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WADe TECHNICAL REPORT 57-343

ASTIA DOCUMENT No. 142117


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,A STUDY OF THE METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES THAT
ARE NECESSARY FOR SATISFACTORY BEARING
PERFORMANCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IM-
PROVED BEARING ALLOYS FOR SERVICE UP TO 1 000 F.
GOPAL K. BRAT
ALVIN E. NEHRENBERG
CRUCIBLE STEEL COMPANY OF AMERICA
NOVEMBER 1957

MATERIALS LABORATORY
CONTRACT No. AF 33(616)-3318
PROJECT No .. 7351
WRIGHT AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER
AIR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND

UNITED STATES AIR FORCE
WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OHIO
Carpenter Litho & Prtg. Co., Springfield, Ohio
500 - December 1957
Approved for Public Release
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'l'b18 reper t vae prepared 17 CrucibleS l eD)" ot -"108 1II1cler US'"
Ccotract No. J:I 33(616).'318. Ph n. !'hi. ocatJ-aot V88 initiated 84 ..
Projeet No. 7.351. ... 'a1l1c Materials .' 'fuk No. 73.512. -Hip '1'-.peratUI8
Alloy.-. The work va. adll.1n1I1tered utter 'he 41reo'iCll ot tbe Material. lab-
orat0J7. Direotorate ot LabOl'atoriell. Wrisht Air lIe ... lopD8Dt c.ntv. w:lth
Lt. p. A. Santol! 04 aubaequent17 Lt. G. St. Pierre 'bIg .. projeet ensiDeer.
'1'h1s report eoy ... work cODduete4 fre:. .ranus
r
, 1, 1956 to Marah 31. 1951.
The iIlt tlan reported in Pb.. I ot this report GIl ourr.at17 u el
bearing II tee18 was obtaine4 'throush " 1 industrial and tal
80urC88. AclcDovl t 18 due 8spaolal17 to the tollov1D.BI
W. Badpr. G. Cash and C. Muench; General Xleetrio
Aircraft Bngine II. vi., lao
V. Cook. L. Sbarpe and G. C. BarneaJ h.t't and Wh1.87 Mraiautl 1
Corp orat lOll
L. D. Cobb. C. Nor'on. IIDd .1. Gent1le. Departure D1 naiaD. General
Motors Corporation
R. r. Ca8ella and H. Bubble, Fafnir Bearing 8D7
T. CouD1han. C. Kalohthaler. K. Spec' and 1. MeNl', u,.a .. t Bear1Jls
DlY18ion. General Motors Corporation
1. Preston. tormer17 ot .. Vr1ght Jero
ne
utloal Cc:rporat101l
c. ...... Irwin. and D. Jamdqu18t. 111l-aookvell Bear1l11
Can})SD)"
W. Walp I S&I' Industrie8. Inc.
c. M. Allen. G. K. )fauniDs. H. Cr088t eDd R. McIntirel Bettelle
"'-"sl Institute
E. Bisson and R. L. lohnsoD; National Ad'Yiao17 ec.uttee tor
Aeroo8utlc8
WADe TB 57-343
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ABSTRACT
The use of bearings made from hot work steels and other tool steels in experi-
mental engines has resulted in a few premature engine failures. Unfortunately,
very little has been known about the elevated temperature properties such as hot
hardness. compre ive yield strength. real.tanee to softening and structural and
dimensional stability of theBe hot work and other tool steels. This report de8cribes
the work done to obtain these material properties for 29 steele ranging in type from
SAE 52100. its modifications, to hot work and other tool steels. An analysis of the

data obtained shows that Halmo, VSM, M50. MIO. Mi, Ml and two experimental
compositions one. Steel B, containing O. 70 carbon, 4. ZO chromium, 0.60 vanadium,
and 5.30 molybdenum, and the other, Steel G, containing 1.31 carbon, 4.07 chromium,
4. 13 vanadium. 5. 75 tungsten, and 4.87 molybdenum, are suitable for elevated tem-
perature aircraft bearing application. From a point of view of temperature range of
application these steels have been classified as follows:
Room Temperature up to 700 F
Room Temperature up to 800 F
Room Temperature up to 900 F
Halmo 1
M50, MlO and Steel B
Tl, M2, Ml and Steel G
None of the steels investigated appeared suitable for application at 1000 F.
PUBLICATION .REVIEW
This report has been reviewed and is approved.
FOR THE COMMANDER:
WADe TR 57-343

111
R. R. Kennedy
Chief, Metals Branch
Materials Laboratorv
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section
I INTRODUCTION .. . .. .. .. .. . .. III
II OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY III .. ..
PHASE I
III REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON AIRCRAFT BEARING
STEELS AND INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM BEARING AND
AIRCRAFT ENGINE MANUFACTURERS III III , ......
Bearing Steel Requirements. III III . . . . .. III III
Notes on Bearing Failures ... III III III III III III
Appraisal of Survey Inform.ation

PHASE II
IV EXPERIMENTAL WORK

Material. III .. III III
Preliminary Heat Treatment . . III III
Resistance to Softening Studies III III

Hot Hardnes s Studies. . . . .

Diznensional Stability Studi.es ..... .. III III
Elevated Temperature Compression Tests ....... .

Metallographic Studies ..

v RESULTS ...

.. III III
PHASE III
VI ANALYSIS OF RESULTS III
VII CONCLUSIONS. .

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VIn SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

III ..
IX SELECTED REFERENCES ..

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WADe TR 57-343

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LIST OF TABLES
Table P a ~ e
I. List of Bearing Steels and Their Chemical Analyses 16
II.
III.
IV.
v.
VI.
Figure
Details of Bearing Steel Forging and Annealing Procedures.

Results of Tempering Survey .

.. . .
Results of Hot Hardness S,urvey.

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Dimensional Stability Test Results for Bearing Steels.

COInp-ression Test Results for Bearing Steels . . .. . . ..
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Schematic Drawing of the Rockwell Type Hot Hardness
z.
3.
4.
5.
Testing Assembly . " . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .
Hot Hardness Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
Specim.en used in Dimensional Stability Studies . . . . . . . . ..
Compression Test Fixture (Schematic Drawing) . . .. . . . .

Subpress used in Elevated Temperature Com.pression Tests

17
19
24
29
3Z
36
37
38
39
40
6-34.
35-63.
64-92..
Master Tempering Curves for Bearing Steels .. .. . . 41
Influence of Temperature on Hot Hardness of Bearing Steels
Microstructures Showing Carb.ide Size and Distribution in

Bearing Steels. . . . . . .

93. A Curve Showing the Mean Hardness Values and the Standard
Deviation from the Mean Computed for ZZ Bearing Steels
50
60
at Temperatures Varying from Room Temperature to 1000 F.. 68
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I. INTRODUCTION
The increase in flight speed and engine power output in jet engines and gas
turbine power plants of recent years has forced a steady rise in the engine operat-
ing temperatures.. These changes, particularly the higher engine operatil'l:g temper-
atures, have necessitated the u'se of materials with superior elevated temperature
physical and mechanical properties. For instance. in most present day engines, the
maximum bearing tern.peratures are approaching 500 F. The most commonly used
bearing steel, SAE 52100, can no longer be used since it rapidly loses hardness and
dimensional stability above 450 F.
Engine operating telIlperatures are expected to reach- 700 F in engines of
a_a .. .. . 6 ___ o. , . ... a __
the near future. Therefore, the need for bearing materials with adequate hot hard-
ness (56 to 58 RC at the operating temperature) and other required mechanical and
physical properties is very urgent. Nutnerous attempts are being made by the air-
craft industry to use hot work die steels and other tool steels for bearing application
with varying degree of success. The nlain drawback of these presently available steels
seems to be their unpredictable fatigue life and somewhat lower mean life in bear-
ing tests when compared with that for SAE 521004 Only scant data are available on
the behavior of these steels at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, it has been
difficult to analyse properly the causes of premature failure of bearings made from
hot work and other tool steels.
This program. was, therefore, initiated'to obtain data on hot hardness, dimen-
sional stability, compressive strength and resistance to softening for various hot
work and other tool steels which have been proposed for bearing applicat.ion in the
temperature range 40'0 to 1000 F. Since the bearing is a vital part in the aircraft .
engine, it is also deemed neces sary to devise means of accurately predicting fatigue
life of bearing steels. A full understanding of the material characteristics and their
behavior in simulated and actual bearing performance tests could then lead to the
selection of suitable elevated temperature bearing steels and also to the development
of new and improved bearing steels.
"ManuBcript released by authors Sept. 4" 1957 for publication as a W ADC Technical
Report"
WADe TR 57-343 1
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II. OBJEC TIVES OF THIS STUDY
This prbgram comprises three phases. In Phase I, efforts were directed
toward
J
(a) making a literature survey of all available information on high speed roll-
ing contact bearings; (b) collecting in a single report the views expressed by bearing
manufacturers and aircraft engine builders on property requirements of high
ature bearing materialsj (c) tabulating the steels currently selected for bearing
applications above the temperature range covered by SAE 52100 steel; and (d) accumu-
lating all existing data on the results of bearing tests using hot work and other tool
steels ..
The work on Phase II consisted of a study of the metallurgical properties to
include resistance to softening, hot hardness, dimensional stability, and elevated
temperature compression behavior of some promising steels for elevated temperature
bearing application.
Phase III includes an analysis of the data obtained in Phase II and recommen-
dations of steel compositions which are considered applicable for aircraft engine
bearings.
III. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON AIRCRAFT BEARING STEELS AND
INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM BEARING AND AIRCRAFT ENGINE
MANUFACTURERS (Phase I)
The bearings used in the turbine type aircraft power plants are of the roll-
ing contact type. Ball thrust bearings are used on the propeller shaft and these are
usually heavily loaded. The most pressing problems are connected with the- turbine
main bearings and compressor thrust bearings. The compressor rear thrust bear-
ing is exposed to hot air leakage from the last stage of the compressor. It is also
subjected to a combination of heavy radial and thrust loads.
The four major items of concern to bearing manufacturers are: (1) the
engine speed which determines the size of the bearings; (2) the operating and soak
back temperatures; (3) the radial loads; and (4) the thrust loads.
The present trend in bearing design is towards higher stresses and much
higher operating temperatures up to 1500 F. temperatures of 700 F. thrust
loads up to SO I 000 pounds and DN va1ues* of 3.5 x 10 are anticipated in aircraft
engines of the immediate future
*DN value is bearing bore in mm. tim.es shaft speed in r.p.m.
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Bearing Steel Requirements
The basic requirement of a bearing is complete reliability for a life of 1000
hours.. Also, because of severe cyclic stresses exerted on the rolling elements of
aircraft bearings, the material used in bearing balls and races must meet very rig-
id quality standards. Furthermore, the material must possess superior mechanical
and physical properties. In metallurgical quality control tests, bearing steels must
meet minimum standards. Tests which are applied include: deep etching, fracture
rating, taper or hairline tests, and visual, magnetic and ultrasonic inspection methods
for hidden and random inclusions. The bearing manufacturers consider it mandatory
that consecutive shipments of steel should respond to heat treattnent in a uniform
manner.
The quality standards have been further defined by ASTM specifications A 2-95-
46'T for carbon-chromium ball- and roller-bearing steels. Since these specifications
cover only three types of steel, SAE 52100, 51100 and 50 lOOt these 'may be inapplicable
for hot work die steels and other tool steels. The cleanliness specifications proposed
by bearing manufacturers require an inclusion rating not to exceed 1.5 based on the
thin series ASTM specifications A 295-46T.
In vacuum melted bearing steels, the aim should be to obtain an inclusion rat-
ing below 0.5 in the thin series. The austenitic grain size requirement is between
7 and 8 and decarburization in annealed bars must not exceed .. 030 inch for bar sizes
1 to 3 inches .
. Physical and Mechanical Properties: The following material properties are
desired by bearing manufacturers for fully heat treated steel of ideal high temper-
ature bearing composition:
1. A hardness of Rockwell C 58 at the operating temperature for at
least 1000 hours.
2. Dimensional stability when exposed to the temperatures develope-d
immediately after a shutdown. (100-200 F higher than the engine
operating temperature)
3. A high elastic limit.
4 .. Good thermal stability and resistance to oxidation and corrosion in
environments encountered in engine application.
5. Good wear resistance and the ability to maintain a very highly
polished surface.
6.. Fairly constant coefficient of thermal expansion.
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7. A low friction coefficient.
8. A constant elastic modulus in the range minus 65 F up to the
maximutn service temperature.
9. A uniform distribution of carbides and freedom from stringer
type and large randomly distributed inclusions.
10. A high resistance to rolling fatigue ..
11.. Freedom from seizing and galling.
At the time this survey was made
t
the steels listed below along with their
nominal composition were being considered for elevated temperature bearing appli-
cation. Some of these steels were even being used in engine tests.
Designation

Halma
Rex LA
M-I
M-Z
M-I0
M-50
T-l
VSM
8Cr-BW
MHT
52100
Bower 315
(carhurizing
grade)
List of Current Bearing Steels and Their
Nominal Composition
c Mn Si Cr v Mo
.60 .30 1.2 4.70 .60 5.25
.85 .30 .35 3.00 1.00 3.25
.80 .30 .25 4.00 1.00 8.00
.85 .. 25 .30 4.00 2.00 5.00
.85 .25 .30 4.00 2 .. 00 8.00
.80 .30 .30 4.00 1.00
4.00
w
-
1.50
1.50
6.00
-
-
.70 .30 .30 4.00 1.00
-
18.00
.. 70 .50 1.00 3.00
-
5.2.5
-
.. 55 .60 1.00 8 .. 00 .15
-
8.00
1.00 .40 .50 1.50
-
- -
1 .. 00 .35 .25 1.50
-
- -
.15 .. 50 .25 1.50
-
5.00
-
Ni Al
- -
-
-
- -
-
-
- -
-
-
- -
- -
-
1.25
- -
2.80
-
Since inclusions were considered undesirable in bearing steels, steelmakers
were requested to furnish the above compositions induction melted and cast in vacuum,
as well as melted by consumable electrode melting practice.
The scant information m.ade available by bearing tnanufacturers on these steels
is surnlIlarized below:
1. Ease of grinding was considered important and a partial listing of the rela-
tive grindability of some steels using 52100 as standard material is as
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follows:
Grade
52100
Halma
T-l
M-l
M-2
Rex LA
M-IO
Grindability Index
1
1.3/1. 5 (depending
upon carbon content)
1.5/1.8
1.8/2
3
3
4*

2. Dimensional stability and a constant coefficient of thermal expansion are
other important considerations. One bearing manufa'Cturer reported that in a ring
test used for checking dimensional stability, M-IO and T-l steels did not give satis-
factory results above 600 F. A majority of bearing manufacturers reported that the
high speed steels in the above list showed no significant dimensional change up to
600 F.
Notes on Bearing Failures
Because of the complexity of the interacting factors it is difficult to determine
the cause of bearing failures.. Reports show that it is almost impossible to detect
the initial cause of failure. After complete failure has occurred, it may be attri-
buted to one of several causes listed below:
1) Surface fatigue of rolling elements
z) Inadequate lubrication
3) Breakdown of lubricant and increase in acidity accompanied
by corrosion of the steel surface
4) Uneven wear of rolling elements and raceways
5) Excessive loading
6) Incompatibility of cage and rolling element material
F,..olling fatigue in bearings snould be distinguished from fatigue in materials
due to simple rotation.. Exact information on factors influencing rolling fatigue is
* A higher index nutnber denotes increased difficulty in grinding the steel.
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still lacking. Hardness and elastic limit have been correlated with rotating beam
fatigue life of steels. A material of high hardness normally exhibits a high endurance
limit, but it is not known if rolling fatigue has such a relationship to any of the mate-
rial properties.. Therefore, it is difficult to predict with any degree of certainty the
norm.al life of bearings lTlade from hot work and high speed steels.
A great many failures could be attributed to cage or separator material fail-
ures or a lack of lubrication at the contact points of rolling ele:ments. Another major
cause of failure is wear of rolling elements and raceways when thrust loads, speeds
and bore size are increased.. In certain instances premature bearing failures have
been associated with the presence of large non-metallic inclusions ..
Appraisal of Survey Information
This survey indicated that Halmo. MHT, M-l, VSM and M-50 were actively
considered for elevated temperature bearing application. Bearing manufacturers
reported a somewhat sporadic behavior of these materials in actual bearing tests.
Early bearing failures were often associated with the occurrence of large randomly
dispersed non-metallic inclusions in the steel. Although the role of inclusions in
causing bearing failure was not fully understood there was a widespread desire in
industry to use cleaner materials produced either by vacuum induction melting or
by vacuum arc remelting. It was also apparent that use of vacuum melted steel in-
creased bearing life by a significant factor. On the other hand, the bearing manu-
facturers and engine builders pointed out that it is of paramount importance to
provide more data on the mechanical and physical properties of
steels considered for bearing application in order to facilitate selection of the most
suitable compositions.
Hence, this program was initiated to study the properties of bearing steels, naDlely,
their resistance to softening. hot hardness, elastic properties in compression, dimen-
sional stability, in the range room temperature to 1000 F. Furthermore, the size
and distribution of carbides in these steels was to be observed in samples given the
optimum heat treatment.
It is a further objective of this project to conduct simulated bearing tests on
the most promising alloys using testing facilities at SKF Industries, Inc .. , for final
screening of the bearing steels.
IV. EXPERIMENTAL WORK (Phase II)
Material
The experimental steels included in this evaluation program are listed in
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Table I along with their chemical compositions. The steels other than those melted
in vacuum were made in 30 lb. induction heats. The ingots were forged first to 1-5/8
in. square billets, ground free of any surface defects, and then reforged to either 5/8
in. square or 3/4 in. square bars. Prior to shipment, the bars were stress relieved
at 1250 to 1350 F for one hour. The forging temperatures for the steels have been
recorded in Table II. The hot workability was judged good for all steels except those
marked with an asterisk; the forgeability of the latter was considered only fair.
The vacuum melted steels were obtained from the warehouse stock of Vacuum
Metals Corporation in the form of 1 in. round bars. The gas content of the vacuum
melted steel was in every case within the limits specified in Table I.
Preliminary Heat Treatment
Annealing: All forged bar stock was annealed in the manner described in .
Table II. Annealing was done by a continuous cooling procedure and the steels were
cooled at a. rate of 10 to 25 F per hour. Hardness measurements and :microstructural
studies were made on all steels to check the effectiveness of the annealing treatment.
Austenitizing for Hardening: The optimum austenitizing procedure for most
steels included in the current program had been previously established" However,
an austenitizing survey was carried out on those compositions on which information
was lacking in regard to a proper austenitizing temperature to obtain an austenitic
grain size between ASTM 6 and 8 and an optimum. carbide s i ~ e and distribution. The
determination of a suitable austenitizing temperature involved quenching samples
from various austenitizing temperatures. Subsequently, a check was made of the
response of the quenched specimens in developing a maximum secondary hardness.
Tempering temperatures were selected as high as was consistent with hardness
requirements. The austenitizing procedures for all steels have been listed in Table
III"
Resistance to Softening Studies
For this study, 3/4 in. thick specimens were cut from the annealed bar stock,
austenitized as specified in Table III, oil quenched and tempered at various temper-
atures in the range 400 to 1100 F for progressively increasing times. In the case of
52100, MHT and the silicon bearing MHT, tempering above 800 F was not done since
their useful range of application is well below this temperature.. Tempering up to
800 F for these steels was done merely to develop a useful master tempering curve.
The effect of varying austenitizing temperature upon the peak secondary hard-
ness and the temperature range of occurrence of secondary hardness was studied in
.. 9C Halmo, UC:r 440 C and 440 BM. In Tables IV and V it will be seen that the austen-
itizing temperatures used for these steels are different from those used in the temper-
ing survey. This change in the austenitizining temperature was necessary in order
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to extend the useful range of application for these steels by pushing the secondary
hardness peak to higher tempering temperatures. This is illustrated in the case of
.9C Halmo and UC by two tempering curves (Figs. 10 and 27) shown for two different
austenitizing temperatures. The results of a sho<rt tim.e tempering survey using
various austenitizing procedures for 440 C and 440 BM have not been shown.
Hot Hardness Studies
Specimens, approximately 3/4 in. in length, were cut from the annealed bar
stock of all steels. These were quenched and tempered as described in Table IV.
After the heat treatment, two parallel surfaces were ground along the length of the
specimen.
The hardness tester shown schematically in Figure 1 is a modified Rockwell
Hardness Machine. A front view of the machine with accessoriea is shown in Figure
2.. At the start of the hot hardness test, the specimen is placed on the anvil; this
anvil has a rectangular slot which acts as a guide to facilitate lateral movement of
the specimen. .Thus it is possible to obtain several readings without removing the
sample from the furnace enclosure. The furnace, which surrounds the anvil and
the indentor is screwed tightly at the bottom to the anvil. The top opening of the
furnace is sealed with liquid Woodis metal. The indentor is a conventional diamond
f1Brale" fastened with high temperature cement to an 8 in. long shaft attached to the
loading mechanism ..
A 150 kilogram load is then applied in measuring hot hardness of bearing
steels and the hardness data are read on the lie" scale" The specimen temperature
is measured and controlled by a thermocouple which is welded to the specimen and
connected to an electronic temperature controller. Scaling of the specimens in the
furnace is prevented by protecting them with an argon atmosphere throughout the
test.. The hardness measuring techniques need no further explanation since they are
no different from the standard room temperature hardness measuring procedur es.
Dimensional Stability
The specimens used in this study measured 3/8 in. in diameter by 4.000 plus
or m.inus 0.001 in. long, with ends ground to the of a 4 in. diatneter sphere.
The spherical ends were to prevent errors that might result from a slight tilting of a
squared-end cylindrical specimen during the length measurement. A drawing of this
specimen is shown in Figure 3 .. Duplicate samples from each bar were machined
slightly oversize to the dimensions given above; these specimens were austenitized,
quenched and tempered as specified in Table IV. The samples were then finish ground
to the specified dimensional tolerance. Precision length determinations were made
on a Johansson Comparator by fastening specimens to a jig to keep them vertical .. 'In
this apparatus, the standard gage block is 4.2 inches and the difference in length be-
tween the sample and the standard block is made up by inserting small gage blocks.
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The precision of the measureOlent is of the order of 10 x 10-
6
inch per inch. The
specimens used in this study were held for 1000 hours at 400 F and 600 F by sub-
merging the-m in a neutral salt bath. The 1000 hours exposure at 800 F and lOOOF
originally was also carried out in a neutral salt bath. However" it was found that at
the higher temperatures the salt was not sufficiently neutral toward the steel 80 that
scaling occurred on the specimens. Consequently, in later tests, specimens were
sealed in evacuated Vycor bulbs and then held for 1000 hours in neutral salt baths.
Elevated Temperature Compression Tests
A schematic diagram of the subpress used for elevated temperature compres-
sion tests is shown in Figure 4. A photograph of this subpress mounted in position in
a Riehle Testing machine is shown in Figure 5. Originally, it had been planned to use
high telllperature SR-4 strain gages in the compression tests; howeve.r, elevated tem-
perature strain gage application technology has not been perfected to the point where
the readings are reliable .. Since this development work involved considerable tiDle,
a compressometer which is standard equipment for measuring ctttn-pressive strains
has been used. The use of a compressorneter requires more care, as well as time, in
aligning the specimen. Except for this disadvantage it is capable of providing more
accurate readings than t h ~ high temperature SR-4 strain gages in their present form
of development ..
Metallographic Studies
It is evident that fatigue life of the steel may be affected by the size and distribu-
tion of carbides in the microstructure .. Fatigue cracks have been associated with flaws
in the material.. The steels included in this progratn, therefore, were examined for
uniformity of tnicrostructure with respect to size and distribution of carbides produced
by different austenitizing temperatures. Photomicrographs are used to illustrate the
microstructure of the different steels in a state of optimum heat treatment ..
v. RESULTS
The hardnesses of the annealed bars are shown in Table II. Microstructures
of all annealed steels were checked to ascertain that all steels were in a completely
spheroidized condition prior to hardening.
o ,
The results of the studies on the resistance to softening of the various bearing
steels have been summarized in Table III.. These results have also been plotted as
master tempering curves for each of the steels in Figures 6 to 34 inclusive. In these
curves, the tempering temperatures and time at these tem.peratures have been com-
bined in a single parameter by using the expression T(20 + log t) in which T represents
the absolute tem.perature, degrees Rankine, and t equals the tempering time in hours.
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Hot work steels are double tempered in commercial practice (two
t
2 hour tempers)
to transform retained austenite that is generally present after hardening. At any
,
selected temperature, the two consecutive two hour tempers will result in equivalent
. hardness to a single four hour tempering operation at the saIne teDlperature. Hence,
in the master tempering curves for secondary hardening steels. a scale has been added
to read directly the hardness for a four hour tem.per at various tem.peratures in the
range 400 to 1100 F.
The results of hot hardness surveys of quenched and tempered bearing steels
are shown in Table IV. This table -includes hardness values of various bearing steels
at room temperature and at elevated temperatures after a 1000 hour exposure at 400,
600 , 800. and 1000 F respectively. These results have also been summarized graph-
ically in Figures 35 to 63 inclusive.
In Table V the results of dimensional stability tests hav'e been tabulated for
all bearing steels exposed for 1000 hours at 400
1
600, 800 and 1000 F respectively ..
T-he parameter used is change in micro-inches per inch.
Data from compression tests are tabulated in Table VI. This table gives the
details of heat treatment and yield strength in compression at 0.1 percent and O.l
percent offset. Yield strengths in compression at these offset points were determined
from the stress-strain curve for each steel tested (except 52100 and modified 52100
steels) at 400
J
600) 800, and 1000 F. The hot hardness values at these temperatures
have also been recorded.
Typical microstructures illustrating the size and distribution of carbides in
steels given the optimum heat treatment .. are shown in Figures 64 to 92 inclusive ..
VI. ANALYSIS OF RF;:SULTS (Phase III)
The effect of elevated temperatures on the hardness of quenched and tempered
steels can be predicted from master tempering curves for these steels. Such curves
are also useful in planning commercial tempering treatments.
It may be seen from the master tempering curves presented in Figures 11 and
12 that SAE 52100 rapidly loses its hardness above 400 F and MHT begins to lose hard-
ness slowly at 600 F and rapidly above this temperature .. Therefore, it is imperative
that steels capable of secondary hardening be considered for bearing application above
600 F .

Steels containing large amounts of alloying elements e.g. chromium, molybdenum,
tungsten, vanadium, in the quenched condition will consist of highly alloyed tetragonal
m.artensite, highly alloyed retained austenite, and undissolved complex carbides. Mas-
ter teITlpering curves, Figures 6 to 9 illustrate the change of hardness on
WADe TR 57-343
10
Approved for Public Release
- __ Cd - _____ = __________ ~ ~ ~ ~ __ ~ _ .. _. _e , '.
- ---...._. ______ .0. ___ . ..... . _ ... , .
tempering highly alloyed steels. As the tempering teDlperature is raised, an initial
softening occurs due to the decomposition of tetragonal martensite to cubic martensite
and a precipltation of cementite in a highly alloyed ferrite matrix. This phenomenon
occurs up to tempering temperatures of 750 F with accompanying softening normally
amounting to Z to 4 Rockwell "e" points. The iron carbide, or cementite, which pre-
cipitates at these low temperatures, probably disappears either by re-solution in the
matrix or by reaction with the alloy content of the matrix to form a complex carbide.
if long tempering times and high tempering temperatures are employed. At temper-
atures above 750 F secondary hardening is encountered. That is, increased tempering
increases the hardness.. This secondary hardening is the result of a precipitation
hardening reaction involving alloy carbides .. In the final stage of the tempering process,
the alloy carbides coagulate into relatively large particles.. This stage, which entails
rapid softening of the steel
t
occurs on tempering for long times at temperatures of
about 1000 F or on tempering for relatively short times above 1100 F.
The master tempering curves shown in Figures 30 to 33 inclusive vary in
accordance with the alloying elements in the steel, in particular with respect to the
shape and size of the secondary hardness peak. By varying the austenitizing temper-
ature this point of maximum secondary hardness can be made to occur at any temper-
ature between 900 and 1150 F. The master tempering curves in this study have also
been used to establish the optimum austenitizing temperatures for the various steels ..
The objective here is to use an austenitizing temperature that would push the second-
ary hardness peak to higher tempering temperatures. This would tend to minimize
an accidental softening of the steel due to minor overshooting of the soak back temper-
ature or long exposure of the bearing at somewhat higher than normal operating tem-
peratures.
These master tempering curves can be used also to select steels that show a
flat secondary hardness peak.. A steel showing a narrow secondary hardness peak
will not be suitable for bearing application. In this case small deviations in austen-
itizing and teznpering temperatures which must be expected in commercial heat
treating practice tnay cause permanent 1088 of hardness in bearing balls or races.
For example, in steel E" Figure 32. without precise control, it would be difficult to
obtain the same peak hardness consistently in quenched and tempered steels. In order
to insure against these occurrences an ideal high temperature bearing steel must have
a flat secondary hardness peak as exemplified by curves for Halmo, M2, MIO, M50,
TI. (Figures 6, 18, 20, 23, 26) All hot work die steels and high speed tool steels in-
vestigated possess adequate resistance to softening.
Bearing steels must also be able to withstand wear at elevated temperatures
and for this reason they should have adequate hot hardness. It is also probable that
elevated temperature strength ma.y be dependent on hot hardness. Based on bear-
ing fatigue and performance tests, bearing manufacturers have fixed the hot hardness
at 56-58 Rockwell "e" at the operating temperature .. Using this hot hardness criterion
and also the room temperature hardness after 1000 hours exposure at the various
WADe TR 57-343 11
Approved for Public Release
. ...... _- .. " . __ . , - - - - , ~ - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - , - , - - " ~ ~ -
---- --- ,-, - ----,--
temperatures, the steels included in this study may be grouped as follows:
Approximate
Bearing Operation
Temperature Range
Room Temp. up to 400 F
Room Temp. up to 500 F

Room Temp. up to 700 F
Room Temp. up to 800 F
Room Temp. up to 900 F
Group of Steels

52100
MHT, MHT + Si, 440 C, 440 BM, UC
Halmo-I, Experimental Compositions At
C, and E
Halmo-Z, ' .8e Halmo, . 9C Halmo, VSM.
M50 .. MIO, Experimental Compositions B,
D, and F.
Tl, T5, MZ, MI, Hie-MIO and '
ExperiIllental Composition G
In this arrangement, the specified bearing operation tem.peratures allow a margin of
100 to 150 F increase in temperature due to soak back heating.
Next thE; hot hardness drop in various steels was studied as it is affected by
temperature increases. The average hardnesses for all hot work die steels and
other tool steels were calculated at the various test temperatures from the results
obtained in the hot hardness studies. Subsequently, the standard deviation of hard-
ness in these steels was computed.. The c'urve shown in Figure 93 portrays the mean
hardness values and the standard deviation from. the mean hardness value co:rnputed
for 2Z steels at temperatures varying from. room tern.perature to 1000 F.
. '
It may also be noted that with rising temperature a nonlinear hardness drop
was observed in these steels ., The average hardness drop in the 22 steels investigated
is 4.3 Rockwell UCH points between room. temperature and 400 F. 1.5 Rockwell "Crt
points between 400 and 600 F, 2.3 Rockwell lie" points between 600 and 800 F and 4
Rockwell "er! points between 800 and 1000 F. From these data one can estimate the
hot hardness based on the specific room temperature hardness of the quenched and
tempered steels" .
.An inspection of the dimensional stability evaluation for the' steels (Table V)
indicates that in Halm.o, TI, M2, MI, MIO, VSM, M50, and Experim.ental steels B
and G, the given heat treatm.ent has established the required diIIlensional stability.
However t much work remains to be done to design optim.um heat treatm.ent procedures
for the remaining useful cOInpositions in order to obtain good dimensional stability.
This is particularly true for the experitnental compositions.
WADC TR 57-343 12
Approved for Public Release _56 _--- ---- ~ - - . . . .. -. ..... . ._. ..- .. ._- ._..... _. __ .._._._-- ... - ...... ... .. _--
"Dimensional stability," as used in this re'port, refers to the expansion or
contraction of steel parts subsequent to hardening and tempering. The differences in
dimensional stability between hardened steels can be accounted for on the basis of
martensite tempering which results in contraction, and transformation of retained
austenite, which results in an expansion. In an unstable steel both these reactions
can occur simultaneously. The attainment of dimensional stability in tool and die
steels depends on minimizing both the contraction due to martensite decomposition
and the expansion due to retained austenite transformation. In high alloy steels re-
tained austenite is minimized by using lower austenitizing temperatures consistent
with minimum residual carbides and maximum secondary hardening at the highest
tempering temperature s"

An inspection of compressitlll test results in Table VI shows that all the hot
work die steels and high speed tool steels possess considerably higher compressive
yield strength than that of SAE 52100 .. It is known that greater flight speed results
in exponential increase s of bearing loads. Hot work die steels and high speed tool
steels, within the suggested temperature range of application for aircraft bearings
have compressive yield strengths above 200,000 psi. It is the opinion of bearing
manufacturers that these strength levels are sufficient in a high temperature bear-
ing steel.
The microstructures for most steels tested, Figures 64 to 92 inclusive, seem
to be characteristic for bearing races or balls, inasmuch as the carbides are evenly
distributed and the martensite is uniformly tempered. In Figures 67, 74, 75, and 90
however there is evidence of retained austenite which could not be eliminated with-
out sacrificing some other required properties. From the point of view of micro-
structure. therefore) .. Be Halm.o, 440 C, 440 BM, and steel E have been considered
unsuitable for bearing application.
Attention of the reader is drawn to comm.ercial grades Halma, VSM
t
M50. MIO,
MZ and MI and experimental steels Band G. These compositions not only possess
optimum metallurgical properties required in high speed aircraft bearings, they are
also comparatively lean in alloying elem.ents. In the group of materials suggested for
bearings to operate in the range room temperature up to 900 F, (Page 20) the logical
choice of steels for further evaluation in bearing tests would be M2, Ml and experi-
mental steel G.
VII. CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion it may be stated that for elevated temperature bearings, Halmo-l t
TI, M2, Ml, MIO, and M50 appear to be the most promising materials .. A.mong the
experim.ental grades J the steels with the following compositions seem to have also
fulfilled the preliminary requirements of a bearing material:
WADG TR 57-343 13

Approved for Public Release
,... ---------------_. ---_. _ . . _.
_ ... . -_. ---- ------- -- _ ._-_ . ...... .... . _---
c Mn Cr v w Mo
-
Steel B .0.7 0.29 4.21 0.59
-
5 .. 31
Steel G 1.31 0.29 4.07 4 .. 13 5.75 4 .. 87
These steels could be further classified from the view point of their temper-
ature range of application in the following manner:
Room Temperature up to 700 F Halmo-l
Room Temperature up to 800 F VSM, M50, MIO and Steel B
Room Temperature up to 900 F
Tl M Z ~ MI and Steel G
VIII.. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
Data of this . investigation show some of the major shortcomings of currently
available hot work and other tool steels for elevated tetnperature aircraft bearing
application. Furthertnore. none of the steels investigated appear suitable for bearing
application above 900 F. There is an urgent need for steels specifically suited for
bearings to operate in the range room. tern.perature up to 900 F, (Page 12) the logical
choice of steels for further evaluation in bearing te,ts would be M2, MI and experi-
mental 8 te el G.
The development of new steel compositions specifically suited for
aircraft bearings for service in the range room. temperature to
1000 F.. To achieve this objective a study of basic metallurgical
properties must be continued on a range of experimental alloys.
In addition to the properties investigated during the last year,
particular emphasis must be placed on corrosion and oxidation
resistance and fatigue properties. A better understanding of the
effect of microstructure, especially carbide content, size, and
shape, on fatigue life must be attained.
IX. SELEC TED REFERENCES
1. Panel on High-Speed Rolling-Contact Bearings) I'Trends on Rolling-Contact Bear-
.... _ T Tzzld. _ .,
ings as Applied to Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines" NACA Technical Note 3110,
April 1954.
2.. Preston, J _, Mogul, J., and Floroff, G. K. "Anti-Friction Bearing Materials for
WADe TR 57-343 14

Approved for Public Release
...

, .. a " . .... '" . _ _ ... , _ . _ ,. . ...
Aircraft Power Plants H Society of Automotive Engineers, Preprint #653, January
1956.
3. Styri, H., "Fatigue Strength of Ball-Bearing Races" Proceedings of the Am.erican
Society for Testing Materials, Vol. 51, 1951. p. 682.
4. Allen, C .. M. and Goldthwaite W. H. uResearch in Bearings If Battelle Technical
Review, 1954.
5. Dayton, R. W., Allen, C. M., et al.
J
"A Survey of Rolling Contact Bearings for
Aircraft Turbine Power Plants n Battelle Merhorial Institute Report, July 195Z ..
6. Jones, A. B. I1The Life of High Speed Ball-Bearings
H
Transactions of the American
Society for Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 74, 1952.
WADG TR 57-343 15
Approved for Public Release - . ....... _ .. _- --
. Grade
Halmo-1
Ferrovac
Halma
Halmo-2
.Be Halma
.9C Halma
52100
Ferrovac
52100
MHT
Ferrovac
MET
MHT + Si
440 C
440 EM
T1 L
T5
M2
Ferrovac
M2
Ml
MlO
HiC-MlO
VSM
M50
UC
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
TABLE I
List of Bearing Steels and their Chemical Analyses
(in percent)
C Mn P S Si Ni Cr V W
- - - - -
.58 .28 .009 .032 1.18 .08 4.72
51
-
.56 .28 .005 .008 1.18 .. 04 4.82
50 -
.64 .30 .007 .032 1.06 .08 4.60 .54
-
.76 .31 .008 .037 1.07 .08 4.57 .59 -
.89 .37 .007 .025 1.08 .04 4.42
52 -
98 .29
.004 .029 .23 .06 1.52
- -
1 .. 04 .42 .003 .008 .26 .02 1.50 -
-
1.03 .30 .004 .030 .24 .09 1.53 -
-
1.03 .43 .004 .008 .46 .02 1.49
- -
1.03 .34 .004 .030 1.23 .09 1.58
- -
1.12 .43 .004 .030 .27 .04 16.17
- -
1.03 .49 .004 .036 .45 .10
17l5
.14
-
.67 30
.001 .019 .18 .02
391 1.37 18.17
.83 .30 .017 .032 .29 .18 4.20 . 2.13 18.30
.79 .29 .011 .033 .28 .08
383
1.,79 6.40
.80 .26 .005 .009 .31 .03 4.16 1.96 6.47
.76 .30 .008 .038
33
.09 3 .. 66 1.19 132
.85
30
.038 .28 .09 4.10 1.68 0.01
1.06 .33 .008 .041 .30 .08
3.99 1.78
-
.66 .46 .011 .033 130 .09 2.83 .03 .01
.79 .32 .008 .036 .36 .08 4.0l 1.05 .01
.91 .007 .019 .31 .03 5.66 .43 -
.99 .32 .007 .039 .32 .10 11.22
- -
.. 71 .29 .. 007 .035 .31 .11 4.21 .59 -
.92 .21 .008 .040 .30 .12 8.18 2.12 -
.74 .27 .010 ,.036 .31 .10 3.42 2.21
-
.50
53
.010 .023 1.23 .10 7.96 .26 7.98
.79
.24 .009 .033 .26 .14
329
1.12 1.56
1 .. 31 .29 .008 .041 .32 .09 4.07 4.13
575
... __ . .... - ..
Mo Others
5.15
-
5.12 -
509 -
5.06
-
502 -
.. 07
-
-
-
.03 1.30 Al
-
1.30 Al
.02 1.29 Al
.01
-
.76
-
.18
-
.13 7.92 Co
4.91 -
501 -
8.51 -
777 -
750 -
5.02
-
4.16 -
1.61 -
4.20
-
5.31 -
4.90 -
4.85
-
.07 -
3.42 -
4.81
-
Gas content of vacuum induction melted and cast steels (Ferrovac) were within the limits
specified below.
Nitrogen - .0004
Oxygen - .0005
Hydrogen - less than 1 part per million
W ADC TR 57-343 16
Approved for Public Release __ __________ ~ ~ i ; -----------_ .--- . -- -- or ______________ __.__----- _____ _______ ___ _
Grade
Halmo-l
Ferrovac
Halmo
Halmo-2
.8e Halmo
.9C Halmo
52100
Ferrovac
52100
MHT
Ferrovac
MHT
MHT + Si
440 C
440 BM
Tl
T5
M2
Ferrovac
M2
Ml
MlO
HiC-MIO
'VSM
TABLE II
Details of Bearing Steel Forging and Annealing Procedures
-
Forging Procedure Annealing Treatment
Forging
Tem:p. F
1950
1950
1950
1975
1975
1975
1970
1975
1970
1975
1975
1975
2050
2025
1950
1950
1950
1950
1950
1975

Soaking Annealing
Time, hrs. Temp. & Time
2 1550 F-2 hrs
Control
Cool
25 F/hr
2 Mill annealed
2
2-1/2
2-1/2
1
1
1-1/2
1-l/2
1-1/2
2
2
2-1/2
2-1/2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1550 F-2 hrs
1550 F-2 hrs
1550 F-2 hrs
1440 F-4 hrs
25 F/hr
25 F/hr
25 F/hr
10 F/hr
Mill annealed
1440 F-4 hrs
1440 F-4 hrs
1500 F-4 hrs
1650 F-6 hrs
1650 F-6 hrs
1650 F-2 hrs
1650 F-2 hrs
1600 F-2 hrs
Mill annealed
1550 F-2 hrs
1550 F-2 hrs
1550 F-2 hrs
1600 F-2 hrs
10 F/hr
10 F/hr
10 F/hr
25 F/hr
25 F/hr
25 F/hr
15 F/hr
25 F/hr
25 F/hr
25 F/hr
25 F/hr
25 F/hr
WADe TR 57-343 17
Approved for Public Release
Hardness
He
15
16
17
14
18
8
6
16
11
19
10
18
18
27
16
16
16
15
17
18 -_. ____ 0 ----... ' .
TABLE II (Continued)
Details of Bearing Steel Forging and Annealing Procedures
Grade
M 50*
uc
A*
B
c*
D
E
F
G*
Forging Procedure
Forging Soaking
Temp. F Time, hrs.
1950
1925
-
1925
1960
1950
1925
1925
1960
2
2
2-1/2
2
2-1/2
2
2
2
2-1/2
Allneal1ng Treatment
Annealing Control
Temp. & Time Cool
1550 F-2 hra 25 F/hr
1550 F-2 hrs 25 F/hr
1650 F-6 hrs 25 F/hr
1650 F-l hr 15 F/hr
1650 F-6 hra 25 F/hr
1600 F-l hr 15 F/hr
1650 F-2 hrs 15 F/hr
1600 F-1 hr 15 F/hr
1600 F-l hr 15 F/hr
d 1M dEl
* Forgeability considered fair 88 compared to other grades.
. .
..
WADG TR 57-343
18
Approved for Public Release
Hardness
He
15
16
21
14
21
12
20
14
20

______ __
.", .. ...- .... -... . .- .. ..... -_., .
TABT.E III
Results of Tempering Survey
Hardening
Grade Treatment*
Halmo-l 2100 F
20 min.
Ferrovac 2100 F
Halma 20 min
Halmo-2 2100 F
20 min
.8e 2050 F
Halmo 20 min
.9C 1850 F
Halma 60 min
52100 1550 F
60 min
Ferrovac 1550 F
52100 60 min
MET 1550 F
60 min
Ferrovac 1550 F
MHT 1 hr
As-Quenched
Hardness Re
64
64
66
66
66
66
66
* All samples were oil quenched
WADe TR 57-343
Tempering
Tem:perature
(OF)
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
600
800
19
Approved for Public Release
HARDNESS (RC) AJ4'rER TEMPERING
TrMe
4 10 30 60 100 200 500 1000
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hra hrs hra
60 60 58 58 58 58 58 58
58 58 58 58 58 58 59 59
60 61 61 62 62 63 64 65
66 65 64 63 63
61
56 53
60 60 59 59 59 59 60 59
60 60 60 60 59 59 60 61
62 62 62 62 62 63 64 65
64 63 62 60 59 65 50 50
60 60 60 59 59 59 59 59
59 59 59 59 59 59 60 60
61 62 62 63 63 64 64 65
65 65 63 62 61 59 53 53
60 59 59 59 58 58 59 59
58 58 58 58 58 59 59 59
59 59 60 61 61 62 64 64
65 65 65 64 64 62 59 54
61 61 61 60 61 60 61 61
59 60 60 60 60 60 60 60
60 60 60 62 62 62 64 65
64 62 60 59 57 54 50 46
60 60 59 '58 58 58 58 58
55 55 54 53 53 52 53 52
49 48 46 45 45 44 43 42
61 61 60 60 59 59 60 60
57 57 55 55 55 54 55 54
47 47 46 45 44 43 42 40
62 62 61 62 62 62 62 62
60 61 60 60 60 59 59 59
52 52 50 50 49 48 47 46
62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62
60 60 60 60 60 60 59 59
53 53 51 50 49 47 47 46
r
- ----------- -----_._._- --"--
TABLE III (Continued)
Results of Tempering Survey
Hardening
. Grade Treatment*
MH'l' + 81 1600 F
60 min
440 C 1850 F '
60 min
440 EM 1900 F
60 min
Tl 2350 F
5 min
T5
M2
2300 F
5 min
2250 F
10 min
Ferrovac 2250 F
M2 10 min
As-Quenched
Hardness RC
66
62
62
66
66
*A11 samples were oil quenched.
WADC TR 57-343
Tempering
Tem:perature
(OF)
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
600
800
1000
400
500
600
700
800
1000
1050
llOO
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
20
HARDNESS (Rg) AFTER TEMPERING
4
Time
10
30 60 100 200 500 1000
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs
62 63 61 62 62 62 62 62
60 60 60 61 60 60 61 60
55 54 53 53 53 52 51 51
58 58 57 57 57 57 57 57
57 56 56 56 57 57 57 57
57 58 59 59 60 60 60 59
58 58 57 57 57 56 57 56
55 55 56 56 57 56 56 56
55 56 57 58 58 59 60 62
63 69 62 62 62 62 63 63
62 63 62 63 63 62 63 63
63 64 64 64 64 65 66 66
67 66 65 65 65 64 63 60
4 10 20 50 56 95 100 200 1000
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs
61 60
60
59
59 59
60
60 62 63
67 67 66
64
57
4 10 30 60 100 200 500 1000
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs

63 63 62 62 62 61 62 62
61 61 61 61 61 61 6262
62 63 63 64 64 64 65 66
67 67 65 64 64 63 61 61
63 63 62 62 61 61 62 62
62 62 62 62 62 62 62 62
63 63 62 63 64 64 65 65
66 65 65 64 63 62 60 60
62
63
66
59
Approved for Public Release _----4 ___ - ____ . _____ . _ . ______ ... _____ ._ ._ . _ ... .... _
. . . --_ . . _-- '----------_._------_. __ ."._-_ .. _--_ .. --- . . --
TABLE III (Continued)
Results of Tem:pering Survey
Hardening
Grade Treatment*
Ml
2200 F
15 min
MlO 2200 F
15 min
HiC-MID 2300 F
10 min
VSM 2050 F
20 min
M50 2100 F
20 min
ue 1800 F
60 min
As-Quenched
Hardness RC
64
64
64
66
Tempering
Temperature
(OF)
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSES
A 2000 F 62 400
30 min 500
600
700
800
1000
1050
1100
-
*A11 samples were oil quenched.
WADe TR 57-343
2.1
HARDNESS (RC) AFTER 'rE:MPERING
Ttme
4 60 100 200 500 1000 10 30
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs
62 62 61 61 61 61 61 61
61 62 60 60 60 60 61 61
62 62
63 63 63 63 65 66
67 67 65 65 64 63 61 61
60 60 59 59 59 59 58 59
58 59 58 58 58 58 59 59
59 60 60 61 61 62 63 65
67 67 65 65 64 63 61 61
61 61 60 60 60 60 60 60
58 58 57 58 58 57 59 59
59 60 60 61 61 62 65 66
67 68 67 66 66 65 64 63
60 60 60 60 60 59 60 60
59 60 59 59 60 59 60 60
60 61 61 62 62 62 64 64
63 63 61 60 58 55 52 51
59 59 57 57 58 58 58 58
56 57 56 56 56 56 57 58
57 58 58 59 59 60 62 63
65 65 64 64 63 61 60 60
62 61 60 60 60 61 60 60
59 59 58 59 59 59 59 59
59 59 59 60 60 61 61 61
59 57 55 54 53 51 48 45
4 10 20 50 56 95 100 200 1000
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hra hrs hrs
59 57 57
57 56
57 57 58
57'
57
60 61 63
64
57 53
53
47
-
Approved for Public Release
----------_ ... . .. . ..... _. . .. ... _---_ ..... _-_ .. _ .. -... - .. _----_._-_.- -.
TABLE III (Continued)
Results of Tempering Survey
Grade
B
C
D
E
F
Hardening As-Quenched
Treatment* Hardness RC
2150 F
15 min
2100 F
20 min
2200 F
15 min
2150 F
15 min
2200 F
15 min
61
57
65
61
,
63
* All samples were oil quenched
WADe TR 57-343
Tempering
Temperature
(OF)
400
500
600
700
800
1000
1050
1100
400
500
600
700
800
1000
1050
1100
400
500
600
700
800
1000
1050
1100
400
500
600
700
800
1000
1050
1100
400
500
600
700
800
1000
1050
1100
22
..
HARDNESS (He) AF'l'E1{ TEMPERING
Time at Temperature
zzL d d dstJ zzL
4 10 20 50 56 95 lOO 200 1000
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs
58
56
55
55
56 59
65 65
64
53
49
50
54
49 53
62
65
64
62
60
60
61
61 63
64 63
60
58
56
56
57
57
I 59
63
55
51
60
58
57
47
57
60
64 64
62
57
55
55
63
54
51
49
49
61
56
6l
60
60
61
52
56
55
56
53
49
58
57
56
64
56
57
55
60 62
57
50
49
54 56
49
61
61
63 64
56
56
60 61
58
57
61 62
60
Approved for Public Release -----
Grade
G
Hardening
Treatment*
2200 F
15 min
., - . . .. . ", .... . . , __ _ h " '
TABLE III (Continued)
Results of Tempering Survey
HARDNESS (RC) AFTER TEMPERING
TIme a ~ Temperature
Tempering
As-Quenched Temperature 4 10 20 50 56 95 100 200 1000
Hardness He (OF) hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hra hrs hrs hrs
LI
66 400 61 60 62
500 60
59
600
59 59 63
700 60
800 60 62
63 66
1000 67 67 66
59
1050 64
1100
57
* All samples were oil quenched
WADG TR 57-343 23

Approved for Public Release


0


01
-...J
,
w

w

'0
'0
Ii
0
<:
N (1)
p.
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0
Ii
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>-'
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(Il
(1)
Grade
Halmo-l
Ferrovac
Halma
Halmo-2
.8e Halma
.9C Halmo
52100
Heat Treatment*
2100 F/20 min.
1050 F/2+2 hrs
2100 F/20 min.
1050 F/2+2 hrs
2100 F/20 min.
1050 F/2+2 hrs
2050 F/20 min ..
1050 F/2+2 hrs
2050 F/25 min.
1075 hrs
1550 F/l hr
400 F/2t2 hrs
I przz
TABJ.E IV
Results of Hot Hardness Survey
Hardness after
Quench and
Tempe"r, Re
64
63
65
66
65
61
Elevated
Hardness He at
Temperatures F
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
60
59
56
5-3
59
57
55
52
60
59
57
53
62
59
56
53
60
57
56
53
56
51
42
* All Steels were oil quenched from the austenitizing temperature.
Room Temp.
Hardness
a.fter Hot
Hardness
Test) Re
64
63
65
66
65
55 "
Hardness RC after
1000 hrs Exposure
at Temperatures F
,
Room
Temp_
400 64
600 64
800 64
1000 49
400 63
600 62
800 62
1000 48
400 65
600 65
800 64
1000
53
400 66
600 65
800" 66
1000 54
400 65
600 65
800 65
1000
57
400 57
600 53
800 -
Elevated
Temp.
59
58
55
35
59
56
54
34
61
60
56
40
62
59
57
40
60
58
56
45
52
47
Double tempering operation - Two consecutive 2 hr. tempers at the indicated
I


i\
1\ ..
l\
,
I
I
I
I
1
I
:t-
'0
'0
'i
0
<
ro
0-
H1
0
'i
'U
c
t1
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....
()
;,;
(])
f-'
ro
P>
en
ro


()

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V1
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t
t..U

(.N
N
U1
TABLE IV (Continued)
Results of Hot HaldiiesB Survey
Hardness after
Quench and
Grade Heat Treatment* Temper, Re
Elevated Temperature
Hardness RC at
Temperatures F
-
Ferrovac 1550 F/l hr.
52100 400 Fj2 hr.
MHT 1550 F/1 hr.
400 F/2 hr.
Ferrovac 1550 F/l hr.
MHT 400 F/2 hrs
MHT+ S1 1600 F/l hr.
400 F/2 hrs
440 C 1950 Fjl hr.
350 F/l hr.
Refrigerated
900 F 2+2 hrs
440 EM 1950 F/l hr.
350 F/l hr. .
Refrigerated
900 F 2+2 hrs
T1 2350 F/5 min.
1050 F/2+2 hrs
62
63
62
62
61
62
66 .
400
600
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
600
800
1000
57
49
58
52
42
58
52
-
57
54
-
57
55
47
57
55
53
61
60
57
54
* All steels were oil quenched from the austenitizing temperature.
Room Temp.
Hardness
after Hot
Hardness
Test, Re.
59
59
62
59
61
62
66
Hardness Re after
1000 hrs Exposure
at F
Room
Temp.
400 58
600 51
400 63
600 59
800 46
400 62
600 58
800 44
400 62
600 60
800 48
400 61
600 61
800
59
400 61
600 6l
800 59
400 66
600 66
800 66
1000 61
Elevated
Temp.
53
45
58
53
38
57
52
36
57
54
40
57
55
51
56
53
51
61
60
57
49

Double Tempering operation - Two consecutive 2 hr. tempers at the indicated temperatures.
-
f

.


.B'
'0
'i
0
<:
(])
Q,
t-h
0
'i
'U
c
t1
>--'
,....
n
;0
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>--'
(])
po
OJ
(])

>
tj
()
I-j
!:J'
CJ1
-l
I
VJ

UJ
N
0"-
Grade
T5
M2
Ferrovac
M2
Ml
MlO
HiC-MlO
Heat Treatment*
2300 F/5 min.
1000 F/2+2 hrs
2250 F/lO min.
1050 F/2:t2 hrs
2250 F/lO min ..
1050 F/2t2 hrs
2200 F/15 min.
1050 F/2+2 hrs
2200 Fj15 min.
1.050 F/2+2 hrs
2200 F/15 min.
1050 F/2+2 hrs
TABI']! IV (Continued)
Results of Hot Hardness Survey
Hardness after
Quench and
Temper, RC
67
66
66
66
66
67
-
Room Temp ..
Hardness
Elevated Temperature after Hot
Hardness Re at Hardness
Temperatures F Test, RC
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
65
64
62
57
62
61
59
55
61
60
58
55
61
60
58
55
62
61
58
54
62
61
59
56
67
66
66
66
66
67
* All steels were oil quenched fram the austenitizing temperature.
Hardness RC a:fte.r'
1000 hrs Exposure
at Temperatures F
Room Elevated
Temp. Temp.
400 67 64
600 67 63
800 67 61
1000 61 51
40066 62
600 66 60
800 65 57
1000 61 49
400 66 61
600 66
59
800 66 58
1000 60 49
400 66 62
600 66 60
800 66
57
1000 62 52
400 66 61
600 66 61
800 66
57
1000
57 45
400 6'7 62
600 67 60
800 66 58
1000 64 53
Double tempering operation - Two consecutive 2 hr. tempers at the indicated temperatures.

I

;
i
' I
I

.G'
't:!
'i
0
<
(l)
Q,
H>
0
'i
'U

0-

t-'-
()
;u
(l)

(l)
PJ
(JJ
(1)


C1
.,
::c
U1
-J
I
\,.t.)

W
tv
-.J
Grade
VSM
M50
uc
A
B
c
Heat Treatment*
2100 F/20 min.
1000 F/2+2 hrs
2100 F/20 min ..
lOSO Fj2t 2 hrs
1950 F /45 min.
1000 F/2+2 hrs
2000 F/30 min.
1000 F!2+2 hrs
2150 F/15 min.
1000 F!2+2 hrs
2100 F!20 min
1000 F/2+2 hrs
TABlE IV (Continued)
Results of Hot Hardness Survey
Hardness after
Quench and
Temper, RC
64
64
63
64
66
66
Elevated Temperature
Hardness RC at
Temperatures F
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
62
60
57
53
62
59
57
52
59
56
53
48
59
59
57
53
61
59
57
53
61
59
57
53
. * All steels were oil quenched from the austenitizing
Room Temp.
--Hardness
after Hot
Hardness
Test, RC
64
64
63
64
66
66
Hardness RC after
1000 hrs exposure
at Temperatures F
Room
Temp.
400 64
600 64
800 64
1000 56
400 64
600 64
800 63
1000 58
400 62
600 62
800 61
1000 51
400 64
600 64
800 62
1000 48
400 66
600 66
800 66
1000 55
400 66
600 66
800 66
1000 48
Elevated
Temp ..
60
58
55
44
61
57
55
46
58
55
53
38
59
57
51
34
61
59
58
44
60
58
54
36
Double tempering operation - Two consecutive 2 hr. tempers at the indicated temperatures.



ri
fl:l..'l\

I
I
I
I
p
;g
" 0
<:
III
p,
t-h
0
"
'0
c
b'
f-'
t-'.
()
:u
III
f-'
III
P>
rn
III


d
()


U'l
...J

V.J

W
N
00
Grade
D
E
F
G
Heat Treatment*
2200 F/15 min.
1000 F/2+2 hrs
2100 F/20 min.
1000 F/2+2 hrs
2200 Fj15 min.
1000 F/2+2 hrs
2200 F/15 min.
1000 F/2+2 hrs
TABLE IV (Continued)
Results of Hot Hardness Survey
Hardness after
Quench and
Temper, Re
64
63
65
67
Elevated Temperature
Hardness Be at
Temperatures F
400
600
800
1000
40Q
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
60
58
57
53
58
57
53
49
60
58
55
51
63
62
59
56
* All steels were oil quenched from the austenitizing temperature.
Room Temp.
Hardness
after Hot
Hardness
Test, RC
64
63
65
64
Hardness RC after
1000 hrs exposure
at Temperatures F
Room
Temp.
400 64
600 64
800 63
1000 56
400 63
600 63
800 63
1000 48
400 65
600 56
Boo 65
1000 60
400 67
600 67
800 66
1000 57
Elevated
Temp.
59
57
56
45
59
57
53
35
59
57
55
48
63
61
59
45
Double tempering operation - Two consecutive 2 hr. at the indicated temperatures.

,

..

,
.. r---.. -----_________ _
_. ._- - .. ,.. .. .. , . . .. . .. .
- _.- ------- -- .. __ ._". - .... -- _. __. ----- " ..... . , . . .. ._-
D1mensionsJ Stability Test Results for Bearing Steels
Grade
Ra.Jmo-l
Ferrovac
Halmo
Halmo-2
.8c HaJrno
' ,
.9C Ha'mo
52100
Ferrovac
52100
MHT
Ferrovac
MHT
MH'I' + S1
440 C
440 EM
Tl
Heat Treatment*
2100 F!20 min
1050 F!2+2 hrs
2100 F/20 min
1050 F!2+2 hrs
2100 F/20 min
1050 F/2+2 min
2050 F/25 min
1050 F/2+2 hrs
2050 F/25 min
1075 F/2+2 hrs
1550 F/l hr
400 F/2 hra
1550 F/l hr'
400 F/2 hrs
1550 F/l hr
400 F/2 hrs
1550 F/1 hr
400 F/2 hrs
1600 F/l hr
400 F/2 hrs
1950 F/l hr
350 F/l hr Ref.
900 F/2:+2 hrs
1950 F/l hr
350 F!l hr Ref.
900 F/2+2 hrs
2350 F/5 min
1050 F/2+2 brs
-
Length Change Micro inch/inch in Specimens
Exposed for 1000 hours at temperatures
400 F 600 F 800 F 1000 F
-
No Change No Change
+
10
- 36
No Change No Change
+
12
- 47
+ 15 + 12
+
35 - 62
+ 37 - 7
+
395 - 57
+245 + 50
+
501 +1257
+
55
-742 -1030
-
+ 40 -730 - 895 -
+ 20 + 20 -1502
-
+242 + 12 -1440
-
+280 +120
-1375 -57
+ 22 + l5 +1195 +847
- 52 - 52 +1137
+ 7 - 75 + 30
- 7
* All specimens were oil quenched from the austenitizing temperature.
Double tempering operation involved two consecutive 2 hour tempers
at the indicated temperature.
WADe TR 57-343 29
Approved for Public Release
I ... ... _-----------
TABTE V (Continued)
Stability Test Results for Bearing Steels
Grade Heat Treatment*
T5 2300 F/5 min
1000 Fja+2 hrs
M2 2250 F/lO min
1050 F/2+2 hra
Ferrovac 2250 F/I0 min
M2 1050 F/2+2 hrs
Ml 2200 F/15 min
1050 F!2+2 hrs
MIO 2200 F/15 min
1050 F!2+2 hrs
HiC-MlO 2200 F/15 min
1050 F/2+2 hrs
VSM
M50
ue
A
B
C
D
E
2050 F/20 min
1000 F/2-te bra
2100 F/20 min
1050 F/2+2 brs
1950 F/45 min
1000 F/2+2 hrs
2000 F/30 min
lODO F/2+2 hrs
2150 F/15 min
1000 F/2+2 hrs
2100 F/20 min
1000 F/2i'2. hrs
2200 F /15 min
1000 F/2-+2 hrs
2100 F/20 min
1000 F/2+2 hrs
Length Change Micro inch/inch in Specimens
Exposed for 1000 hours at temperatures:
400 F 600 F 800 F 1000 F
+ 1 + 27 + 46 + 270
25 - 17 - 10 + 32
- 2 - 12 No Change + 15
- 10 + 20
- 7 25
- 25 - 17 - 10 No Change
- 10 No Change - 28
+ 76
+ 15 No Change
+ 35 - 1
+ 22 +12 + 27 - 50
+ 90
No Change
+ 37
- 132
-168 -120
+315 +1535
+ 1 - l6
+ 5
+ 60
- 65 - 55
+ 467
- 4 - 8
+ 75 + 447
- 50 - 20
+ 96
+ 100
* All specimens were oil quenched from the austenitizing temperature.
Double tempering operation involved two consecutive 2 hour tempers
at the indicated temperature.
WADC TR 57-343
30
Approved for Public Release
- ~ - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~ - ~ - - . . . , . . . . - - - . - ...
. .. _---------_._.- -- _ .... _ .. __.. - ... _. ---
TABT.E V (Continued)
..
Dimensional Stability Test Results ~ o r Bearing Steels
-
Length Change Micro inch/inch in Specimens
Exposed for 1000 hours at temperatures:
Grade

F
G
Heat Treatment* 400 F
. .
2200 F/15 min + 105
1000 F/2-fJ2 hrs
2200 F/15 min + 31
1000 F/2+2 hrs
..
"
*
.... _ ' - -
600 F 800 F 1000 F
- 10 + 523
- 17 - 20 - 12


* All specimens were oil quenched from the &ustenitizing temperature.
Double tempering operation involved two consecutive 2 hour tempers
at the indicated temperature.
WADe TR 57-343 31
Approved for Public Release
..
---------------_ .. __ ... . _ ....
.......... _--
___ ,.,,---- __ a o . _ .. _. __
- - - . - ~ ~
TABLE VI
Compression Test Results for Bearing Steels
- ., nq
Testing Hot Yield strength,psi
Temperature Hardness
Grade Heat Treatment* (F)
He
0.10% Offset 0.2'" Offset
Halmo-l 2100 F/20 min.
1050 F/2+2 hrs
Halmo 2100 F/20 min.
Ferrovac 1050 F/2+2 hrs
Ha.lmo-2 2100 F/20 min.
1050 F/2+2 hrs
.8e Halmo 2050 F/25 min.
1050 F/2+2 hrs
.9C Hrumo 2050 F/25 min.
. 1075 F/2+2 hrs
52100 1550 F/l hr
400 F/2 hrs
52100 1550 F!l hr
Ferrovac 400 F/2 hrs
MET 1550 F/l hr
400 F/2 hrs
MHT 1550 F/l hr.
Ferrovac 400 F/2 hrs
MHT + Si 1600 F /1 hr
400 F/2 hrs
-
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
400
600
400
600
800
400
600
400
600
60
59
56
53
59
57
55
52
60
59
57
53
62
49
56
53
60
57
56
53
56
51
42
57
49
58
52
42
58
52
57
52
364,000
318,000
268,000
244,000
368,000
303,000
290,000
220,000
372,000
332,000
298,000
267,000
388,000
366,000
283,000
273,000
392,000
344,000
248,000
168,000
188,000
137,000
104,000
196,000
152,000
222,000
167,000
l35,OOO
256,000
187,000
240,000
.176,000
* All Steels were oil quenched fram the austenitizing temperature.
392,000
344,000
300,000
268,000
398,000
327,000
312,000
236,000
396,000
362,000
322,000
273,000
400,000
390,000
329,000
296,000
406,000
388,000
380,000
204,000
232,000
159,000
119,000
240,000
l77,000
303,000
193,000
157,000
294,000
208,000
276,000
216,000
Double tempering operation - Two consecutive 2 hr. tempers at the indicated
temperatures.
WADe TR 57-343
Approved for Public Release

-_0 _________ - _, .. ".,_ .... ..
... . .. . - .. __ .. _ ... - .. __ .... .. " ...... - ._. ,_ .. - .... - --_. _ ... __ .. -_.. .. ... .. '-"-
TABLE VI (Continued)
Compression Test Results for Bearing Steels
Testing Hot Yield Strength, psi
Grade Heat Treatment*
440 C 1950 F/l hr
350 F/l hr
Refrigerated
900 F!2+2 hrs
440 EM 1950 F/l hr
350 F/l hr
Refrigerated
900 F/2i'2 hrs
Tl 2350 F/5 min
1050 F/2+2 hrs
T5 2300 F/5 min
1000 F/2+2 hrs
M2 2250 FllO min
1050 F/2+2 hrs
M2 2250 F/lO min
Ferrovac l050 F/2+2 hrs
Ml 2200 F/15 min
1050 F/2+2 hrs
MIO 2200 F/15 min
1050 F/2+2 hrs
HiC-MIO 2200 F/15 min
1050 F/2+2 brs
Temperature
(F)
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
Hardness
RC
57
55
47
57
55
53
6l
60
57
54
65
64
62
57
62
61
59
55
61
60
5'S
55
61
60
58
55
62
61
58
54
62
61
59
56
_.
0.10% Offset
-
288,000
252,000
216,000
270,400
212,000
160,000
384,000
323,000
268,000
264,000
426,000
402,000
380,000
332,000
384,000
352,000
287,000
224,000
376,000
372,000
308,000
248,000
344,000
288',000
364,000
228,000
376,000
372,000
260,000
270,000
392,000
328,000
368,000
312,000
* All steels were oil quenched from the austenitizing temperature.
Double tempering operation - Two consecutive 2 hr. tempers at the
indicated temperatures.
WADe TR 57-343 33
Approved for Public Release
0.2% Offset
300,000
282,000
234,000
297,600
248,000
163,000
410,000
350,000
288,000
280,000
440,000
410,000
384,000
356,000
392,000
367,000
300,000
248,000
400,000
392,000
336,000
256,000
368,000
372,000
364,000
252,000
424,000
396,800
328,000
292,000
404,000
372,000
376,000
320,000
. ~ - . - - - -_ .. _.- . . . .. " ...... _- ._._._--- - - .. _-------_. ~ -
TABLE VI (Continued)
Compression Test Results for Bearing Steels
-
Testing Hot Yield Strength, psi.
Grade Heat Treatment*
- -
VSM 2050 F!20 min
1000 F/2+2 hrs
M50 2100 F/20 min .
1050 F/2+2 hrs
uc 1950 F/45 min
1000 F/2:+2 hrs
Experimental
-
Steel A 2000 F/30 min
1000 F/2+2 hrs
steel B . 2150 F/15 min
1000 F!2+2 hrs
steel C 2100 F/20 min
lOOO F/2+2 hrs
Steel D 2200 F/15 min
1000 F/2+2 hrs
Steel E 2100 F/20 min
1000 F!2+2 hrs
. -
Temperature
(F)
--
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000
Hardness
RC
62
60
57
53
62
59
57
52
59
56
53
48
59
59
57
53
61
59
57
53
61
59
57
53
60
58
57
53
58
57
53
49
O . l O ~ Offset
326,000
312,000
292,000
268,000
347,500
280,000
256,000
248,000
248,000
232,000
216,000
176,000
248,000
228,000
204,000
144,000
384,000
332,000
272 ,000
180,000
292,000
224,000
190,000
184,000
320,000
298,000
268,000
196,000
335,000
320,000
288,000
176,000
* All steels were oil quenched from the austenitizing temperature.
Double tempering operation - Two consecutive 2 hr. tempers at the
indicated temperatures.
WADC TR 57-343
34
Approved for Public Release
-
0.2% Offset
-
346,000
339,000
316,000
286,000
358,000
328,000
288,000
268,000
286,000
264,000
288,000
188,000
268,000
244,000
220,000
160,000
384,000
360,000
288,000
204,000
336,000
252,000
2l6,000
204,000
342,000
320,000
304,000
210,000
348,000
324,000
304,000
200,000
_&0. __ .. _ . _ .... . .
.... 4 . ... , .. ............ " --''' ''- .. _ ... -._-.. _ .. _ ..._ , ........ . _. ------ - ,- - ..... ..
TABLE VI (Continued)
Compression Test Results for Bearing Steels

Testing
Temperature
Hot
Hardness
Yield Strength, psi.
Grade Heat Treatment* (F)
Rc
Offset Offset
Experimental
Steel F
Steel G
2200 F /15 min
1000 Fj2+2 hrs
2200F/l5 min
1000 F!2+2 bra
400
600
800
1000
400
600
800
1000

60
58
55
51
63
62
59
56
268,000
256,000
240,000
228,000
400,000
348,000
328,000
272,000
* All steels were 011 quenched from the austen1t1zing temperature.
Double operation - Two consecutive 2 hr. tempers at the
indicated temperatures.
WADe TR 57-343 35
Approved for Public Release
304,000
288,000
256,000
251,000
416
J
oOO
380,000
344,000
31 2,000
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
II.
Il.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17 "
r
-.
. I

. .... -- . ." \
.' ,
"\
I
,.'
----;:::, :r::! =======-'.2 '
li
9
"),
- -.
? ......... r -. "'-1- _
-.----
3) . . I !.-
.,.....
.-
. .
t;; .' ..'

, -
1
.0.---- .:
.. .
c
. -
Q ___ - - -1"1

'. - -""l ;
.... o .
0 " - - -' - - - - 1 :
2. _ J' C
-' . .
- '
-
/
r
. "-"
c
. . ----- -_. __ ... _-_ .._-_ .... . _ .. -.

.--,.
--- '. - .. !: !" "
. -- ... -- - ,I...i.A
." .
. . .
. -- --
" . - ----"",,>,
-:- . -;-:-
.---:=-":
--'-- .. - .
..... . = 1
-
'1, \

,
\ -=
(
I
=v:
....
LEGEND
Hardness Tester
Indentor Extension Rod (Nichrome)
Gas Outlet Screw
Seal Cup (Nichrome)
Control Thermocouple
Holder Box
Cooling Coil (Stainless)
Insulation (Transite)
Heating Power Terminal
Heater Windings
Shunt Tertninal
Furnace Shell
Specimen Guides
Furnace Insulation (Sil-O-Sel)
Air Space
Air Space
Air Space
---
1
18 .
19.
lO.
ll.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Z8.
Z9.
30.
31.
3Z.
33.
Stage of the Rockwell Tester
Anvil (S-816)
Therm.ocouple (Anvil)
Gas Inlet
Air Space
Furnace Support (Transite)
Plate (Stainless)
Muffle (Ceramic)
Spacer (Soapstone)
Plate (5-816)
Specimen Positioning Screw
Specimen
High Temperature Indentor
Cover (Transite)
Muffle (Nichrom.e)
Liquid Metal Seal
(Woodis Metal)
SCHEMATIC DRAWING OF THE ROCKWELL TYPE HOT-
HARDNESS TESTING ASSEMBLY.
W ADC TR 57-343 36
Approved for Public Release
--.. --------........ ..- .......................... --.................. ----.. ----.. ----------------------------
:(
"
::: :::
WADC TR 57-343
..... ..:
. ~ .
...
. .
. ..
..
"": ",
.. :: .
::'
.,..,... .::::. .: ...
L
:+t",,,,:,
j
,
"'X , J
~
'::
...
..
.:ot:' ...
....
11.1;",,,,,.;,<,. gnw s . ~ ~ .. ; : ~ : ~ : ~ .. ~
4::
. ~ ...
.. .. .
. ..
;
HOT HARDNESS TESTER
37
Approved for Public Release
::;: ..
'::::
. ..
..::: .
. ...
::::
------.. ------- - - D ----... _
... . .........---"'---'---
Both ends ground
spherical to
Radius R
_______

R = 2 in.
D=3/8in.
FIGURE 3. SPECIMEN USED IN DIMENSIONA.L ST ABILITY
STUDIES.
WADe TR 57-343 38
Approved for Public Release
__ ______ e_p __ ___________ ._,, ___ . ___ ...
" ._- - .. " ... _._--- -_ . . -_. _ .. ,------_._.,-- - . __ ._---_._---_.,, --- -- ... . ",

@)
FURNACE FURNAC
(1) Bottom Plate
el) Top Plate (Fixed)
(3) Upper Compression Rod
(4) Lower Compression Rod
(5) Subpress Guide Rods (3)
CIME
EXTENSODTER
SUBPRESS
(6) Loading Plate-Spherically Seated
(7) Extensometer Upper Assem.bly
(8) Extensorneter Lower Assembly
(9) Load Alignment Ball
(10) Bearing Plate
(11) Specitnen Centering Device
FIGURE 4. COMPRESSION TEST FIXTURE
(Schematic Drawing)
W ADC TR 57-343 39
Approved for Public Release
FIGURE 5.
W ADC TR 57-343
. ::: A-.c- :m: .>:
:::'. ,..
...
.;:; ;
, :-:
\0"'/ f4t,
... . ::::
'R
. . .: .
..
SUBPRESS USED IN ELEVATED TEMPERATURE
COMPRESSION TESTS.
40
Approved for Public Release
... --------------------.,.----- -- -- . .. ... _-".. --
--- - ~ - - - . - .----.--..
. ~ . - . - - .. -.... .... _ .. _-
70
60
60
50
16
16
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE (t = 4 hra)
800 900
Austenitizing
Grade Temperature ,F C Mn Si
Halmo 2100 .58

8 ITS
Ni Cr
.08 4.72
18 20 22 24 2 28 3
Figure 6 ..
AU8tenitizing .
Grade Te erature IF C Mn
.28
Si
1.18
Ni
.04
Cr
4 a 8l
Ferrovac Halma .21 0 6
18
20 22 24 26 28 30
V Mo
.51 5.15
V
.50
32
3
M
5.12
TEMPERING PARA.METER T(20 + Log t) x 10-
3
Figure 7.
Figures 6 and 7. Master Tempering Curves for Bearing Steels.
WADG TR 57-343 41
Approved for Public Release
34
-
-
U
-
-
70
60
50
6S
60
50
45
40
5S
45
16
........ _._. - . _ .. _ .... . .. _- - ... ~ . . - .--. .. ~ -
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE (t = 4 Hours)
Grade
500
i
ad
600
i
Austenitizing
Temperature F
700 800 900
.IT IL
I I
. I
C Mn
...
l-Ialrno-2 2100 .. 64 .. 30
Si
1.06.
Ni Cr
.. 08 4.60
Grade Austenitizing
Temperature F
.Be Halmo
Austenitizing
Temperature F--c
Grade C
.9C HalJl'lo ,89
18 20
2050

o
Mn Si
.37 1.08
22
Figure 8
C Mn Si Ni
:7b . 31 016 .08
Figure 9.
Ni Cr
V Mo
.
.04 4.42 . 52 5.02
24 26 28
Cr
V
~ 5
4.57
1000
,
V
Mo
5 .. 09
.59
30
1100
.M i
Mo
5.06
32
TEMPERING PARA.METER T (20 + Log t) x 10-
3
Figure 10
Figures 8 to 10. Master Tempering Curves for Bearing Steels
I

34
WADe TR 57-343 42
Approved for Public Release - - -... __ . . ..
60
55
50
45
60
-
-
U
-
-
65

60

gS5

. _ .. _-. . - ... . -" ' .... -- ---., - ,,--, -- .....
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE (t = 2 Hours)
Zig 8?O 99 .... O_
Grade
52100
AU8tenitizing
Temperature ,F
1550
Austenitiz ing
C
.98
Figure 11
C
1.04
Grade Temperature ,F
Ferrovac 52100 1550

Figure 12.
C
l1li1
1 .. 03

Mn
.29

Mn
.42
Mn
.30
Si
:n
Ni Cr
.06 1.53
Si Ni
:zb .02
Si
. 24
Ni
.09
Cr
1 .. 50
Cr Al
'"'
..
1.53 1.30
SO Austenitizing
Grade Tetnperature ,F
45 1;50
Figure 13.
60
Austenitizing
55
Grade Temperature ,F
Ferrovac MHT 1550
50
C Mn Si Ni Cl' Al
1" 03 .43 .46 .02 1.49 1.30
45
16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
TEMPERING PARA.METER T(20 + Log t) x 10-
3
Figure 14.
Figures II to 14. Master Tempering Curves for Bearing Steels
WADe TR 57-343 43

Approved for Public Release
CJ)
tf)

Z
Q

<

-
-
U
-
-





L)
0

65
60
55
50
70
60
50
70
60
50
C
1 .03
Grade
440C
Grade
440 BM
16 18
....... . - .. .. -_ .. .. __ . _-
. _, _, _ .... .. ... ,. __ . ._ .. ... u_. _ . .. . . . .
500
I i i
900 1000
i
600 700 800
i I
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE (t :: 2 hrs)
Grade
MHT+Si
Austenitizing
Tem.perature ,F

1550
Mn
.34
Si
1.23
Ni Cr
.09 1.58
Austenitizing
TemEerature IF C
. . 18 SO
1.12
Austenitizing
IF C
1.03 1 00
Mo Al
.02 1.29
Figure 15.
Mn Si
.43 .27
Figure 16.
Mn Si
.49 .45
Ni Cr
.04 16.17
Ni
1& .1 0
20 22 24 26 28 30
TEMPERING PARAMETER T(20 + Log t) x 10-
3
Figure 17.
Mo
.01
V
.14
Mo
.76
32
Figures 15 to 17. Master Tempering Curves for Bearing Steels
WADG TR 57-343 44
Approved for Public Release
_---- __ ,o ___ ._, 0 0 ' 0" __ 0 _0 ,
70
60
50
70
60
til
50
Z
0
70
<:

-
-
U
-
-
60




U
0 50

70
60
50
oa , _. . .. _. _ _ _ . _ _______ ' _________ , _., , , ____ , .,
,
TE.MPERING TEMPERATURE (t = 4 Hours)
_______ ______ ______ ______ ____ ____ _
Grade
Tl
Grade
T5
Grade
M2
Au s te n i tiz in g
Tem.perature IF
2350
Austenitizing
C
.67
Temeerature.F C Mn
2300 .83 .30
Austenitizing
Te erature ,F C
5 79
Mn Si
.30 .18
Figure 18.
Ni
.02
Si Ni
29 .18

Figure 19.
Mn Si Ni
.29 .28 .08
Figure 20.
Cr
Cr
3.91
4,,20
Cr
3.83
V
V
1.37
2.13
V
1.79
W
18.17
W
18 .. 30
W
6.40
Mo
.18
Mo
.13
Mo
4 . 1
Grade
Ferrovac M2
Austenitizing
Temperature, F C
2250 .80
Mn
.26
Si
.31
Ni Cr
.03 4. 6
V
1.96
W
6.45
16 18
20
22 24 26 28 30 32
TEMPERING PARAMETER T (20 + Log t) x 10-
3
Figure
Figures 18 to 21. Master Tempering Curves for Bearing Steels
Co
7.92
Mo
5.01
34
WADe TR 57-343 45
Approved for Public Release
. . .. _ ... _-- -_ .._._-_.- ._._ .. ..... . - -_ .. _ .. ..... ----- --_ . .

TEMPERING TEMPERATURE (t = 4 Hours)
400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100
70
60
Grade Austenitizing
C Mn Si Ni Cr V W Mo
M1 Temperature ,F -
2200 .76 .30 .33 .09 3.66 1.19 1.32 8.51
U)
50
CI)
~
Figure 22.
Z
0
a::
<
::r:
70
-
-
U
-
-
H
H
60
~
~
Grade Austenitizing
Mn Si Ni V C W Mo
U
MIO Temperature, F
0 2200 .85 .30 .09 1 8 .01 7 .. 77
~
50
Figure 23.
70
60

Grade Austenitizing C Mn Si Ni Cr V Mo
Hi- MID TemRerature ,F 1.06 .33 .30 ,08 3.99 .78 7.50
50
2300
16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34
TEMPERING PARAMETER T(20+Log t) x 10-
3
Figure 24.
Figures 22 to 24. Master Tempering Curves for Bearing Steels
WADCTR57-343 46


Approved for Public Release
2QQ ..
,' _a ,. _. __ . . . .... a _. ' _ .... _ __ ...... _ __ , . , _,_, _._ . .. _ . _. ____ _ '" ' .... a . .. . . _ , __ , . ,
70
60
50
70
fJ)
CIl

S60

:r:
-
-
U
: 50





0
a:
55
45

16
400
,
Grade
VSM
C
.79
18
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE (t
500 600 700 800
Iii i
Austenitizing C Mn Si Ni
,F
2050 .46 1.03 .. 09
Figure 25.
Mn Si Ni Cr
.. V
W
.32 .36 .08 4.01 1.05 .01

= 4 Hours)
900
i
Cr V
2.83 .03
Mo
4.16
1000 1100
I I
W
Mo
.01 5.02
Austenitizing
Grade Temperature ,F
M50
Figure 26.
Austenitizing
Te erature F
Grade C Si Ni Cr V
UC .. 91 .32 .31 .. 03 5.66 .43
20 22 24 26 28 30
TEMPERING PARAMETER T(20 + Log t) x 10-
3
Figure 27.
2100
Mo
1.61
32
Figures 25 to 27. Master Tempering Curves for Bearing Steels
LT
WADCTR57-343 47
Approved for Public Release
34
65
50
45
70'
60
50
.. ,-- .-._,,, -_ .. __ ..... .. - " .. '--
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE (t = 4 Hours)
.... ______ F .. __ .. ______ .. ____ .... __ ____ __ .. __ _
Exper.
Steel
D
16 18

Austenitizing
Te erature F C
74

Figure 30.
Mn
.27
Si Ni
-
.31 10
Cr
3.42
v
-
2.21
20 22 24 26 28 30
TEMPERING PARAMETER T(20 + Log t) x 10-3
Figure 31.
Mo
4.85
Figures 28 to 31. Master Tempering Curves for Bearing Steels

32 34
WADe TR 57-343 48
Approved for Public Release
--------_ . ...
U)
f.I)

Z
o

65
55
45
70
60 .
50
-
-
t)
-....

70


U
o
60
50
TEMPERING TEMPERATURE (t = 4 Hours)
a
oo
t

Grade A.u8tenitizing C Mn Si Ni Cr
V W
Exper.
E
,F
21 0 .50 .53 1.23 .10 7.96 .26 7.98
Figure 32.
Exper. A.ustenit zing
TemperatureJF
c
.7,9
Mn
.24
Si
.26

1 Cr
3.29
V
1.12
w
F
Exper.
G
16
2200

Austenitizing
TeIllperatureJF
22 0
C
1 31
Figure 33.
Mn
.29

Si
.32
.14
Ni
.09
Cr
4.07
V
4" 13
W
5.75
18 20 22 24 26 28 30
TEMPERING PARAMETER T(20 + Log t) x 10-
3
Figure 34.
Figures 32 to 34. Master Tempering Curves for Bearing Steels.
WADCTR57-343 49
Approved for Public Release
Mo
" 07
Mo
42
Mo
..
4 87
32 34
-
til
en
riI
Z
Q
~

:c
-
-
U
-
-
~
~
~
~
U
0
~
70
60
50
40
30
20
70
60
50
40
30
70
60
50
40
30
o


Grade: Halmo 1
Composition: C
.58
Heat Treatment:
0 0
0,
~ .e
Mn Si Cr V Mo
.28 1.18 4 ~ 7 2 .51 5.15
2100 F} 20 min. oil quench
1050 F t 2 plus 2 hrs.
-
Grade: Ferrovac Halma
Composition:
C Mn Si Cr V Mo
.56 .28 1.18 4.82 .50 5.12
Heat Treatment:
2100 F, 20 min. oil quench
1050 F, 2 plus 2 hours

-0
Grade: Halma 2
Composition: C
Mn Si Cr V Mo
.64 .30
1.06 4.6
.54 5.09
Heat Treatment:
2100 F, 20 min. oil quench
1050 F, 2 plus 2
hours
200
400 600 800
" ... - ... _ " _____ 00 .. _____ _
------.- .- .--..

,
,.
0
Fig. 35
Fig. 36.
, ~
.

Q)
Fig. 37
~ ,
A
1000
75
LEGEND
TESTING TEMPERATURE (F)
(1)---. Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel
(2) 0---0 Room Temperature hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after
1000 hr. Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
(3)r--6 Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after 1000 hr.
Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
Figures 35 to 37. Influence of temperature on hot hardness of bearing
.. steels (Curve I). Also shown is the effect of 1000
hour exposure at different temperatures on the room
temperature hardness (Curve 2) and hot hardness of
the steels (Curve 3)"
W ADC TR 57-343
50
Approved for Public Release
... , ---._4 ___ :0 _____________ __ ____ ...
. .... -, ..... --. _ .. _- , - -- ' - ' --, .. _._--_ ._-
.. -.. ,. '" _ ... " ,. "- -........-- ----_ ..,- .
70
"0
60
.BC Halma
50
Composition: C Mn Si Cr V Mo
.59 5.06
Fig. 38
.76 .31 1.07 4.57
40
Heat Treatment: 2050 F, 25 min. oil quench
1050 F, 2 plus 2 hours
30
70

0-
--0-
60
rJ)
Grade: .9C Halma
- t3 50
Z
Composition: C Mn
.37
Si
1.08
Cr
4.42
V
.52
Mo
5.02
Fig. 39
o
40
::c
-
-
U 30
-
-
70
60
50

Heat Treatment: 2050 F, 25 min. oil quench
1075 F, 2 plus 2 hours


.-.
rade: 52100
Composition:
C Mn Si Cr
Fig. 40
40
- .. 98 ,,29 .23 1.53
Heat Treatment: 1550 F, 60 min. oil quench

400 r 2 hours
30
o -200 400 600 800 1000 75
TESTING TEMPERATURE (F)
LEGEND
(I) Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel
(2)0-----ao Room Temperature Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after
1000 hr. Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
(3)4---6 Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after 1000 hr.
Exposures at Indicated
Figures 38 to 40. Influence of temperature on hot hardness of bearing
steels (Curve 1). Also shown is the effect of 1000
hour exposure at different temperatures on the room
temperature hardness (Curve 2) and hot hardness of
the steels (Curve 3).
WADe TR 57-343 51
Approved for Public Release
. . . .. _-
--
~ . - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - : - - - - ~ ~ - ~ - - ~ - - . - _._-_ .. - ' - ' - ~ - - - - . - - - - - - - - - : - - - . - - -
70
60
50
40
30
70
60
~ 50
~
Z
o
~ 40

:r:
-
o 30
-
-
50
40
30


Grade:
~ .

Ferrovac 52100
omEosition:
C Mn Si Cr
1.04 .42 .26 1.50
Heat Treatment: 1550 F, 60 min. oil quench

Grade: MHT
Composition:
C
1.03
Mn
.03
400 ,2hrs.
Si
.24
Cr Al
1.53 1.30
Heat Treatment: 1550 F, 60 min, oil
que ch, 400 F, 2 hrs.

Grade: Ferrovac MHT
COlnposition:
C Mn Si

Fig. 41

Fig. 42
_e
Fig. 43 .
.... 03 .43 .46
Cr
1.49
Al
1.30
Heat Treatment:
o 200
1550 F, 60 min, ail
que hJ 400 F J 2 hrs.
400 600 800
TESTING TEMPERATURE (F)
1000 75
LEGEND
(1) Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel
(2) .---0 Room Tetnperature Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after
1000 hr. Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
(3) ... -,. Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after 1000 hr.
Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
Figures 41 to 43. Influence of temperature on hot hardness of bearing
- steels (Curve 1)" Also shown is the effect of 1000
hour exposure at different temperatures on the room
temperature hardness (Curve 2) and hot hardness of
the steels (Curve 3).
WA.DC TR 57-343 S2
Approved for Public Release __ -------4------------------__________________ ___
- ... -. .---..
70
60
.50
40
30
70
60
50
40
-
-
u
30
-
-
50
40
30
.. ---- .- . _ .. . ..

Grade: MHT plus Si
'0 Composition:
C Mn Si
1.03 .34 1.23
Cr
1.58
Heat Treatment: 1600 F, 60 min. oil
Grade: 440 C
Composition:
C Mn Si
....... 1:12 .43 .27
Heat Treatment:

ade: 440 BM
Composition:
C Mn Si
.....-. .. 03 .49.45
Heat Treatment:
o 200
LEGEND
que h, 400 F, 2 hrs.
Cr
16.17
-0
1950 F, 60 min. oil quench. 350 F, 1 hr.
erated 0 F 2 Ius 2 hrs.
o
Cr V 'Mo
17.15 .14 .. 76
1950 F, 60 min. oil quench. 350 F 1 hr.
Ref igerated, 9 0 F. 2 plus hrs.
400 600 800 1000
TESTING TEMPERATURE (F)
(1) Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel

Fig. 44
Fig. 45

Fig. 46
75
(2)0---0 Room TeInperature Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after
1000 hr. Exposures at Indicated Temperatures
Hot Hardness of Quenched and TelTlpered Steel after 1000 hr.
Exposures at Indicated Temperatures. .
Figures 44 to 46. Influence of tetnperature on hot hardness of bearing
steels (Curve I) .. Also shown is the effect of 1000
hour exposure at different temperatures on the room
temperature hardness (Curve 2) and hot hardness of
the steels (Curve 3).
W ADC TR 57-343 53
Approved for Public Release
-
" .... --_ .. -------------
", .
r ,q 4 SS
-...
U

-
70
60
50
40
30
70
60
50
40
30
70
60
50
40
30
... 7
- .AZ __ _
U
...... rade: TI

-
Ot'A
Composition: C . Mn Si Cr V W
.67 .30 .18 3 .. 91 1.37 18,,17
Heat Treatment: 2350 F, 5 min. oil quench

...... ade: T5
Composition: C
.83
1050 F, 2 plus 2 hrs"
Mn
.30
Si Cr
.29 4.20
-
V
2.13
Heat Treatment: 2.300 F J 5 min. oil quench,
2 plu 2 hrs.

___ n a_
......
rade: M2
Composition: C
.79
Mn
.29

'A a_
Si Cr v
-
.28 3.83 1.79
w
-
18.30
1000 F
Co
7.92
o. . t2\

3 -,

W Mo
6.40 4.91
Fig. 47
Fig. 48

Fig. 49
Heat Treatment: 2250 F J 10 min. oil quench, 1050 F, 2 plus 2 hre.
o 200 400 600 800 1000 75
TESTING TEMPERATURE (F)
LEGEND
(1) Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel.
(2) Room Temperature Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after
" 1000 hr. Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
(3) .---1\. Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after 1000 hr.
Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
Figures 47 to 49. Influence of temperature on hot hardness of bearing
steels (Curve 1). Also shown is the effect of 1000
hour. exposure at different tetnperatures on the room
temperature hardness (Curve 2) and hot hardnes s of
the steels (Curve 3).
WADe TR 57-343 54
Approved for Public Release
- - - . - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - .... -.... i
70
60

50
40
30
70
60
50
40
30
-
-
U
-
-
70
60
50
40
30

--- ---
~
0

Grade: Ferrovac M2
... ,
Fig. 50
Composition: C
Mn
Si Cr V W M o ~
.80 .26 .31 4.16 1.96 6.45 5.01
Heat Treatment: 2250 F, 10 min. oil quench, 1050 F, 2 plus 2 hr'S.
- - - - ~ o
~ I:!' CJ)
Grade: MI
~ --be
\jJ-' aA Fig. 51
COlllposition: C Mn Si Cr V W Mo
3 3 3 6 6 1 1 9 1 3 2 8", 51
15 min. oil quench, 1050 F, 2 plus l hrs.
.76 .30
Heat Treatment: 2200 F,

Grade: MID
Fig. 52
Composition: C
.85,
Mn
.. 30
Si
.28
Cr
4.10
V
1.68
Mo
7.77
Heat Treatment: 2200 F t 15 lnin. oil quench, 1050 F, 2 plus 2 hrs.
o 200 400 600 BOO 1000
TESTING TEMPERATURE (F)
LEGEND
(1) Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel.
75
(2) 0---0 Room. Temperature Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after
1000 hr. Exposures at Indicated Temperatures. .
(3) .1---. Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tem.pered Steel after 1000 hr.
Exposures at Indicated Te:mperatures.
Figures 50 to 52. Influence of temperature on hot hardness of bearing
steels (Curve 1). Also shown is the effect of 1000
hour exposure at different temperatures on the room
temperature hardness (Curve 2) and hot hardness of
the steels (Curve 3).
WADG TR 57-343 55
Approved for Public Release

U)
ff'J

Z


<
:I:
-
-
U
-
-
.....1



U

70
60
50
-40
30
70
60
50
40
30
70
60
50
40
30
------.. - ._---_ .. _------- -- .

--- -

Grade: Hie-MID
composition: C Mn
1.06 .33
Heat Treatment: 2200 F,
--- IOOOF,
Si Cr V
.30 3.99 1.78
15 min, oil quench,
2 plus 2 hours.
(i)
Mo
7.50
0
41
0,

e.
Grade: VSM
Composition: C
.66
Heat Treatment:

Grade: M50
Com.position: C
.79
&

A

Mn
Si Cr Mo
.46 1.03 2.83 5.02
2050 F, 20 min. oil quench
IOOOFJ2plus hrs.
E-,
Mn Si
.32 ,,36
0
Cr
4.01
a.
V
1.05
Heat Treatment: 2100 F, min. oil quench
10 0 F, 2 Ius 2 hours

o 200
400 600 800
TESTING TEMPERAUTRE (F)
1000
Fig .. 53

Fig. 54

Fig. 55
75
LEGEND
( I) Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel.
(2) 0---0 ROOIn Temperature Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after
1000 hr. Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
(3) Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after 1000 hr.
Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
Figures 53 to 55. Influence of temperature on hot of bearing
steels (Curve 1). Also shown is the effect of 1000
hour exposure at different temperatures on the room
temperature hardness (Curve 2) and hot hardness of
the steels (Curve 3).
W ADC TR 57-343
56
Approved for Public Release
_. - - . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - . - - - .
-
-
U
-0-
70
60
50
40
30
20
70
60
50
40
30
20
70
60
50
40
LEGEND

Grade: UC
Cotnposition: C
~ 91
Heat Treatment:
Steel A
--7 -0
Mn Si Cr V Mo
.32 .31 5 .. 66 .,43 1.61
1950 F, 45 min. oil quench
1000 F
t
2 plus 2 hrs.
~ - - o - - - ~ o
:.
-
Mn Si Cr Composition: C
.90 .32 .32 11.22
Mo
4.20
Heat Treatment: 2000 F, 30 ITlin. oil quench
~
1000 F, 2 plus 2 hrs,
o
.. _._----
---- -----
-
-------
-'--= ----
Steel B
Composition: C
.71
Heat Treatment:
200
Mn Si Cr V Mo
.29 .31 4.21 .59 5.31
2150 F, 15 min .. oil quench
1000 F, 2 plus hrs.
400 600 800
TESTING TEMPERATURE (F)
(1) Hot Hardness of Q.uenched and Tetnpered Steel.

Fig. 56

Fig. 57
Fig. 58
1000 75
(2) 0---0 Room Temperature Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after
1000 hr. Exposures at Indicated Temperature s"
(3) '---A Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after 1000 hr.
Exposures at Indicated Telnperatures.
Figures 56 to 58: Influence of temperature on hot hardness of bearing
i ateels (Curve 1). Also shown is the effect of 1000
hour exposure at different tem.peratures on the room
temperature hardness (Curve 2) and hot hardness of
the steels (Curve 3).
W ADC TR 57-343 57
Approved for Public Release
.. - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - , - - - - .. ~ . , .. ,
70
60
50
40
30
20
70
60
50
40
30
-
-
lJ
-
-
70
60
.... -
Steel C
Composition: C
.92
Heat Treatment:

-uteel D
Composition: C
.74
Heat Treattnent:
. . . ..... .. -.... .. --..- - - ~ - - - - - - -
- - o - - ~ - o
'Mn Si Cr V
.21 .30 8 .. 18 2.12
2100 F, 20 min. oil quench
1000 F, 2 plus 2 hrs.
o - - ~ o
Mn Si Cr V Mo
Mo
4.90
.. 27 .. 31 3.42 2.21 4.85
2200 F J 15 min. oil quench
1000 F, 2 plus 2 hrs.
o
- .-

Fig. 59
Fig .. 60
50
Fig. 61
40
30
LEGEND
(1)
(2}0--.o
Steel E
Composition.: C Mn Si Cr V Mo
,
.50 .53 1.23 7.96 .26 7.98
Heat Treatment: 2100 F, 20 min. oil quench
1000 , 2 plus 2 rs.
0 200 400 600 800 1000
TESTING TEMPERATURE (F)
Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel.
Room Temperature Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after
1000 hr. Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
(3) 6---6 Hot Hardness of Quenched and TeInpered Steel after 1000 hr ..
Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
Figures 59 to 61. Influence of temperature on hot hardness of bearing steels
(Curve 1). Also shown is the effect of 1000 hour exposure
WADe TR 57-343
at different temperatures on the room tell'lperature hardnes s
(Curve 2) and hot hardness of the steels (Curve 3).
58
Approved for Public Release
75
~ - - " - - _ 4 ____ , __ ~ _ ~ ___ ." ... _ . ..,
.. _-- . ----------_._-.. _._---- . __ ._._-_._--._----_ .. - . .. - -... -
70
60
50
40
30
20
70
60
50
-
-
40
U
...
-
30
20
0
LEGEND

-- rO-
Steel F
Composition.: C Mn Si
.79 .24 .26
-"0
Cr
3.29
v
-
1.12
W
1.56
Mo
8.42
Heat Treatment: 2200 F t 15 min. oil quench, 1000 F, 2 plus
2 hrs.
-..
..
-
.... _--0 .....
,
G>'A
Steel G
Composition:
C
Mn Si Cr V W Mo
1.31 .29 .32 4.07 4.13 5.75 4.87
eat Treatment: 2200 F J 15 min, oil quench. 1000 F, 2 plus
2 hrs.
200 400 600 800 1000
TESTING TEMPERATURE (F)
(lte--e Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel.
Fig. 62
Fig. 63
75
(2)0.-.... Room Temperature Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after
1000 hr. Exposures at Indicated Temperatures.
(3)A-... .. Hot Hardness of Quenched and Tempered Steel after 1000 hr.
Exposures of Indicated Temperatures"
Figures 62 and 63. Influence of temperature on hot hardness of bearing
steels (Curve 1). Also shown is the effect of 1 000
hour exposure at different temperatures on the room
temperature hardness (Curve 2) and hot hardness of
the steels (Curve 3).
WADCTR57-343 59
Approved for Public Release
..
. .

.. .
..
...
:... ,.
.. .
........ . --------_.- - ..- --_._... --------

. .
. . .. . . .. . .. . r ...
'. .... .!, .... . . :: ., ", ". . ,. .. "'. ... . ':" t. ....: ' .. ,'! :- ' . :.' .. .". ' ::: . .
Fig. 66 : Halmo- 2 f 'austE.!nitized '. , .... . ,. :: ': .:',. ,. ::,FiS 0'7 ".' ..: ,: &.us.teniti.z,eQ, . :.,.
: .. llOO F .. 20 .mln. 011 . " .. ..... :Z(lS':O F ": .. dil :: :'.y., ,,:: ,:.
' .'
: ..
.. . t '. . .. .:: ..:: t .:: '::. .::. :
.. 'quenc,h,: temp.eretl '1050 F. ':, .. .. ... ".:.: ,q.\let.leKJ te.mpered,:1 05.,tl:' F :' ..
2 plus ' 2 :h.ours. ".: .. . ..' .. '.. . ...... 2,. plus; .. Z" h.ou.r:s::: .. <" :' ..", .... , ..... .
FIGURES 64 to 67 MICROSTRUCTURES SHOWING CARBIDE SIZE
AND DISTRIBUTION IN BEARING STEELS.
Picral + 0.20/0 HG! Etch Magnification X 750
W ADC TR 57-343 60
Approved for Publlc Release a.'.' .-.- .

'iH" .:,:.i:ii. 'il} .,.. " ;;".' ') .:;; ,. .... ." ,. :'" .. .. .... :, 'i '" " .,. .:.
.
. . :::: . 11 . ,: 2 S '., n,fu. 1: .' " . i. .:
'r " ,H' , ':: .'. :,:;' .,,:, ':ql1eitch ::: . t:empe'r ea ., 1 C 7 '5 F
.:: ,':;:,' .::.;.;:
:.;::
.::'
... '0'i"
" 1.; 1: :.; ;::::i.J,'.::;;':l:: 0> )::,' !ii" . ,i,i. .
: :',
:: .
,':::
..
..
' ..
.::
. : .. / :;.;
Q .. .. ...
i . " . . ,!E' "ltiied '" 1 S50<F ", 1" hr'" ,"
;i' .. i;;:: " l,,,,i ,;:: 1, .... ' ,!! ,'l'" ..:.' . 'ii::' '>, ",'" '" ; , :,: ,,'
.. "J> ",." .. "" e' ,!!, oll quench,;, tempered
:;t:',.::L:"., .':':':: :'ii' :'. !!' :,. ':1,',:'
::'
'::
..:
<::':
::
, a _______ ___ _________________ _.
-. . _ ... -.... ... . - .. ---
. ,
'.'
,Fig . 71
5.2.100.,
,, 1550 ,1 hr .. ,oil
'q ,\Jetlch, :400 "F
Z hours .
MHT ,. austenitized 1:550 F,
l ' hol1l:, :.' .
i ' 400 F t " :ZhOllrs
.: :'
FIGURES 68 to 71 MICROS1'RUCTURES SHOWING CARBIDE SIZE
AND DISTRIBUTION IN BEARING STEELS.
Picral + 0.1 % Hel Etch Magnification X 750
W ADC TR 57-343 61
Approved for PubllC Release
_.
. -:. ..
::. .: .... .: '-:. .
'Fj..g' . .. 14
,." .' ,, ' .. ,, ' ," .. 19so F I I hour, oil
.... ... '. ,,'' quench . heated to 350 F
, . . 1 hour, refrigerated .
. , ,,' , and ,temper,ed 9,OO .F " 2 .. ,
... . . . . .
... ". plusZ, .....
- - ._ ._ ----_._ ._._-_. _ .... _.. -_ . . . _ .. . - . . _------_._ -------_ ... _----
, -:: .
..
. '" .,.. I ." , .. ,
..
. :. . .
. ,
::;. . . .'
..
..
..
... '+ ' ;:
: F'tg. ,7.5 " ,, ::.4'O,.,BM:, ' .' .,
. . " .. ,'- , 19.5'0 .. F lI " l ' oil.':":" .:'
.. , ,.. .. : ... .neij.'t.ed to 3?O' F,,,
. .' l' hO\ir",.refr,ig'erat"ed ,." ,,":' "

plus 2 "hours. , ., . . ,. :' .... ,',. :' ,
FIGURES 7Z to 75 MICROSTRUCTURES SHOWING CARBIDE SIZE
AND DISTRIBUTION IN BEARING STEELS
Alcoholic 100/0 He! Etch (440C and 440BM) Magnification X 750
W ADC TR 57-343 62
Approved for Public Release
........ . ........ .................... .. --------------------------------
_ . a . . . __ ._ .... _____ ___ ._. __ __ .. . _ ,_ .... _ _ .......... __ . ___ _____ ..... ____ .

:ll

'::::
. ::
. ::: .. ... -...
"M2 j 'au,stenitized
Z'2,'5 0 ,. F ";' lO.,,'min .. oi1
.:" ,:-,.tempe;re;d ..
plus Z hours.
".
,':.
".
".
..
"
'".'::
"
"
" .
"
"
".
" " .
:>
Fig . ., 79
"
"
TS ' austenitized.
.. .., . '.. ' . ' .. .
, .
F ', :;. 5
"quench , te rn.pe red
Z. p1\lS" 2 bOUT'S:.
"
Ferl",ovac -Ml 'austen'-
t ,
iti,zed' .F, 10
"011 qUenc,h, telYlpered
1050 "F,2 plus . 2 hollrs.
..
FIGURES 76 to 79 MICROSTRUCTURES SHOWING CARBIDE SIZE
AND DISTRIBUTION IN BEARING STEELS.
Picral + 0.1 % He! Etch Magnification x 750
W ADC TR 57-343 63
Approved for Public Release
Fi ., 82
. g .
Hie-MIo, austenitized
. .
: 2,200 F, 15 min. oil
.'. 1050
2 nlus 2 hours.
Ft: .
...
. ..
.
:
. ." .. : 'S'3" .. .F,.',
. .' ' u." .... ,. : :: Z 0 . .,:::". "', .... : .. ' .. ,"
.. . .: .. '. . . :. ... ':'p;: pl.,.1 " .. , :.
.,: . ,. Z ,: hour:s . .. ' ... . . ,', .... , .. . ...
FIGURES 80 to 83 MICROSTRUCTURES SHOWING CARBIDE SIZE
AND DISTRIBUTION IN BEARING STEELS"
Picral + 0.20/0 Hel Etch
Magnification X 750
WADG TR 57-343
64
Approved for Publlc Release
-------
>
"::: ,.
..
::::-
.. ...... ."". ."". 'j; ... " .. ". +.. ... :, .... ', .):
il ofi ir
. .';;
.. ':e' P,Jus
. :. :.:. "":" ... .. ".. .. .. .. ::: .. :::........ . ... ....
. ; .
::::.
..
:
-.:::
:::'
.:,
....
, .
'; .
....
....
tig:. ..
: :'::
. ...
8S .:::' .
..
..
":'
... . ..-. - ----- .-.. -- -_ .. _--- ----_._. - --_ ...
..
;'.
.. . ::::. .. . .. m:. . ........ : :::: ..
':uue >
"4'5 .:":min ' oif'''q' ue::z\<:n';: ::...:.
"". :::". , ..,. . 1" , .'. .:':: T,. ,:;" ' u".
:: .. t,empe:r 'ecl 1:,:0:00 ..
"2' hou" 'r 's':: " .. :::.. ... ." .'" .... .::...., .. :: .,"". ..:".
, .... .. ... .. ... .. ..
FIGURES 84 and 85 MICROSTRUCTURES SHOWING CARBIDE SIZE
AND DISTRIB UTION IN BEARING STEELS II
Picral + 0.20/0 He! Etch Magnification x 750
W ADC TR 57-343 65
Approved for Public Release ,
.. 88' . C., austenitized
.. . .. ,,' ZlOOF, .20 min. oil ..
.. ...... , ...;'."'quencli,tell1pered 1000' F .
...... . .." .. :.," ... :; 2: .2hbu.:rS.. ..
. 1; .. Alcoholic 100/0 HCIEtch
.. - - ........ .. _. _ .. ... _-------------------_._--

. .. ,:
..
::
...
. ...
.. .:
'!:;- '.
::::: .
," ....
..
. ...
. ..
.. .
. ,. ..' . ..
,." ..... ..
;;. 'l" ':'" . .;;.: . ," .wf ) l.:,./ .; .
. ,; ..... ,.: .. ;;.... : ... ... ..
..
.. . ...
. . '::
... :::
,', .
..
...
,
.' "' Fig'

89
..
.,
, .
::.: ,;. ,., .fj . ...
.. t, ,
; '.
If
. . ,
.. -:- ,'
Steel-D, austenitized
Z200 F, 15 min. oil
quench, tempered 1000 F
2 plus 2 hours .
Picral Etch'
FIGURES 86 to 89 MICROSTRUCTURES SHOWING CARBIDE SIZE
AND DISTRIBUTION IN BEARING STEELS.
Magnification X 750
W ADC TR 57-343
66
Approved for Public Release
__ -_ ... 4 ___________________ _____ . __ . . .... .
::
..
. ' :' ...
.. ...
90 ...
..
.. ...
..
.. ..
.. ..
,. ..

FIGURES 90 to 92
- _ . _ &, , . ' 0. ___ - _ 0
:::: ..

:'!' .
.....
':': ': .: ",/;:,
'::'
; : ':'
:
.. "
...
...
. ...
',::': ...
...
.....
..
..
. .. .
",11",:.
... . " '::"
Ifi '.
...
"",t ":" . '"" ''' .. ....
.
=:l=
. '" _. .'
::::
::' ':::: 'n:: .:g; .. :::. . ...
..
.:.: :
...
',2' .p l " Ol> . . . : . " . '
'::'
." :;.. ,i.
::::
.. ':' .. . .. x:, .
-:, . .. " .. .. ,.. ., ' '., '"," ",;;,;, ",.. ':, ..
.. :Steel 0 . ",
l2,OO F, . ' 15 at1,.7, " .".
queD.c:h,: te'P.'lpered
2 'plu8 .: Z .., .. '
.'
oll :" "Y ",
.. 1:; ... .,'
::: F".
....
..:. :', k
.. .x:::
>f.' "::
'm
MICROSTRUCTURES SHOWING CARBIDE SIZE
AND DISTRIBUTION IN BEARING STEELS.
Picral + 0.3% Hel Etch Magnification x 750
WADe TR 57-343 67
Approved for Public Release
,. ' .0 _____ _
'" 'd
'd
11
a
<
(J)
0-
,...,
a
11
'U
g.
>-'
.....
n
~
(J)
>-'
(J)
\lJ
{Jl
(J)
~
>
o
()
~
;;tI
lJ1
-.J
t
U..I
~
VoJ
a-..
00
O'J
fJl
II)
~
"'C
J..t
cO
~
-
U
-
-
~
~
Q,)
~
U
0
~
65
60
55
50
45
40
o
~ ..... ~
- - - ~
100 200 300 . 400
Standard Deviation vs Temperature
- -
500
R. T.
400 F
600 F
800 F
1000 F
600
TEMPERATURE, F
1.3 RC
1.6 RC
1 .. 8 RC
1.9 RC
2.2 RC
700 800 900 1000
FIGURE 93. A CURVE SHOWING THE MEAN HARDNESS VALUES AND THE STANDARD
DEVIATIONS FROM THE MEAN COMPUTED FOR 22 BEARING STEELS AT
TEMPERATURES VARYING FROM ROOM TEMPERATURE TO 1000 F.
,
I
I
~ ~
.
~ ,
f ~ ~
,