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FACULDADE DE TECNOLOGIA RUBENS LARA

ANLISE E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE SISTEMAS

DISCIPLINA: INGLS-I
PRIMEIRO CICLO

Profa. Eliana Gregrio Rodrigues

ESTRATGIAS DE LEITURA
1) PREDICTING: direcione sua ateno para o ttulo e o formato do texto. Olhe atentamente qualquer figura, ilustrao, ttulo e subttulo que acompanhe o texto. Tente descobrir, antes de ler o texto, o assunto sugerido na unidade. Imagine palavras que provavelmente aparecero no texto. 2) SCANNING FOR KEY WORDS AND SPECIFIC INFORMATION: Scanning passar os olhos rapidamente pelo texto, procurando pistas e/ou informaes especficas para a compreenso do texto. Destaque as palavras-chave, e leia a frase em que elas se encontram com mais ateno. 3) SCANNING FOR IMAGES, NUMBERS AND UNIVERSAL SYMBOLS: ilustraes, nmeros, imagens grficas, e os smbolos universais (exemplos: US$ = dlar, R$ = real, # = nmero) so muito utilizados no scanning. Quando voc est procurando informaes, como por exemplo, preo e tamanho, voc no precisa ler tudo o que est escrito. Identifique os nmeros, smbolos, ou expresses significativas e pare quando os encontrar. 4) SKIMMING: passar os olhos sobre o texto antes de l-lo para se ter uma idia do que se trata. As primeiras e ltimas oraes dos pargrafos so particularmente importantes. Elas normalmente resumem os pontos principais. 5) COGNATES: Cognatas so as palavras semelhantes em portugus e ingls. Elas podem frequentemente ajudar voc a deduzir o significado de novas palavras em ingls. Alguns cognatos so chamados de false friends porque, embora as palavras paream semelhantes em ingls e portugus, elas possuem outro significado. 6) SUPPORTING EXAMPLES: muitas vezes os textos trazem exemplos para auxiliar a compreenso de uma idia que podem ser identificados pelo uso de expresses como: for example, for instance, e.g., i.e., a.k.a., such as and namely. 7) USING PUNCTUATION TO IDENTIFY ADDTIONAL INFORMATION: uso de sinais para dar explicaes ou informaes adicionais sobre aquilo que voc l, tais como: dois pontos [;] para listas e definies, parnteses ( ) para informaes extras ou exemplos, duas vrgulas [ , , ] sempre usadas em pares para apostos e outras maneiras de dizer algo. 8) MAKING PERSONAL CONNECTIONS WITH THE TEXT: sempre que voc ler um texto, pergunte a voc mesmo que tipo de texto , quem o autor, a quem ele se dirige e onde voc encontraria este texto. Pense sobre o tema. Como ele se relaciona com voc? Tente se identificar com o texto, faa associaes. 9) IDENTIFYING CAUSE AND EFFECT STATEMENTS: Alguns textos mostram como um fato causa um outro. A causa razo pela qual uma coisa acontece. O efeito o que acontece como resultado de uma causa. Voc pode entender melhor o que l, procurando no texto as idias de causa e efeito. Para identific-las, procure por palavras-chave que indicam causa e efeito tais como: leads to, causes, makes, because, is due to e when. 10) FINDING TOPIC SENTENCES AND SUPPORTING IDEAS: Ao ler um pargrafo ( um grupo de oraes com uma idia central), procure a orao principal que resume a idia central do pargrafo. Em seguida, busque os detalhes que reforam a idia dela. Isto ajuda a compreender e lembrar melhor aquilo que se l. 11) GETTING MEANING FROM CONTEXT: Ao encontrar uma palavra desconhecida e no tiver um dicionrio, voc pode: observar se as figuras que ilustram a pgina ajudam a compreender o que a palavra significa; procurar por cognatos; ou procurar pistas no texto

que podem ser um sinnimo, uma definio ou explicao contida antes ou depois da palavra que voc desconhece. 12) UNDERSTANDING WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS AND MANUALS: As instrues descrevem como fazer algo. Antes de iniciar qualquer procedimento, leias as instrues cuidadosamente, observando as sugestes relacionadas a seguir: a) inicie dando uma leitura rpida e geral no texto sem efetivamente executar nenhum dos passos. Certifique-se que voc compreendeu a idia geral dos procedimentos que esto sendo descritos; b) preste muita ateno nas indicaes de seqncias a serem seguidas (como first, then, next e finally) ou palavras-chave, numerais ordinais (first, second, third etc), cardinais (1,2, 3 etc), romanos ( I, II, III etc) ou letras (A,B,C etc) tambm mostram a ordem correta dos passos que voc deve seguir para realizar o processo; c) leia as instrues contidas no texto novamente, devagar e com ateno especial, certificando-se de que voc entendeu a ordem correta de cada passo a ser seguido. 13) UNDERSTANDING PRONOUN REFERENTS: Pronomes so usados para dar coeso ao texto e evitar repeties desnecessrias. importante identificar quais substantivos foram substitudos por pronomes. fundamental para a compreenso do texto saber a que palavra refere o pronome. Leia sempre a primeira parte da orao ou a orao anterior para encontrar a palavra ou as palavras que foram substitudas. 14) DISTINGUISHING FACTS FROM OPINIONS: Ao ler um texto, fundamental distinguir um fato de uma opinio. Um fato aquilo que real. Aos escrever textos factuais, os autores usam informaes do mundo real para apoiar ou provar os temas de seus textos. Uma opinio o que a pessoa acredita ser verdadeiro. Autores normalmente usam frases I think, I believe e in my opinion ao declarar suas opinies. 15) USING GRAMMAR TO GUESS WORD MEANINGS: A gramtica pode ajudar voc a descobrir o significado de palavras desconhecidas. Ao encontr-las, procure identificar a classe gramatical. Saber se uma palavra um verbo, um substantivo, um adjetivo, ou um advrbio ir facilitar a descoberta do significado dessa palavra. 16) USING GRAPHIC ELEMENTS TO SCAN TEXT QUICKLY: Para obter informaes especficas de um texto, leia rapidamente, prestando ateno aos ttulos, listas (normalmente indicadas por marcadores, nmeros ou letras), palavras em itlico ou em negrito e outras marcas grficas. 17) MAKING INFERENCES: Nem sempre o autor explica tudo aos leitores e tornar-se- necessrio supor essas informaes com base em pistas que o texto oferece bem como no seu conhecimento de mundo. Isso fazer inferncias. 18) DRAWING CONCLUSIONS FROM GRAPHS: Tabelas e grficos apresentam dados de forma concisa e de fcil visualizao. Para ler uma tabela ou grfico, voc deve, em primeiro lugar, encontrar o ttulo que normalmente o acompanha.Em seguida, analise bem o grfico ou tabela para perceber quais dados esto sendo representados ou comparados. Interpretando esses dados, voc poder tirar concluses sobre as informaes do texto. 19) IDENTIFYING MODIFIERS: Modificadores so palavras que modificam o sentido de outras palavras. Palavras que modificam o sentido de substantivos so os adjetivos e palavras que modificam o sentido de verbos ou adjetivos so advrbios. 20) IDENTIFYING PROS AND CONS: Um artigo uma exposio curta e objetiva de um fato. As idias, os dados e os argumentos que sustentam e explicam as posies do autor so apresentados no seu desenvolvimento. no desenvolvimento que ele defende seus pontos de vista, os prs e os contras e todas as possveis linhas de argumentao que fundamentam as concluses. Palavras como positive, advantage e benefitial so usadas para defender os prs,
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e negative, disadvantage para os contras. Considerar os prs e os contras de um tema ajuda voc a avaliar o contedo de um texto e entender melhor os diferentes pontos de vista.

TEXTO 1
Hardware and software
In order to use computers effectively to solve problems in our environment, computer systems are devised. A system implies a good mixture of integrated parts working together to form a useful whole. Computer systems may be discussed in two parts. The first part is hardware: the physical, electronic, and electromechanical devices that are thought of and recognized as computers. The second part is software: the programs that control and coordinate the activities of the computer hardware and that direct the processing of data. The figure 1 below shows diagrammatically the basic components of computer hardware joined together in a computer system. The centerpiece is called either the computer, the processor, or usually the central processing unit (CPU). The term computer usually refers to those parts of the hardware in which calculations and other data manipulations are performed, and to the internal memory in which data and instructions are stored during the actual execution of programs. The various peripherals, which include input and / or output devices, various secondary memory devices, and so on, are attached to the CPU. Computer software can be divided into two very broad categories __ systems software and applications software. The former is often referred to as systems. These, when brought into internal memory, direct the computer to perform tasks. The latter may be provided along with the hardware by a systems supplier as a part of a computer product designed to answer a specific need in certain areas. These complete hardware/software products are called turnkey systems. The success or failure of any computer system depends on the skill with which the hardware and software components are selected and blended. A poorly chosen system can be a monstrosity incapable of performing the tasks for which it was originally acquired.

input Input i

computer

output

secondary storage

figure 1 Hardware components of a computer system

EXERCISES
1) Indicate whether the following ideas are stated or not stated (S/NS) in the text.

a) A system implies a good mixture of parts working together. b) Input and output devices operate more slowly than decision-making devices. c) The control unit and the arithmetic-logical unit are part of the processor. d) The computer is the hardware. e) Software is the programs on tapes and disks. f) The processor is usually referred to as the CPU. g) The word computer means the processor and the internal memory. h) Systems software is usually referred to as programs. i) Complete hardware/software products are called turnkey systems. j) Computers process specially prepared items of information.
2) Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line references.

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

The hardware consists of the physical devices of the computer. In order to solve problems, an appropriate computer system must be developed. The computer is the CPU and the internal memory; The success or failure of a computer system depends on the proper mixture of hardware and software. There are two parts to a computer system; Computer software can be divided into two parts. The software is the programs; The peripheral devices are attached to the CPU.

3) Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to.

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Computer systems may be discussed in two parts that are thought of that control and coordinate and that direct the processing in which calculations in which data and instructions The former is often simply referred to These, when brought into The latter may be provided along with for which it was originally acquired

(03) (05) (06) (07) (13) (14) (20) (21) (22) (29)

4) Refer back to the text and find synonyms for the following words.

a) developed (2)

b) infers (2)

c) joined (3)

d) chosen (27)

Refer back to the text and find antonyms for the following words. a) segregated (3) b)useless(3) c)narrow (19) d) well (28)

5) Organize the information from the text into main idea, major details and minor details.

TEXTO 2
What is a computer?

A computer is a programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program). Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery - wires, transistors, and circuits - is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software. All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components: memory : Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs. mass storage device : Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives. input device : Usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer. output device : A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished. central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions.

In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another. Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is considerable overlap: personal computer : A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data workstation : A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor. minicomputer : A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously. mainframe : A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. supercomputer : An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.

Fonte: www.webopedia.com

EXERCISE
A) Traduza o texto com as suas palavras. B) Prepare cinco perguntas em ingls referentes ao texto numa folha de papel. Troque com o colega mais prximo. Responda as perguntas.Ao trmino desta atividade, pegue a sua folha de volta e corrija as questes respondidas pelo seu colega.

TEXTO 3
What is an Operating System?

An operating system is the most important program that runs on a computer. Every generalpurpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. For large systems, the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. It is like a traffic cop - it makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other. The operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system. Operating systems can be classified as follows: multi-user : Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users. multiprocessing : Supports running a program on more than one CPU. multitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently. multithreading : Allows different parts of a single program to run concurrently.

real time: Responds to input instantly. General-purpose operating systems, such as DOS and UNIX, are not real-time. Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run. The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating system. Your choice of operating system, therefore, determines to a great extent the applications you can run. For PCs, the most popular operating systems are DOS, OS/2, and Windows, but others are available, such as Linux which is a freelydistributable open source operating system that runs on a number of hardware platforms. As a user, you normally interact with the operating system through a set of commands. For example, the DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and RENAME for copying files and changing the names of files, respectively. The commands are accepted and executed by a part of the operating system called the command processor or command line interpreter. Graphical user interfaces allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the screen.

EXERCISES
1) Responda as perguntas a seguir de acordo com o texto.

a) O que um sistema operacional e qual a sua funo? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

b) Como so classificados os sistemas operacionais? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

c) Cite exemplos de sistemas operacionais mencionados no texto. __________________________________________________________________ d) O que significa a palavra acronym? Retire do texto alguns exemplos. __________________________________________________________________

TEXTO 4
CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
Computer technology affects every aspect of modern life. There are thousands of areas currently influenced by such technology and new applications are being developed daily. Computers have numerous uses and applications. Among the areas that currently use computer technology a great deal are business and industry, government, and medicine. Scientists, educators, and artists also employ the computer to assist them in their work and to enable them to use their time more creatively. In addition, computer technology has had a significant effect on entertainment and the arts. Computers have even begun to affect the home lives of their users. COMPUTERS IN BUSINESS
Perhaps the greatest effect of computer technology on modern society may be seen in the business field. The vast majority of businesses commonly use electronic data processing. Computers are employed in this field not only for everyday tasks, such as payroll, inventory, and billing, but they are also used for more complex operations, such as budgeting, research and development, and planning. Computers perform these functions for practically all types of businesses. In response to the specific demands of individual businesses, however, various specialized hardware and software systems have been developed. Large businesses, such as a telephone company, might utilize a large, powerful mainframe computer, whereas small businesses, such as gift shops, might employ a personal business computer. Many businesses make use of computers, particularly personal computers, to help with secretarial tasks. Word processing programs help secretaries complete typing tasks more quickly and efficiently. The same computer that is used for word processing may also be used to help with the accounting tasks of both large and small businesses. Many businesses might combine the use of a large, powerful computer with that of small, personal computers.

Banks, for example, rely almost entirely upon electronic data processing to perform their complex operations of check clearing and collection. Large retail stores and chains, such as supermarkets and department stores, make extensive use of computers not only to maintain strict inventory control, but also to record sales. Airlines, railways, and hotels depend upon computer systems to make reservations for their clients. Other aspects of travel, including loading cargo, scheduling flights and trains, and operating instruments, are also computer controlled. The printing and publishing industries also depend on computers, since modern printing methods are computerized.
Computerized control systems have many different applications. Such control systems are essential to the efficient operation of many businesses. Automobile factories, for example, employ a computerized system to control the operation of production lines. An increasing number of manufacturing organizations are now using computercontrolled robots on their assembly lines. In food plants, clothing factories, and pharmaceutical companies, computerized control systems perform the functions of filling containers, cutting patterns, and sealing bottles.

COMPUTERS IN GOVERNMENT Although businesses use computers a great deal, federal, state, and local governments constitute the largest group user of computers in the United States. Recordkeeping functions, necessary for such tasks as processing payroll, deducting taxes, and maintaining social security data, make up one of the government's primary uses of computers. In fact, the U.S. Bureau of the Census led the early development and use of computer technology. The Bureau of the Census is not the only large government agency which relies heavily upon computer technology. The work performed by government agencies like the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the National Security Agency (NSA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would be impossible without the aid of computers. Computer technology is especially important to ensure the smooth operation of the Department of Defense (DOD). Computers coordinate the systems of various branches of the armed servicesthe Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marines. In fact, computer technology has become absolutely necessary to the armed forces. Computers are essential in the development of military weapons and complex defense systems. In addition, computer simulations of real situations have proven to be very helpful in training military personnel. Although a soldier once relied primarily upon the excellence of his vision to sight and hit a target, he now depends almost entirely upon the accuracy of the computer to complete this task. Law enforcement agencies on the federal level, particularly the FBI, require advanced computer technology to perform such sophisticated tasks as matching fingerprints and identifying voice patterns. State and local law enforcement agencies utilize the computer in accomplishing a variety of tasks, including monitoring weapons sales, collecting fines, issuing license plates, and even registering puppy dogs. Computers are essential not only in fighting crime, but also in preventing it. Computer-based analyses can indicate the areas of high crime
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incidence, as well as predict future patterns of criminal activity. Computers play a part in almost every area of government. The government's official weather forecasts are dependent not only upon computer-produced data, including weather maps but also upon computer-controlled communications for satellites. Cityoperated subway systems, like the one in Washington D.C., are often directed by computers as well. Even train signals are operated by means of computerized control systems like those utilized in business and industry. COMPUTERS IN SCIENCE Besides their importance in business and government, computers are also very important in scientific fields. Geologists, for example, use computer technology to discover new deposits of energy resources; oceanographers use computers to obtain and process data concerning marine life, and botanists use computer-controlled instruments to analyze the composition of plants. Space exploration would be impossible without computers. Not only do computers control the operation of spacecraft, but they also provide the data astronauts need to make their calculations. As old as the science of astronomy is, advances such as the telescope at Mt. Palomar would have been unthinkable without computer technology. COMPUTERS IN MEDICINE Computers are used in the field of health care for various purposes. Maintaining accounts and other administrative duties are performed by the computer. In addition, patient care functions are often computer controlled. Computers monitor, or watch, a patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature. This allows for better quality health care because doctors and nurses have the opportunity to devote more time to individual patients. Up-to-date medical information and personal patient histories can be obtained immediately. Therefore, computers also aid medical personnel by helping them make intelligent decisions in life-threatening situations. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia, provide and receive essential medical data on both a national and international scale. Such life-saving information is then analyzed and stored in a large database so that it may be readily available when it is needed. COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION In education, computers are utilized not only to keep student records and further educational research, but also to assist in educating the student. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) refers to the direct communication between a student and a computer. The purpose of this communication is either to teach or practice specific educational material. The use of computers in education is very promising because the computer can serve a large number of students individually. CAI now influences educational practices on all levels of instruction. COMPUTERS IN THE ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT Just as computers have proven to be beneficial in such fields as business, government, science, and education they have become equally important to the arts and

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entertainment. There can be no doubt that computers can be effectively employed for creative purposes. They are used by graphic artists, sculptors, and writers. Computers are an important tool in modern animation (cartoons) and can even be employed to compose music. Computers have also had a significant effect upon the entertainment field, as can be seen by the great popularity of computerized games. The motion picture and television industries also demonstrate the varied uses of computers. The special effects so popular in contemporary movies would be impossible without computer technology. COMPUTERS IN THE HOME With the growing popularity of microcomputers, computer technology now affects home life as well. Many adults employ microcomputers to either supplement their children's education or to enrich their own knowledge. Even pre-school children benefit from the use of home computers. The growing popularity of personal computers is shown by the increasing use of such small computers not only for education or home entertainment, but also for such household tasks as planning menus, projecting budgets, and balancing checkbooks. Indeed, the once far-fetched dream of a computer-controlled home is fast becoming a reality. SUMMARY These are just a few of the many applications of computer technology today. The number of applications of computer technology is increasing every day and the number of people using computers is increasing as well. It is very likely that within the next few years few areas will remain untouched by computer technology.

EXERCISES
Vocabulary from Context A. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words or terms from the reading. Refer to the indicated paragraph as necessary. Be sure to use the correct grammatical form. applications (l) to enable(l) vast (2) marine (10) increasing (14) far-fetched (14) 1. Ideas, such as space exploration, that were once considered -__are now a reality. 2. The _______ majority of large corporations employ general purpose computers. 3. The ________ popularity of microcomputers will ultimately result in a decrease in the cost of these devices. 4. By freeing us from routine tasks, computers _____________ us to use our-time more creatively. 5. Data concerning ___________ life gathered during underwater expeditions are analyzed by computers. 6. One of the many ____________of computer technology in the business field is to control inventory. B. Find each of the following words or terms in the in the reading. 1. inventory (2) 3. geologist (10) 5. botanist( l0) 2. billing (2) 4. oceanographer (10) Now use the correct word to complete the following sentences. 1. A person who studies plant life is a _____________ . 2. A _________ studies the composition of the earth.

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3. A specialist in marine science is an __________. 4. Businesses rely on a periodic ____________ to keep track of their merchandise. 5. __________ is the primary method by which businesses collect revenues. C. Write the acronyms for the following. 1. Department of Defense 2. Internal Revenue Service 3. National Aeronautics and Space Agency 4. Federal Bureau of Investigation 5. National Security Agency 6. Environmental Protection Agency 7. Computer-assisted Instruction D. True-False. Write a "T" if the statement is true. Write "F" if it is false. 1. The use of computers by the government is limited to the Bureau of the Census. 2. Modern animation and special effects are largely dependent upon computer technology. 3. Business, government, science, and education make use of computer technology. 4. Assembly lines are all controlled by hand. 5. Computer technology has had no effect on the field of music. 6. The computer-controlled home is now common in the United States. 7. Children in the primary grades make use of the computer. 8. NASA uses computers to match fingerprints. 9. The greatest effect of computer technology can probably be seen in the business field. 10. Computers help people use their time creatively.

E.. Choose the letter of the best answer for each of the following. l. Which of the following is not mentioned in the reading as an application of computer technology? a. traffic control b. payroll c. car maintenance d. animation 2.Computer-controlled robots are used in a. education b. manufacturing c. hotels d. menu planning 3. CAI is employed . a. only in high schools b. only in colleges and universities c. only on microcomputers d. . on all levels of instruction 4. The Department of Defense utilizes computers a. only to sight targets b. only to design weapons c. to ensure the smooth operation of all military activity d. primarily to reduce crime

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5. Which of the following is not a computer application in the field of health care? a. administering drugs b. monitoring vital signs c. researching diseases d. maintaining patient records

TEXTO 5
What is a programming language?

A programming language is a set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. The term programming language usually refers to high-level languages, such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN and Pascal. Each language has a unique set of keywords (words that it understands) and a special syntax for organizing program instructions. High-level programming languages, while simple compared to human languages, are more complex than the languages the computer actually understands, called machine languages. Each different type of CPU has its own unique machine language. Lying between machine languages and high-level languages are languages called assembly languages. Assembly languages are similar to machine languages, but they are much easier to program in because they allow a programmer to substitute names for numbers. Machine languages consist of numbers only. Lying above high-level languages are languages called fourth-generation languages (usually abbreviated 4GL). 4GLs are far removed from machine languages and represent the class of computer languages closest to human languages. Regardless of what language you use, you eventually need to convert your program into machine language so that the computer can understand it. There are two ways to do this: compile the program

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interpret the program The question of which language is best is one that consumes a lot of time and energy among computer professionals. Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. For example, FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data, but it does not lend itself very well to organizing large programs. Pascal is very good for writing well-structured and readable programs, but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features, but it is complex and difficult to learn. Often abbreviated 4GL, fourth-generation languages are programming languages closer to human languages than typical high-level programming languages. Most 4GLs are used to access databases. For example, a typical 4GL command is FIND ALL RECORDS WHERE NAME IS "SMITH" The other four generations of computer languages are first generation: machine language second generation: assembly language third generation: high-level programming languages, such as C, C++, and Java. fifth generation: languages used for artificial intelligence and neural networks. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer the program is to run on, what sort of program it is, and the expertise of the programmer. Fonte:www.webopedia.com

EXERCISE
1) Responda as perguntas a seguir. a) Como o texto define linguagem de programao? b) Cite exemplos de linguagens de programao mencionadas no texto. c) Quais so as geraes de linguagens de computador? d) Quais so as duas formas de transformar o cdigo fonte escrito em linguagem de alto nvel para linguagem de mquina? 2) Pesquise na internet sobre uma linguagem de programao da atualidade. Imprima o texto escolhido. No esquea de indicar a fonte. Faa um resumo em portugus e prepare tambm cinco perguntas em ingls (Use pronomes interrogativos, tais como: who, how, how many, how much, what, what kind, etc)

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