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BT 400: PROFESSINAL ETHICS AND CONDUCT

LECTURE 01 INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS AND PROFESSIONALISM

INTRUCTOR: Mr. Hamisi Fereji, hmsfaraji@yahoo.com


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PROFESSIONALISM
Professionalism
is the use of skills and

knowledge that conforms to the technical and ethical standards of a profession, for the good of the community.

PROFESSIONALISM
A necessary prerequisite to professionalism is

the acquisition of skills and knowledge through academic training provided by tertiary education institutions, among others.
Profession is a calling that

requires Specialized knowledge Long and intensive academic preparation


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Are ICT Workers Professionals?


Partial list of ICT specialists Telecommunication Engineers Computer Engineers Software engineers Programmers Systems analysts Database administrators Local area network (LAN) administrators
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Professional Relationships That Must Be Managed


ICT professionals have many different

relationships with: Employers Clients Suppliers Other professionals Society at large

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Relationships Between ICT Professionals and Employers


ICT professionals must set an example

and enforce policies regarding the ethical use of ICT Software piracy is the act of illegally making copies of software or enabling others to access software to which they are not entitled
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Relationships Between ICT Professionals and Employers


Software piracy is an area in which ICT

professionals can be tempted to violate laws and policies The Business Software Alliance (BSA) is a trade group that represents the worlds largest software and hardware manufacturers Its mission is to stop the unauthorized copying of software produced by its members Penalties can be up to $100,000 per copyrighted work
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Relationships Between ICT Professionals and Employers


What are the members of BSA as per October 2012?

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Relationships Between ICT Professionals and Employers


TRADE SECRET
Information used in business Generally unknown to the public

Company has taken strong measures to keep

confidential Examples are the formula for Coke, Intel manufacturing process for P4 chip Employees must sign a non-disclosure agreement (NDA) Problems due to high ICT employee turn-over
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Relationships Between ICT Professionals and Clients


ICT professional provides

hardware, software, or services at a certain

cost and within a given time frame. Client provides Compensation Access to key contacts Work space Relationship is usually documented in contractual terms.
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Relationships Between ICT Professionals and Clients


Ethical problems arise if a company

recommends its own products and services to remedy problems they have detected. But a company is unable to provide full and accurate reporting of a projects status. Company hired as consultants may recommend its affiliated products.
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Relationships Between ICT Professionals and Clients


Legal Overview Fraud, misrepresentation Crime of obtaining goods, services, or property through deception or trickery Fraud is proven in court Breach of contract One party fails to meet the terms of a contract Schedule slippage, cost overruns, better product may be released by competitor during contract execution Can generate trials which are often settled out of court to minimize reputation damage
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Relationships Between ICT Professionals and Suppliers


Develop good relationships with suppliers

Deal fairly with them Do not make unreasonable demands


Bribery Providing money, property, or favors to

someone in business or government to obtain a business advantage. No gift should be hidden Perceptions of donor and recipient can differ
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Relationships Between ICT Professionals & Other Professionals


Professionals owe each other adherence to

a professions code of conduct There is a sense of mentorship and community Ethical problems between members of the ICT professions Inappropriate sharing of corporate information due to IT access
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Relationships Between ICT Professionals and ICT Users


IT user is a person for whom a hardware or

software product is designed ICT professionals duty Understand users needs and capabilities Deliver products and services that best meet those needs Establish an environment that supports ethical behavior by users
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Relationships Between ICT Professionals and Society


Actions of an ICT professional can affect

society Society expect professionals to not cause harm (=trust) Society expects professionals to provide benefits So there must be a sense of responsibility, also not to damage a professional sectors reputation
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ETHICS
Ethics is understood to be the field of

human behavior dealing with moral duty or obligation.

In any community or society there are

governing principles or values which are used to judge the appropriateness of the conduct or behaviour of its members.

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ICT PROFESSIONAL ETHICS


1. The study of the moral issues and

decisions confronting individuals and organizations involved in ICT professional, and

2. The study of related questions about moral

conduct, character, ideals, and relationships of people and organizations involved in technological development.

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MORALITY
... provides one possibility of settling

conflict, a way of encompassing conflict which allows the continuance of personal relationships against the hard and apparently inevitable fact of misunderstanding, mutually incompatible wishes, commitments, loyalties, interests and needs... .
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MORALITY
Morality involves what we ought to do,

right and wrong, good and bad, values, justice, and virtues. Moral actions are often taken to merit praise and rewards. Immoral actions are often taken to merit blame and punishment.

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OBLIGATION
The act of binding oneself by a social, legal,

or moral tie.

A social, legal, or moral requirement Duty, contract, or promise that compels one

to follow or avoid a particular course of action.

The act of adhering to a social, legal or

moral duty. Something you have to do.


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OBLIGATION
What is the difference between

responsibility and obligation?

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ETHICS AND CONDUCT


Meaning of 'ethics' and 'conduct

There are Societies which prefer the wording


Ethics when applied to the obligations due to

the public, and


Conduct when considering their members

as belonging to a profession.
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ETHICS AND CONDUCT


Most of the rules or of the statements of the

codes are formulated along the same pattern: X is responsible to Y for Z where X is the Subject, Y the Reference, and Z the Field of responsibility.

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ETHICS AND CONDUCT


Subject Subject being concerned, most of the time the subject can be: Individual subject: computer professional, voting member, leader, teacher, etc. Institutional subject: company, organization, computer society, etc.
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END

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