2b (2)
D(i) = R
2
e
j
2
, R
2
= 2b (3)
E(i) = R
3
e
j
3
, R
3
= b (4)
where
1
,
2
and
3
belong to the set {/4, 3/4, 5/4, 7/4}. The dierential
encoding rule can be described as three updating formulas
C(i) = C(i 1)e
j
1
(5)
D(i) = D(i 1)e
j
2
(6)
E(i) = E(i 1)e
j
3
(7)
242 S.S. Khalid and S. Abrar
2b
2
b
2b lb
l
b
lb
l
b
2b
2
b
2b
2
b
2
b
2b
2
b
2b
2
b
2b 2b 2b 2b .b .b
2
b
2
b
2
b
2
b
.
b
.
b
a) b)
Fig. 1. Constellations of 32QAM: a) proposed and b) traditional
where the values of
1
and
2
are determined using Table 1. The value of
3
is calculated as
3
=
1
, where
3
is calculated using Table 2.
Table 1. Dibit to angle mapping for
1
and
2
00 0
01 /2
11
10 3/2
Table 2. Single bit to angle mapping for
3
0 0
1
Example: Without loss of generality, suppose that the value of b is set equal to
1 and the previous transmitted symbol S(i 1) be 3.8284 + 5.2426j as follows:
S(i 1) = C(i 1) +D(i 1) +E(i 1) (8)
where C(i 1) = R
1
e
j/4
, D(i 1) = R
2
e
j/4
and E(i 1) = R
3
e
j3/4
. Let
a segment of data bits 01011 is to be transmitted in the next symbol S(i).
Using the encoding tables, we get the values of angles as
1
= /2,
2
=
and
3
= 0; hence
3
= 0
1
= /2. Using the updating formulas as
described above we get C(i) = 3.1213 + 3.1213j, D(i) = 1.4142 1.4142j
and E(i) = 0.7071 + 0.7071j. Adding all three components the value of S(i) is
calculated to be 3.8284 + 2.4142j, refer to Fig. 2.
Angle Dierential Modulation Scheme for OddBit QAM 243
s(i)
S(i1)
11,Dq =p
2
0,Dq =p/2
3
01,Dq =p/2
1
Fig. 2. Illustration of the encoding algorithm
2.2 Decoding
The received signal X(i) is given as X(i) = S(i)e
j
+ N(i), where S(i) is the
transmitted signal, N(i) is the additive white Gaussian noise component and
is the phase ambiguity which could take any value from a set of multiples of
/2. The rst step in decoding is to compare the received signal X(i) from each
signal point in the constellation diagram and choose the signal with minimum
Euclidian distance as the decoded signal
S(i). Now to determine
C(i) from
S(i)
we use the equation
C(i) = R
1
[sgn((
S(i)) +j sgn((
S(i)))] (9)
where sgn() is the signum function, (z) and (z) are used to denote real and
imaginary components of z, respectively. To decode
1
and hence the rst two
bits
C(i) is correlated with
C(i 1) i.e. multiplied by the complex conjugate of
C(i 1)
R
2
1
then
1
= 0
jR
2
1
then
1
= /2
R
2
1
then
1
=
jR
2
1
then
1
= 3/2
(10)
Now to determine
D(i) we use the equation
D(i) = R
2
[sgn((
S(i)
C(i))) +j sgn((
S(i)
C(i)))] (11)
244 S.S. Khalid and S. Abrar
Similar to
1
,
2
is calculated from the value of
D(i) and
D(i 1) using
if
D(i)
D(i 1)
R
2
2
then
2
= 0
jR
2
2
then
2
= /2
R
2
2
then
2
=
jR
2
2
then
2
= 3/2
(12)
Similarly
E(i) = R
3
[sgn((
S(i)
C(i)
D(i))) +j sgn((
S(i)
C(i)
D(i)))] (13)
Now
E(i) is further rotated by an angle
1
to compensate for the angle sub
tracted during the encoding phase hence
E(i)
E(i)e
j
1
. Finally for
3
if
E(i)
E(i 1)
R
2
3
then
3
= 0
R
2
3
then
3
=
(14)
As long as the phase ambiguity is same in the previous and the current detected
symbol it will not create any errors in decoding since the decoding is based on the
relative change of the angle of the previous and the current detected symbol and
not based on their absolute phases. Fig. 3 depicts the architecture of decoding
mechanism.
Dq
1
Dq
3
Dq
2
Sgn( )
Sgn( )
Sgn( )
Z
1
Z
1
Z
1
Phase
Detector
Phase
Detector
Phase
Detector
E(i)
^
E(i1)
^
D(i)
^
D(i1)
^
C(i)
^
C(i1)
^
S(i)
^
+
+


Fig. 3. Three stage decoding scheme for 32QAM
3 Error Performance Analysis
To determine the probability of bit error for the proposed constellation and
encoding scheme we utilize the approach as given in [8] and approximate the
probability of bit error as
P
b
1
b
n
M1
i=0
N
i
j=1
P
x
(i)P {
ij
} n
b
(15)
Angle Dierential Modulation Scheme for OddBit QAM 245
where M is the possible number of signal points transmitted, N
i
is the number
of nearest neighbors i.e. no. of symbols at d
min
from the ith symbol in the
constellation diagram. P
x(i)
is the probability of transmission of symbol. P {
ij
}
is the probability of symbol error when symbol
i
is erroneously detected as
symbol
j
. n
b
is the number of bit errors when symbol
i
is erroneously detected
as symbol
j
and b
n
is the number of bits per symbol.
P{
ij
}
di
= P
+ P
+ P
= P {
ij
} (1 P {
ij
}) + (1 P {
ij
}) P {
ij
} + P {
ij
} P {
ij
}
= 2P {
ij
} (1 P {
ij
}) + P {
ij
}
2
= 2P {
ij
} P {
ij
}
2
(16)
Assuming P {
ij
} is small, the higher order term can be neglected from the above
expression and we obtain
P{
ij
}
di
2P {
ij
} (17)
Hence for dierential encoding the probability of bit error is approximated as
P
b,di
2
b
n
M1
i=0
N
i
j=1
P
x
(i)P {
ij
} n
b
(i, j) (18)
Using the union bound and replacing P {
ij
} with Q(d
min
/(2)), we get
P
b,di
2
b
n
Q
d
min
2
M1
i=0
N
i
j=1
P
x
(i)n
b
(i, j) (19)
Let n
b
(i)
=
N
i
j=1
n
b
(i, j) and N
b
=
M1
i=1
P
x
(i)n
b
(i) then (19) can be written as
P
b,di
2N
b
b
n
Q
d
min
2
(20)
The value of N
b
depends upon the particular bit mapping onto the constella
tion symbols. For dierential encoding, the bit mapping is redened after each
symbol transmission; however, the value of N
b
remains unchanged and hence
N
b
can be calculated without loss of generality using any symbol. Let the pre
vious transmitted symbol S(i 1) be the same as in example of Section 2 i.e.
3.8284 + 5.2426j. For this particular choice the bit mapping is shown in Fig. 4.
From Fig. 4, the value of N
b
may be calculated. For each symbol in the con
stellation, we compute the number of bit errors that would result if a transmitted
symbol is erroneously detected as one of its nearest neighbor, i.e., the symbols
lying at d
min
from the transmitted symbol. The average of the total bit errors
gives the value of N
b
, as given by
246 S.S. Khalid and S. Abrar
01001
10001 11001
00001
01101
10101 11101
00101
01011
10011 11011
00011
01111
10111 11111
00111
01000
10000 11000
00000
01100
10100 11100
00100
01010
10010 11010
00010
01110
10110 11110
00110
Fig. 4. Bit mapping for the example given in Section 2
N
b
=
4
32
(3 + 1 + 1) + (3 + 1) + (2 + 2 + 1) + (1 + 1 + 2 + 3)+
(2 + 3 + 2 + 1) + (2 + 1) + (1 + 2) + (2 + 1)
= 4.75
(21)
The expression for the probability of bit error becomes
P
b,di
1.9Q
d
min
2
(22)
Now to gure out the probability of bit error in terms of E
b
/N
o
, we rst note
that d
min
is equal to 2b and =
N
0
/2.
P
b,di
1.9Q
2b
2
= 1.9Q
N
0
/2
(23)
Now to determine the relation between b and E
b
, we note that the symbol energy
is given by E
sym
= E[s
i

2
], where s
i
= i
th
vector on constellation diagram
E
sym
=
4
32
4b
2
+ 4(b +
2b)
2
+ 4(b + 2
2b)
2
+ 4(b + 3
2b)
2
(24)
Angle Dierential Modulation Scheme for OddBit QAM 247
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
E
b
/N
0
[dB]
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
o
f
b
i
t
e
r
r
o
r
Simulation: Differentiall 32.QAM (proposed)
Analysis: Differential 32.QAM (proposed)
Simulation: Coherent 32.QAM (proposed)
Analysis: Coherent 32.QAM (proposed)
Analysis: Coherent 32.QAM (traditional)
Fig. 5. Analytical and simulated BER curves under AWGN for the proposed dierential
encoding scheme and its comparison with coherent ones
b =
E
sym
2
8 + 3
2
=
5E
b
2
8 + 3
2
(25)
So the nal expression for probability of bit error for dierential encoding
becomes
P
b,di
1.9Q
E
b
N
0
10
2
8 + 3
(26)
To compare our scheme with the traditional crossshaped 32QAM coherent
modulation scheme, we use the expression for its approximate probability of bit
error as given in [9]:
P
b,cross
4
5
Q
15E
b
31N
o
(27)
4 Results and Conclusion
To verify the performance of the proposed scheme, the simulated as well as
the analytical probability of errors are presented in Fig. 5, where, in legend,
proposed and traditional respectively refer to the constellations as depicted
248 S.S. Khalid and S. Abrar
in Fig. 1(a) and 1(b). It can be observed that the simulation results match with
the analytical performance very well specically for higher SNR. The probability
of error for coherent demodulation of 32QAM for the proposed constellation
with the bit mapping same as that shown in Fig. 3 is also plotted.The analytical
probability of error for the coherent 32QAM of the proposed scheme can be
approximated as half the probability of error of the dierential encoding scheme
i.e. P
b,coherent
0.5P
b,di
. At higher SNR the dierence between coherent and
noncoherent detection becomes very small. Finally the performance of a classical
32 cross QAM coherent modulation is also plotted for comparison with our
scheme. We observe that our scheme does incur a penalty of slightly greater
than 1dB when compared with 32 cross QAM coherent detection however our
scheme proposes a method for dierential encoding that is simple and scalable
to higher order odd bit QAM to enable their transmission in such media where
coherent detection owing to phase ambiguity is not possible.
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