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DESIGNERS

G U I D E S

T O

EUROCODES

Designers Guide to EN1991-1-2, EN1992-1-2, EN1993-1-2 and


EN1994-1-2 differs from the other Eurocode guides available in
that it is not concerned with a single design standard. The UK
standard for the design of steel structures encompasses the
rules for both structural steelwork and for composite steel and
concrete construction. The fire design procedures for reinforced
and prestressed concrete structures are contained in the relevant
part of the National code. However, the structural Eurocodes
consider steel, composite and concrete construction in isolation
and each material therefore has its own corresponding fire part.

This guide is essential reading for:


civil and structural engineers
code-drafting committees
clients
structural-design students
public authorities

in fact, everyone who will be affected by the Eurocodes.

an

Dr David B. Moore is the Director of Engineering at the


British Constructional Steelwork Association and has over 25
years experience of research and specialist advisory work in
the area of structural engineering and he has published over
50 technical papers on a wide range of subjects many of
them in international journals. He has also made a significant
contribution to a number of specialised design guides and
best practice guides for the steel industry. Many of these
publications are used daily by practising structural engineers
and steelwork fabricators.
Dr Yong C. Wang teaches fire engineering at the University
of Manchester and has been engaged in research on fire
resistance of steel and composite structures for a number
of years. He was Senior Research Engineer at the Building
Research Establishment and was a member of the working
group responsible for the amendment of BS5950 Part 8. He is
the author of Steel and composite structures behaviour and
design for fire safety.
Colin G. Bailey is currently Professor of Structural Engineering
at the University of Manchester. He has previously worked for
the design consultants Lovell Construction, Cameron Taylor
Bedford and Clarke Nicholls Marcel, where he designed
and supervised the construction of a number of concrete,
steel and masonry structures. He has also worked for The
Steel Construction Institute and The Building Research
Establishment, where his practical and research experience
resulted in significant developments in structural engineering
design. His main specialties are fire safety engineering of
structures, membrane action, wind loading, and steel
concrete composite systems.

T H E

EUROCODES

initiative

Tom Lennon has worked at the British Research


Establishment for over 20 years. He was responsible for
the programme of full-scale fire tests carried out at BREs
large-scale test facility at Cardington on steel, concrete and
timber framed buildings. Mr Lennon has extensive experience
of the Structural Eurocodes. He is a prominent member of
British Standards committee B525/-/32 the mirror group for
the fire part of EC1 responsible for the implementation of the
code in the UK. Mr Lennon is a member of the project team
responsible for developing the draft National Annex for use
with EN 1991-1-2. He is author of a number of papers, design
guides and journal articles on the subject of structural fire
engineering design.

T O

an

initiative

Designers guide to EN1991-1-2,


EN1992-1-2, EN1993-1-2
and EN1994-1-2
T. Lennon, D. B. Moore, Y. C. Wang and C. G. Bailey
Series editor Haig Gulvanessian

Lennon, Moore, Wang & Bailey

The design methodology, as set out in the fire parts of the


structural Eurocodes, is based on the principles adopted for
normal temperature design. One of the aims of this book is to
demystify the subject so that it can be readily understood and
used by structural engineers used to the underlying principles
and assumptions of design for the ambient condition. This
present Designers Guide provides guidance on the nature
of the loading that must first be understood before applying
the structural engineering principles set out in the Eurocodes.
For this reason the book is meant as a guide to four separate
documents EN1991-1-2, EN1992-1-2, EN1993-1-2 and EN19941-2 with reference, where appropriate, to the Eurocode covering
basis of design.

G U I D E S

Designers Guide to EN1991-1-2,


EN1992-1-2, EN1993-1-2 and EN1994-1-2

This series of Designers Guides to the Eurocodes provides


comprehensive guidance in the form of design aids, indications
for the most convenient design procedures and worked
examples. The books also include background information to
aid the designer in understanding the reasoning behind and the
objectives of the code. All individual guides work in conjunction
with the Designers Guide to EN1990 Eurocode: Basis of
structural design.

DESIGNERS

T H E

www.eurocodes.co.uk
www.thomastelford.com/books

Eurocode EN1991-1-2.indd 1

18/12/06 15:33:53

DESIGNERS GUIDES TO THE EUROCODES

DESIGNERS GUIDE TO EN 1991-1-2, 1992-1-2,


1993-1-2 and 1994-1-2
HANDBOOK FOR THE FIRE DESIGN
OF STEEL, COMPOSITE AND CONCRETE
STRUCTURES TO THE EUROCODES

Eurocode Designers Guide Series


Designers Guide to EN 1990. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design. H. Gulvanessian, J.-A. Calgaro and
M. Holicky. 0 7277 3011 8. Published 2002.
Designers Guide to EN 1994-1-1. Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures. Part 1.1:
General Rules and Rules for Buildings. R. P. Johnson and D. Anderson. 0 7277 3151 3. Published 2004.
Designers Guide to EN 1997-1. Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design General Rules. R. Frank, C. Bauduin,
R. Driscoll, M. Kavvadas, N. Krebs Ovesen, T. Orr and B. Schuppener. 0 7277 3154 8. Published 2004.
Designers Guide to EN 1993-1-1. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. General Rules and Rules for Buildings.
L. Gardner and D. Nethercot. 0 7277 3163 7. Published 2004.
Designers Guide to EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-1-2. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. General Rules
and Rules for Buildings and Structural Fire Design. A. W. Beeby and R. S. Narayanan. 0 7277 3105 X. Published
2005.
Designers Guide to EN 1998-1 and EN 1998-5. Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance.
General Rules, Seismic Actions, Design Rules for Buildings, Foundations and Retaining Structures. M. Fardis,
E. Carvalho, A. Elnashai, E. Faccioli, P. Pinto and A. Plumier. 0 7277 3348 6. Published 2005.
Designers Guide to EN 1995-1-1. Eurocode 5: Design of Timber Structures. Common Rules and for Rules and
Buildings. C. Mettem. 0 7277 3162 9. Forthcoming: 2007 (provisional).
Designers Guide to EN 1991-4. Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. Wind Actions. N. Cook. 0 7277 3152 1.
Forthcoming: 2007 (provisional).
Designers Guide to EN 1996. Eurocode 6: Part 1.1: Design of Masonry Structures. J. Morton. 0 7277 3155 6.
Forthcoming: 2007 (provisional).
Designers Guide to EN 1991-1-2, 1992-1-2, 1993-1-2 and EN 1994-1-2. Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures.
Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures. Fire
Engineering (Actions on Steel and Composite Structures). Y. Wang, C. Bailey, T. Lennon and D. Moore.
0 7277 3157 2. Forthcoming: 2007 (provisional).
Designers Guide to EN 1992-2. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. Bridges. D. Smith and C. Hendy.
0 7277 3159 9. Forthcoming: 2007 (provisional).
Designers Guide to EN 1993-2. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. Bridges. C. Murphy and C. Hendy.
0 7277 3160 2. Forthcoming: 2007 (provisional).
Designers Guide to EN 1991-2, 1991-1-1, 1991-1-3 and 1991-1-5 to 1-7. Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures.
Trac Loads and Other Actions on Bridges. J.-A. Calgaro, M. Tschumi, H. Gulvanessian and N. Shetty.
0 7277 3156 4. Forthcoming: 2007 (provisional).
Designers Guide to EN 1991-1-1, EN 1991-1-3 and 1991-1-5 to 1-7. Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. General
Rules and Actions on Buildings (not Wind). H. Gulvanessian, J.-A. Calgaro, P. Formichi and G. Harding.
0 7277 3158 0. Forthcoming: 2007 (provisional).

www.eurocodes.co.uk

DESIGNERS GUIDES TO THE EUROCODES

DESIGNERS GUIDE TO EN 1991-1-2, 1992-1-2,


1993-1-2 and 1994-1-2
HANDBOOK FOR THE FIRE DESIGN
OF STEEL, COMPOSITE AND CONCRETE
STRUCTURES TO THE EUROCODES

T. LENNON, D. B. MOORE, Y. C. WANG and C. G. BAILEY

Series editor
H. GULVANESSIAN

Published by Thomas Telford Publishing, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD
URL: www.thomastelford.com

Distributors for Thomas Telford books are


USA: ASCE Press, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400
Japan: Maruzen Co. Ltd, Book Department, 310 Nihonbashi 2-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103
Australia: DA Books and Journals, 648 Whitehorse Road, Mitcham 3132, Victoria

First published 2007

Eurocodes Expert
Structural Eurocodes oer the opportunity of harmonized design standards for the European
construction market and the rest of the world. To achieve this, the construction industry needs to
become acquainted with the Eurocodes so that the maximum advantage can be taken of these
opportunities
Eurocodes Expert is a new ICE and Thomas Telford initiative set up to assist in creating a greater
awareness of the impact and implementation of the Eurocodes within the UK construction industry
Eurocodes Expert provides a range of products and services to aid and support the transition to
Eurocodes. For comprehensive and useful information on the adoption of the Eurocodes and their
implementation process please visit our website or email eurocodes@thomastelford.com

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN: 978-0-7277-3157-9

# The authors and Thomas Telford Limited 2006

All rights, including translation, reserved. Except as permitted by the Copyright, Designs and Patents
Act 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in
any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of the Publishing Director, Thomas Telford Publishing, Thomas Telford Ltd,
1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD.
This book is published on the understanding that the authors are solely responsible for the statements
made and opinions expressed in it and that its publication does not necessarily imply that such
statements and/or opinions are or reect the views or opinions of the publishers. While every eort
has been made to ensure that the statements made and the opinions expressed in this publication
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Typeset by Academic Technical, Bristol


Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books, Bodmin

Preface
Many structural engineers will be unfamiliar with the principles of structural re engineering
design. In recent years a number of specialist consultants have emerged oering re engineering solutions, largely for prestigious projects where the potential benets of adopting a re
engineering design approach outweigh the additional design cost to the client. There is a
fundamental lack of understanding of the principles of structural re engineering design.
In reality the design methodology, as set out in the re parts of the structural Eurocodes,
is based on the principles adopted for normal temperature design. One of the aims of this
book is to demystify the subject so that it can be readily understood and used by structural
engineers used to the underlying principles and assumptions of design for the ambient
condition.
This book diers from many of the other Eurocode guides available in that it is not
concerned with a single design standard. The UK standard for the design of steel structures
encompasses the rules for both structural steelwork and for composite steel and concrete
construction. The re design procedures for reinforced and prestressed concrete structures
are contained in the relevant part of the National Code. However, the structural Eurocodes
consider steel, composite and concrete construction in isolation and each material therefore
has its own corresponding re part. In this case a clause-by-clause examination of the
material codes would not be sucient to allow designers to use these documents. The
nature of the loading must rst be understood before applying the structural engineering
principles set out in the Eurocodes. For this reason the book is meant as a guide to four
separate documents EN 1991-1-2, EN 1992-1-2, EN 1993-1-2 and EN 1994-1-2 with
reference where appropriate to the Eurocode covering basis of design.

Contents
Preface
Chapter 1.

v
Introduction
1.1. Introduction to this handbook
1.2. Introduction to structural re design
1.3. Scope of EN 1991 Part 1.2, EN 1992 Part 1.2, EN 1993 Part 1.2
and EN 1994 Part 1.2
1.4. Distinction between principles and application rules
1.5. National annexes and Nationally Determined Parameters
1.6. Denitions and symbols

1
1
1
4
5
5
8

Chapter 2.

Design methods
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Design of concrete structures to EN 1992-1-2
2.3. Design of steel structures to EN 1993-1-2
2.4. Design of composite structures to EN 1994-1-2
2.5. Design assisted by testing

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13
16
16
17
18

Chapter 3.

Design res
3.1. Introduction
3.2. General rules for calculating atmosphere temperatures
3.3. Nominal temperaturetime curves
3.3.1. Standard temperaturetime curve
3.3.2. External re curve
3.3.3. Hydrocarbon curve
3.4. Equivalent time of re exposure
3.5. Parametric temperaturetime curves
3.6. External atmosphere temperature
3.7. Advanced re models

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19
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20
20
20
20
21
23
26
26

Chapter 4.

Member temperatures
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Section factors for steel and composite construction
4.3. Unprotected steelwork
4.4. Steelwork insulated by re protection
4.5. Unprotected composite slabs

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DESIGNERS GUIDE TO EN 1991-1-2, 1992-1-2, 1993-1-2 AND 1994-1-2

4.5.1. Steel decking


4.5.2. Reinforcement bars
4.5.3. Concrete slab over steel decking
4.6. Temperature prole for concrete members

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32
33

Static loads
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Partial safety factors for loads
5.3. Design values of loads
5.3.1. Loading
5.3.2. Ambient temperature design loads
5.3.3. Fire limit state design loads
5.3.4. Design values of actions ultimate limit state accidental
design situation
5.4. Denition of load level, load intensity and degree of utilization
5.4.1. Load level (n)
5.4.2. Degree of utilization (fi )

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36
37
37
37
37
37
37
38

Chapter 6.

Thermal and mechanical properties of materials


6.1. Introduction
6.2. Steel
6.2.1. Hot-rolled carbon steel
6.2.2. Stainless steel
6.2.3. Light-gauge steel
6.3. Concrete
6.3.1. Normal-weight concrete
6.3.2. Lightweight concrete
6.3.3. High-strength concrete
6.4. Reinforcing steel
6.5. Bolts and welds

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39
43
47
48
48
52
53
54
55

Chapter 7.

Design of tension members


7.1. Introduction
7.2. Design resistance method
7.2.1. Non-uniform temperature distribution
7.2.2. Uniform temperature distribution
7.3. Critical temperature method

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57
57
58
60
60

Chapter 8.

Design of compression members


8.1. Introduction
8.2. Eective length of columns in re
8.3. Axially loaded steel columns
8.3.1. Uniformly heated column with class 1, 2 or 3
cross-section
8.3.2. Uniformly heated column with class 4 cross-section
8.3.3. Uniformly heated column with combined axial load and
bending moment
8.3.4. Non-uniformly heated steel columns
8.4. Axially loaded composite column
8.4.1. General design method
8.4.2. Alternative design method for composite column with
partially encased steel section

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64
64

Chapter 5.

viii

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67
68
71

CONTENTS

8.4.3. Alternative design method for composite columns with


concrete-lled hollow sections
8.5. Reinforced concrete columns
8.5.1. 50088C isotherm method
8.5.2. Zone method
8.5.3. Additional comments
Chapter 9.

Design of bending members


9.1. Introduction
9.2. Steel beams
9.2.1. Bending moment capacity
9.2.2. Shear resistance
9.2.3. Lateral torsional buckling
9.2.4. Control of deformation
9.3. Steel beam exposed to re on three sides with concrete slab on
the fourth side
9.4. Composite beams comprising steel beams with partial concrete
encasement
9.5. Reinforced concrete beam
9.6. Comments on EN 1992-1-2 tabulated data

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85
86
86
87
88
91
92

Chapter 10.

Design of slabs
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Composite slabs
10.3. Reinforced concrete slabs

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93
101

Chapter 11.

Other forms of construction


11.1. Introduction
11.2. Slim oor beams
11.3. Shelf angle beams
11.4. Blocked inlled columns

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103
103
103
106

Chapter 12.

Connections
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Concrete connections
12.2.1. Increase in support moment for continuous structures
12.2.2. Forces due to restrained thermal expansion
12.2.3. Eccentricity of loading due to large deection
12.3. Steel and composite connections

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109
110
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111

Chapter 13.

General discussion
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Guidance on selection of appropriate design method

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121

References

123

Index

127

ix