation and assessment procedures, which is a serious obstacle to establishing equivalency among the streams.
II. Findings: Learning Achievement of Grade X Students

Learning achievement of the students of grade X in 2007 was assessed with an instrument based on learning objectives set by NCCC, which are common between general education and madrasah streams. Bangla, English, Mathematics and Everyday Science were covered in the test. Each subject contained 20 items totaling 80 in the whole test. The students were not previously alerted about the test. The following were the salient findings. The students of the government schools representing the general stream were far ahead of all other types in performance. They were followed by urban and rural private schools. The madrasah students lagged behind. The pass rate [using the existing SSC/Dakhil pass percentage of 30% correct] was 68% for government, 50% for urban private, 24.5% for rural private, 18.8% for urban madrasah, and 7.8% for rural adrasah students. Gender difference with a bias against girls persisted in all types of schools. However, it was lesser in government schools than others. The worst gap was observed in rural madrasah.

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III. Findings: Curriculum Implementation at Institution Level ( ibid, pa xxx-xxxi)

Interviewing the heads of educational institutions, the teachers and the students an attempt was made to understand various aspects related to curriculum implementation at institution level. The following provides a summary of findings. Two thirds of the government and urban private schools, half of the urban madrasah, 43.3% of rural private and 38% of rural madrasah had annual academic plans. About 60% of the heads of the institutions had a copy of the curriculum and 43% of them received training on curriculum. A larger proportion of madrasah superintendents than school heads claimed to have read the curriculum. Seventy-eight percent of the heads of the institutions reported that they were aware of neither the strengths nor the weaknesses of the curriculum. Thirty-five percent of the teachers reported that they had no training for improving the quality of teaching; over 50% in the madrasah and about 30% in schools. About 10% of the teachers confessed to have no study habit. The schoolteachers were more likely to read literary books and the madrasah teachers religious books. The students find Mathematics most difficult subject followed by English. Science students in the government schools were more likely to have practical classes followed respectively by those in urban private schools, rural private schools, urban madrasah and rural madrasah. In majority of the madrasah and rural schools, only the teachers demonstrated scientific experiments without the students having any opportunity to do those themselves.
IV. Findings: Further Education and Employment Opportunities

This section presents information on further education and employment opportunities of secondary graduates of 1997, 10 years after their secondary school graduation, were interviewed to know their current status. Salient findings are presented below. Of the secondary graduates, over a quarter of the graduates did not go beyond the secondary level. Nearly a third (31.5%) completed higher secondary, 31.3% bachelors and 11.4% completed masters level education. The females were ahead of the males in attaining further education. Proportion of graduates entering into further education was 90% among government school graduates, 87% among urban private, 71.5% among rural private, 80.8% among urban madrasah, and 62.5% among rural madrasah. Participation in further education of the graduates was found to be positively associated with performance in SSC or Dakhil examination. Ten percent of the graduates received first division in SSC/Dakhil, 43.3% received second division and 57% of those with third division did not enroll in further education. On the other hand, the proportion of graduates joining postgraduate education was respectively 21.8%, 5.6% and 1.9% of three groups of graduates. Graduates who studied Science at secondary level were more likely to go for further education compared to those who studied Humanities. Over 35% of the Humanities

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education graduates and 52.5% of the Science graduates obtained a bachelors/masters degree. Regarding inter-stream movement, none from general stream went to the madrasah for further education. On the contrary, over a quarter of the madrasah graduates enrolled in educational institutions under general stream for higher secondary education. Marriage (22%), lack of money to continue education (14.6%), failure in examination (14.2%), engagement in income earning (29.6%), and lack of interest to study (12.7%) were the major reasons behind secondary graduates not continuing up to masters level education. Over half of the females reported that they had to stop their study due to marriage in comparison to only 2% of the males. Over a quarter of the graduates of the government and urban private schools, 37% of those of rural schools and madrasah and 45.4% of those of urban madrasah were involved in paid jobs in country. The madrasah graduates were the least likely to be involved in housekeeping or study. Engagement in paid jobs abroad was more likely among the madrasah graduates. Statistically significant gender variation with a bias against the females in earnings was observed for all types of educational institutions.

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Appendix 3.9 Strategies Used by Parents Trying to find Quality Schooling


Attending GPS [government primary school] or full time madrasah and school for working children simultaneously Attending GPS and transferring to ROSC Moving from urban area to stay with relatives to avail stipends BRAC pre-school, marking time in GPS until place available in BRAC school Madrasah first to provide religious/moral foundation or because safer/closer when child young and delayed entry to GPS GPS first (closer to home and less important to do well, assess potential) followed by transfer to private school when investment considered important (more serious) Private school until class 4 when girls transferred to GPS class 5 so they can take public exam entitling them to secondary school stipends GPS first and transfer to madrasah to ensure a disciplined environment for boys, safe environment for girls Elder siblings not performing well at school drop out to earn/save family from further expense which is used for younger sibling education Keeping boys in class 3 or 4 --- [they] have to repeat but also keeps them out of mischief

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Appendix 3.10 Pass Rates for Secondary School Certificate and Dakhil Examinations
Percentage of Pass in SSC and Dakhil Examinations 1995-2006, by Sex % of SSC Pass
Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Both 73 43 51 48 54 42 35 41 36 48 53 59 57 Female 72 35 49 45 54 40 34 38 34 46 50 57 54

% of Dakhil Pass
Both 68 70 68 47 72 55 48 52 42 60 62 76 66

Source: Bangladesh Educational Statistics. 2006 BANBEIS 2006

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Appendix 3.11 Average Dakhil Examination Results for Students in 2009 Examination
A random sample of 102 students who took the Dakhil examination in 2009 were selected from the examination archives on the BMEB web site. The students Dakhil results were reported as letter grades. A letter grade represents the marks interval into which a students percentage mark can be found. The resultant data are known is statistics as grouped data. Each students letter grades for the examination subjects were converted to percentage marks using the MOE table (see below). Since a letter grade means that a student has a mark somewhere in the interval, the exact mark of a student is unknown. A well-recognized statistical method for dealing with data that are grouped into intervals is to use the mid point of the interval to represent each score that falls in that interval. (This is, of course, the same reasoning that allows one letter grade to represent all persons whose scores are in an interval.) For example, all students who received an A on an examination were assigned the mark 74.5 since this is the midpoint of the interval 70-79 into which those students are classified. A student who receives C would be given a mark of 44.5, and so on. This is an appropriate procedure to use to calculate descriptive statistical values from grouped data.
Table used to convert students letter grades to marks Letter Grade Marks Interval Midpoint A+ A AB C D F 80-100 70-79 60-69 50-59 40-49 33-39 0-32 90 74.5 64.5 54.5 44.5 36 16

The table and figures below summarize the average scores of the 2009 Dakhil examination for each subject. It can be seen that the students generally score higher in the religious subjects than they do in the general education subjects (with the exception of Bangla). Students averages are lower in English and general mathematics. (Averages in the optional subjects are based on too few students to generalize the results.) Although some have said that Dakhil students score equally well in all subject, this is not upheld by the data.
Compulsory Subjects
Fiqh and Usul-EFiqh Arabic-I and Arabic-Ii General Mathem atics Social Science English Islamic History Bangla Quran Mazid and Tazbid and Hadith

Optional (choose one)


Agricultu re St di Civics Compute r Studies 78.2 19.3 15 4.4 Mantiq 78.7 11.1 5 3.3

Mean Standard Deviation Sample Size Std Error Mean

69.8 17.8 102 4.2

64.7 18.2 102 4.3

68.8 17.1 102 4.1

46.3 17.4 102 4.2

66.9 17.3 102 4.2

55.0 22.5 102 4.7

64.6 15.8 102 4.0

63.0 14.5 102 3.8

78.4 10.9 79 3.3

45 25.6 3 5.1

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Appendix 3.12 Average SSC Examination Results for Humanities Students in 2009 Examination of the Dhaka Board
A random sample of 100 Humanities students who took the SSC examination from the Dhaka Board in 2009 were selected from the examination archives on the Dhaka web site. The students SSC results were reported as letter grades. A letter grade represents the marks interval into which a students percentage mark can be found. The resultant data are known is statistics as grouped data. After recording each students letter grades for the examination subjects, the letter grades were converted to percentage marks using the MOE table that relates marks to letter grades. Since a letter grade means that a student has a mark somewhere in the interval, the exact mark of a student is unknown. There is a well-recognized statistical method, however, for dealing with this type of situation where the data are grouped into intervals. In such cases, the mid point of the interval is used to represent each score that falls in that interval. (This is, of course, the same reasoning that allows one letter grade to represent all persons whose scores are in an interval.) Thus, the following table was used to convert students letter grades to marks. For example, all students who received an A on an examination were assigned the mark 74.5 since this is the midpoint of the interval 70-79 into which those students are classified. A student who receives C would be given a mark of 44.5, and so on. This is an appropriate procedure to use to calculate descriptive statistical values from grouped data.
Table used to convert students letter grades to marks Letter Grade Marks Interval A+ A AB C D F 80-100 70-79 60-69 50-59 40-49 33-39 0-32 Midpoint 90 74.5 64.5 54.5 44.5 36 16

The tables below summarize the average scores of the 2009 SSC Dhaka Board examination for each subject. It can be seen that the students generally score higher in the religious subject than they do in the general education subject (with the exception of History). Students scored lower in English and general mathematics. (Averages in the optional subjects are based on too few students to generalize the results.) The figure below compares the SSC Dhaka Board averages with the Dakhil BMEB averages for similar subjects. The exams are different with different questions set by different boards, so they are not directly comparable. In each case the average scores of the Dakhil exam are higher than the SSC exam. It cannot be said why this is so because the exams contain different questions and content. Perhaps the Dakhil are easier, or perhaps the Dakhil students have learned more. Since the students took different exams no conclusion is possible.

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Average 2009 SSC scores of the Humanities Group from the Dhaka Board for Required Subjects (N = 100, except where noted) GENE RAL SCIEN CE RELIG ION, HINDU RELIG ION, ISLAM RELIGI ON, CHRIS TIAN

BAN GLA

ENGL ISH

MATHEM ATICS

GEOGR APHY

HIST ORY

Mean Standar d Deviati on Sample Size Standar d Error

52.4

29.3

46.5

47.9

65.0

61.5

54.5

48.3

57.1

10.2 100 1.02

14.1 100 1.02

20.0 100 1.02

13.0 100 1.02

12.7 10. 1.02

9.45 89 1.02 1 1.02

12.8 100 1.02

15.3 100 1.02

Average 2009 SSC scores of the Humanities Group from the Dhaka Board for Optional Subjects (N = various values as noted) AGRICULTURE STUDIES HOME ECONOMICS COMPUTER STUDIES VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

CIVICS

ECONOMICS

Mean Standard Deviation Sample Size Standard Error

51.1 13.4 58 1.02

72.8 19.1 63 1.02

52.1 15.4 41 1.02

72.0 18.6 27 1.02

54.8 26.3 4 1.02

74.5 0.00 2

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Appendix 3.13 Average Grade 8 Students Scores on Special World Bank (WB) Tests for Rural Secondary Schools
The information in this appendix was extracted from Secondary School Madrasahs in Bangladesh (World Bank, 2010). Four tests were administered to Grade 8 rural secondary students1: (1) 25 multiple-choice items selected from the 2003 TIMMS test in mathematics; (2) 20 items WB developed in English based on the NCTB curriculum; (3) 6 multiple-choice items in General Knowledge WB developed based on the NCVTB curriculum; (3) 10 multiple-choice items WB developed in Islamic Studies based on the NCTB curriculum.

Table 3.13.1 Average percentage correct in the WB rural Grade 8 sample (standard deviations in parentheses). Aliya Qoumi All three Number of MadrasahB Madrasah Combined Questions SchoolsA Mathematics

25

35.6% (14.5) 36.9% (19.3) 69.9% (20.9) 38.4% (20.5) 6431

33.1% (15.8) 26.7% (16.7) 81.5% (19.8) 38.5% (20.3) 2322

29.3 (164) 22.5% (17.9) 92.9 (13.0) 42.4% (20.8) 654

34.5% (15.1) 33.3% (19.3) 74.7% (21.4) 38.7% (20.5) 9407

English Islamic Studies General Knowledge Number of Students

20 10 6

NOTES: (A) Includes government schools, private schools, and aided schools; (B) Includes aided madrasahs and private madrasahs; (C) Only Muslim students were tested for this subject

For Qoumi Madrasahs, the study authors asked the Qoumi Madrtasahs to select the nearest equivalent grade to Grade 8. 264

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Appendix 3.14 Comparison of the B. Ed. and STC programs


A. Comparisons of Time Devoted to Each Subject in the Syllabus (See descriptions that follow this table) Secondary Teaching Certificate (STC) Bachelor of Education (B. Ed.)

Subject

PS 101 PS 102 ES 101 ES 102 RS 101 RS 102 TS (Subject 1) TS (Subject 2) TP 100 TP 200

8 weeks at TTC XXXXXXXXXX 8 weeks at TTC XXXXXXXXXX 8 weeks at TTC XXXXXXXXXX 8 weeks at TTC XXXXXXXXXX 4 weeks at own school XXXXXXXXXX

12 weeks at TTC 12 weeks at TTC 12 weeks at TTC 12 weeks at TTC 12 weeks at TTC 12 weeks at TTC 12 weeks at TTC 12 weeks at TTC 4 weeks at assigned school 2 weeks for final teaching and at TTC

TP debriefing, assignment 2 weeks at TTC completion, examinations

B.

Syllabus for the B. Ed. Degree


Education Studies (12 weeks each) ES 101 Secondary Education, Curriculum, and Child Developme nt ES 102 Learning Assessmen t and Reflection Practice Technology/ Research Studies (12 weeks each) RS 101 Basic Computer Skills RS 102 Action Research

Profession al Studies (12 weeks each) PS 100 Essential Teaching Skills PS 101 Gender Studies

Teaching Studies (12 weeks each; two teaching subjects are studied) TS 101 Teaching Bangla TS 102 Teaching Business Studies TS 103 Teaching English TS 104 Teaching Mathemat ics TS106 Teaching Social Studies TS 107 Religious Studies TS 108 Teaching Agri. Education TS 109 Teaching Home TS 111 Teaching Arts and Crafts TS 112 Teaching Health, Sports, and Physical Education TS 113 Teaching Music TS 114 Teaching

Teaching Practice (4 weeks each) TP 100 Teaching in school in morning, reflection, lesson planning at TCC in afternoon TP 200 Teaching in school in morning, reflection, lesson planning at TCC in afternoon; final external and internal

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Technology/ Research Studies (12 weeks each)

Profession al Studies (12 weeks each)

Education Studies (12 weeks each)

Teaching Studies (12 weeks each; two teaching subjects are studied) TS 105 Teaching Science Economics TS 110 Teaching ICT Commercial Geography TS 115 Library Science

Teaching Practice (4 weeks each) observation and evaluation of TP

Structure of a Typical B. Ed. Teaching Studies Course Subject Matter Units Lectures and directed studies following normal academic calendar and weekly schedule. Depending on the subject matter, the course is divided into several units of instruction covering such topics as the curriculum for the subject, the teaching methods for the subject, skill development for the subject, content topics, lesson planning, managing the classroom, assessing learning progress, self improvement in the subject. Tasks Student completes several practical activities (records of performance, reports, presentations) specific to the subject and related to teaching the subject. For example, professional conduct, reflections on development, participatory teaching demonstration, school based assessment demonstration. Often coordinated with the teaching practice and the TTC lectures. B. Ed. Evaluation
Internal Assessment Internal Exams Evaluation of Tasks 30 marks 20 marks External Examination (set by National University) One or two papers 100 marks

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C. Syllabus for the STC (Condensed version of B. Ed.)
Profession al Studies (8 weeks) PS 100 Essential Teaching Skills Education Studies (8 weeks) ES 102 Learning Assessment and Reflection Practice Teaching Studies (8 weeks for only one teaching subject) TS 101 Teaching Bangla TS 102 Teaching Business Studies TS 103 Teaching English TS 104 Teaching Mathemat ics TS 105 Teaching Science TS106 Teaching Social Studies TS 107 Religious Studies TS 108 Teaching Agri. Education TS 109 Teaching Home Economics TS 110 Teaching ICT TS 111 Teaching Arts and Crafts TS 112 Teaching Health, Sports, and Physical Education TS 113 Teaching Music TS 114 Teaching Commercia l Geography TS 115 Library Science Teaching Practice (4 weeks) TP 100 Teaching in School in morning

Structure of a STC Course Subject Matter Units Combination of workshops and directed study. Saturday through Thursday (6 days per week). Depending on the subject matter, the course is divided into several units of instruction covering such topics as the curriculum for the subject, the teaching methods for the subject, skill development for the subject, content topics, lesson planning, managing the classroom, assessing learning progress, self improvement in the subject. Tasks Student completes several practical activities (records of performance, reports, presentations) specific to the subject and related to teaching the subject. For example, professional conduct, reflections on development, participatory teaching demonstration, school based assessment demonstration. Course Evaluation Internal Assessment Evaluation of Tasks Unknown Internal Exams Unknown External Examination (set by National University) PS 100, ES 102, TP 100 (Final Teaching Assessment)

Unknown

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Appendix 5 Gender Audit of Madrasahs and General Education Stream Textbooks


A gender audit was conducted for selected madrasahs and mainstream schools textbooks. Based on books availability and the subjects where gender issues are relevant, the textbooks reviewed for the audit were English, Bangla and Social Sciences of class 4, English, Bangla and Social Sciences of class 7 and English and Bangla of classes 9 and 10.

English textbooks for class 4


The madrasah English textbook reviewed consists of 18 lessons while mainstream textbook consists of 35 lessons. The books are organized around different topics and present disctinct ideologies especially in regards to gender roles. For instance the madrasah textbook portrays men, women, boys and girls wearing religious dress while the mainstream textbook has them wearing casual dress. Among the 18 lessons featured in the madrasah text, 8 lessons are gender neutral. The topics covered in these lessons include greetings and introductions, command giving, request-making, family leisure and holidays, work, etc. In the mainstream textbook 17 lessons portray a social world where gender roles and expectations are well balanced. This is true both in the narrative and its accompanying illustrations. For instance, in stories illustrating greetings and introductions boys and girls are equally being introduced as family members. Similalrly, stories about work convey the equal participation of both gender such as in the stories titled Lets do it again, My family, Professions, Fatema in the kitchen, etc. Although the madrasah textbook focuses on both men and women, men tend to get more coverage. Moreover, issues such as religious customs, conduct, and culture that reinforce traditional gender roles are often found in the madrasah textbook. It is also worth noting that greetings, in the madrasah textbook, follow the Islamic custom and are given in Arabic. In the mainstream textbook they are given in English.

Bangla textbooks for class 4


The madrasah Bangla textbook contains 21 lessons including 10 stories and 11 poems. In the Bangla mainstream textbook, there are 30 lessons including 16 stories and 14 poems. The madrasah textbook has six stories that are gender balanced. The Gratefulness of Prophet Muhammad (S.M) depicts the Prophets generosity towards two women who were his enemies. The Folk Art of Bangladesh focuses on both men and womens cultural works and traditions. The other four stories simply mention the names of women who are not central to the story line. Four poems address both genders through their focus on respect, individual responsibility, and service to the community. The mainstream book has 12 stories that feature both men and women characters and give them equal importance. Among these stories, several convey a message of gender equality such as a narrative showing how a woman can become the best guide of an orphan boy, or another one based on womens cooperatives groups and where both men and women participate equally in the building of a better future for all.

Social Sciences textbooks for class 4


The madrasah social science textbook contains 12 lessons while the mainstream social science textbooks features 18 lessons. In the madrasah social science textbook, only 4

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English textbooks for class 7


The madrasah English textbook is organized around 4 units with a total of 50 lessons. The general mainstream is also organized around 4 units but with a total number of 80 lessons. 46 lessons are similar in both streams covering similar topics and and featuring the same illustrations. The lessons that are present in both the madrasah and the mainstream textbooks focus on women and feature gender balanced topics. These are Lucys Diary 1 and 2, The Diary of Anne Frank, Laila, Help snake, Mina the poor woman 1 and 2, etc.

Bangla textbooks for class 7


The Bengali textbooks of madrasah and mainstream education have different names. In the madrasah its name is Dakhil Bangla literature and contains 15 stories and 15 poems. In mainstream, it is Saptoborna and contains 16 stories and 16 poems. In madrasah textbook illustrations in the stories are not clear and prominent, and not a single one story is based on gender issue. In mainstream textbook, 2 stories only are gender balanced namely one of the stories is about a famous teacher and two heroic women in the Liberation War. Another one is a story about an honest postmans family. Both the stories are fantastic and educative. In summary, it seems that the BMEB is not too gender conscious when choosinig stories and poems. Most of the stories and poems are focused on mens role that is not interesting and educative. On the other hand, the NCTB textbook fulfills students need and interest.

Social Sciences textbooks for class 7


The madrasah social science book contains 9 chapters, while in mainstream education textbooks, there are 10 chapters. In the madrasah textbook, only three lessons present both men and womens contributing role in environment, society, family and increasing population while the mainstream textbook contains one lesson is more. In a way, most of the lessons of both the books are not gender balanced.

English textbooks for classes 9 and 10


The madrasah English textbooks and mainstream education are different in many ways. There are more lessons in the mainstream textbook and gender issues are more highlighted, while in the madrasah textbook, religious aspects, especially Islamic ideas, have been incorporated with illustrations of girls and women covering their heads and boys and men wearing Islamic caps. In the madrasah English textbooks, there are 14 units having a total of 66 lessons whereas in the mainstream, there are 22 units having a total number of 119 lessons. About 13 units are similar in both the streams. Of the 66 lessons 15 lessons have gender component where both men and women are participating in various activities. The lesson, Jobs for all, mentions men and women equal responsibilities and duties of household work. Taking care focused on parents care for their children. The lessons in the madrasah textbook, which are gender related, are equally gender balanced in the mainstream textbook also. In the mainstream textbook, out of 119 lessons, 40 lessons have a gender component such Meeting Feroza that presents the story of a Bangladeshi village girl, Meena, and her life style who is a very popular figure for young generation in Bangladesh. By going through the lessons, students can learn the attributes of a gender balanced family atmosphere.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Though the BMEB select all the topics from mainstream textbook, they didnt include those lessons which are mainly women related, such as The old wife and the ghost, Neela asks for leave, Meeting Feroza, etc.

Bangla textbook for classes 9 and 10


In the madrasah Bangla textbook there are 23 stories. Only four stories focus on gender roles, for example, in The result of litigation, where the role of both men and women are described vividly. This is a story of an aunt and an orphan boy and tells how a woman became a mother of an orphan boy. The other three stories are The experience of living in England, where English customs and culture of both men and women are discussed, and two other stories that describe both male and female characters to some extent. In addition, there are 27 poems of which only 3 poems present both genders. The dream of Shahjahans death is one of them where Shahjahan dreamt that his late beloved wife is calling him. The other two are: I will go to your country where a village girl is spreading flower while she is walking and A wild hope which focus on responsibility of young boys and girls. In the Bangla mainstream textbook, there are 13 stories of which 4 are gender balanced. One is Holiday which depicts a story of a mother and her unruly son, another is Mohash which is based on a conversation between a poor father and daughter about a cow named Mohash, Relief work is of helpless children, and Demand of time about story of liberation war when a boy went to war and remembers his family, especially his mother. In summary, mainstreams books provided informative and interesting articles and stories that would increase the knowledge of students. On the other hand, madrasah textbooks are more focused on religious topics such as prayer, literature of Islam, last pilgrimage of Mohammad (SM), etc.

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Appendix 6.1 Schematic Presentation of the Staff Development Plan for BMEB/ DME KEY BMEB/ DME STAFF DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Review Managerial / Key Staff Positions

Present Requirements Recruitment Key Staff Requirements Future Requirements

Present Performance

Performance Appraisals

Potential Performance

On-the-Job

Training / Staff Development Activities

Off-the-Job

Evaluation / Review

Key Staff Development Audit

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Appendix 6.2 Summary of Staff Development and Fellowship Program


Competency/ Clientele skills requirements Education Policy & Senior staff Planning Number 6 Training Mode* Management retreat & short-term strategic training Professional Staff 10 Long-term Short-term 3-6 months Long-term 9-12 months Diploma/Graduate Program Short-term Long-term Short-term Short-term Long-term 3-6 months 6-9 months In-country/ Regional Regional Regional/internatio nal 2-3 months 6 months 2-3 months Duration** Location

Regular weekly In-country sessions 2-3 months Regional training 6-9 months Regional /International Regional /International Regional /International In-country /regional Regional /international

Education Senior to 5 Administration Mid-level staff 5 (Central/System level Education Administration (Zonal/district level) Inspection and Supervision Zonal/district 30 education officers Senior to 6 Mid level Field level 30 staff Senior to mid- 5 level Senior to mid- 5 level staff

Curriculum & Textbook development Quality Assurance

Financial management & budgeting Human resources Senior to mid- 6 planning level staff Monitoring & Mid-level staff 6 Evaluation EMIS Mid-level staff 5

Long-term Long-term Long-term Short-term Short-term Long-term

6-9 months 6-9 months 6-9 months 3 weeks 2-3 months 9-18 months (part-time basis)

Regional In-country/Regional In-country/ Regional In-country In-country In-country

Community Zonal& district 25 mobilization & Public- officers private cooperation Office management/ Clerical & 40 support staff General professional Junior 35 skills upgrading professional program staff

Notes: * Appropriate training modes will be determined during implementation based on benchmarking. ** Duration can be varied during implementation based on benchmarking of skill requirements and availability of training/course slots in the host institutions.

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Appendix 6.3 Summary of Technical Assistance Package


Areas of Expertise * Person-months (International)* & 30 staggered over 5 years Person-months (National) 36

Education Planning Management Institutional development Human resources planning & management Financial management & monitoring Curriculum development Teacher training &staff development Competency-based education Textbook development and publishing Quality assurance EMIS Monitoring & evaluation Community mobilization & public-private collaboration

15 staggered over 5 years 6 staggered over 3 years 6 9 staggered over 3 years 9 6 6 6 staggered 6staggered 3

18 12 12 12 12 12 6 6 15 12 6

Notes: * The expertise and person-months are based on international experience. Terms of reference of consultants are given in the Road Map.

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Appendix 7.1 Some Macro-Economic data


Table 7.1.1: Critical Macroeconomic Indicators of Bangladesh Items Benchmark 2003/4-2007/8 Projected 2009-10 Target 2014-15 Target 2020-21

Real GDP Growth


Gross Investment (% of GDP) Private Investment Public Investment Gross domestic saving (%
GDP)

6.3 24.4 18.6 5.8 20.8 30 40

6.0 24.0 18.8 5.2 24 26 38.5

8.0 30.0 24.0 6.0 27 16 30

9.0-10.0 35.0 28.0 7.0 30 10 15

of

Unemployment rate Poverty

Source: Bangladesh Economic Survey 2009 and Labour Force Surveys, Perspective Plan for Bangladesh 2010-2021, Page 31.

Figure 7.1.1: Unemployment and Poverty Rates in Bangladesh


Unemployment and Poverty rates in Bangladesh
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2003/04-2007-08 2009-10 Years 2014/15 2020/21

Rate (%)

Unemployment Poverty

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Appendix 7.2 Allocations of GDP and Revenue to Education


Table 7.2.1: GDP and Government Revenue Budget Allocations for Education at Constant Prices, 1998-99 to 2010-2011

Year

Deflator

GDPat constant* prices

Total Government Revenue Budgetat constant* prices

Total Education Revenue Allocationat constant* prices

Revenue Budgetas a%ofGDP

Education Revenue allocationasa% ofTotal Government RevenueBudget

Education Revenue allocationas a%ofGDP

Education Revenue growth rate,at constant* prices

(Tk.m.) 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 (Est) 2010-11
(Forecast)

(Tk.m.) 148055.3 153282.8 175101.7 181819.8 209355.1 211290.9 235781.3 240783.6 265096.8 310668.5 376175.9 406958.3 429975.4

(Tk.m.) 25868.4 27760.0 30505.6 30908.0 31202.4 33900.0 36556.8 43473.4 45644.1 50722.0 52465.3 60099.0 64206.9

(%) 7.7 7.5 8.1 8.1 8.8 8.4 8.8 8.5 8.7 9.7 11.0 11.3 11.2

(%) 17.5 18.1 17.4 17.0 14.9 16.0 15.5 18.0 17.2 16.3 13.9 14.8 14.9

(%) 1.34 1.35 1.41 1.37 1.32 1.35 1.37 1.53 1.51 1.58 1.54 1.67 1.67

(%) _ 7.3 9.9 1.3 0.9 8.7 7.8 18.9 5.0 11.1 3.4 14.5 6.8

1.14 1.16 1.18 1.21 1.27 1.32 1.39 1.46 1.56 1.68 1.81 1.92 2.03

1934291 2049276 2157353 2252609 2371006 2519680 2669740 2846726 3029709 3217855 3406524 3596719 3843793

Sources: GDP and Revenue Budget data from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, BBS. Education Revenue allocation data obtained from BANBEIS. 2008-09. GDP data from BBS and 2008-09 Government Budget data from MOF. * Constant: Implicit Deflator base at 1995-96 prices. 2009-10 & 2010-11 deflator data calculated from Table 2.1, Chapter 2, MTBF. GDP data for 2009-2011 is taken from Table 2.1 Chapter II, MTBF and converted to constant terms. Government Revenue Budget data for 2009-10 & 2010-11 from Bangladesh Budget 2010-11, Statement II, MOF website.

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Table 7.2.2: GDP and Government Development Budget Allocations for Education at Constant Prices, 1998-99 to 2010- 2011
Total Government Development Budget at constant* prices Total Education Dev. Allocation at constant* prices Developm ent Budget as a % of GDP Education Dev. allocation as a % of Total Government Development Budget Education Dev. allocation as a % of GDP Education Dev. growth rate, at constant* prices

Year

GDP at constant prices

(Tk.m.) 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09
2009-10 (Est) 2010-11 (Forecast)

(Tk.m.) 109728.0 133370.7 136871.2 116448.0 121530.0 127403.8 134719.4 133369.9 114923.1 110154.8 151668.0 164786.5 195532.0

(Tk.m.) 14516.3 16582.7 19085.1 17666.8 20008.4 17296.3 14739.1 18870.8 24264.7 21403.4 18601.9 22156.3 24103.4

(%) 5.7 6.5 6.3 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.7 3.8 3.4 4.5 4.6 5.1

(%) 13.2 12.4 13.9 15.2 16.4 13.6 11.0 14.1 21.1 19.4 12.3 13.4 12.3

(%) 0.75 0.81 0.88 0.78 0.84 0.69 0.55 0.66 0.81 0.67 0.55 0.62 0.63

(%) _ 14.2 15.1 -7.4 13.3 -13.6 -14.8 28.0 28.6 -11.8 -13.1 19.1 8.9

1934291 2049276 2157353 2252609 2371006 2519680 2669740 2846726 3029709 3217855 3406524 3596719 3843793

Sources: GDP and Revenue Budget data from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, BBS Education Revenue allocation data from BANBEIS 2008-09 GDP data from BBS and Government Budget data for 2008-09 obtained from MOF. 2009-10 and 2010-11 GDP data obtained from Table 2.1, Chapter II, MTBF. Government Development Budget data for 2009-10 & 2010-11 taken from Bangladesh Budget 2010-11, Chapter II, MOF website and converted into constant terms. * Constant: Implicit Deflator base at 1995-96 prices

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Table 7.2.3: Total Government Budgets, Total Education Budgets and Their Proportions
Year GDP at constant prices Total Budget (Revenue + Development) at constant prices Total Education Budget at constant prices Total Government Budget as % of GDP Total Education Budget as % of GDP Total Education Budget as % of Total Budget Growth Rate of Total Education Budget

(Tk.m.) 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 1934291 2049276 2157353 2252609 2371006 2519680 2669740 2846726 3029709 3217855 3406524 3596719 3843793

(Tk.m.) 257783.3 286653.5 311972.9 298267.8 330885.1 338694.7 370500.7 374153.5 380019.9 420823.3 527844.0 571744.8 625507.4

(Tk.m.) 40384.7 44342.7 49590.7 48574.8 51210.8 51196.3 51295.9 62344.2 69908.0 72125.4 71067.2 82255.3 88310.3

(%) 13.3 14.0 14.5 13.2 14.0 13.4 13.9 13.1 12.5 13.1 15.5 15.9 16.3

(%) 2.09 2.16 2.30 2.16 2.16 2.03 1.92 2.19 2.31 2.24 2.08 2.29 2.30

(Tk.m.) 15.7 15.5 15.9 16.3 15.5 15.1 13.8 16.7 18.4 17.1 13.5 14.4 14.1

(%) 9.8 11.8 -2.05 5.4 -0.03 0.19 21.5 12.1 3.17 -1.47 15.7 7.4

Source: Proportions calculated from data obtained from: BBS: GDP data BANBEIS: Education Revenue and Development Allocation Data 2008-09 Government Budget data from Budget 2008-09 MOF. 2009-10 & 2010-11 Government Revenue & Development Budget data taken from Bangladesh Budget 2010-11, Chapter II, MOF website

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Appendix 7.3 International Comparisons

Table 7.3.1: Key Educational Financial Indicators in South Asia, 2006

Indicator

Bangladesh Bhutan

India

Maldives Nepal Pakistan

Total Public Education Expenditure (in current US$ millions) Public Education Expenditure as a % of GDP Public Education Expenditure as a % of Gov. Spending Share of Public Expenditure for Primary Education (as a % of Total Public Expenditure) Public Education Expenditure per Student (% of per capita GDP)

1423.7

45.0

30191.4

75.2

344.8

3697.5

2.3

5.1

3.3

8.1

3.8

2.9

14

17

11

12

15

11

45

23

35

50

63

N/A

11

27

15

N/A

Source: The World Bank, Education Statistics, version 5.3, printed on The Daily Stars Independent Day Special, page 4, March 26 2010. Total public education expenditure from the World Bank website

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Table 7.3.2: Public Education Expenditure as a Proportion of Government Spending, Gross Primary and Secondary School Enrollment Rates in South Asian 2006

Indicator

Bangladesh

Bhutan

India

Maldives

Nepal

Pakistan

Public Education Expenditure, % of Gov Spending Gross Primary School Enrollment Rate (%) Gross Secondary School Enrollment Rate (%) Expenditure per student, secondary (% of GDP per capita)

14

17

11

12

15

11

94.5

100.1

112.3

118.8

124.0

79.5

43.4

48.4

54.8

83.7

43.5

30.0

16.1

N/A

16.2

29.3

11.22008

11.02005

Source: The World Bank, Education Statistics, version 5.3; printed on The Daily Stars Independent Day Special, page 4, March 26, 2010. Gross Primary, Secondary School Enrollment rates and Expenditure per student are from the World Bank websites

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Table 7.3.3: Asian Country-Wise Public Education Expenditure as a % of GDP

Country

Public Education Expenditure as a % of GDP

Year

Bangladesh Bhutan India Korea Rep Malaysia Nepal Pakistan Philippines Thailand Vietnam

2.3 5.1 3.3 4.2 4.7 3.8 2.9 2.5 4 5.3

2006 2008 2006 2006 2006 2008 2008 2005 2007 2008

Source: Data and Statistics from Edstats, the World Bank Website

Figure 7.3.1: Asian Country-Wise Public Education Expenditure as a % of GDP


Public Education Expenditure as a % of GDP

Vietnam Thailand Philippines Pakistan Country Nepal Malaysia Korea Rep India Bhutan Bangladesh 0 1 2 2.3 3 Percenta ge 4 5 3.3 4.2 2.5 2.9 3.8 4.7 4

5.3

5.1

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Appendix 7.4 Bangladesh Sectoral Shares of Revenue Budget

Table 7.4.1: Proportion of Revenue Expenditures by Sectors, 2000-01 to 2007-08

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Public Service Defense Public Order Education Health Social Security Housing Recreational Affairs Fuel and Energy Agriculture Mining and Mineral Transport & Com. Others Expenses1

21.3 16.4 8.2 17.4 5.3 1.0 1.4 0.5 0.01 3.3 0.7 2.7 0.3 21.6

20.2 16.9 7.7 17.0 5.8 1.1 1.4 0.5 0.01 3.1 0.6 2.5 0.5 22.6

15.8 14.8 7.2 14.9 5.0 1.4 1.4 0.5 0.01 3.0 0.6 2.6 3.3 25.5

17.6 15.2 7.8 16.0 5.4 2.0 1.7 0.7 0.01 3.9 0.6 3.2 0.7 25.2

14.7 12.5 8.5 15.4 5.5 2.9 1.6 0.5 0.01 5.5 0.5 3.5 0.6 28.1

14.0 12.1 8.7 17.9 5.9 3.2 1.6 0.6 0.04 5.0 0.9 3.5 0.7 25.8

9.9 15.8 9.4 19.0 6.5 3.2 1.3 0.6 0.04 6.2 0.5 2.5 1.2 23.6

9.5 13.4 7.9 16.3 5.5 3.1 1.7 0.4 0.03 7.3 0.4 2.8 2.2 29.4

Source: Data collected in absolute numbers from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, and later converted to percentages

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Table 7.4.2: Proportion of Development Expenditures by Sectors, 2000-01 to 2007-08

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Agriculture Rural Dev. Flood Control Industry Power Transport
Communication

4.5 12.2 6.1 3.3 14.7 20.4 3.0 14.0 7.3 12.0 2.4

4.4 11.1 5.4 1.9 15.1 19.9 6.1 14.7 7.9 11.2 2.3

4.1 11.2 4.7 1.3 19.7 18.9 4.0 15.9 7.4 10.2 2.5

4.0 13.8 4.0 2.7 22.3 18.0 2.2 12.8 8.2 9.1 2.4

3.1 13.1 4.8 2.6 20.8 16.4 5.7 10.8 7.2 12.2 3.2

3.1 13.1 4.8 2.6 20.8 16.4 5.7 10.8 7.2 12.2 3.2

3.2 13.1 4.9 2.6 20.8 16.4 5.7 10.7 7.1 12.3 3.2

3.2 13.1 5.0 2.6 20.8 16.4 5.7 10.7 7.1 12.3 3.2

Education Health Physical Planning Others

Source: Data collected in absolute numbers from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, and later converted to percentages

282

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Appendix 7.5 Education Sub-Sector Shares of Revenue & Development Budgets

Table 7.5.1: Government Revenue Budget on Education by Sub Sectors, from 2001-02 to 2007-08 Sub Sector
2001-02* 2002-03* 2003-04* 2004-05 2005-06* 2006-07* 2007-08

(Tk.m.) Primary and Mass Education Secondary and Higher Education2 Technical Education University Education Other Subsidiary Services (MOE) Administrative (MOE) Administrative (MOPME) Development Program (MOE)
Total

(Tk.m.) 14686.3 20055.2 396.4 3224.5 574.6 750.1 39627.1

(Tk.m.) 15880.5 22321.7 426.8 3858.5 928.0 908.8 423.7 44748.0

(Tk.m.) 16210.8 23099.2 460.5 4091.2 925.1 925.1 251.2 125.4


46088.5

(Tk.m.) 20743.4 33332.2 775.0 4998.6 1323.8 1412.4 499.6 386.4


63471.4

(Tk.m.) 24061.3 34794.1 946.8 5273.4 1843.7 3084.2 561.6 639.7


71204.8

(Tk.m.) 23569.1 41096.6 12253.3 6080.0 1349.3 1929.5 10162.1 224.1


85636.1

14284.3 18823.5 431.2 2435.7 512.6 396.3 37389.7

Sources: BANBEIS Pocket book on Education Statistics 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007. * The Revised Education Revenue Budget was used for these years

283

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Table 7.5.2: Proportion of Government Revenue Budget on Education by Sub Sectors, from 2001-02 to 2007-08 Sub Sector 2001-02* 2002-03* 2003-04* 2004-05 2005-06* 2006-07* 2007-08

(%) Primary and Mass Education Secondary and Higher Education Technical Education University Education Other Subsidiary Services (MOE) Administrative (MOE) Administrative (MOPME) Development Program (MOE)
Total

(%) 37.1 50.6 1.0 8.1 1.5

(%) 35.5 49.9 1.0 8.6 2.1

(%) 35.2 50.1 1.0 8.9 2.0

(%) 32.7 52.5 1.2 7.9 2.1

(%) 33.8 48.9 1.3 7.4 2.6

(%) 27.5 48.0 14.3 7.1 1.6

38.2 50.3 1.2 6.5 1.4

1.1 _ _

1.9 _ _

2.0 0.9 _

2.0 0.5 0.3

2.2 0.8 0.6

4.3 0.8 0.9

2.3 11.9 0.3

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

* The Revised Education Revenue Budget was used for these years

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Table 7.5.3: Government Revenue Budget on Education by Sub-Sectors from 2001-02 to 2007-08 in Current and Constant Terms

Primary and Mass Education Current

Primary Secondary Secondary & Technical Technical University University and Mass & Higher Higher Education Education Education Education Education Education Education Current Constant Current Constant Constant Current Constant

(Tk.m.)
2001-02* 14284.3

(Tk.m.)
11777.8

(Tk.m.)
18823.5

(Tk.m.)
15520.4

(Tk.m.)
431.2

(Tk.m.)
355.5

(Tk.m.)
2435.7

(Tk.m.)
2008.3

2002-03*

14686.3

11584.7

20055.2

15819.7

396.4

312.7

3224.5

2543.5

2003-04*

15880.5

12017.1

22321.7

16891.3

426.3

322.6

3858.5

2919.8

2004-05

16210.8

11674.6

23099.2

16635.5

460.5

331.6

4091.2

2946.4

2005-06*

20743.4

14204.2

33332.2

22824.5

775.0

530.7

4998.6

3422.8

2006-07*

24061.3

15593.4

34794.1

22549.0

946.8

613.6

5273.4

3417.5

2007-08

23569.1

13995.1

41096.6

24402.7

12253.3

7275.9

6080.0

3610.2

Sources: BANBEIS Pocket book on Education Statistics 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007. The constant figures have been calculated with the deflator index from The Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh 2008 * Represents the years for which the Revised Education Revenue Budget had been used

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Table 7.5.3 (continued..) : Government Revenue Budget on Education Services by Sub-Sectors from 2001-02 to 2007-08 in Current and Constant Terms

Other Other Admin. Admin. Admin. Admin Development Dev. Subsidiary Subsidiary MOE MOE MOPME MOPME Program Program Services Services Current Constant Current Constant MOE MOE (MOE) (MOE) Current Constant Current Constant
(Tk.m.) 200102* 200203* 200304* 2004-05 512.6 (Tk.m.) 422.7 (Tk.m.) 396.3 (Tk.m.) 326.8 (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) -

574.6

453.3

750.1

591.7

928.0

702.2

908.8

687.7

1929.5

1460.1

925.1

666.2

925.1

666.2

251.2

180.9

125.4

90.3

200506* 200607* 2007-08

1323.8

906.5

1412.4

967.2

499.6

342.1

386.4

264.6

1843.7

1194.8

3084.2

1998.8

561.6

364.0

639.7

414.6

1349.3

801.2

1929.5

1145.7

10162.1

6034.1

224.1

133.1

Sources: BANBEIS Pocket book on Education Statistics 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007. The Revised Education Revenue Budget was used for 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04, 2005-06 and 2006-07

Figure 7.5.1: Government Recurrent Budget for Primary and Secondary and Higher Education in Current Terms, 2001-02 to 2007-08
Government Recurrent Budget in Current Terms
45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Year 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

Tk.m.

Primary Current Secondary Current

286

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Table 7.5.4: Government Development Budget on Education by Sub Sector, from 2000-01 to 2006-07 Sub Sectors 2001-02* 2002-03* 2003-04* 2004-05 2005-06* 2006-07* 2007-08

(Tk.m.) Primary & Nonformal Education Secondary & Higher Education Technical Education University and Gov. Uni. Edu Own Project (MOE) Own Project (MOPME) Total 12223.1 7224.9 925.6 959.8 43.4 21376.8

(Tk.m.) 14859.3 8536.5 1054.3 909.5 51.1 25401.7

(Tk.m.) 9868.6 8878.6 1094.9 2013.2 125.2 850.6 22831.1

(Tk.m.) 9125.9 10575.1 2217.8 737.6 719.6 7330 30706

(Tk.m.) 16946.8 7459.6 1252.3 1878.2 13.7 27551.3

(Tk.m.) 19927.8 9234.1 1882.5 1271.8 2857.6 2679.2 37853

(Tk.m.) 22499.2 5964.0 2091.7 1795.3 3307.5 300 35957.7

Sources: BANBEIS Pocket book on Education Statistics 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007. * The Revised Government Development Budget was used for these years Addition of the sub-sectors equals 30706 as opposed to the development budget expenditure of 22831.1 published in BANBEIS pocket book on educational statistics 2004.

287

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Table 7.5.5: Proportion of Government Development Budget on Education by SubSectors, from 2001-02 to 2007-08 Sub Sectors 2001-02* 2002-03* 2003-04* 2004-05 2005-06* 2006-07* 2007-08

(%) Primary & Nonformal Education Secondary & Higher Education Technical Education University and Gov. Uni. Edu Own Project (MOE) Own Project (MOPME)
Total

(%) 58.5 33.6 4.1 3.6 0.2 100

(%) 43.2 38.9 4.8 8.8 0.5 3.7


100

(%) 29.7 34.4 7.2 2.4 2.3 23.9


100

(%) 61.5 27.1 4.5 6.8 0.05 100

(%) 52.6 24.4 5.0 3.4 7.5 7.1


100

(%) 62.6 16.6 5.8 5.0 9.2 0.8


100

57.2 33.8 4.3 4.5 0.2 100

* The Revised Education Development Budget was used for these years

Table 7.5.6: Government Development Budget on Education by Sub-Sectors from 2001-02 to 2007-08 in Current and Constant Terms

Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Technical Technical University University and Non- and Non- & Higher & Higher Education Education & Gov. & Gov. Formal Formal Education Education Current Constant University University Education Education Current Constant Education Education Current Constant Current Constant (Tk.m.) 2001-02* 2002-03* 2003-04* 2004-05 2005-06* 2006-07* 2007-08 12223.1 14859.3 9868.6 9125.9 16946.8 19927.8 22499.2 (Tk.m.) 10078.3 11721.2 7467.8 6572.2 11604.4 12914.6 13359.8 (Tk.m.) 7224.9 8536.5 8878.6 10575.1 7459.6 9234.1 5964.0 (Tk.m.) 5957.1 6733.7 6718.6 7615.9 5108.0 5984.3 3541.4 (Tk.m.) 925.6 1054.3 1094.9 2217.8 1252.3 1882.5 2091.7 (Tk.m.) 763.2 831.6 828.5 1597.2 857.5 1220.0 1242.0 (Tk.m.) 959.8 909.5 2013.2 737.6 1878.2 1271.8 1795.3 (Tk.m.) 791.4 717.4 1523.4 531.2 1286.1 824.2 1066.0

Sources: BANBEIS Pocket book on Education Statistics 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007. The Revised Education Revenue Budget was used for 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04, 2005-06 and 2006-07

288

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Figure 7.5.2: Government Development Budget for Primary and Secondary and Higher Education in Current Terms, 2001-02 to 2007-08
Government Development Budget in Current Terms
25000 20000 Tk.m. 15000 10000 5000 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 Year 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

Primary Current Secondary Current

289

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Appendix 7.6 Revenue Budget Allocations to Types of Education


Table 7.6.1: Government Revenue Budget on Type of Education, 2003-04 to 2007-08, in Current and Constant Prices
2003-04 2003-04 2004-05 2004-05 2005-06 2005-06 2006-07 2006-07 2007-08 2007-08 Type of (RB) (RB) (BE) (BE) (RB) (RB) (BE) (BE) (BE) (BE) Education (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.) (Tk.m.)

Current Constant Current Constant Current Constant Current Constant Current Constant

Primary

15212.0 11511.2 15534.3 11187.4 20714.2 14184.2 22782.5 14764.7 22099.1 13122.2

Secondary 10407.8 7875.8 10804.5 7781.1 11970.5 8196.9 15437.9 10004.8 18583.2 11034.5 College Madrasah Technical University T. Training Others
Total
6124.5 5122.1 381.2 3573.1 207.3 3720.0 4634.5 3876.0 288.5 2703.9 156.9 2815.0 6368.8 5341.5 406.6 3796.0 208.9 3627.9 4586.6 3846.8 292.8 2733.8 150.4 7259.5 5916.7 445.3 4043.5 256.2 4971.0 4051.5 304.9 2768.8 175.4 9141.6 7754.6 700.7 4919.0 300.5 5924.4 12009.3 7131.0 5025.5 454.1 3187.9 194.7 9243.1 1211.8 6080.0 477.7 5488.5 719.6 3610.2 283.7

2612.7 12865.5 8809.7 10168.0 6589.6 15983.3 9490.7

44748.0 33861.7 46088.5 33191.7 63471.4 43462.5 71204.8 46145.7 85636.0 50849.8

290

ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education

Sources: BANBEIS Pocket book on Education Statistics 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007. The Revised Education Revenue Budget was used for 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04, 2005-06 and 2006-07

291

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Table 7.6.2: Proportion of Government Revenue Budget on Types of Education, 200304 to 2007-08

Type of Education

2003-04 (RB) (Tk.m.)

2004-05 (BE) (Tk.m.)

2005-06 (RB) (Tk.m.)

2006-07 (BE) (Tk.m.)

2007-08 (BE) (Tk.m.)

Primary Education Secondary Education College Education Madrasah Education Technical Education University Education Teacher Training Others
Total

34.0 23.3 13.7 11.4 0.9 8.0 0.5 8.3


100

33.7 23.4 13.8 11.6 0.9 8.2 0.5 7.9


100

32.6 18.9 11.4 9.3 0.7 6.4 0.4 20.3


100

32.0 21.7 12.8 10.9 1.0 6.9 0.4 14.3


100

25.8 21.7 14.0 10.8 1.4 7.1 0.6 18.7


100

Source: Data obtained in absolute numbers from BANBEIS and converted into percentages

292

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Appendix 7.7

Table 7.7.1: Unit Recurrent Expenditures, Expenditures per Student, on Types of Education Institution

Gov. Primary School (Tk) 1055 897.6 1127 889.0 1783 1220.9

Gov. Secondary School (Tk) 4196 3507.7 4551 3589.9 6798 4655.0 8825 5657.1 9586 5706.0 10599 5855.8

Non-Gov. Secondary School (Tk) 1057 883.6 1044 823.5 1948 1333.9 2084 1335.9 2391 1423.2 2714 1499.4

Gov. Madrasah (Tk) 5060 4230.0 5084 4010.3 8397 5750.0 9338 5985.9 10112 6019.0 12090 6679.6

Non-Gov Madrasah (Tk) 1329 1111.0 1339 1056.2 2226 1524.3 2374 1521.8 2619 1559.0 2927 1617.1

Gov. College (Tk) 4348 3634.8 4470 3536.0 5556 3804.5

Non-gov. College (Tk) 2998 2506.2 3185 2512.4 7503 5137.7

Cadet College (Tk) 60792 50819.9 62018 48920.4 73682 50454.3

Teacher Training College (Tk) 14514 12133.2 12513 9870.4 13747 9413.4

Public University (Tk) 36368 30402.3 32357 25523.5 42643 29200.0

2000-01 Current 2000-01 Constant 2002-03 Current 2002-03 Constant 2005-06 Current 2005-06 Constant 2006-07 Current 2006-07 Constant 2007-08 Current 2007-08 Constant 2008-09 Current 2008-09 Constant

Source: Current figures extracted from BANBEIS Pocket Book on Educational Statistics 2002, 2003 and 2006. Constant figures are calculated with the deflation index given in the Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh 2008. 2006-09 data from BANBEISs unpublished dataset.

293

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Table 7.7.2: Ratio of the Recurrent Cost per Student in Different Types of Institutions with Respect to per Student Recurrent Cost in Government Primary Schools in 200001, 2002-03, 2005-06 and 2008-09 Type of Institution 2000-01 2002-03 2005-06 2008-09

(Ratio) Government Primary School Gov. Secondary School Non-Gov. Secondary School Gov. Madrasah Non-Gov. Madrasah Government College Non-Gov. College Cadet College Teacher Training College Public University 1.0 4.0 1.0 4.8 1.3 4.1 2.8 57.6 13.8 34.4

(Ratio) 1.0 4.0 0.9 4.5 1.2 4.0 2.8 55.0 11.1 28.7

(Ratio) 1.0 3.8 1.1 4.7 1.2 3.1 4.2 41.3 7.7 24.0

(Ratio) 1.0* 5.2 1.3 5.9 1.4

Source: Absolute current figures extracted from BANBEIS Pocket Book on Educational Statistics 2002, 2003 and 2006 and converted to ratios. * For 2008-09, the primary Gov. recurrent expenditure is used which was Tk. 2051 in current terms.

Figure 7.7.1: Ratio of Government Recurrent Cost per Student in Different Institutions with Respect to Recurrent Cost per Student in Government Primary Schools

7 6 5 Ratio 4 3 2 1 0
Government Primary School Government Secondary School Non-gov. Secondary School Government Madrasah Non-gov. madrasah

2005-06 2008-09

Type of Instituitions
294

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Figure 7.7.2: Government Recurrent Cost per Student by Type of Education, 2005-06 and 2008-09 in Current Terms

Non-gov. madrasah

Types of Instituitions

Government Madrasah

Non-gov. Secondary School Government Secondary School Government Primary School

2008-09 2005-06

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

Taka

295

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Appendix 7.8 Private Costs


Table 7.8.1: Annual Private Expenditure for Secondary Schools: Government, Non-Government (MPO) and Madrasahs in Taka, Rural, 2005: Taka per student per year
Government Schools ClassVI Tk. Total Fees Private Tutor School Exp Transport Medical Fuel Ent & Other Total 183 1869 1678 166 530 519 166 5111 VII Tk. 482 2767 2578 508 335 707 364 7741 VIII Tk. 471 3117 2914 519 570 698 234 8523 IX Tk. 542 3206 3240 616 531 757 482 9374 X Tk. 614 4293 4052 538 565 797 317 11176 VI Tk. 149 986 1701 125 427 538 111 4037 Non-Government (MPO) Schools VII Tk. 580 1462 2463 216 389 649 102 5861 VIII Tk. 599 1614 2659 169 415 684 133 6273 IX Tk. 635 2100 3238 233 490 704 187 7587 X Tk. 757 2839 3972 266 598 812 300 9544 VI Tk. 119 522 1519 99 324 577 58 3218 VII Tk. 281 765 2239 86 368 655 106 4500 Madrasahs VIII Tk. 308 802 2347 116 412 661 82 4728 IX Tk. 340 941 2719 148 447 737 85 5417 X Tk. 450 1402 3460 204 458 756 102 6832

Source: Education Watch, 2006, Adapted from Annex 4, Table A4.1, A4.4.and Table A4.7 Note: Tuition, admission and total fees are regarded as Total fees. Books, stationary, school bags, dress, shoes, tiffin and umbrella are regarded as School Expenses.

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Table 7.8.2: Annual Private Expenditure for Secondary Schools: Government, Non-Government (MPO) and Madrasahs in Taka, Urban, 2005: Taka per student per year

Government Schools Class VI Tk. Total Fees Private Tutor School Exp Transport Medical Fuel Ent & Other Total 263 4667 2694 970 444 917 128 10083 VII Tk. 611 7078 4248 1617 708 1227 639 16128 VIII Tk. 649 7279 4347 1603 640 1398 569 16485 IX Tk. 677 9594 4869 1720 1089 1436 733 20118 X Tk. 854 10797 6193 1791 903 1446 217 22201 VI Tk. 575

Non-Government (MPO) Schools VII Tk. 1297 2620 3137 576 459 780 126 8995 VIII Tk. 1270 3550 3383 543 533 809 382 10470 IX Tk. 1368 4019 3846 629 410 844 324 11440 X Tk. 1530 5532 4839 862 652 992 386 14793 VI Tk. 360 989 1751 318 331 462 25 4236 VII Tk. 887 1798 2467 391 424 690 55 6712

Madrasahs VIII Tk. 904 2171 2613 424 388 735 315 7550 IX Tk. 956 2277 3152 510 502 841 456 8694 X Tk. 1052 3720 3943 791 624 829 375 11334

1377 1946 568 414 576 126 5582

Source: Education Watch, 2006, Annex 4, Tables A4.2, A4.5 and A4.8

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Table 7.8.3: Urban to Rural Ratio of Annual Private Expenditure for Secondary Schools: Government, Non-Government (MPO) and Madrasahs

Government Schools ClassVI VII VIII IX X VI

Non-Government (MPO) Schools VII VIII IX X VI VII

Madrasahs VIII IX X

Total Fees Private Tutor School Exp Transport Medical Fuel Ent & Other Total

1.4 2.5 1.6 5.8 0.8 1.8 0.7 2.0

1.3 2.6 1.6 3.2 2.1 1.7 1.8 2.0

1.4 2.3 1.5 3.1 1.1 2.0 2.4 1.9

1.2 3.0 1.5 2.8 2.1 1.9 1.5 2.0

1.4 2.5 1.5 3.3 1.6 1.8 0.7 2.0

3.9 1.4 1.1 4.5 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.4

2.2 1.8 1.3 2.7 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.5

2.1 2.2 1.3 3.2 1.3 1.2 2.9 1.7

2.1 1.9 1.2 2.7 0.8 1.2 1.7 1.5

2.0 1.9 1.4 3.2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5

3.0 1.9 1.2 3.2 1.0 0.8 0.4 1.3

3.2 2.4 1.1 4.5 1.2 1.0 0.5 1.5

2.9 2.7 1.1 3.7 0.9 1.1 3.8 1.6

2.8 2.4 1.2 3.4 1.1 1.1 5.4 1.6

2.3 2.7 1.1 3.9 1.4 1.1 3.7 1.7

Source: Data calculated by using the above Tables 1 and 2

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Table 7.8.4: Ratio of Annual Private Expenditure for Classes VII to X, Relative to Class VI for Secondary Schools: Government, NonGovernment (MPO) and Madrasahs, Rural, 2005
Government Schools Class Total Fees Private Tutor School Exp Transport Medical Fuel Ent & Other Total VI 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 VII 2.6 1.5 1.5 3.0 0.6 1.4 2.2 1.5 VIII 2.6 1.7 1.7 3.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.7 IX 3.0 1.7 1.9 3.7 1.0 1.5 2.9 1.8 X 3.4 2.3 2.4 3.2 1.1 1.5 1.9 2.2 VI 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Non-Government (MPO) Schools VII 3.9 1.5 1.4 1.7 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.5 VIII 4.0 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.6 IX 4.3 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.1 1.3 1.7 1.9 X 5.1 2.9 2.3 2.1 1.4 1.5 2.7 2.4 VI 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 VII 2.4 1.5 1.5 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.8 1.4 Madrasahs VIII 2.6 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.5 IX 2.9 1.8 1.8 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.7 X 3.8 2.7 2.3 2.1 1.4 1.3 1.8 2.1

Source: Data calculated by using Table 1, Appendix 7.8

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Table 7.8.5: Ratio of Annual Private Expenditure for Classes VII to X, Relative to Class VI for Secondary Schools: Government, NonGovernment (MPO) and Madrasahs, Urban, 2005

Government Schools Class Total Fees Private Tutor School Exp Transport Medical Fuel Ent & Other Total VI 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.0 VII 2.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.3 5.0 2.0 VIII 2.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.4 1.5 4.4 1.6 IX 2.6 2.1 1.8 1.7 2.5 1.6 5.7 2.0 X 3.2 2.3 2.3 1.8 2.0 1.6 1.7 2.2 VI 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Non-Government (MPO) Schools VII 2.3 1.9 1.6 1.0 1.1 1.4 1.0 1.6 VIII 2.2 2.6 1.7 1.0 1.3 1.4 3.0 1.9 IX 2.4 2.9 2.0 1.1 1.0 1.5 2.6 2.0 X 2.7 4.0 2.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 3.1 2.7 VI 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 VII 2.5 1.8 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.5 2.2 1.6

Madrasahs VIII 2.5 2.2 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.6 12.6 1.8 IX 2.7 2.3 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.8 18.2 2.1 X 2.9 3.8 2.3 2.5 1.9 1.8 15.0 2.7

Source: Data calculated by using Table 2, Appendix 7.8

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Table 7.8.6: Percentage of Guardians not Spending on Particular Items, by Type of Secondary Institutions, Rural and Urban Combined, 2005

Cost Items

Government Schools (%) 44 49 4 12 6 2 29 12 60 15 42 26 2 94 2,305

Non-Government (MPO) Schools (%) 42 43 3 15 6 2 42 14 66 24 36 19 2 70 9,534

Madrasahs

Tuition Fee Admission Fee Other Fee Private Tuition Books Stationeries Bag & Umbrella School Dress Transport Tiffin Entertainment Health Services Fuel Others Total Interviews (N)

(%) 66 66 3 31 7 2 56 20 85 36 56 18 7 73 4,690

Source: Education Watch 2006, Table 6.9, Pg. 50, adapted.

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Appendix 7.9 MPO Enlistment 1991 - 2008


Table 7.9.1: Number of Non-Government Institutions that are Entitled to MPOs, from 1991-92 to 2007-08

Year

Schools

Colleges

Madrasahs

Rate of increase for School (%)

Rate of increase for Colleges (%) 4.97 20.2 14.1 18.4 11.2 19.7 14.9 10.8 10.6 10.9 0.34 15.4 0.08 0.04 0.00 -0.83

Rate of increase for Madrasahs (%) 0.48 9.09 6.88 3.21 0.97 2.24 1.93 5.42 4.68 3.81 0.69 4.57 0.03 0.01 0.23 -0.26

S.S.C Vocational

H.S.C Business Institutes

(Units) 32 101 173 313 440 476 476 481 663 678 678 691 687

(Units) 66 86 94 143 158 187 184 187 406 410 410 413 410

1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

9749 9758 10626 11027 11370 11805 12309 13018 13680 14255 14697 14730 15490 15490 15495 15492 15476

584 613 737 841 996 1108 1326 1524 1688 1867 2070 2077 2397 2399 2400 2400 2380

4784 4807 5244 5605 5785 5841 5972 6087 6417 6717 6973 7021 7342 7344 7345 7362 7343

0.09 8.90 3.77 3.11 3.83 4.27 5.76 5.09 4.20 3.10 0.22 5.16 0.00 0.03 -0.02 -0.10

Source: EMIS unit of Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education

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Table 7.9.2: Number of Teachers and Employees in Educational Institutions who are Entitled to MPOs, from 1991-92 to 2007-08

Year

School

Colleges

Madrasahs

Rate of increase for School (%)

Rate of increase for Colleges (%) 8.75 20.6 16.2 16.4 10.7 11.9 9.82 13.7 9.89 6.83 8.65 10.2 -0.94 0.04 4.90 -0.02

Rate of increase for Madrasahs (%) 0.71 6.54 6.84 4.26 3.06 6.46 3.88 6.16 5.08 5.29 3.39 4.91 -1.26 0.01 3.53 -0.04

S.S.C Vocational

H.S.C Business Institutes

(Units) 141 439 808 1519 2558 2998 3091 3254 3845 4729 4756 5786 5789

(Units) 353 495 548 855 1018 1380 1194 1204 2721 3062 3145 3760 3760

1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

148129 149605 161585 170372 179343 184969 191277 196002 204756 215869 221055 227608 235717 233469 233544 236500 236444

22021 23948 28873 33547 39037 43225 48351 53097 60360 66327 70854 76982 84820 84022 84057 88179 88158

82589 83176 88619 94678 98708 101726 108295 112497 119425 125494 132133 136613 143317 141507 141528 146522 146462

1.00 8.01 5.44 5.27 3.14 3.41 2.47 4.47 5.43 2.40 2.96 3.56 -0.95 0.03 1.27 -0.02

Source: EMIS unit of Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education Includes the teachers in higher madrasahs and attached and independent madrasahs plus staffs in those institutions.

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Appendix 8 List of Madrasahs visited by the Team

Type of Madrasah
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Aliya, Kamil Aliya, Kamil Aliya, Alim Aliya Dakhil Aliya, Dakhil Aliyah, Alim Aliya, Fazil Aliya, Fazil Aliya, Ibtedaye and Dakhil 10 Aliya, Independent Ibtedaye 11 Aliya Independent Ibtedaye 12 13 14 15 16 Aliya, Kamil Aliya, Kamil Aliya, Kamil Aliya, Kamil Aliya, Kamil

Name

Date Visited

Location

Hajrat Shahjalai Darusunna Yakubia Aliya Madrasah Bagia Al Amin Kamil Madrasah Darul Islam Alim Madrasah Bhatchala Hossainia Dakhil Madrasah Al-Ekhwan Dakhil Madrasah Foylahat Asia Karamatia Alim Madrasah Momenshai D. S. Fazil Madrasah Salima Siraj Mohila Girls Fazil Madrasah

10 Nov 09 24 Nov 09 6 Apr 10 29 Mar 09 24 Nov 09 23 Nov 09 8 Jan 10 3 July 10

Sylhet Barisal Basabo, Shabijbag, Dhaka Bhaluka, Mymensingh Barisal Bagerhat Kristapur, Mymensingh Jamal Khan, Chittagong City

Tanjimul Cadet (Boys) Madrasah

29 Jun 10

Uttara, Dhaka

Hossain Subedar Ibtedaye

16 Nov 09

Chittagong City

Mahaswor Pasha Bazaar Independent Madrasah Shahjalal Jamia Islamia Kamil Madrasah Darul Ulum Kamil Madrasah Shagorda Islamia Aliya Madrasah Nuzaria Kamil Madrasah Muktagacha Abbasia Kamil Madrasah

24 Nov 09

Khulna City

9 Nov 09 17 Nov 09 24 Nov 09 24 Nov 09 9 Jan 10

Sylhet Chittagong City Barisal Khulna City Muktagacha, Mymensingh

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Sholoshahar, Panchlaish, Chittagong Chandanpura, Chowkbazar, Chittagong City Moghbazar, Dhaka Mirzapur bazaar Gazipur

17 18 19 20

Aliya, Kamil Aliya, Kamil Aliya, Kamil Aliya, Independent Ibtedaye

Jamia Ahmadea Sunnia Kamil Madrasah Darul Ulum Kamil Madrasah Noatala A. U. N. Kamil Madrasah

3 July 10 3 July 10 5 Aug 10

Bahuriarchala Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah Telipara Independent Ibtedaye Islamia Madrasa (Telipara Islamia Kinder Garten Madrasa)

21 May 10

21

Aliya, Independent Ibtedaye

14 May 10

Chandona Gazipur

22

Aliya, Independent Ibtedaye

Kalia Haripur Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah

30 July 10

Sirajganj

23

Aliya, Independent Ibtedaye

Bildholi Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah

30 July 10

Sirajganj

24

Aliya Independent Ibtedaye Khaga Islamia Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah 30 July 10 Sirajganj

25

Aliya Independent Ibtedaye Dabail Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah 30 July 10 Tangail

26

Aliya Independent Ibtedaye Charhogra Kabarsthan Ibtedaye Madrasah 30 July 10 Tangail

27

Aliya Independent Ibtedaye Dakkhin Dulbari Ibtedaye 30 July 10 Tangail

28

Aliya Alim

Tanjimumul Ulum Cadet Madrasah Shatgoan Uttar Krinapur Nesaria Madrasah

10 July 10

Uttara Dhaka Chandina Comilla

29

Aliya Dakhil

30 April 10

30

Aliya Fazil

Sirajnagar Gaosia Jalalia Momotajia Sunnia Fazil Madarsah

30 April 10

Srimangal, Moulobhibazar

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31

Aliya Independent

Kharijjoma Jalalia Independent Madrasah Madinatul Ulum Kamil Madrasah

29 May 10

Srimangal Moulovibazar Boalia Rajshahi Sholashahar Chittagong Sholoshohar Chittagong Sylhet Hathazari, Chittagong Malibag, Dhaka South Jatrabari, Dhaka Barisal Barisal Barisal Charapara, Mymensingh Mashkanda, Mymensingh Azampur, Uttara, Dhaka Chulkati, Bagerhat. Comilla City Muktagacha, Mymensingh Muktagacha Mymemsingh

32

Aliya Kamil

27 Oct 10

33

Aliya Kamil

Jamia Ahmadia Sunnia Aliya Jamia Ahmadia Sunnia Female Madrasah Jamia Madania Islamia Al Jameatul Ahlah Darul Ulum Islam Jamia Arabia Shariyah Qoumi Madrasah Al-Jamiatul Darul Ulum Madania Qoumi Madrasah Jamia Arabia Muinuddin Madrasah Jamia Islamia Hossaina Fazilatunnessa Girls Madrasah Jamia Islamia Madrasah Jamia Arabia Miftahul Ulum Madrasah Tahzibul Banat Uttara Mohila Girls Madrasah and Yatemkhana (Orphanage) Al-Jamiatul Isamia Hakimpur Muhammad Alishah Darush Sunnah Kashemul Ulum Madrasah Jamia Arabai Misbahul Ulum Poura Madrasah Jamia Arabia Kashemul Ulum Malatipur Madarsah

6 Nov 10

34

Aliya Dakhil

6 Nov 10 9 Nov 09 16 Nov 09 22 Nov 09 22 Nov 09 23 Nov 09 24 Nov 09 25 Nov 09 8 Jan 10 9 Jan 10

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

Qoumi Qoumi Qoumi Qoumi Qoumi Qoumi Qoumi Qoumi Qoumi

44

Qoumi

29 Jun 10

45 46 47 48

Quomi Qoumi Qoumi Qoumi

23 Nov 09 30 April 10 31 July 10 31 July 10

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Appendix 9 Inside Madrasahs: A Qualitative Study

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I feel good when I think that this madrasah will make me an Alem (11-year old female student of Class 4) I like most to memorize the holy Quran. With the blessing of Allah, I will be a Hafiz in a week (11-year old male student of Class-Nazera) I dislike the interference of outsiders in the administration of madrasahs (19-year old male student of Aliya Madrasah) The founder of this madrasah was my grandfather. I served in a madrasah in India as a teacher for one year. After that I taught in another madrasah. Then I came to this madrasah as per my fathers wish (35-year old junior teacher) I think a man of ideal and good character is a gift for a nation. Such people do not sit idly (41year old male Vice Principal of Qoumi Madrasah)

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Table of Contents

Abbreviations 295 Chapter 1: Introduction... Chapter 2: Context and Background Chapter 3: Inside Madrasahs: Teachers, guardians and administrators Chapter 4: Inside Madrasahs: Students.. Chapter 5: Families educational strategies Chapter 6: Conclusions.. Annexes:... 296 297 303 312 330 332 334

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Abbreviations

ADB BANBEIS BMEB BMTTI BRAC CDP HSC ICT MCC MSS MPO NAEM NCTB NEP SESDP SSC STR TA TC TTC TVET

Asian Development Bank Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board Bangladesh Madrasah Teacher Training Institute Building Resources Across Communities Capacity Development Plan Higher Secondary Certificate Information and Communication Technology Managing Coordinating Committee Madrasah Sector Study Monthly Pay Order National Academy for Education Management National Curriculum and Textbook Board National Education Policy Secondary Education Sector Development Project Secondary School Certificate Student Teacher Ratio Technical Assistance Transfer Certificate Teacher Training College Technical and Vocational Education and Training

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1 Introduction

This qualitative study of madrasahs in Bangladesh was commissioned by the Asian Development Bank to complement a Sector Study of Madrasah Education (Madrasah Sector Study, MSS). The qualitative study aims to look inside madrasahs by interviewing individuals who are part of the madrasah education system either as consumers (i.e. students and guardians) or as providers (i.e. administrators, teachers, and managing committee members). Qualitative evidence elicited from in-depth interviewing captures the perspectives and experiences of participants in madrasah educational processes. The analysis derived from these interviews complements the statistical evidence upon which the bulk of the sector study is based. A careful attention to insiders perspectives and experiences helps us generate a detailed and layered understanding of what goes on inside madrasahs. It also provides, in the process, concrete and context-specific information that can be used to better interpret and give substance to information from other investigations and from statistical data. Sixty students were interviewed for this study; twenty-one of the students were girls. The students were aged between 7 and 22 and enrolled in Class 1 to Fazil 3rd year and Post Graduation (for Qoumi Madrasahs). Five Aliya Madrasahs, three Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, and two Qoumi Madrasahs formed the sample.2 In addition to students, 40 guardians and 40 teachers were interviewed, as well as 10 administrators and 10 members of Madrasah Managing Committees. In all, 157 interviews were collected in 10 madrasahs.3 While this is a fairly large sample as far as qualitative studies are concerned, and while we tried to cover a wide range of institutions, we must be clear from the outset that this cannot (and should not) be read as a representative sample of all madrasahs in Bangladesh. Our research strategy was to use purposeful sampling, which enabled an in-depth analysis of ten madrasahs.

Initially we had decided to include three Qoumi Madrasahs and two Ibtedaye Madrasahs in the study. However, because a team of field-workers was not permitted entry into one of the Qoumi Madrasahs, this institution was replaced by an Ibtedaye Madrasah. For a brief overview of research process and methods employed, see Annex 1. 3 In fact, 160 interviews were planned but only seven MCC members actually participated in the interviews.

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Interview with guardian by kerosene lamp.4

The research question was formulated broadly as follows:


How do the users of madrasahs (students, teachers, guardians, administrators, members of managing committees) perceive madrasahs and the education they deliver?

The main body of his report focuses primarily on respondents perceptions about madrasah education. However, more factual information, also obtained from the interviews, is briefly summarized in Section 2 that follows.
2 Context and Background 2.1 The Madrasahs

The interviews that stand at the core of this qualitative study were conducted in ten madrasahs. While all the madrasahs share a unique educational mission (a faith-based education based on the Holy Quran and Islamic values), we must underscore the fact that these institutions differ vastly in terms of resources, infrastructure, and ideological stance. Some madrasahs sit on large and nicely maintained grounds and offer classes in rather well equipped buildings. Others have little to no space of their own and carry on their day-to-day activities in very poor infrastructures. Some madrasahs are tucked inside gritty city neighborhoods and serve primarily urban communities while others are located within bucolic settings and serve the surrounding rural communities. The institutions we selected for this study cover the two different types of madrasahs found in Bangladesh namely; Aliya Madrasahs and Qoumi Madrasahs. Within the Aliya Madrasah category are Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs and they were also included. Finally, they also espouse a broad range of intellectual and religious beliefs and position themselves quite differently in relation to the government of Bangladesh. Interviews were collected in five Aliya secondary level madrasahs (3 urban and 2 rural) including an all-girl madrasah; three Ibtedaye (primary level) Madrasahs (2 rural and 1 urban); and in two Qoumi Madrasahs (1 rural and 1 urban).5
Table 1: Profiles of madrasahs in the Study Type Rural/ Urban Urban Rural Urban Urban Rural Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Land in Decimal6 121 124 3900 86 201 150 6.5 59 28 45 Teachers/ Female 12/4 7/0 27/0 14/4 18/1 9 /1 6/2 4/0 32/0 5/0 Students /Female 462/339 498/298 610/37 478/279 443/96 165/90 155/67 131/69 500/0 105/0 STR Classes Coed x x x x x x x x

Aliya * Aliya Aliya** Aliya Aliya Ibtedaye Ibtedaye Ibtedaye Qoumi Qoumi
4

38 71 22 34 32 18 26 33 15.5 21

1-10 1-10 1-16 1-10 1-14 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-16 1-7

* This is an all-girl madrasah. However, 123 boys are enrolled in the Ibtedaye section. This guardian traveled 60kms to give his interview as he works during the day as a cart-puller. The interview was conducted at night to accommodate his work schedule. 5 For a brief description of each madrasah, see Annex 1. 6 In Bangladesh, decimal is still used as a unit of land measurement. One decimal equals one hundredth of an acre (435 square feet).

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** All girls in this madrasah are enrolled in the Ibtedaye section.

2.2 Students and their families

The pool of students interviewed for this project is fairly homogeneous: For the most part these are poor students. This corroborates the findings in Chapter 2. Most of the students fathers are construction workers, small traders, farmers, fishermen, and garment workers. With a few exceptions, students mothers are housewives (a handful are garment workers and seamstresses). Most are engaged in manual labor or small trading; very few of them are involved in occupations demanding a significant level of education. Only three of the students interviewed noted that their parents were working in mosques or madrasahs, and one in a school. This seems to reflect the overall low socio-economic status and educational attainment of guardians. The few exceptions to this pattern are quoted below:
My father is a khatib7 of a mosque and head of a female madrasah (female student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah). My father is an imam in a mosque and my mother is a housewife (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah).8 My father was the Principal of Bhabanipur Fazil Madrasah and presently a retired person (first year male student of Alim Madrasah).

It is worth noting here that it is religious leaders and teachers especially in madrasahs who represent the educated minority fringe of the guardians. While this is clearly the schema that emerged from students responses, the interviews conducted with the guardians themselves, however, reveal a slightly different pattern. Among the 40 guardians interviewed, the proportion of white collar workers (those that necessitate a higher level of schooling) is larger than that found in the student interviews. Indeed, approximately one fifth of these guardians declared that they were teachers (5), doctors (2), and imams (2). The discrepancy between these two sets of guardians makes sense because the parents selected by the madrasahs (and those who accepted) to participate in the interview process were most likely those with the highest cultural capital:9
I serve as teacher in this madrasah (27-year old female guardian/Aliya). I am a head teacher in a high school (43-year old male guardian/Aliya). Occupationally I am an allopathic doctor (50-year old male guardian/Aliya).

Albeit overstated by the very mechanism of guardian selection for these interviews and the fact that certain occupational labels used by the respondents might be misleading, the presence of a few educated guardians within the madrasah sector must be acknowledged.10 Such
7

Khatib or khateeb is the religious leader who gives the sermon on Friday or during Eid prayers. The khatib usually has more seniority and more schooling than an imam. 8 The Bengali term used by our respondents is grihini,, which means wife. The term connotes authority (of the One other guardian declared that he was an international migrant worker and another one that she was a Union Porishad (small administrative unit committee) member. 10 The labels of doctor and accountant in these interviews should be read with caution. The former could simply refer to a barefoot doctor with little academic training in medicine and the latter possibly a cashier (especially in a rural context).
9

husband) and is commonly used to mean housewife.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education presence albeit small and possibly overstated indicates, nevertheless, that some members of the educated middle class in Bangladesh do send their children to madrasahs. As noted above, most mothers are described as housewives. It is important, however, to point out that the term housewife (grihini) used by the respondents does not reflect possible income-generating activities done by women within and outside the domestic sphere. Wives, everywhere, help their husbands run their businesses, tend their farms and help with other non-domestic tasks.11 Moreover, some women might be involved in home work as might be the case for the woman invoked in the quote below:
My mother is mainly a housewife but she is also a seamstress (first year male student of Fazil Madrasah).

This kind of labor, of course, contributes to the overall income generated within each household and to the nation as a whole. However, it is often rendered invisible by mainstream economic counting practices.12 In addition, and more related to the focus of this study, this invisible income-generation activity not only adds to the workload of women but is bound to have repercussions on girls (and their education) who are more likely, when this happens, to be solicited to help with domestic chores at home. As expected, most of the families described in this study are extended families with several family members living in the same household:
My grandmother and maternal aunt live in our household (female student of Class 6 in Aliya madrasah).

This pattern is disrupted, however, by regional migration of some family members as well as international migration (mostly of younger members of the family i.e. brothers).
My father lives in our village home. He runs his fishing business. I and my mother lives here with my aunt and grandfather. My two uncles in law live here as well. One of them works in a garment factory. My father is unwilling to come here. Sometimes my mother visits him (female student of Class 3 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). In my family there are 2 brothers and 5 sisters. I am the fifth one. My father was working abroad, after returning he worked as a farmer, which is what he does now. My mother is a housewife (21-year old male student in Qoumi Madrasah).

Among our respondents, family size varied a great deal. However, a pattern must be underscored here particularly clear in guardian interviews wherein family size tends to be smaller among young respondents. Large families are found among older guardians as in the exceptional case of a sixty year old muazzin and farmer who states:13
There are 7 members in our household. I have 2 wives. My first wife got 3 sons and 6 daughters (9 children in total) and my second wife got 5 sons and one daughter (6 children in total). I live here with my 2 wives, 3 children and the wife of one of my sons. My other sons and daughters are either married or working outside this locality (60-year old male guardian).
See Women and the Economy: A Project of UNPAC (http://www.unpac.ca/economy/) See Marilyn Waring, If Women Counted. (London: Macmillan, 1989). 13 Muazzin (also muazzin or muadhdhin) is the person who calls the faithful to prayer from the mosque. Among all the interviews collected that tell something about students family size (60 students and 40 guardians), only one respondent described a family that was polygamous. While legal under Sharia law, these familial arrangements seem to be on the wane as changing living conditions both in rural and urban settings as well as economic barriers have rendered them somewhat unsustainable.
12 11

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2.3 Teachers and Administrators14

The teachers we interviewed are relatively young. Their age ranges between their early 20s and their 50s. Most of them are male as can be clearly seen in Table 1 (See under section 2.1). This particular finding corroborates the rest of the Sector Study, which shows that in Dakhil madrasahs only 9% of teachers are female (See Chapter 5). The educational attainment of the teachers interviewed is varied with most of them having studied in and graduated from the madrasah sector. However, a few are also graduates from the general education stream:
I graduated from Kapashia Degree College under the Open University (35-year old Ibtedaye female teacher). I took the SSC in 1985 from Manikganj. I Passed HSC in 1988, and graduated in 1990 from Dhaka. I passed my masters from Jagannath University, Dhaka in 1992 (40-year old Aliya female teacher). I passed Fazil in 1988. I have studied in madrasahs since the primary level (38-year old Aliya male teacher). I passed the Kamil examination and I am Hafez-e-Quran (39-year old Aliya male teacher). I started my education from a government primary school. After that I studied in two madrasahs up to class seven. Later I was admitted in this madrasah and completed my Alim degree [sic]. I further studied Fazil and graduated from Moulvibazar Goverment College as a private candidate (29-year old Aliya male teacher).15 At the primary level, I studied in a primary school. Then I began my Qoumi education and completed it in 1994. From both Bangladesh and India, I obtained a Daorah and Hadith degree (40-year old male Qoumi teacher).16

It is interesting to note, in the last two quotes, that the educational trajectory of some of the teachers is not unlike that of their students as will be seen in the next section (3) where individuals move back and forth from the two streams throughout their student life. Also similar to students interviews, financial matters informed and shaped the teachers educational choices:
I passed Dakhil from Gafargaon and Alim from Kapasia. I cherished a dream to study more, but due to a financial handicap, I could not continue. When I got this job, I could not pursue my academic training (45-year old male Aliya assistant teacher).

It must also be noted that Qoumi Madrasah teachers are more likely than any others to have studied abroad (in Qoumi Madrasahs and Islamic universities):

We did not include background information on MCC members here since only seven were interviewed for the study and the information gleaned from these individuals is rather sparse. Administrators are mostly superintendents, principals, or vice-principals. Most of them teach besides their administrative duties and do not have a separate office in which to do their non-teaching work. 15 Alim is equivalent to HSC but not a degree as such. 16 For a diagram of education structure in Bangladesh, see
http://www.moedu.gov.bd/edu_structure_diagram.htm

14

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When I was a boy, I studied in a government primary school. Then I began my Qoumi education. I graduated in Qoumi from Dhaka. Then I completed a masters in Qoumi from Karachi, Pakistan. I studied Islamic law as well (28-year old male Qoumi Madrasah teacher). I studied till intermediate level in Dhaka. Then I completed my masters level in Qoumi from Deoband, India (35-year old male Qoumi Madrasah teacher).

The profile of the madrasah administrators we interviewed for this study is not unlike that of the teachers. In our small sample (10), the administrators working in Aliya Madrasahs tended to be a slightly older than administrators in Ibtedaye and Qoumi Madrasahs. Like teachers, most administrators had themselves studied in and obtained degrees from madrasahs:17
I passed Kamil from Gopalganj in two subjects, one in Hadith and the other in Fikah (38-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). I have completed a masters course in Arabic discipline from Dhaka University and obtained the 1st class 1st position in result (51-year old male Aliya Madrasah Principal). As a boy, I studied in a primary school from Class 1 to Class 3. Then I got admitted in madrasah in Class 1 again. I passed Daorah (Masters in Qoumi discipline). I attained 1st division in BEFAQ final exam. Moreover, I passed Dakhil, Alim, Fazil, and Kamil from the Madrasah Education Board (26-year old Qoumi Muhtamin18).

It seems that about half of the administrators have been promoted from within, in part due to their seniority within the institution. The other half joined the madrasah directly as administrators:19
I joined [the staff in 1985. The land property on which this madrasah was built belonged to my relatives. They donated the land. At first I served here as an assistant teacher. I started serving as Superintendent in 2006 (55-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). Before joining [this staff], I worked in a non-government madrasah for 9 years. Then I was hired here as the Superintendent in 1984. Since then, I have been serving in this position. I have been serving this madrasah for 26 years, 3 months, and 17 days (56-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). I have working here for about 2 years. I first joined as a senior teacher. Then I was promoted as a lecturer, and before 2 years had elapsed I had become an administrator (41-year old male Qoumi Madrasah Vice Principal).

The vast majority of our respondents among the teaching staff declared that they had little to no training in education. This finding corroborates findings in Chapter 3 where data show that, among Aliya Madrasah teachers, only a quarter claims some form of teacher training and such training may be a very short course:20
It must be noted that from this sample, there seems to be a slightly higher concentration of individuals with masters level degrees among madrasah administrators than among the teachers. 18 A Muhtamin is equivalent to an Assistant Rector in the Qoumi Madrasah system. 19 From these interviews, it seemed that hiring and promotional procedures used within madrasahs varied a great deal from one institution to another. 20 Chapter 3 of The Madrasah Sector Study data tells us little about the training of Qoumi Madrasah teachers. Chapter 3 (Quality) of the MSS report refers to one Qoumi Madrasah where in-service training is done in-house. At least in this madrasah mentoring of the new teachers is offered. Mentors provide help and monitor new teachers progress. Since the Qoumi Madrasah curriculum is based on memory and recitation it may be that additional and more specific pedagogical training is unnecessary for Qoumi
17

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I got no professional training in education. But I have gathered some knowledge from the experience of teaching as a private tutor (21-year old male Ibtedaye Madrasah teacher).

Most learn on the job and about half of the teachers interviewed recounted that they had participated in at least one short training session either provided in house as it seems to be often the case for Qoumi madrasahs or by the Bangladesh Madrasah Teachers Training Institute (BMTTI).
Yes, I have attended Nurani training on teaching from Jummapara Madrasah (27-year old male Qoumi Madrasah assistant teacher). I attended in BMTTI training of 27 days in 2006 (44-year old male Ibtedaye Madrasah assistant Moulovi).

Interestingly, administrators, it seems with the noted exception of Ibtedaye Madrasah administrators have had greater access to basic training in administrative techniques21:
During my study in Kamil, I did a 6 months course in Arabic. Besides, I completed the Principal training course 18th batch from the Madrasah Teacher Training Institute (33-year old male Aliya Madrasah Vice Principal). I received training from NAEM twice in 1992. Besides, I followed 2 trainings of 21 days and 15 days from BMTTI. The 21-day training was about administration and the 15-day training was on ad-hoc administration (55-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). We, the Qoumi madrasah administrators are briefed once after 1 or 2 years [of service] from our Qoumi Madrasah Organization. The training lasts 1 or 2 days (41-year old male Qoumi Madrasah Vice Principal). I received no training on madrasah administration. But, I received 45 days of training from the Islamic Foundation on Imam Training. I was Assistant Head Master for few days before I became Head Teacher. I got help from our Madrasah Management Committee. Besides, I sought help from the Superintendent of a Dakhil madrasah. I consider Dr. X, the founder of that madrasah, as my role model. He helped me in problem solving (24-year old male Ibtedaye Madrasah Head Teacher).

This interesting difference between teachers who receive little to no training and administrators who do was also picked up by some of the administrators of Aliya Madrasahs we interviewed. As illustrated in the two quotes below, these administrators call for regular training for their teaching staff and would like to see pay scale increases attached to these trainings:
I received training on administration for 2 weeks from NAEM in 1987. Teachers should be provided with training both in their subject area and in [educational] foundations. Then their salary scale should be increased after they have being trained (56-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). I received a 21-day training in NAEM that was arranged for Kamil madrasah and College principals. I obtained the first place in that training. Teachers should be provided with B.Ed and
instructors. The qualitative study interviews corroborate Chapter 3 findings and also suggest that most of madrasah teachers training is done in-house. 21 This insight is born out by the rest of the MSS findings. Indeed, BMTTI has not offered any programs for Ibtedaye Madrasah administrators or teachers, and only recently were tasked by government to offer Ibtedaye teachers in-service training.

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M.Ed equivalent training. Gradually all [madrasah] teachers have to be given training (51-year old male Aliya Madrasah Principal).

Most teachers have worked only as teachers in the madrasah system during their entire career. A handful held positions as imams, kindergarten teachers, or in one case as a supervisor in a garment factory, prior to their joining a madrasah faculty. In one exceptional case, an Aliya Madrasah teacher shared that he does other income-earning activities as well as his faculty job:
I am 40 and I have been working in this madrasah for about 18 years. Beside this job, I have a medicine pharmacy. I obtained training as a rural doctor. Moreover, I run transport business (40-year old male Aliya Madrasah teacher)

The interviews we conducted with madrasah teachers and administrators revealed that the teaching and administrative staff members, by and large, have been trained within the madrasah stream and have had little to no exposure to professional training after they have landed their first job in a madrasah.22 This situation is particularly acute for the teaching staff in all Aliya Madrasahs and the Qoumi Madrasah staff (both teaching and administrative). With little infusion of new blood, and limited opportunities for outside training, madrasahs are likely to remain insular institutions. On the one hand, such insularity might enable madrasahs and the people who work within them to maintain a strong sense of authenticity for and unsullied commitment to a particular educational ideal. On the other hand, it might prevent healthy and necessary self-assessment practices due to fear of change and outside influences. The low representation of women among the teaching staff, as well as its total absence among the administration (even in girl-only institutions), should also be a cause of concern.
Summary

Parents who send their children to madrasahs are found across all sectors of society. However, they are overrepresented among the poor and those lacking education. In this sense, one can say that madrasahs have contributed to increasing educational access for these segments of Bangladesh society. Teachers and administrators in madrasahs are themselves products of the madrasah stream and share certain elements of their students background. The interviews revealed that Qoumi Madrasah teachers are more likely than any others to have studied abroad (in Qoumi Madrasahs and Islamic universities). The recruitment practices of madrasahs and the lack of professional training opportunities for madrasah staff members creates a certain level of insularity, which might at the same time strengthen madrasahs specific identity and make them reluctant to change
3 Inside Madrasahs: Teachers, guardians, and administrators

In this section, we focus on the perceptions of adults involved within and around the madrasahs. By examining information, gathered in interviews collected with teachers, administrators, Managing Committee members, and guardians, we highlight recurring themes
22

It must be noted that there has been, until 2 or 3 years ago, no pre-service for madrasah teachers or superintendents. Now, it is required that new applicants for jobs in secondary schools and madrasahs (secondary Aliya) must have a B. Ed. and pass a test. Once in service, some superintendents are given courses in NAEM or in BMTTI. Since there are 105,000 teachers in madrasahs and capacity measured in a few hundreds, the chance for a teacher to take in an in-service course has been very low. Only this year has one ADB project offered a 3-month short training in one subject, but for only a handful of madrasah teachers (See Chapter 3, MSS).

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education running through these interviews. We point out what these adult insiders see as the strengths and weaknesses of madrasah education. This section is organized around three topics: 1) insiders perceptions of what constitutes the core mission of madrasah education; 2) their understanding of students attrition and retention within their own institution; and 3) the curricular transformations they all see as needed within madrasah education.
3.1 Madrasahs and their mission

Adult respondents in our study regularly point out the unique character of madrasahs and the people who work within.
3.1.1 Uniqueness of madrasah education

For them, and this is particularly true for Qoumi, a madrasah is a special institution devoted to religious education and religious values. Teachers and administrators are not seeking fame or monetary gains but are simply devoted to Islam and the moral well-being of their students. In fact, some madrasah teachers have been known to go without a salary for months at a time23:
Here, in this madrasah, teachers had served from 1976 to 1983 without any salary (55-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent).24 Personally, I have not had any necessity for financial help from here. What I want most in my life is, to build our students morality and character for the future (41-year old male Qoumi Madrasah Vice Principal).

This self-stated lack of interest in monetary reward is especially present in Qoumi madrasahs and less sriking for Aliya Madrasahs whose teachers and administrators are more likely than any others to complain about their lack of adequate remuneration and to point out the necessity for a merit-based and up-to-date reward system:
Meritorious teachers should have a different pay scale. They should be given the honor of 1st class gazette officer (51-year old male Aliya Madrasah Principal).

At least one Ibtedaye Madrasah administrator pointed out poor remuneration of the teaching staff as well. For this administrator, if changes are not brought to the system, not only will educational standards suffer but also the very survival of Ibtedaye Madrasahs could be threatened:
In the sector of madrasah education, especially in the case of Ibtedaye Madrasahs, our government should take action to bring under its control all [Ibtedaye] faclities. While a [manual] worker can earn up to 3 or 4 thousand taka a month, a madrasah teacher can expect only to bring home a 500 taka salary. This can never be an acceptable remuneration. This situation requires structural development. If due attention is not given, it will harm the standards of [madrasah] education. In addition, the concerned madrasah could simply disappear because its teachers cannot survive [on such salaries]. Teachers have to eat! (24year old male Ibtedaye Madrasah Head Teacher).

23

There is indeed anecdotal evidence that this is the case in all Aliya Madrasah, including Ibtedaye Madrasahs. Even in Aliya Madrasahs teachers may serve for years without pay. Until a madrasah secures its MPO status, and with no fee income, teachers often work for nothing in the hope that eventually their MPO will be granted. 24 This particular institution was founded in 1976 as an Ibtedaye Madrasah. Later it became a Dakhil Madrasah and got its affiliation in 1983. Between 1976 and 1983 instructors served without any salary.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education This respondents insight is quite interesting given that our Ibtedaye Madrasah survey revealed that there had been massive reduction of independent madrasahs over the past decade, see Appendix 10. What these interviews also highlight is that, unlike schools, madrasahs are not simply interested (although it is clearly important to some of them) in providing useful and recognized credentials to their students. Madrasahs want to produce something else; something that may not be measured well by quantitative tests. Indeed, our interviews suggest that madrasahs seem to have specific views about what they should do for their students, which clearly distinguish them from other educational institutions.
3.12 Visions for students

The unique religious mission of madrasahs is underscored in the quotes below:


Madrasah education teaches about both the worldly life and the life hereafter (55-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent).

This is, of course, particularly the case in Qoumi Madrasahs as illustrated in the quote below:
To study the Holy Quran and Hadith, we need spiritual respectfulness. So we sit on the floor keeping the holy book on a desk at front side. Our target is different than that for the students from the general education stream. As a university student aims at achieving a degree, our students aim at getting rewards in the life hereafter (41-year old male Qoumi Madrasah Vice Principal).

Madrasahs are also interested in dispelling what they believe are myths about madrasah education. They also want to have the education they deliver recognized by the larger community and, for some, by the government of Bangladesh. A few respondents see progress in the fact that some madrasah degrees have already been made equivalent to those delivered in the general education stream as illustrated in the first quote below:
Here, students can learn Bengali, English, and Arabic. We are hopeful because the government has made the degrees delivered by [Aliya] madrasahs equivalent to general education degrees (55-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). A negative impression about madrasah education is very much prevalent among the general population who thinks that madrasah education is very weak. Therefore, people are not interested in sending their meritorious children to madrasahs. They spent much on education from renowned institutions. I think that madrasah education is deprived from the consideration it deserves (33-year old male Aliya Madrasah Vice Principal). We need an adjustment with the general education system and then Qoumi madrasahs need to receive grants by government. As Qoumi Madrasahs build honest citizens, the government should grant such madrasahs so that they can continue to build patriotic, moral individuals, and well-behaved citizens (41-year old male Qoumi Madrasah Vice Principal). We teach [our students] Bengali, English, Mathematics, Science, and Social science so that they can match other persons in this society. They learn our glorious history as well. We want them to preach Islam like the great men of our past [] I would like to ask our government to give the Daorah certificate equivalence with the M.A certificate, so that our students can get job in educational institutions (26-year old male Qoumi Muhtamim).

It is interesting to note that even some Qoumi Madrasahs are interested in gaining some level of equivalency with the general education stream. Qoumi Madrasahs, especially, are keen to point out the many ways in which madrasahs contribute to the well-being of the nation and more specifically, as in the quote below, the development goals of Bangladesh:

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Our government spends lots of money to eradicate illiteracy. Qoumi madrasahs help our government a lot in this regard. Every year thousands of students are becoming literate in Qoumi madrasahs. (41-year old male Qoumi Madrasah Vice Principal). 25

Whether madrasahs contribute as much as they claim to the development of Bangladesh is, of course, up for debate. Many of the claims made by madrasah teachers and administrators are actually belied by their students actual learning outcomes and examination results. Indeed, despite all the rhetoric about equivalence between the madrasah and the general education stream, madrasah students, when tested with common items, do not do well in learning general education subjects. As a result, employers do not recognize the equivalence (see Chapter 3). Recurring talk, throughout our interviews, about the excellence of madrasah education speaks both to the insularity of many respondents, who might not know what actually happens in other educational streams, and their desire for increased financial support. The mismatch between inside and outside perceptions about the quality of education delivered inside madrasahs, however, is also related to contrasting positions on what actually counts when one measures educational outcomes in madrasahs. What these interviews also clearly point out is that most madrasahs are indeed interested in gaining greater recognition and to some degree even for Qoumi Madrasahs greater support from the government of Bangladesh. Interviews with teachers and administrators also give us interesting insights in the ways madrasahs assess their performance in terms of students retention. In the next section, we briefly review these insights.
3.2 Retention and attrition26

According to the administrators we interviewed, Qoumi Madrasah and Ibtedaye Madrasahs do not seem to suffer from high attrition rates (In general education and Aliya Madrasah secondary stream education cycle completion rates are roughly 50%, see Chapter 4). When they do, it is mostly due to poverty and the disruption caused by precarious living conditions for the students and their families:
Student dropout is very rare because our madrasah provides a good education. The rate of dropout is minimal. We cannot say it happens in any particular class. When parents, in garment factories, have to leave their job, this may cause their children to drop out from school. Yet, this problem is very rare (38-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). Student dropout is almost nil in our madrasah. Yet [it affects] students who are very poor [] Guardians mention that as the madrasah does not award any scholarship, they feel discouraged to send their children to the madrasah (27-year old male Ibtedaye Madrasah administrator). The dropout rate is very low here. Though students do drop out most when enrolled at primary level, they may drop out from any class (41-year old male Qoumi Madrasah Vice Principal).

Among other challenges to this administrators claim, we might want to point out that literacy in Arabic, Urdu and Farsi is, of course, of limited use in Bangladesh. 26 In this section we have privileged the interviews of administrators who might have a more accurate sense about attrition rates in their institutions. By and large teachers interviews corroborate the position expressed by administrators. The only discrepancy between the two sets of interviews lies in the fact that Aliya Madrasah administrators seem more aware and/or willing to recognize a dropout problem in their institutions.

25

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Students from poor families drop out most, and this occurs more in the Maktab (primary) section (26-year old male Qoumi Muhtamim).

Unlike their Qoumi and Ibtedaye colleagues, administrators of Aliya Madrasahs do talk explicitly about a retention problem in their institutions.27 For them this is especially acute when parents are poor and they live under precarious conditions:
We have an acute dropout problem here. The students whose parents work in garment factories drop out most. Though we do not take any tuition fee, students from poor families drop out from here. This is because they cannot afford to buy books or dresses. We, the teachers, try to help them. We give needy students books from our personal collections. But when a girl is married off, there is nothing we can do. They do not drop out from any particular class. Most of them leave the madrasah either because they are getting married or because they are going to work in garment factories [] Many a student stops study after passing Dakhil from here (55-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). In our primary section, most of the students drop out while reading in Class 2 or 3. In secondary, many students give up their studies at the time of registration due to poverty. Students go to another educational institution while reading in Class 1 or 2 (56-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). Guardians are not aware [of the importance of keeping children in madrasah]. Besides, poverty and the erosion of rivers are pushing students to drop out. Girls start dropping out from Class 7, and from Class 6 and 7 boys from poor families start to think about earning a living and begin to drop out (40-year old male Aliya Madrasah male Superintendent). Yes, we do have a dropout problem in this madrasah. The main cause being that we have a shortage of Science and English education (51-year old male Aliya Madrasah Principal).

The quote above offers a different explanation to the dropout problem experienced by Aliya Madrasahs; for this administrator, students who drop out do so because they are seeking a curriculum better adapted to the demands of the labor market that awaits them after they graduate. Finally, it must be noted that some Aliya Madrasah do not experience high attrition rates. According to one administrator, quality teaching, good student/teacher relations, and good administrative practices do counter the forces that often pull students away from Aliya Madrasahs:
Student dropout is minimal in this madrasah. When guardians migrate to other countries; this causes students to drop out. We have more student [dropping out] at the secondary and higher secondary level. Sometimes students who are physically developed drop out to begin earning their livelihood. This is also very rare. Therefore, we have not had to take additional measure to prevent students drop out. I think the quality of our teaching, the deep relation between teacher and student, and the running of this institution through proper rules have very much helped in preventing student dropout (33-year old male Aliya Madrasah Vice Principal).

As we have seen, it seems that Aliya Madrasahs suffer more drastically than other madrasahs from the pull of other institutions especially after students have passed their Dakhil examination and seek to integrate the general education stream. In addition, waged labor for boys and early marriage (for girls) makes students retention a serious issue that madrasahs have to contend with.

The concern expressed by Aliya Madrasah administrators is born out by BANBEIS data on the question. At a national level dropout rates show a rising pattern from 11% to 29% for boys and from 11% at class VI to 37% in class X for girls.

27

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education As madrasahs especially Aliya Madrasahs lose some of their students to the general education stream, they are bound to face the stark reality that the students they serve not only need religious education but also credentials that can actually land them jobs after they graduate. As a result, many madrasahs have had to rethink their core mission and the ways to implement it. Indeed, all the interviews collected for this study highlight a tension (about what that core mission should be) that exists inside madrasahs. This tension, in turn, elicits mixed and sometimes contradictory responses from the people and the institutions in madrasah education. Madrasahs want to retain their core identity as religious educational institutions at the same time as they want to join the modern world in order to provide their students (especially their male students) with the tools they need to navigate a global economy where technological (especially information and communication technologies/ICT) and scientific literacy is a must. Our data indicate that this tension is most acute for Aliya Madrasah and less sot for Qoumi Madrasahs.
3.3 Curricular Changes

For instance, interviews (even in Qoumi Madrasahs) indicated a clear pattern where adult participants in this study (teachers, guardians, administrators, and members of managing committees) want to transform the madrasah curriculum so that students can better compete with graduates from the general education stream. This particular finding corroborates other studies of madrasah education reviewed Chapter 3. For instance, in a recent SESDP study, stakeholders in 30 model and 34 non-model madrasahs across all educational districts unanimously stated that a revised curriculum (and better textbooks) was essential to helping students in madrasahs access higher education. Greater opportunities in higher education would also increase their chance of accessing good jobs (See Chapter 3). In our interviews, respondents identify specifically the lack of occupational education in general, and computer technological training in particular, as something that hampers students from landing jobs in the global marketplace. MSS data on the learning outcomes of students enrolled in madrasahs, however, point to the overall sub-standard quality of the general education delivered by madrasahs (See Chapter 3). . It might simply be wishful thinking on the part of these adult respondents that mere curricular changes will suffice to improve madrasah students performance on examinations and in the labor market.
3.3.1 Teachers

Teachers in Aliya Madrasahs make this point very clearly. For them, while madrasah education has made clear progress and is now comparable to general education in many respects, it is lagging behind in the sciences and information technology and, as a result, fails to adequately prepare students for their life beyond the madrasah:
In this madrasah, no computer, technical, or specific occupational training are provided. If the above subjects were offered, madrasah education would be better and our students would not face any difficulty in getting jobs (53-year old male Aliya Madrasah assistant teacher). In my opinion, madrasah education has achieved the same value as that of general education; it is good enough. But, beside the humanities, madrasahs should offer Science and Business education (38-year old Aliya Madrasah male teacher). In order to take madrasah education ahead, I think, our curriculum should be changed. Especially Physics, Chemistry, and Biology should be leveled with that of general education (43-year old Aliya Madrasah male teacher).

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As no technical education is provided in madrasahs, I think, madrasah education is not sufficient to prepare our students for their future life. Many students remain jobless after graduating from madrasah. They are lagging behind in the job sector (40-year old Aliya Madrasah male teacher).

Interview with a madrasah teacher

Teachers in Aliya Madrasahs often associate the gaps in the madrasah education curriculum with the weakness of the infrastructure of these institutions. Their insight is born out by research that shows that, at a national level, only 57% of Aliya Madrasahs have electricity and 7% have science laboratories.28 These respondents are quick to point out that governmental financial support is necessary and would provide them with the monies they need to transform their course offerings and strengthen their overall performance. It must be noted here that some of the interviews conducted in Aliya Madrasahs have a somewhat rehearsed quality wherein respondents frame their responses to emphasize their need. Indeed, more than other madrasahs studied for this project, Aliya Madrasahs seem willing to comply with some governmental directives as long as they get monetary support in return:
Every madrasah should be provided with a computer so that it is becomes possible to keep pace with the [outside] world. An up-to-date madrasah education system needs to be put in place (33-year old male Aliya Madrasah assistant Moulovi). Here we need a Science department and a computer lab. Teachers need to be better trained and the infrastructure needs to be developed as well (40-year old male Aliya Madrasah teacher). The use of computers should be increased here. Computer science should be taught as a compulsory subject, not as an elective. Every madrasah should have a computer lab, a quality science lab, and a government-supported library (31-year old male Aliya Madrasah assistant teacher).29

See I-MSS Chapter 2 Under the 2010 National Education Policy, ICT has become compulsory at secondary level in all 3 streams general, madrasah, and TVET.
29

28

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3.3.2 Administrators

Administrators in all types of madrasahs echo the sentiment of Aliya Madrasah teachers. For administrators, curricular changes are often connected to poor infrastructures and lack of trained teachers. For them, enhancing madrasah education requires some level of government support. Better-educated madrasah students would be able to compete with general education students for university entrance and for jobs in the economy. It must be noted here that some respondents generalize to all madrasahs what might be happening in their particular madrasah. Others might simply misrepresent what is actually taught in madrasahs. In fact the madrasah curriculum includes all the subjects but in condensed versions compared to general stream students. 30
It would be better if technical, science, as well as humanity courses were provided in madrasahs. We want government support in this matter. We need to offer an education that is complete (55-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). Our students face problems in getting admitted in universities for the lack of Bengali, Science, and English education in the madrasah curriculum. Honors course should be started in madrasahs. Computer and commerce or business management education are needed as well. Besides we need a better quality library and science lab with modern equipment (51-year old male Aliya Madrasah Principal). We need a science departments teacher and science lab in our madrasah. Madrasah syllabi and curriculum should be modernized. Science and technical education should be offered here (40-year old male Aliya Madrasah male Superintendent). I would [] request from the competent authority that they [] recruit teachers based on their expertise and arrange regular training for them. Measures are to be taken for teaching English with accurate pronunciation. Training to operate sewing machines and computers are to be made compulsory in every madrasah. (33-year old male Aliya Madrasah Vice Principal). To enhance the standard of madrasah education development is required in different areas. Appointment of good teacher is very much essential for English, Bengali, Arithmetic, and for the Sciences (27-year old male Ibtedaye Madrasah administrator). As per demand of modern time, students here should be taught computer and technical education besides the subjects we already teach them (26-year old male Qoumi Muhtamim).

It is worth noting here that, following the passage of the new National Education Policy (NEP), Aliya madrasahs, including Ibtedaye madrasahs will be required to use the same general education curriculum and textbooks as general education schools. In other words, what some of the teachers and administrators have said in these interviews has now become official policy. Because the new policies regarding curriculum and textbooks were only approved in
30

This pattern suggests that our respondents are either misinformed or untruthful about the madrasah curriculum. This raises interesting methodological questions for this study and qualitative research in general. How to make sense of inaccurate information provided by respondents? One must keep in mind here that teachers and administrators are giving us edited versions of their perceptions. Indeed, as is noted throughout this report, respondents have vested interest in presenting a particular version of madrasahs. By triangulating interviews against each other and the qualitative study against other research, we can both point out such inaccuracies and possible intent in their telling. As pointed out elsewhere in this report, madrasahs in general, but Aliya Madrasahs more specifically, seek governmental support for their institutions. It is then in their interest to accentuate and overstate their needs. It is worth noting here that such overstating, of course, happens also in surveys based on numbers.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education July 2010, our respondents could not have known about these changes when the interviews were conducted.
3.3.3 Guardians

Guardians of students from all types of madrasahs also seem to understand that curricular changes are needed, but are much less specific on what might needed in order to bring about these changes and their attendant greater opportunities for their children:
Putting importance on learning computer and English will bring better results (27-year old female guardian/Aliya Madrasah). To develop madrasah education, English and Mathematics books should be improved more and computer should be taught as well (35-year old male guardian/Ibtedaye Madrasah). Mathematics and English teaching should be improved (43-year old male guardian/ Qoumi Madrasah).

While there seems to be a general consensus on the need for curricular changes, it is also clear that some respondents are worried that these changes might in turn weaken the core mission of madrasahs; that is to provide religious and moral education:
I think it is has become a good decision to give equivalence with general education, but our theological study is becoming weak as an impact (55-year old male Aliya Madrasah Superintendent). As far as academics are concerned, madrasah education should start 200 marks course for Bengali and English at the Alim level. However, religious education should not be neglected (31-year old male Aliya Madrasah assistant teacher).

Not surprisingly, Qoumi Madrasahs are the least apologetic about the education they deliver, in fact, they seem to think that their type of madrasah education is superior to that of general education in that it produces students of higher religious and moral caliber:
I think madrasah education is doing better than general education as the students found in our institutions are morally honest (41-year old male Qoumi Madrasah Vice Principal).

Even students, albeit in a less articulate way, express their desire for some curricular changes. Like adults, they emphasize the lack of computer education in their training as seen in the next section (4).

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Summary

Our interviews revealed that madrasahs want to have the education they deliver recognized by the larger community (and for some the government of Bangladesh). They are also interested in dispelling what they believe are myths about madrasah education. The feeling that madrasahs simply have a bad rep outside the madrasah world is common among these insiders. Such a feeling, of course, taps into a common sentiment (based on the actual performance of madrasah students) that exists outside madrasahs. For many of our respondents madrasahs are special institutions committed to religious education and Islamic values. In keeping with this ideal, teachers and administrators claim that they are not seeking material gains but are simply devoted to Islam and the moral wellbeing of their students. Aliya Madrasahs seem to suffer more than other madrasahs from the pull of other institutions especially after students have passed their Dakhil examination. In addition, waged labor for boys and early marriage (for girls) makes students retention a serious issue that madrasahs have to contend with. Madrasahs want to retain their core identity as religious educational institutions at the same time as they want to provide their students (especially their male students) with the tools they need to navigate a global economy where technological (especially ICT) and scientific literacy is a must. This problem seems most acute for Aliya and less acute for Qoumi madrasahs. As a result, all madrasahs understand that they need to transform their curriculum.
4 Inside Madrasahs: Students 4.1 Madrasah rhythms, play time, and physical exercise

As one would expect, the five prayers around which all activities are organized punctuate a regular day for a madrasah student. Variations are seen of course across different types of madrasahs, whether the student is male of female, and his or her age:
Every day, I get up at 4.30 am. I get washed and say my prayer. I read my lesson for a while and take a bath at 5:30 am. I finish my breakfast. I get ready for madrasah. My mother drops me at the madrasah on her way to work. During the summer the madrasah starts at 8.00 am and ends at 1.00pm. The winter schedule is 10 am to 4 pm. We can play in the afternoon because of our free time. During the time spent at the madrasah we have Physical Training for 15 minutes and eight classes are held every day without any break (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). In the morning I get up at 6:00 or 7.00 am. I do my ablutions, offer prayer and then go to Maktab. About 9.00 am I come to madrasah. Our class starts at 10.00 am. All the classes are held at a stretch. Our class breaks at 2:00 pm. After class, I offer my prayer. Then, I take a bath and take my meal and then go to my private tutor. In the afternoon I go and water our fields. I come home back in the evening and wash my face and hands. Then I sit to prepare my lesson. After Isha prayer I take my meal and go sleep (male student of Class 3 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). I get up at late night (3:30 am). I recite the Holy Quran. After Azan, I offer my Fasar and then again recite Quran for a while longer. I take my breakfast at 9:00 am. Then at 10:30 am I attend my Bengali class. At 11.30 am I go to sleep for 1 hour and a half. I get up at 1:00 pm, take a bath, and offer my Zohar prayer. After the prayer I have my meal and sit to recite Quran again till 5:00 pm. After Asar prayer, we pray cricket or football. Then I offer my Magrib prayer.

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Then again I begin to study and I continue till 10:00 pm. Then I offer my Isha prayer, take a meal, and I go to sleep (male student of Class-Nazera in Qoumi Madrasah).

The schedules described in the quotes that open this section are fairly typical for students enrolled in madrasahs. Indeed, madrasah rhythms are quite intense for all. Most students say they get up between 4:30 and 6:00 AM to get ready for their morning prayer. They also recount that they attend classes throughout the day with only a short break allowed for tiffin and sometimes, as is the case, in the above quote for a short session of structured physical training at the beginning of the day.31 This intense rhythm is even accentuated for some students because of coaching that is also interspersed throughout the day:
Every day, I get up from bed at 5.00 am. Then I offer my prayer and read the Holy Quran from 6:00 am to 6:30 am. After breakfast, I go for coaching for an hour. Madrasah starts at 8 am. I participate in physical training for 15 minutes. Our classes start at 8:30 am and end at 1 pm. I offer prayer at school at noon. Then I go home. After having lunch at home, I learn math from a teacher from 3:00 pm to 3:30 pm. After taking a half hour of rest, I learn English from a teacher for an hour from 4:00 to 5:00 pm. After the Asar prayer, I watch TV and play with my sister. After the Magrib prayer I take a snack and study till 9:30pm. Then I have my dinner. I study some more till 1 to 1.30 am. Then I go to bed (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). At home [after I return from madrasah] I take a shower and eat a late lunch. Normally I take one and half hour rest after lunch, but I often help my mother with her work during this time instead of resting. I go to private tutor from 4:30 to 5:30 pm and come back at 6:00pm (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah).

While not unique to the madrasah sector (but certainly accentuated by the early rising for morning prayers, which might not the case for all students enrolled in general education schools), these intense rhythms with little time for children to socialize and play should be a source of concern. Indeed, there is almost no playtime built in the day for students enrolled in madrasahs (this is made worse by material conditions in some urban madrasahs, where there might be no space in which to play, and by the vacation schedule of Qoumi madrasahs, which only observe religious holidays). This lack of playtime is particularly acute for girls, for whom play is often confined indoors and curtailed by what seems a greater amount of time spent helping their mothers in the home. 32
Generally I do not play, but sometimes when we gather with other friends we play ludu or carom (female Dakhil examinee). After lunch I go to a private tutor with 6 other female students and come back home. I perform household tasks like folding clothes, picking up, etc. Then I seat to study till 9:00pm [] I do not have time to play. Besides, my mother scolds me for playing. I play inside our house with dolls and cooking utensils. I play only once in a day (female student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah).
Tiffin is a light meal usually taken at midday. For a list of all students quotes pertaining to play (and work) and organized by gender see Annex 2. It is interesting to note that most boys only mention work and help extended to their parents when the interviewers asked directly about the work they performed in their homes and to help their parents. Girls did as well but they also invariably talked about work when the interviewers asked them about playtime. It is almost as if the girls know that it is, in part, the work that they are expected to do that limits their ability to play outside of the madrasah. Again, such patterns are likely to be found as well for students enrolled in general education.
32 31

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Perhaps, because this form of leisure is acceptable for most girls (in part because it keeps them in the home), TV looms large in the play world of the girls interviewed for this project:
I watch TV in my neighbors house (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). After the Asar prayer I watch TV and play with my sister (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah).

Exceptional are the quotes below where an 11-year and 13-year old female students recount how they get to play outside:
In the afternoon, we play games till evening. After playing, I come back home and wash my face and hands. Then, I sit to prepare my lessons. After the Isha prayer, I take my meal and go sleep (female student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). After madrasah breaks I return home, I rest for a while and start reading my lesson. In the afternoon I go out to play games. In the evening, I study till 9:00pm. Then I watch TV or do something else (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

Not surprisingly, boys are much less restricted in their movements outside the madrasah and their home. While, they also help their parents, boys seem to manage to carve out more leisure time after madrasah than their sisters and female neighbors.
During tiffin period, after completing my prayer, I play for a little while. We play sums, cricket, and musical chair. We cannot play football because we do not have a play ground (male student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah). I am a resident student [] after the Asar prayer sometimes we play games or go for a walk []We can play near our madrasah. We do not have our own playground. Therefore, we play on another playground (male student of Class 10/Science in Dakhil Madrasah). After class, I offer my prayer. Then, I take a bath and take my meal and sit to study. In the afternoon we play games till evening. After playing, I come home back [home] and wash my face and hands. Then, I sit to prepare my lessons. After the Isha prayer, I take my meal and go sleep (male student of Class 2 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). In the afternoon I wander here and there till evening. Then after returning home, I wash my face and hands. Then, I sit to prepare my lessons. After the Isha prayer, I take my meal and go sleep (male student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). After the Asar prayer, we pray cricket or football (male student of Class-Hifz in Qoumi Madrasah). After the Asar prayer we get a break. During this time I walk here and there (male student of Class 9 in Qoumi Madrasah).

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4.2 Madrasah Curriculum, coaching, and private tutoring 4.2.1 Curriculum

Students enrolled in madrasahs are taught a variety of topics where, in Qoumi Madrasahs, Islamic studies dominate. Indeed we can note important variations among types of madrasahs (Aliya, Ibtedaye, Qoumi), among madrasahs within a type, and among different levels and streams within a particular madrasah. The topics offered include Islamic Studies (Quran, Hadith, Fikah, Mizan, Jalal Sharif, Aqaid ), Science, Mathematics, Arithmetic, Agricultural Science, Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, Arabic, Bengali, English, Farsi, Urdu, Political Science, History, Social Studies, and Home Economics.33 Besides the core classes offered to all madrasah students, it must be noted that Urdu and Farsi are only taught in Qoumi Madrasahs, specialized science topics are only offered to students majoring in Science. Also noteworthy is the fact that Home Economics seem to only be offered to female students as suggested in the quotes below from students enrolled in an all-girl madrasah. These two quotes also suggest that boys are more likely to be offered Agricultural and Computer Science underscoring, in the process, unfortunate gender disparities in curricular offerings:
Here we are not required to study computer and Agricultural Science, Home Economics is enough and I like this subject (female student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah)). Computer is not included, more stress is given on Arabic, besides Bengali, English, Arithmetic are also taught (female student of Class 8 in Aliya Madrasah). ).

Exceptional is the quote below that speaks about the teaching of art in an Ibtedaye Madrasah:
Here classes on Bengali, Arabic, English, Mathematics, General Science, Social Science, General Knowledge and Drawing are offered (female student of Class 3 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

Students, in general, do not complain about their curriculum except for pointing out now and then the lack of computer education and other topics taught in the general stream:
I learn Arabic, Bengali, English, and Mathematics. Here, I study everything. But health speeches were given in the school where I studied at past, here teachers do not teach it (male student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).34

Students enrolled in Ibtedaye Madrasahs are perhaps too young to have an opinion about curricular offerings and none of the interviews collected in these madrasahs provide information about what these students want or think in terms of curricular offerings. Students enrolled in Qoumi Madrasahs seem rather satisfied with what is being taught to them. In fact, only one student among those interviewed mentioned courses that were not offered within his institution:

33

For a complete description of the curricula in the various madrasahs, see Chapter 3 and its associated appendices. It is worth noting here that Health Education is part of the NCTB social studies textbook. This students quote might point to the fact that some madrasah instructors as instructors in all kinds of institutions often do do not follow the textbook to the letter. The student could also have missed this particular topic or misrepresent what is being taught in his madrasah.

34

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Science, Social Science, Agricultural and computer education are not offered here (male student of Class-Yaz Dahm in Qoumi Madrasah).

In our sample, students enrolled in Aliya Dakhil Madrasahs were the ones who most often mentioned what they seem to perceive as holes in the madrasah curriculum:
Computer education is not offered here; instead we read Home Economics. We miss learning about computers. It would be better if computer and science courses were provided (female student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah). I do not like my classmates at all, as they quarrel all the time. They do not spare me if they do not get anything from me. I preferred the school I attended before. My classmates were good and capable, they did not quarrel like the students over here. Whatever I learned in class one in that school are taught here in class six. English was taught in that school. Computer and physical training are not taught here. I think that my future would have been better if I had stayed there. Here, in this madrasah, I have no future. I therefore remain depressed. I want to go back to the school I attended before. I dislike it that we get no tiffin here, we feel hungry and tired in absence of tiffin (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah).

The quote above provides interesting insights about this female students perceptions of her educational experience in a madrasah. It must be noted, however, that such a strong critical stance against madrasahs is exceptional within our set of interviews. Instead, students are more likely to point out the strengths of the madrasah curriculum and emphasize the holistic aspect of madrasah education, which not only instructs on academic topics but also on moral and religious values:
I think the madrasah curriculum is matured and full; in the lower classes Arithmetic, English and Bengali all are taught. In the Dakhil class we learn English, Political Science, Bengali, Arabic and Islamic Studies (third year male student in Fazil Madrasah). Madrasahs provide teachings on manners, behavior, and responsibly to parents etc. Besides Arabic, Hadith, Quran, English and other subjects are taught (male student Class 8 in Aliya Madrasah). Besides Arabic, Bengali and Social Science, I learn to respect the elders. Every subject is to be studied in the madrasah (female student Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). Here, I am learning how a man should lead his life. I am learning how to develop a good character, morality, and how to be a good citizen (male student of graduation-Class in Qoumi Madrasah).

While students rarely point out the weaknesses of the madrasah curriculum the fact that they commonly resort to private tutoring tells another story.
4.2.2 Coaching and private tutoring

The use of private coaching is common among madrasah students. In particular, the hiring of a tutor for additional tutoring seems to be the norm among students enrolled in Ibtedaye and Aliya madrasahs. Students in Ibtedaye Madrasahs receive private coaching in basic general education courses (Mathematics, English and Bengali) and sometimes in Arabic:
I learn Mathematics and English at my private tutor. Now I can perform better in these subjects than in the past (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

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My private tutor teaches me Bengali English and Mathematics (female student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). I learn Mathematics and English with a private tutor. Now I can do better in those subjects than in the past (male student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

Interview with a student in an Ibtedaye Madrasah

More than in any other types of madrasah, these students talk of taking private lessons from their own madrasah teachers. This might be the case because these students who tend to be the youngest ones interviewed might feel more at ease with teachers they already know and the fact that the teachers themselves are probably in great need of additional income.35 From the Ibtedaye Madrasah survey it was established that only 17% of Ibtedaye teachers received government support (MPO). The others are either unpaid or receive small amounts in cash or kind, see Appendix 10.
My madrasahs madam is my private tutor. She teaches me all the subjects (male student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). I take private lessons from a teacher from this madrasah. He teaches me Bengali, Mathematics, and Arabic. It is helpful for me (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

Other students take classes in coaching centers:


Few days ago I studied at a coaching center, but due to problem of taking meal timely, I gave it up (female student of Class 3 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

35

It is worth noting that the Prime Minister of Bangladesh has recently spoken out against private tutoring in schools and madrasahs. See A. N. M Nurul Haques Teaching the Teachers, in Daily Star of 31 Aug, 2010.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Almost all the students from Aliya Madrasahs we interviewed also talked about some form of private tutoring.36 Here, the need to perform well within the madrasah and its internal examinations, the common practice of dual enrollment where a student studies in a madrasah but also takes the general studies exams, and the increasingly competitive requirements of the Bangladesh globalized economy, makes the need of private coaching almost a necessity for students and parents who understand the importance of acquiring multiple forms of literacies (ICT, linguistics, scientific) in the global world that await the students beyond the walls of their madrasah. Indeed, Aliya Madrasah students regularly seek additional help in Arabic, English, and Mathematics:
I go to a private tutor from 4:30 pm to 5:30 pm and come back at 6:00 pm (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). After returning home [from madrasah] I take a short rest, take a shower, and eat lunch. After that I get a lesson from my private tutor at home (female student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah). I am a resident student. I wake up at 4:00 am and read the Holy Quran. Then, after my prayer, I read my textbooks and go to my private tutor. After returning from private I take my breakfast and attend my class at 8:00 am (male student of Class 10/Science in Dakhil Madrasah).

However, it must be noted that some madrasahs offer coaching for free for their students. In fact, some children avail themselves to both forms of coaching (the private one for which guardians have to pay tuition and the one they can get for free inside the madrasah):
To appear in the scholarship examination I took coaching from one of our teacher without any fees. Coaching time was set before or after school sessions. (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). To obtain good results in the Dakhil examination in 2011, I take additional coaching in Arabic. Besides, I have got a home tutor for English and Arithmetic (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah).

The need for private coaching is also related to the quality of instruction delivered inside the madrasah. In the quotes below, students explain how the care with which the teachers cover the material and the pedagogical support provided inside madrasahs make private tutoring less of a necessity for some students:
I enjoy in my classes. The teachers are very keen in providing their lessons. They make clear subjects those that we often do not understand. They explain Bengali, English and Sums with due care. As the teachers are efficient we do not require private coaching (female student of Class 8 in Aliya Madrasah). I do not go for any private coaching outside. Evening class is arranged for the resident students. Students perform better due to the support (male student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah).

As we have seen above, the practice of getting private coaching is often connected to the student and his/her guardians understanding of what might be needed as that student leaves the madrasah and prepares to enter the workforce. In this respect, students enrolled in Qoumi madrasahs for whom future work plans and prospects are squarely located in the madrasahs and Mosques of Bangladesh and abroad are the least likely to need private coaching in
The Education Watch study (2007) showed that private tutoring was the largest single private expense for students in both schools and Aliya Madrasahs.
36

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I never take lessons with a private tutor or at a coaching center (male student of Class-Hifz in Qoumi Madrasah).

In fact, only three students enrolled in the same Qoumi madrasah shared with our interviewers that they had taken private lessons. For these students, it seems that private coaching is needed for them to perform well when they take the Aliya Madrasah examinations illustrating, in the process, yet another form of dual enrollment where students are enrolled in a Qoumi Madrasah but study for and take the end of cycle Aliya Madrasah examinations:
Yes, I took lessons at a coaching center. There I studied English and Mathematics. It has helped me (male student of graduation-Class in Qoumi Madrasah). I took lessons at a coaching center. There I studied the subjects offered in Aliya Madrasahs. It has helped me. They taught us to cut large figure in exam (21-year old male student in Qoumi Madrasah). For Qoumi subjects I have not taken lessons in any coaching center. But I learned English and Arabic in a coaching center (male student of Class-Secondary in Qoumi Madrasah).

The common use of private coaching with the noted exceptions of students from Qoumi Madrasahs tells us that madrasah students and their guardians are certainly aware of the shortcomings of the education delivered in madrasahs.38 Taking private lessons is a strategy that helps them compensate for these shortcomings and provides students with the additional support they think they need to compete in both the madrasah and the general education examinations. For these students, investing in their education and devising multiple strategies to reach their educational and career goals are simply elements of their plans for the future.39
4.3 Students Plans for the Future

Like children and young adults everywhere, students enrolled in madrasahs have varied albeit along a limited spectrum plans for their future. Most of them want to be teachers. A handful of girls indicate a desire to become professionals in the legal and medical spheres. Boys often indicate that they want to become teachers or imams. Less common are those who want to be engineers or other technologically oriented trade. It is striking to note the narrow vision of what jobs may be available both for boys and girls in these madrasahs. Without career guidance or vocational orientation available in schools either it is quite likely that students responses would be the same there.
37

It must be noted that, because of the very nature of these institutions and the curriculum they deliver, there is no need for tutors inside Quomi madrasahs. Indeed, because students are engaged in residential living and the academic day starts at 4 am and lasts until 9 pm, there is literally no room and time for tutors in Quomi Madrasahs. Further, much of the Qoumi Madrasah curriculum to about Class 10 or its equivalent is mainly memorization of various texts and materials. Such memorization requires a strong discipline that is taught well within Qoumi Madrasahs, and is helped by the teaching wherein. Thus, there is no need for tutors as far as the Qoumi curriculum is concerned. 38 It must be noted here the difference in the length of the academic day for Aliya Madrasahs and Qoumi Madrasahs. With a shorter day, Aliya Madrasahs cannot possibly teach everything well. 39 Because of the overal scarcity of good jobs in Bangladesh, those who score best in examinations increase their chance of landing one of them after they graduate. The impetus to compensate for the shortcomings of the education delivered in schools is likely to be also at play in the general education stream as well.

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4.3.1 Girls

Students enrolled in Aliya Madrasahs seem to have a wider spectrum of career hopes. They seem to understand that in order to be competitive in the labor force, they need to strengthen their academic training. As a result, almost half of them discuss plans of switching to the general education stream after they have graduated from the madrasah in which they are currently enrolled:
I want to be a doctor so I can serve the people (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). I want not to continue further in the madrasah education sector. I want to get admitted into a female college and later attend a university. I want to have a job and take care of my parents (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). After passing the Dakhil exam, I want to get admitted into a college. After graduation [from the college], I hope to land a dignified job, enjoy the empowerment [it affords], take care of my family members, and to be able to help the welfare of others (female student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah). After graduating from here, I want to study in the general stream in a college. After finishing my education, I want to be a doctor, work for the welfare of the people of this village, and maintain my family in a better condition (female student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah).

All the respondents quoted above are enrolled in a female Dakhil Madrasah. It is interesting to note that these female students frame their educational and professional plans in a discourse of helping family members and the welfare of others. They also talk about the importance of landing dignified jobs. Teachers and administrators must convey this message in this particular madrasah. It also echoes dominant gender norms that often invite girls and women to forgo personal ambitions for the good of others. Framing their hopes for a future that includes both further education and a job in such a discourse makes sense; it enables them to think outside of another gender box that issues early marriages and disrupted educational trajectories for many girls in Bangladesh. While very common, such a framing is not present in all girls testimonies as illustrated by the two quotes below from students enrolled in the same female Dakhil Madrasah:
After passing the Dakhil exam, I want to get admitted into a college to study Business. Then I hope to study Accounting. I want to get a good job. Alternatively, I want to be a lawyer after studying Law (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). After graduating from this madrasah, I will study for the Alim [examination]. If I can do better, I would then study in a college. I want to get a job. I have the intention to teach in a madrasah, a school, or in a neighboring kindergarten (female student of Class 8 in Aliya Madrasah).

It is also interesting to note that, as illustrated in these two quotes, some students seem to understand that they might need to have alternative educational and professional strategies. The very last quote seems also to suggest that the respondent is aware that getting admitted into a college will necessitate a strong academic performance (If I can do better, I would then study in a College). Knowing that getting admitted into a college might be out of reach, she is, however, prepared to continue her education in the madrasah stream. Other female students enrolled in coeducational Aliya Madrasahs echo the sentiments expressed by the young women quoted above:

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After graduating from here I want to study in the general stream in a college. I want to be doctor. With my religious educational background, I will preach Islam to the people (female student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah).

This first quote introduces an interesting variation on the answers provided by girls and young women enrolled in Aliya Madrasahs. Indeed, this female student expresses a desire to obtain further education outside the madrasah stream and pursue a career in the medical sector. On the one hand, she is clearly opting for a future that places her in a modern world where women get educated and seek to enter the professions. On the other hand, she is unwilling to forgo her religious training. To the contrary, she is planning to preach Islam to the people not from the pulpit of a Mosque but, one must assume, from the medical office where she is seeing herself working in the future. Other students testimonies illustrate the various points discussed above as they also use a discourse of helping parents and others and obtaining dignified jobs, and they talk about using alternative strategies to reach their goals:
I would like to study more in another madrasah. I want to be a teacher. I will earn [money] and serve my parents and other people (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). After leaving this madrasah I will pursue higher education in the madrasah stream. I do not have the intention to study in the general stream. I want to be a madrasah teacher and serve the people (female student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah). If I leave this madrasah, I will study in another school and then in a college, I want to be a madrasah teacher. I will serve the poor and teach their children (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). I do not have any plans to leave this madrasah, because it performs well compared to other schools and Colleges. I desire to complete my Masters and then obtain a dignified job (female Dakhil examinee). I want to be a renowned doctor and serve people. Alternatively, I want to be a teacher in a female madrasah (female student of Class 8 in Aliya Madrasah). First, I want to finish my education from this madrasah. I want to work in the banking industry (female student in Dakhil Madrasah)

Girls in Ibtedaye madrasahs have similar dreams for the future. However, because they tend to be younger than those enrolled in Aliya Madrasahs, these dreams remain vague and often framed around the wishes of parents and the desire to remain connected with current friends:
Because there is no scope of higher education (since independent Ibtedaye madrasahs stop at the end of class 5), I shall read in another madrasah after completing my studies here. I want to be a teacher and serve the people (female student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). I want to be a teacher because everyone respects a teacher (male student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). If my friends go somewhere else, I shall go there as well. But I have no wish to go anywhere alone. My mother wants me to be a lawyer (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). If this madrasah includes higher classes, I shall study here. Otherwise I have to go somewhere else. My father wants me to be a doctor (female student Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

As can be seen in the few quotes from female Ibtedaye Madrasah female students, the recurring gender-specific themes of serving others and seeking respectful occupations also run

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4.3.2 Boys

Boys enrolled in Ibtedaye Madrasahs, like boys enrolled in other types of madrasahs, often talk about a future devoted to the service of Islam and the teaching of its principles. Other common desired occupations for these students are doctor and engineer:
I want to be an imam and Alem (21013). I want to study more and more. I want to be an engineer. I may be a teacher too in the future (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). I shall not give up studying in any situation. After completing my studies, I shall be a teacher or an imam (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

Exceptional is the case of the student quoted below, who explicitly eschews the common choice of imam for his male peers:
I want to be a doctor. I dont want to be an imam of a mosque (male student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

Not surprisingly, it is students enrolled in Qoumi madrasahs who are most likely to opt for occupations in the religious sector and who seem more seriously committed to pursuing their studies in the madrasah stream; often with an explicit commitment to Qoumi Madrasahs:
After completing the courses offered in this madrasah, I shall get admitted into another Qoumi Madrasah. I want to be a teacher of such Qoumi madrasah (male student of Class-Hifz in Qoumi Madrasah)M I want to complete a Qoumi course in Hadith. I want to be a teacher in a madrasah (male student of Class-Yaz Dahm in Qoumi Madrasah). After leaving this madrasah, I shall get admitted into another Qoumi Madrasah. I want to be a teacher of a Qoumi Madrasah (male student of Class-Hifz in Qoumi Madrasah). After completing the courses offered in this madrasah, I shall get admitted in Jummapara Qoumi madrasah. I want to be a teacher of a reputed Qoumi Madrasah (male student of ClassNazera in Qoumi Madrasah). I want to study Arabic literature. Then I shall be a teacher in any Aliya Madrasah (21-year old male student in Qoumi Madrasah). I want to study in Mecca or Medina University. I want to obtain a Ph.D degree on Hadith. Then I shall look for any job in the madrasah or general stream (male student of graduation-Class in Qoumi Madrasah).

The last quote is particularly interesting. The young man sharing his plans for the future stands out among the Qoumi Madrasah student respondents. Indeed, he is the only who even considers working outside the religious labor market and/or the madrasah stream. This points to a possible disconnect between Qoumi Madrasahs insiders perceptions and the real prospects afforded by the education they deliver. Indeed, one cannot but question Bangladeshs capacity to absorb all the Qoumi Madrasahs graduates as religious leaders or

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education teachers. Even with some of them migrating abroad to secure jobs for themselves, it is unlikely that all Qoumi Madrasah graduates will be able to find employment in the religious/spiritual sector. There is anecdotal evidence, for instance, that in Dhaka, many of the house and office guards are from the Qoumi system since they are believed to be honest and trustworthy. It is also important to note here that boys enrolled in madrasahs especially those enrolled in Qoumi Madrasahs often talk about serving their religion. The theme of serving the people is less present in the boys interviews and most often framed in the language of spiritual service and leadership:
After graduating from this madrasah, I shall get admit in another Qoumi Madrasah. I want to serve my religion (male student of Class-Hifz in Qoumi Madrasah). 4.4 Discipline and Physical Punishment

Within madrasahs, discipline is strict and students are required to abide by many rules and regulations. Absence and lateness are highly discouraged as well as any movement inside or outside the classroom. Overall, madrasahs seem to be highly monitored spaces where students have little to no choice in the ways in which they go about their daily routines. Differential treatment along age and gender lines is noted particularly in terms of school uniforms and the separation of boys and girls for instruction in the higher classes:
We need to follow numerous regulations, such as timely attendance, remaining within class without frequent movement to the outside [of the classroom]. We have to bring assigned home work (female student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah). Students are to follow numerous rules. They must seek permission to go outside the classroom, wear burka, and attend the assembly (female student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah). We are to report to the madrasah by 9.30 am and wear a white uniform; Male students wear a panjabi and cap and female student wear the burka. Attendance is checked as daily attendance is compulsory. In the classroom, a screen is used to separate male and female students (male student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah).

Disciplinary rules extend beyond the walls of the madrasah. Many leisure activities are prohibited in madrasahs (also see section 4.1 on students schedule). Interestingly, several (older) students mentioned that their madrasah also prohibited political activities. It must be noted that madrasah disciplinary practices are rarely contested by students in our interviews and seem to be understood by students as a way to instill desired Islamic manners and behaviors:
Singing, dancing, and playing musical instruments in the madrasah or outside are prohibited, as Islam does not approve of it (first year male student in Fazil Madrasah). Only books written on Islam are allowed in this madrasah (male student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah).

The quote above is particularly interesting and somewhat troubling. Indeed, it illustrates the closed-society quality and the inward focus that characterizes certain madrasahs. We know that most madrasahs have libraries with limited book holdings. 40 How can students understand Islam, its history, and its role in the world if only one type of books are allowed in these libraries and in madrasahs in general? As many madrasahs seek to transform their curriculum
40

For instance, Aliya madrasah libraries have fewer than 1000 books each; See Chapter 2.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education and want to use computers, we find this reluctance to read broadly anomalous and somewhat contradictory.
Besides academic education, teachers provide teachings on manner. We all wear a white uniform. Female students have to wear the burka (female student in Dakhil Madrasah). Assembly is compulsory. Students are to be regular in attending their class, saying prayer, and must be dressed in the madrasah uniform. Going outside [the Mmdrasah] is discouraged and political activities are not allowed. Watching TV is also discouraged (male student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah).

Students, in our interviews, often recount occurrences of physical punishment as part of the disciplinary regimen of madrasahs.41 It must be noted, however, that resorting to these kinds of disciplinary practices vary greatly from one madrasah to another. Interestingly and most troubling perhaps, the occurrence of beatings is most often mentioned by younger students enrolled in Ibtedaye Madrasahs:42

Female student in an Ibtedaye madrasah

References to physical punishment are also found in teachers and administrators interviews albeit in a much less frequent manner. We have chosen to foreground students perceptions on this matter, as they are less likely to minimize its incidence. It must also be noted that incidences of physical punishment have also been recorded in the general stream. It is worth noting here that, after a case in the High Court, the government issued, in the summer of 2010, an instruction to all educational institutions to cease physical punishment. It is too early to measure the effectiveness of this order. With little political will to enforce such injunctions and broad acceptance for its practice among the people, it is safe to assume and of concern to us, however, that physical punishment will continue in both the general and the madrasah streams. 42 It is difficult to interpret this phenomenon. Younger students might be more willing to talk about physical punishment, as they might not be aware of the negative implications of such testimonies. In other words there might be more self-censorship regarding this topic among older students. The higher frequency of disciplinary practices based on physical punishment in Ibtedaye madrasahs might also be due to the fact that teachers resort to them to socialize students into the particular disciplinary world of madrasahs. Older students who pursued their education in the madrasah stream have thus been socialized and have learned to perform in such a way as to not elicit such beatings. Finally, it could simply be due to the interviewers and what they probed for.

41

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When a student comes late or disobeys the teachers, he is beaten (male student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). Students are beaten if they are absent, come late, or do not offer prayer (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). For any fault, the teachers keep us standing holding our own ear (male student of Class 2 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). When we come late or disobey, our teachers beat us (female student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). When we are absent, we have to submit an application. If we dont we are beaten (male student of Class 3 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

Students enrolled in Qoumi Madrasahs also mention instances of physical punishment and cane beatings. More than any other groups of students, these seem to be aware of a progression in terms of the seriousness of the offence and its related form of punishment:
If we come late, teachers beat us once or twice with a cane (male student of Class-Hifz in Qoumi Madrasah). For appearing late in class, the teachers first give a warning. If it does not work, they keep the student standing, as the last treatment he is beaten with cane (male student of graduationClass in Qoumi Madrasah). For breaking the rules, the concerned guardian is called. Sometimes the student is beaten, even he may be given a TC [Transfer Certificate] (male student of Class-Secondary in Qoumi Madrasah). For any absence, an application has to be submitted. If the application is not granted, the concerned student is beaten once or twice with a cane. For appearing late in class, the student is kept standing (male student of Class 9 in Qoumi Madrasah).

Students enrolled in Aliyah Madrasahs are the least likely to mention any form of physical punishment (see footnote 44 for possible reasons). When they do, in any specific way, it is to refer to the practice of asking misbehaving students to stand or kneel in a corner or outside the room. While this seems, at first glance, a rather mild form of physical punishment, it does involve a certain level of public shaming and potential physical stress on the body that has formally been banished in many educational settings.
In between classes students are not allowed to go outside the classroom. Students are also asked to carry water bottles [] If someone is found to be deliberately late, the student is scolded or physically punished. Students are appreciated? or scolded for their good/bad performance (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). When a student is late, she is kept standing outside the classroom holding both ears (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). Teachers scold students for being late to school. Sometimes they keep them standing outside the classroom (female student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah)).

Motivational speeches are also used in Aliya Madrasahs to help students achieve the kinds of behavior expected in the madrasah. In fact, at least one set of students in one Aliya Madrasah

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education makes a point of telling interviewers that physical punishment is never used in this particular madrasah:
Students, who are often late, are taken to the head teacher, who talks to them about motivation so that they rectify their behavior (female student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah). Students are to swallow harsh words (male student of Class 7 in Aliya madrasah). Students are never physically punished or fined, They are motivated to correct their behavior (male student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah).

As can be seen in the quote below in which an older female student makes interesting observations, physical punishment has many uses and is differentially delivered in madrasahs. First, she notes that teachers often use the threat of physical punishment as a form of negative motivational force. She also notes that physical punishment is distributed differently along age and gender lines:
Teachers scold students for arriving late to school. Some times they motivate students so that they modify their behavior and some times they keep them standing outside the classroom. Teachers often threaten students to use physical punishment. Lower class students are punished more often [than upper class students] and male students are punished more than female students. Students who are not prepared for class often are beaten on the top of their palms (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah).

The differential distribution of punishment (including physical punishment) along age lines is also noted by the upper-class student quoted below. This tendency explicates, as was noted earlier, the fact that we see more references to physical punishment in our Ibtedaye students interviews:
In the Fazil class, there is no system of punishment for students who are late. When students do not follow madrasah rules, they are rebuked by their teacher or, in severe cases, are physically punished. In the case of resident students, their seat might be cancelled (third year male student in Fazil Madrasah).

Also interesting in this interview, is the reference to residential students losing their seat because of disciplinary problems. This is indeed severe punishment since the students who might be concerned with these disciplinary actions are de facto expelled from the madrasah. In the same school and class, another student also notes the disturbing practice of denying food to students for their lateness:
If students are late they are rebuked or often their meal is suspended. Students are physically punished if they do not attend prayer or wear a pant and a shirt. Some times they are sent to the Principal (first year male student of Fazil Madrasah).

Dakhil students also refer to the practice of fining students, calling guardians, and sending to principal for various disciplinary offences:
Students are scolded, physically punished, or fined for being late and not listening to the teacher. Sometimes student are given motivation speeches so that they may correct their behavior (male student of Class 8 in Aliya Madrasah). Students are to submit a note explaining the reason for their absence in class or pay a fine of two taka (male student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah).

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After an absence, we are asked for a clarification note that goes to the Principal. Absences without reason are fined at ten taka per day (third year male student in Fazil Madrasah). Female students lose attendance points when they are late. Students are to remain standing in the class. Guardians all called in for long absences (female Dakhil examinee).

Despite the fairly strict disciplinary rules that madrasah students have to follow, rarely do they complain about something that, after all, might feel natural to them. Neither does the occurrence of physical punishment tarnish the image that students have of their teachers. Quite to the contrary, most students speak highly of their instructors and connect their appreciation of madrasah education to the care provided by the teaching staff.
4.5 Perceptions of teachers

Indeed, most students interviewed for this project, have excellent perceptions of their teachers. In fact the students often use the language of love and affection to describe what they like most about their teachers. They also underscore the sincerity of the teaching staff as something that might distinguish them from instructors working in other institutions. Students in Ibtedaye Madrasahs, like all the others, seem to appreciate the fact that madrasah teachers teach with a certain level of care and affection. For them, the quality of instruction is also measured by the care with which the teachers approach their students:
I like everything about this madrasah. I like the teachers because they teach us [well] and they are affectionate towards us (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). I like most the environment [of the madrasah] and the behavior of the teachers (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). I like to study in this madrasah because the teachers are helpful (male student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah).

In Aliya Madrasahs, students also focus on the affection and the care of the teaching staff. In a slightly more articulate way, they elaborate on this point by underscoring the fact that teachers are concerned about all their students and they want all of them to perform well. Echoing what has been already said in the previous section (4.4), the students do not complain about the strict rules of the madrasahs. Rather, they seem to understand their logic and purpose:
All the teachers of this madrasah are very good. They do not scold us. They try to make the weak students understand. They love and admire those who perform well. One of the female teachers behaves badly with the students and often scolds them (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). I have learnt much about manners and ways of behaving [in this madrasah]. All the teachers teach their class carefully. They are very sincere and affectionate. The students who regularly perform well are appreciated. As for the weak performers, the teachers try to explain [the lessons] and ask them to take greater care [in their work]. (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). I like all the aspects [of this madrasah]. The teachers are very good and never scold us. I like it very much when they explain some thing to give us a clear understanding [of the topic]. They touch our head softly out of affection (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). I like the teaching of this madrasah very much. The teachers try to make understand with their love and affection (third year male student of Fazil Madrasah)

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In addition, Aliya Madrasah students highlight the sincerity of their instructors:


I like the sincerity of our teacher very much (third year male student in Fazil Madrasah). I like the sincerity of our madrasah teachers. They try to solve all the problems that the students might face. They enquire whenever the students are absent (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah).

Qoumi Madrasah students, like other madrasah students, value the affection deployed by their teachers. These interviews also point out the fact that students value both the disciplinary regimen and the strict routine that the madrasahs offer. Qoumi Madrasah students understand and value the moral and behavioral education imparted by their teachers:
[I like most] the discipline and the affection of the teachers (male student of Class-Hifz in Qoumi Madrasah). I like most the way the teachers lead us (male student of Class-Hifz in Qoumi Madrasah). Before, I studied in a primary school. The school did not give me any instruction how to make my life. But this madrasah suggests how I should (male student of Class-Yaz Dahm in Qoumi Madrasah). What I like most is the discipline of the madrasah. I like to follow the routine and the affection of our teachers makes me feeling good. If a student has well formed mind, he can learn the facts of our worldly life and the life hereafter from a madrasah (male student of graduationClass in Qoumi Madrasah). The teaching of the madrasah makes me feel good. I also like the company of our teachers. Here there is morality and respectfulness. The students are always obedient to the teachers (male student of Class-Secondary in Qoumi Madrasah). 4.5 Dual Track and transfers

This qualitative study corroborates the sense that students in madrasahs are often engaged in a dual educational track as in taking courses in madrasahs but also preparing to sit for the general education examinations. As we have seen in the section on private tutoring (4.2.2), this pattern is found in both Aliya Madrasahs and Qoumi Madrasahs but with an important variation. Aliya students do not need to take the SSC or HSC examination as they have equivalent qualifications from the madrasah education sector. Fazil and Kamil qualifications are also formally accepted by government as degrees. Aliya Madrasah students do take, however, general education examinations at the Bachelor and Masters levels as the acceptance of their equivalence by employers is generally low. A few Qoumi Madrasah students are found to take the SSC or HSC because they do not have equivalent qualifications.43 Among the students enrolled in Aliya Madrasahs over half of the respondents (17) described an educational trajectory that started in a primary school. The students do not always articulate the reasons for these transfers, but a quick look at the narratives suggests a couple of obvious reasons for these transfers.44
Some Qoumi students sit for Dakhil examination in order to obtain credentials for their education. Reality check shows very similar patterns. The authors of those reports therefore caution as against interpretation of drop-out figures within the madrasah sub-sector. See SIDA (2008) Reality Check 2008: Listening to Poor Peoples Realities about Primary Healthcare and Primary Education, page 60.
44 43

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After completion of the first cycle of schooling (Classes 1-5)


I studied in a government primary school from class one to five (male student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). I studied in primary school from class one to five (female student of Class 9 in Alyah Madrasah). I completed my primary level of education from Raninbari Chandpur government primary school (third year male student in Fazil Madrasah). Before my admission to this madrasah, I studied in Narayanpur government primary school up to class five (male student of Class 10/Science in Dakhil Madrasah). I was admitted in this madrasah in Class 6. Before that I studied in Dewanpara BRAC school up to primary level (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah).

While the students do not say so, there is clear evidence from the BANBEIS surveys that the bulk of secondary education in Bangladesh is delivered by non-governmental institutions.45 When schooling is no longer offered (often after Class 5) by government or NGOs, many students and their parents then opt for madrasah education. Economic disruption (often followed by displacement)
I studied in a Primary School up to class 2 before I was admitted in this madrasah in Class 3. Both my father and my mother were working in a garment factory in Dhaka. Suddenly it closed down. My parents moved to Gazipur after they were hired in a garment factory there. Because it was the middle of the year, I could not register into any school; my parents got me admitted into this madrasah (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). I was enrolled in a school before I was admitted here. It was in Savar and I cant remember the name [of the school]. Suddenly the school closed down after a mill was created in that place. We moved to this locality and I was admitted into this madrasah (female student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah).

It is interesting that in both quotes it is the opening or closing of a garment factory that disrupts a childs educational trajectory. Madrasahs in both examples seem to be more flexible in their admission practices and enroll students throughout the academic year. In both cases, the flexible enrollment practices of madrasahs enabled students to finish their academic training in spite of economic disruption and displacement mid-year. Students who become orphans also, often, find their ways into a madrasah, as is the experience of the student quoted below:
I got admitted in this madrasah in 2003. I am in the orphanage under this madrasah. Prior to my admission into this madrasah, I studied in a registered private primary school up to class 2. I came here after the death of my father. My maternal grandfather arranged my admission (male student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah).46

45

Indeed 97% of enrolments in the general education stream are in NG sec schools. For madrasahs it is 99.5% (only 3 government Kamil madrasahs). See _MSS, Chapter 3. 46 The term orphan refers to children who have lost both parents but also in the common situation as in the one of the student quoted here of single orphan where the mother is alive but unable to look after her child.

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Summary

Students in madrasahs are as varied as the madrasahs in which they enroll. Their interviews reveal that while they understand the shortcomings of their education (at least Dakhil students do) and plan to overcome them, they also have a great deal of respect for their teachers and the care they bring to the madrasah classroom. This study corroborates the sense that students in madrasahs are often engaged in a dual educational track as in taking courses in madrasahs but also preparing to sit for the general education examinations. Students enrolled in madrasahs have varied albeit along a limited spectrum of occupational choices plans for their future. Girls interviews tend to be framed around plans of serving others and seeking respectful occupations while boys tend to be framed around plans of becoming religious leaders. The qualitative study also points out that children enrolled in madrasahs have to follow a rather strenuous schedule within a highly disciplined environment, with little time to play. Of particular concern are the lack of playtime, the common reference to physical punishment especially in Ibdetaye Madrasahs and the gender inequities present in these madrasahs.
5 Families educational strategies

Echoing the dilemma addressed in Section 2 (Context and Background), families want children to be educated in the path of Islam, but also want their children to be ready for the labor force. This tension generates a variety of different educational strategies among families (and sometimes within families). What our interviews with students revealed is that most families resort to a mixed strategy whereby some children are schooled in madrasahs while others are sent to government institutions. For a few families, however, all children are registered in madrasahs. Example of mixed strategy:
I have studied in Nuranin madrasah from Class one to Class five. After that I was admitted in this madrasah in Class six. The first child [in our family], my brother, has taken the SSC examination and is now involved in farming. The 2nd one is a sister who, after her passing her SSC examination, was married out. The 3rd one is a sister. She is taking her HSC examination from Nimsai Junab Ali College. The 4th one is a student of Class Ten in this Madrasah. The 5th one is myself; I am now studying in Class seven (male student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah). My older sister reads in Class six in a school. I am the second [child]. My younger brother reads in a primary school in Class one. I have started my studies here [in this madrasah] (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). We are 6 brothers and 2 sisters. I am the fifth [child]. One of my brothers reads in a Qoumi madrasah too. All the other brothers and sisters read in schools and colleges (male student of Class-Yaz Dahm in Qoumi Madrasah).

Examples of single strategy:


I have been studying in this madrasah since Class One [] We are one brother and four sisters in the family. I am the fourth child. My older sister passed her Dakhil examination from this madrasah. After passing her Alim degree from another madrasah, she is now studying Kamil 2nd year in Chanduna College. Besides she is a teacher of a KG school. My 2nd sister

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also passed her Dakhil examination from this madrasah [] My only brother also studied in this madrasah. After studying in another institution now he is now working a lantern factory. My 5th sister is a student of Class Six of this madrasah (female student of Class 8 in Aliya Madrasah). We are 3 brothers and a sister. I got admitted here in class one. I am the oldest. My two younger brothers read here too in Classes 3 and 2. My youngest sister is only two (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). I have only one sister. She studied in a madrasah and is now married. I started my study in another Qoumi madrasah. I got admitted here in 2005. I am the youngest (male student of Class 5 in Qoumi Madrasah). 5.1 Why do parents choose Madrasahs?

While it is obviously difficult to ascertain why parents send (some of) their children to madrasahs, our interviews highlight a list of reasons as to why they make this particular educational choice. These various reasons are listed below: Proximity (this is particularly important for girls)
I have never been to other madrasahs before [or schools]. My parents, because of their concerns for my security, did not want me to admit into an institution that was far away (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). I have been in this madrasah since class one. As they chose close proximity and lower cost of education, my parents admitted me here (female student of Class 8 in Aliya Madrasah).

Affordability
My parents were interested [in getting admission into a madrasah for me] because it offers a cost free education (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah).

They teach the basics of Islam


There is a school in nearby area, but I have sent my child to madrasah so that he can learn religious topics besides all the general subjects. Arabic, The Holy Quran and Hadith are not given the same importance in school (40-year old male guardian/ Ibtedaye Madrasah). I sent him to madrasah because Islamic education is necessary in our life (33-year old male guardian/Qoumi Madrasah)

They impart good morals and good behavior (and make children religious)
Madrasah education will make her religious (59-year old male guardian/Alyah Madrasah). My son after he completes his study here (Qoumi madrasah) will teach people morality. He will lead people on the way of Allah (43-year old male guardian/Qoumi Madrasah). I think my son will be a religious teacher; he will call people on the way of Allah (40-year old male guardian/Qoumi Madrasah). I want to keep him on the way of Allah and Rasul (43-year old male guardian/Qoumi Madrasah).

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I sent him to madrasah so that he can serve Islam and lead his life in the light of Islam (51-year old male guardian/Qoumi Madrasah).

Investment in their (heavenly) future It is worth noting here that there is a notion among certain Muslims that having a son who is an Imam or similar located in the within the religion will ensure prosperity within the family for generations (probably 7). In addition to material prosperity, these quotes illustrate also the heavenly rewards attached to choosing a madrasah education:
I think it is a matter of heavenly reward to send children to madrasah (45-year old male guardian/Alyah Madrasah). If my son becomes a religious person, he will pray for my souls peace (58-year old male guardian/Alyah Madrasah).

Regardless on the reasons given by guardians these choices also depend on the perceived ability of children and their willingness to study. Gender also influences whether a child will be sent to a madrasah (it seems that boys and girls, however, are sent for different reasons).
Summary

Family educational strategies vary a great deal. However, most families with children attending madrasahs have their children in different educational streams. In other words, most people, even when poor, do not put all their eggs in the same educational basket. There are some exceptions to this pattern. Indeed, for (a few) deeply religious families madrasahs seem to be the only acceptable choice. But even some religious leaders send their children in general education schools.

6 Conclusions

As Bangladesh begins to implement its New Education Policy, madrasahs Aliya Madrasahs at least will be asked to transform and align themselves along schools in the general education stream. While it is too early to know how they will actually respond to the various challenges brought about by the new policy, this study suggests that madrasahs are bound to experience them in complex and possibly contradictory ways. As this study has shown, madrasahs and the people within them are deeply attached to an ideal based in the provision of Muslim-based education and good moral values to the children of Bangladesh. This ideal has given madrasahs and their supporters a strong sense of identity and a collective belief that they are indeed special institutions with a unique purpose and mission. This is both a strength and a weakness. On the one hand, madrasahs derive great pride and purpose from their uniqueness and their core ideal. On the other hand, such a differential identity increases madrasahs insularity and reinforces their inward looking stance making changes more difficult to implement. And yet, madrasahs, especially Aliya Madrasahs, have been changing all along. Madrasahs have already adapted and responded to the changes brought about by modernity and globalization. Their numbers have grown, and they have offered secondary level educational albeit as weaker condensed versions of the national curriculum opportunities to many children in Bangladesh, including large numbers of girls. Many are now co-educational institutions. As modern institutions, they are being shaped by the realities of a global economy,

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education which increasingly demands that a nations youth master computer and other forms of technological literacy. Aliya Madrasahs want to reform their curricular offerings, they want better science labs, they want libraries and computers, and they want support from the government. However, they do not want to do this at the expense of their core mission. Indeed, madrasahs want to retain their core identity as faith-based educational institutions at the same time as they want to provide their students, especially young male students, with the tools they need to succeed when they graduate. How they will manage to do both in the context of the National Education Policy remains to be seen. The qualitative study has also underscored several issues that are of concern to us. In particular the serious lack of play time, the recurring use of physical punishment, and the evidence of gender inequalities not only stand as barriers to the development goals of Bangladesh but also as violation to basic human rights. This study has given us a glimpse of what happens within ten madrasahs in Bangladesh. It has highlighted their great variety and their complexity as educational/religious institutions. As a way to close this report, we would like to review a few unique insights afforded by the qualitative analysis. Our interviews revealed, for instance, that teachers and administrators in madrasahs are products of the madrasah sub-sector and share certain elements of their students background. Moreover, the recruitment practices of madrasahs and the lack of professional training opportunities for madrasah staff members reinforces their insularity. The qualitative study underscored an interesting disconnect between our respondents discourse and their everyday practices. Many of them declare that madrasahs deliver an excellent education (at least equivalent and sometimes superior to the one offered in the general education stream). However, recurring references to private tutors, coaching centers, dual tracks, and transfers attest to the fact that these respondents faith in madrasahs (at least as far as preparation for the job market is concerned) might have its limits. The study also highlighted that, despite some of the harsh disciplinary tactics deployed by the teaching staff, most students interviewed for this project, have excellent perceptions of their teachers. The students often use the language of love and affection to describe what they like most about their teachers. They also underscore the sincerity of the teaching staff as something that might distinguish them from instructors working in other institutions. Clear gender distinctions emerged from the analysis. Girls, for instance seem to be overburdened by the domestic chores they are expected to perform at home. This added labor combined with the strenuous study schedule of madrasahs and their lack of playtime is bound to have adverse implications for the girls and young women enrolled in these institutions. Gender differences were also noted in the ways madrasah students think and talk about their future. Girls, the interviews suggested, are more likely than boys to frame their plans in the language of service and dedication to others (especially family members). In contradistinction, boys especially those enrolled in Qoumi Madrasahs talk about serving their religion. The theme of serving the people is less present in the boys interviews and most often framed in the language of spiritual service and leadership.

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Annex 1 Part 1: Research Process and Methods

One international consultant was appointed by ADB to create research instruments, train BANBEIS staff, monitor data-collection and data coding, and finally generate a qualitative analysis of madrasah education in Bangladesh. The open-ended interviews that form the core of this qualitative study have provided materials that shed further light on some of the findings generated by the quantitative surveys produced by BANBEIS. Three BANBEIS staff members were appointed by BANBEIS director to oversee and monitor the data gathering/coding phases of the qualitative study. They selected and trained ten fieldresearchers to conduct and transcribe the interviews. A summary of the qualitative research process and the methods used is provided below: 1. During the first visit of international consultant, the three BANBEIS staff members learned the basic paradigms and research tools of qualitative research: Attended training modules organized by Qualitative Research Expert Read suggested materials Practiced qualitative research techniques 2. In collaboration with Qualitative Research Expert, the three BANBEIS staff members developed research frame, instruments, and implementation schedules: Generated five sets of interview protocols Translated the interview protocols in Bangla (the Bangla interview protocols were then translated back into English by an outside translator to insure validity) Pre-tested the protocols 3. In collaboration with CDTA Team Leader, BANBEIS recruited and hired ten field researchers and selected ten research sites. 4. BANBEIS staff trained the field researches in basic paradigms and research tools of qualitative research. 5. BANBEIS staff teamed field researchers in groups of two and each team was allocated two research sites. BANBEIS staff organized field visits/training for each field researcher team. 6. BANBEIS staff organized and monitored fieldwork and data gathering. Staff also supervised proper data collection. 7. In collaboration with Qualitative Research Expert, BANBEIS staff coded all interviews collected during fieldwork. Emerging recurring themes were tracked and organized around key meaningful categories.
8. BANBEIS staff, with the help of professional translators translated data transfer sheets into English. These were reviewed by the Qualitative Research Expert.

9. The Qualitative Research Expert analyzed translated data transfer sheets and wrote-up the final report. Feedback was sought from BANBEIS staff, ADB, and TA team leader and participants.

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Part 2: Brief Portraits of Madrasahs 2.1 Aliya Madrasahs

Kathora Mohammadia Girls' Madrasah

Kathora Mohammadia Girls' Madrasah is situated in the rural area in the district of Gazipur under Dhaka Division. It is some 20 kilometers north of Dhaka. The madrasah was established in 1976. An Aliya Madrasah, it enrolls girl students only. This madrasah is run by a 4-member managing committee. It offers education from Class 1 to 10. A total of 12 teachers, including 4 women, teach its 462 students including 123 boys enrolled in the Ibtedaye section. It must be noted that this being a girls madrasah, it is only enrolling boys in the Ibtedaye section. It has 121 decimal of land (1 decimal = 436 square feet). The madrasah is comprised of 2 houses/buildings for a total of 12 rooms. On the premise, we can find a playground, electricity, a tube well, toilets, one library. A first aid health care facility is available on the grounds as well.

Satgaon Uttar Krishnapur Nsaria Dakhil Madrasah

Satgaon Uttar Krishnapur

Nsaria Dakhil Madrsah is situated in the rural area at Comilla

District under the Chittagong Division. It is about 100 kilometers southeast of Dhaka. It was established in 1983. It is a co-educational Aliya Madrasah up to the Dakhil level. An 11member managing committee runs this madrasah. It offers education from Class 1 up to 10. A total of 7 teachers, all men, teach its 498 students, 200 of whom are boys. It owns 124 decimal of land. The madrasah is comprised of 6 houses/buildings for a total of 12 rooms. A play ground, electricity, a tube well, toilets, and one library can be found on the premise. A fist aid health care facility is available as well.

Chapai Nawabgonj Kamil Madrasah

Chapai Nawabgonj Kamil Madrasah is situated in the urban area of the Chapai Nawabgonj District under the Rajshahi Division. It is at the northwest corner of the country, about 300 kilometers far from Dhaka. This is an old madrasah established in 1964. It is a co-educational Aliya Madrasah up to Kamil level (the highest level).This is a big madrasah run by a 13member governing body. It offers education from Class 1 up to 16. With 27 teachers all males this madrasah enrolled 610 students for the academic year 2009-2010. There are only 37 girl students enrolled in the primary section. It sits on a vast area of 3900 decimal land that the madrasah owns. Two big buildings with 77 rooms are used for classes, offices, etc. A play ground, electricity, a tube well, water supply, a common room, a canteen, a TV room, a boundary wall, toilets, one library are found on the premise. The madrasah has one computer. A first aid health care facility is also available.

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Goalanda Dakhil Madrasah

Goalanda Dakhil Madrsah is situated in the urban area at Goalanda Upazila under the Rajbari District of the Dhaka Division. It stands by the river Padma. It is 100 kilometers West of Dhaka. The madrasah was established in 1990. It is a co- educational Aliya Madrasah up to the Dakhil level. This is a small size madrasah run by a 4-member managing committee. It offers education from Class 1 to 10. There are 478 students including 279 girl students and 14 teachers including 4 women. The madrasash has 86 decimal of land of its own. On this land, one can find two big buildings/houses consisting of 11 rooms for classes, office etc. The madrasah has 1 computer. A play ground, electricity, tube well, toilets, and first aid health care facilities are also available

Sirajnagar Gausia Jalalia Momotajia Sunnia Aliya Madrasah

The madrasah is situated in the rural area of Moulovibazar District under the Sylhet Division. It is about 200 kilometers northeast of Dhaka. It was established in ---. Its a co- educational Aliya Madrasah up to the Fazil level. The madrasah has a Governing Body consisting of 14 male members and 1 female member. It offers education from Class 1 to 14. A total of 18 teachers including one woman teach the 443 students (of which only 96 are girls) enrolled there. It has 201 decimal of land. There are 11 houses/buildings for a total of 20 rooms. The madrasah has 1 computer. A play ground, electricity, tube well, water supply, common room, boundary wall, toilets, library and first aid health care facilities are also available
2.2 Ibtedaye madrasahs

Kharijjoma Sunnia Ebtedayee Madrasah

The madrasah is situated in the rural area of the Moulovibazar District under the Sylhet Division. It is about 200 kilometers northeast of Dhaka. It was established in 1959. As an Ibtedaye Madrasah, it is an older one. Its a co- educational M\madrasah offering education from Class 1 to 5. The madrasah has an 11-member managing committee including one woman. There are a total of 9 teachers including one woman for 165 students (of which only 90 are girls) enrolled in this madrasah this year. It has plenty of land of its own amounting to 150 decimal. There are two houses/buildings with 5 rooms altogether. Only some utilities like a playground, tube well, and toilets are available in the madrasah.
Telipara Islamia Ebtedayee Madrasah

It is one of the two sample madrasahs at Gazipur District, an adjacent district of the capital Dhaka. It is about some 20 kilometers north of Dhaka. It was established in 2000. As an Ibtedaye Madrasah, it is new one. Like other Ibtedaye Madrasahs, it is a co-educational

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education institution offering education from Class 1 to 5. The madrasah has an 11- member managing committee including 1 woman. There are a total 6 teachers including 2 female teachers for the 155 students (of which only 67 are girls) enrolled in this madrasah this year. It has a small amount of land with only 6.15 decimals of its own. There is only one houses/buildings with 8 rooms used for classes and offices. Only electricity, water supply, and a toilet facility are available with the madrasah.
Surja kunda Satantro Ebtedayee Madrasah

This madrasah is located in the Mohammad Upazila under the Magura District of the Khulna Division. It is about some 200 kilometers southwest of Dhaka. It was established in 1973. It is in a rural area. Like other Ibtedaye Madrasahs, it is a co-educational institution offering education from Class 1 to 5. The madrasah has an 11- member managing committee with no female representation. There is a total of 4 teachers but no female teacher. A total of 131 students of which 74 are boys and 69 are girls have been enrolled in the madrasah this year. It has 59 decimals of land of its own. There is only one house/building with 2 rooms destroyed. Only a playground, tube-well, and a toilet facility are available with the madrasah.

2.3 Qoumi madrasahs

Jameya Arabia Kasemul Ulum

The madrasah is situated in the urban area of the Comilla District under the Chittagong Division. It is one of the two sample madrasahs in this district. It is situated 100 km away from Dhaka to the southeast. It is an old madrasah established in 1952. It is a Qoumi Madrasah for only boy students. This madrasah is run by an 11-member Committee. It offers education from Class 1 up to 16 (the highest degree). There are 32 teachers; all are male. The Madrasah has enrolled a total number of 500 students for all 16 classes this year. It has only 28 decimals of land. There are 3 big buildings containing 24 rooms for classes, office etc. The madrasah has 2 computers. Electricity, tube well, gas, canteen, boundary wall, toilets, and a library are available.
Kasemul Qoumi Ulum

The Madrsah is situated in a rural area in a small District called Lalmonirhat under the Rajshahi Division. It is in the Northern corner of the country, about 350 km away from Dhaka. It is a new Madrasah build in 2003. Its a small size Qoumi Madrasah for only boy students. A managing committee runs the madrasah. It offers education from Class 1 up to 7. There are 5 teachers; all are male. The madrasah has enrolled a total number of 105 students this year. It

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education owns 45 decimals of land. There are 2 houses/ buildings with 7 rooms for classes, office etc. Electricity, tube-well, toilets, and boundary wall are found in this madr

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Annex 2 Playtime in Madrasahs This is what the girls say: I watch TV in my neighbors house (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). After the Asar prayer I watch TV and play with my sister (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah) I seldom watch TV because my mother prevents me (female student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah) In the evening I seat again to study. I often watch TV (female student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah) After lunch I go to a private tutor with 6 other female students and come back home. I perform household tasks like folding clothes, picking up, etc. Then I seat to study till 9:00pm [] I do not have time to play. Besides, my mother scolds me for playing. I play inside our house with dolls and cooking utensils. I play only once in a day (female student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah). I do not get opportunities to play. Besides, my mother does not allow me to play (female student of Class 8 in Aliya Madrasah). After getting back home [from madrasah] I usually help my mother with her work (female student of Class 9 in Alyah Madrasah). Generally I do not play, but sometimes when we gather with other friends we play ludu or carom (female Dakhil examinee). After returning home [from madrasah] I take a shower, rest till 4:00pm. Then I have a snack and help my mother in the kitchen till the evening (female student of Class 6 in Aliya Madrasah). In the afternoon, we play games. After playing, I sit to prepare my lessons (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). After 3 classes we get a tiffin period, at this time we play (female student of Class 3 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). Our class starts at 8:00 AM. After 3 classes we get a break. This is the time when we play games (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye madrasah). In the afternoon, we play games till evening. After playing, I come back home and wash my face and hands. Then, I sit to prepare my lessons. After the Isha prayer, I take my meal and go sleep (female student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). After madrasah breaks I return home, I rest for a while and start reading my lesson. In the afternoon I go out to play games. In the evening, I study till 9:00pm. Then I watch TV or do something else (female student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). This is what the boys say:

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During tiffin period, after completing my prayer, I play for a little while. We play sums, cricket, and musical chair. We cannot play football because we do not have a play ground (male student of Class 7 in Aliya Madrasah). During break, I play cricket (male student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). After my lunch I go to play (third year male student in Fazil Madrasah ). I am a resident student [] after my afternoon prayer I sometimes play games (first year male student of Alim Madrasah). I am a resident student [] after the Asar pr ayer sometimes we play games or go for a walk []We can play near our madrasah. We do not have our own playground. Therefore, we play on another playground (male student of Class 10/Science in Dakhil Madrasah). I am a resident student [] I sometimes play cricket after the Asar prayer (second year male student in Fazil Madrasah). I play games after the Asar prayer in the afternoon (male student of Class 8 in Aliya Madrasah). After playing games in the afternoon, I say the Maghreb prayer (male student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah). I can play outside with the permission of my teacher or can play on the madrasah campus if I obtain permission after submitting a written application (male student of Class 9 in Aliya Madrasah). We can play football and cricket in our madrasah (first year male student in Fazil Madrasah). We get a chance to play only once a day after the Asar prayer in the afternoon. We usually play games like football and cricket (male student of Class 10 in Aliya Madrasah). Here we get a break when it is time to offer our prayers. During these breaks we do not get any time to play (male student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). After class, I offer my prayer. Then, I take a bath and take my meal and sit to study. In the afternoon we play games till evening. After playing, I come home back [home] and wash my face and hands. Then, I sit to prepare my lessons. After the Isha prayer, I take my meal and go sleep (male student of Class 2 in ibtedaye Madrasah). In the afternoon we play games till evening. After playing, I come back home and wash my face and hands. Then, I sit to prepare my lessons. At 10:00 PM I go to sleep. (male student of Class 5 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). In the afternoon I wander here and there till evening. Then after returning home, I wash my face and hands. Then, I sit to prepare my lessons. After the Isha prayer, I take my meal and go sleep (male student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye Madrasah). In the afternoon we play football or cricket till evening (male student of Class 4 in Ibtedaye madrasah). We get breaks to offer our prayer 5 times a day. Besides, we are given time to play in the afternoon (male student of Class-Hifz in Qoumi Madrasah).

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After the Asar prayer, we pray cricket or football (male student of Class-Hifz in Qoumi Madrasah). We get 3 leisure periods during the school day (male student of Class-Yaz Dahm in Qoumi madrasah). Besides prayer times, we get 3 more breaks in a day (male student of Class-Yaz Dahm in Qoumi Madrasah). After the Asar prayer, we pray cricket or football (male student of Class-Nazera in Qoumi Madrasah). After the Asar prayer we get a break. During this time I walk here and there (male student of Class 9 in Qoumi Madrasah).

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Appendix 10 An Account of the Situation of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in Bangladesh in 2010 About Ibtedaye Madrasahs
Ibtedaye madrasahs provide education for Classes 1 to 5. They come in two varieties. There are those that are attached to a higher madrasahs the so-called attached Ibtedayes and those that are independent. The former in many cases began as independent madrasahs and over time added higher classes.

Attached Ibtedaye Madrasahs


In 2008 there were 9279 attached Ibtedayes with 1,663,367 students, BANBEIS 2009, Table 4.1.2. Almost all higher madrasahs have Ibtedaye sections that educate Classes 1- 5, i.e., they are comparable to primary classes47. The average enrolment in those attached Ibtedayes was 179 students, of whom 46% were girls. On average these madrasahs had four teachers, with very few female teachers, approximately 10% of all teachers48. The distribution of enrolments among the five classes is surprising in that there are almost equal proportions, 21%, in Classes 1 and 5, with lower proportions in the other classes49. This is unlike primary schools where high proportions are found in the early classes and there is a sharp fall-off towards the end of the cycle.

Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs


In 2010 the CDTA commissioned BANBEIS to conduct a sample survey of approximately 25% of the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. No survey of these institutions has been conducted since 2003 when DPE included the Independent Madrasahs in their annual primary school census. The characteristics of the Independent Madrasahs described in this report are based solely on this new data set consisting of 24 data tables drawn from the 2010 database of 1104 active Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in the selected districts. There were 1104 active Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in the districts that were sampled, somewhat fewer than had been estimated based on records of the BMEB and BANBEIS, which were last updated in 2005. For this survey, the BMEB and BANBEIS lists were supplemented on the basis of reports from field officers. This resulted in a new list of 2103 institutions in the selected districts. However, of these, only 1104 were found to be active as Independent Ibtedaye at the time of the survey; 80 had been upgraded to Dakhil, 74 had converted to Qoumi Madrasahs, and 21 converted to KG+noorani Madrasahs; while 824 (40%) had disappeared.

Introduction The Sample and the Data Collection Process

47 48

There were 9381 higher Madrasahs in 2008 of which 9279 had attached Ibtedaye sections. Ibid Table 4.1.4 49 BANBEIS 2010 Table 11.

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education This Ibtedaye survey was conducted using a sample of 25% of all districts in the country. Statistically, it followed a single stage stratified cluster sampling design, where the four greater (old) administrative divisions were considered as strata. From each of the stratum, four districts were randomly selected. However, one district (Rangamati) from Chittagong division was later dropped and replaced by Gopalganj from Dhaka division because there is a very low incidence of madrasahs in this Hill Tracts districts and because Dhaka is the largest division. Thus, those 16 districts were selected randomly as the primary sampling units (PSU) from the total of 64 districts in the country. All Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in all 117 upazilas within the selected districts are included in sample (a list of all upazilas sampled within the selected districts is attached in the annex to this report). The survey planners began with a list of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs that was prepared by the DPE and BMEB in 2002, and later updated by BANBES during 2002-2005. The list was subsequently updated during the initial period of the fieldwork. As mentioned above, there were 1104 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs found to be active in the selected districts at the time of survey; all were included in this survey. However, three metropolitan thanas of the 119 upazilas/thanas do not have any Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs and hence the total number of upazila/thanas included in the survey is 116. One hundred sixteen enumerators under the supervision of 16 District Education Officers conducted the survey. The enumerators visited each madrasah in the sample physically to collect data using a structured questionnaire. The timing of the survey was May-July, 2010

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Part I: Institutions and Students


Based on this 25% sample we estimate that, in Bangladesh, there are in 2010 some 4278 (standard error 77) Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs with 655,270 students (standard error12203). The vast majority, 94%, of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs (IIMs) are located in rural areas. They are modest sized institutions with an average of 4 teachers, 4.5 rooms and 153 students. Table 10.1 summarises data on the institutions teachers and students.
Table 10.1: Summary Data on 1104 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in the Sample. Characteristics Students Teachers Rooms Numbers in Sample Averages per Madrasah

169097 4800 4944

153 4 4.5

Source: BANBEIS 2010b50, Tables 1, 2 & 19

Almost all (97%) of the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are coeducational. Of the 9 girls-only Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, 4 are in Coxs Bazaar district. This same district has 3 of the 16 boys- only Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. Local custom may dictate a preference for single-sex educational institutions. There are variations in the number of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs within divisions. In the sample we observe a range from 74 to 334 for Sylhet Division and Rajshahi Division, respectively. At district and upazila level there is also some variation that may result in having more Ibtedayes in one location than another. Two possible explanations are that Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are filling gaps in provision where there is a shortage of other types of primary schools. Or, since elite persons of the area commonly found Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, the presence of one madrasah may encourage other elites in the area to found an Independent Ibtedaye Madrasah of their own. The rate of participation of students in primary level education has to take into consideration all nine types of recognised primary schools, as well as NGO education centres. Hence, the absence of, or low numbers of, Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in an upazila does not imply low primary student participation since there may be a more than adequate supply of other types of primary level institutions. There are also geographical areas that have communities with different religious traditions. Unofficial data from the DPEs 2009 Primary School Census show that nationally the gross enrolment rate stood at 103.5% and net enrolment at 93.9%, with noticeable sex differences in favour of girls, DPE, 201051. There are wide variations across the districts, however, with a range for the Gross Enrolment Rates for girls from 87.7% in Netrokona to 124% in Kishorganj. The 2008 survey of post-primary educational institutions showed that there were more secondary level madrasahs, in proportion to population, in Barisal Division than elsewhere. Given that we have a sample, and not data from a national census, we cannot draw reliable inferences about the nature of enrolment rates in the divisions for Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, except that they vary in the sample.

BANBEIS, 2010 b Final Output Tables of the Survey of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs. DPE relies on projections made by BANBEIS of the number of students in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, while using data supplied by BANBEIS of primary age children in attached Ibtedaye Madrasahs.
51

50

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Management of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs


Table 10.2: Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs with MPO in the Sample, by Division. Number of Ibtedaye Madrasahs in sample
70 215 319 92 334 74 1104

Division
Barisal Chittagong Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Sylhet TOTAL

%age distribution of Ibtedaye in the sample (N=1104)


6.3 19.5 28.9 8.3 30.3 6.7 100.0

%age distribution of MPO in the sample (N= 333)


3.3 (11) 21.0 (70) 38.4 (128) 3.6 (12) 30.0 (100) 3.6 (12) 100.0 (333)

Source: BANBEIS 2010 b, Table 1. MPO = Monthly Payment Order

Out of the 1104 madrasahs in the sample, 30% (330), were found to be MPO enlisted. It is observed that the smaller divisions Barisal, Khulna, and Sylhet all have smaller percentages of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs with MPO than the other divisions in the sample. Dhaka division has a larger share than its proportionate representation while Rajshahi has its proportionate share of MPO. Since the sample was not drawn to give proportionate weight to the respective divisions we cannot infer reliably from this observation, but thie issue of the equitable share of MPO enlistments may be worth exploring subsequently.

Management Committees
Less than 5% of the sampled madrasah had no management committee(s). In Khulna all Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs had a management committee. Since less than one third of the sampled institutions came under the monthly payment order (MPO) system, the managing committee has a key role in ensuring that each madrasah has the resources for basic teaching and learning conditions. Even in those institutions where MPO is given, the amount of MPO is so inadequate in relation to the needs (just over US$ 7 per month), that a good management committee would make a significant impact on an institution through fund raising and management oversight of teachers to encourage regular attendance. Government control over Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs is weak. Seventy percent have no GoB support. There is no inspection or teacher supervision for any IIM. Textbooks are the only government input, but as described later, the number of textbooks is insufficient.
Table 10.3: Membership of Management Committees of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs Division Number of Total Madrasahs Members of with a Management Management Committee Committee in Division
69 204 305 92 307 73 1050 783 2133 3157 1059 3297 783 11212

%age Female Members in Division (number)


9.7 (76) 6.8 (144) 7.9 (249) 9.1 (96) 5.5 (180) 7.4 (58) 7.2 (803)

%age Committees without any Female in Division (number)


44.3 (31) 53.0 (114) 39.2 (125) 50.0 (46) 54.5 (182) 66.2 (49) 49.4 (547)

Barisal Chittagong Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Sylhet TOTAL

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Source: BANBEIS, 2010b Table 13

Among the 11,212 committee members of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs, only 803 (7.2%) are female and half the management committees have no female member at all. Looking at the divisional differences we note that Barisal and Khulna have proportionately higher female representation. Relative lack of female representation contrasts with Government Primary Schools and Registered Non Government Primary Schools where government regulations require a female representation and there are quotas for females52.

Students Profile
Enrolments vary over the grades in ways similar to primary schools heavy enrolment in Classes I and 2 and rapid fall-off in numbers in the upper stages. Girls very slightly outnumber boys at each class.

Table 10.4: Enrolments in the Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs in the Sample Total Student Enrolment by Class Class Pre-Ibtedaye 1 2 3 4 5 Total
Source: BANBEIS 2010b, Table 8

(Percent)

%age Girls Enrolled by Class

11566 (6.8) 47830 (28.3) 35971 (21.7) 29874 (17.7) 24780 (14.7) 19076 (11.3) 169097 (100.0)

52.5 50.6 50.4 51.0 50.8 52.0 50.9

The structure of enrolments is similar to primary schools and different from the pattern in Attached Ibtedaye Madrasahs, see Table 10.5.

Table 10.5: Comparison of the Structure of Enrolments in Independent and Attached Ibtedaye Madrasahs and Government Primary Schools Class Pre-Ibtedaye/ Pre-Primary 1 2 3 4 5 Independent Ibtedaye 2010 Attached Ibtedaye (N=169097) 2008 %age of students in each class GPS 2009

5.85 30.2 32.6 19.0 15.7 12.4 21.59 18.47 18.68 18.41 21.86 23.82 21.18 20.02 16.97 12.46

DPE 2010 Annual Sector Performance Report p57. An average SMC consists of 11 members of which the proportion that are female is 17% in GPS and 13% in RNGPS.

52

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Source: Independent Ibtedaye BANBEIS 2010b, Table 8, recalculated to omit pre-Ibtedaye enrolments; Attached Ibtedaye, BANBEIS, 2010a Table 11. GPS, DPE 200953, Table 2.13, recalculated.

The higher proportion (more than 40%) of students in Classes 4 and 5 in Attached Ibtedaye Madrasahs possibly points to student repetition or efforts by the madrasahs to retain students. Also, no pre-Ibtedaye classes are reported in the Attached Ibtedaye Madrasahs, though such enrolments may be subsumed within Class 1 and reported as Class 1 enrolments. Students are typically 6 or 7 years old on entry, and 10+ or 11+ when they leave. The patterns are similar for boys and girls, although there is a slightly higher proportion of overage girls in Class 5, pointing perhaps to higher repetition and a commitment to completion of the primary cycle. 54.

Table 10.6: Percentage Distribution of Students in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs by Class and Age in the 2010 Sample. Below Correct Age (%) Male Female 12.1 12.5 8.3 8.5 6.9 6.4 7.1 7.3 6.5 6.0 Correct Age (%) Male Female 68.9 68.0 66.0 67.0 65.9 64.6 65.2 63.6 61.8 60.4 Above Correct Age (%) Male Female 19.0 19.5 25.7 24.5 27.3 28.9 27.6 29.1 31.7 33.6 Total

Class Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5

Total number Male Female 23645 24051 17957 17981 14898 14955 12188 12551 9164 9907 77852 79445

Source: BANBEIS 2010b, Table 5.2. Approximately one third of Class 5 students are overage.

Variations in girls enrolment by upazila.


Girls are just under 51% of total enrolments but there is considerable variation between upazilas from 39%. to 75% girls enrolments. One possible explanation lays in the varying availability of other forms of primary education and in the decisions that parents make for girls education. We know from the SIDA-commissioned Reality Checks that parents try to optimise the chances of enrolling their children in good schooling, while searching also for the least costly placement and to minimise girls exposure to risk.

53 54

DPE Final Draft 2009 Primary School Census. No data were collected on dropout and repetition.

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Exam passes
Table 10.7: Exam failure by grade in 2009 for Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs All Students who failed as a %age of those who appeared in the exams No. Appearing Girls who failed as a %age of those girls who appeared in the exam No. Appearing

Class

% Failing I 2 3 4 5 Total failures (All grades) Total number students who appeared
Source: BANBEIS, 2010b Table 9a

% Failing

11.03 9.13 9.75 10.01 8.96


9.92

40399 31865 27228 21851 17852


13809 139195

9.80 8.49 8.93 7.27 7.48


8.59

20118 15510 13306 13155 9209


6123 71298

Girls have consistently lower failure rates than boys and girls counted together and therefore are more successful in the examinations than boys. At this level, pass rates are not very meaningful since different exams are used by different madrasahs. (From November 2010 all Class 5 students sit the same examination, a terminal primary school examination. However, BMEB states that it will set the questions, so the same problem will continue to exist.)

Exam passes by division


Table 10.8: Class 5 passes by Division Description All Students Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi

Barisal

Chittagong 81.02% 4411

Sylhet

Total

%age of Class 5 83.10% who pass Number of students 1361 in Class 5 %age of Class 5 who pass Number of girls in Class 5 %age of Class 5 who pass Number of boys in Class 5

83.50% 69.52% 5442 1437


Girls only

84.43% 5715

75.79% 81.67% 1260 19626

84.71% 680

85.95% 2356

85.10% 83.55% 2906 602


Boys only

85.19% 2931

79.47% 84.91% 531 10006

81.49% 681

75.37% 2055

81.66% 59.44% 2536 835

83.62% 2784

73.11% 78.29% 729 9620

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ADB TA 7206-BAN: Capacity Development for Madrasah Education Again, we observe that girls have higher pass rates than boys and the pattern is found in all divisions. Pass rates for boys in Khulna are particularly low.

Students characteristics
Less than 0.5% of students in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are classified as disabled. Seventy-five percent of those so classified are girls and the majority is in Class 1. Possibly the educational needs of the disabled are being met in other forms of primary schooling. More likely rural schools do not have any special programs or facilities for helping disabled students, so they do not bother to classify them as disabled. Thus, all who come are taught as best the madrasah is able to do under the circumstances. As expected, there are few tribal students only 52 in total out of 169, 097 students. BANBEIS 2010 b Table 14b

Students with stipends


Table 10.9: Percentages of Students who hold stipends. %age holding stipend 0.0 Total enrolled students 11566 %age holding stipend 0.0 Total enrolled girls 6075 %age holding stipend
0.0 13.9 13.5 13.7 12.7 13.7 12.7

Class Pre-Ibtedaye I 2 3 4 5 Total

Total enrolled boys 5491

13.59 13.44 13.75 13.61 14.14 12.72

47830 35971 29874 24780 19076 169097

13.27 13.40 13.78 14.47 14.50 12.77

24181 18131 15236 12595 9922 86140

23649 17840 14638 12185 9154 82957

Source: BANBEIS 2020 b Table 14b

Observations:
Girls and boys benefit equally from stipends though there are fewer student benefitees - only 12.7% - than would be found in a comparable sample of primary school students. The Primary Education Stipend Project (PESP) was launched in FY2002-03 and targets 40% of the poorest children in each recipient school in rural areas. Note that the PESP does not apply to urban areas, though that factor ought not to affect the numbers receiving stipends in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs since 94% of them are in rural areas.

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Attendance on the day of the Survey

Percentage of Male and Female Students Receiving Stipends


Total 5th class Percentage 4th class 3rd class 2nd class 1st class Pre-Ibtedaye 0% 5% 10% Class 15% 20% % Male % Female

Table 10.10: Attendance of Students on the Day of the Survey by Division

Division Barisal Chittagong Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Sylhet TOTAL

Students Attending Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs on the Day of Survey All % % All girls % All boys students attending attending enrolled attending enrolled enrolled 65.27 10064 65.23 5039 65.3 5025

75.71 71.92 72.36 71.77 76.69 72.66

39894 50494 12238 47275 9132 169097

73.93 70.38 70.63 71.48 76.46 71.55

20884 26432 6068 23656 4061 86140

77.7 73.6 74.1 72.0 76.9 73.8

19010 24062 6170 23619 5071 82957

Source: BANBEIS, 2010 b, Table 17

Girls have consistently better attendance rates than boys and girls taken together. Attendance in Barisal is lower than in the other Divisions for unknown reasons. Attendance at this level is slightly higher than at Dakhil level, where in 2008 68% attended on the day of the survey. It is also slightly better than in the attached Ibtedayes where, in 2008, 66% attended, BANBEIS 2010 b Tables 27 and 28.

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Part II: Teachers in Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs Summary of Key Data


In the 1104 Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs there are 4800 teachers and 133 other staff. Female teachers are 18% of the total. Although 30% of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs are under MPO only 17% of the teachers are under MPO, indicating that only approximately half of teachers in those favoured 30% of Independent Ibtedaye Madrasahs receive MPO. The MPO entitlement is only Tk 500 for Ibtedaye teachers and that amount compares very unfavourably with teachers with MPO in Dahkil and with teachers in non-government primary schools. Female teachers with MPO are less than 13% of all female teachers, as