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Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.

The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited."

Tourism has bGreenme a popular global leisure activity. In 2008, there were over 922 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 1.9% as compared to 2007. International tourism receipts grew to US$944 billion (euro 642 billion) in 2008, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 1.8%. As a result of the late-2000s recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008, with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer months. This negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and an estimated 6% decline in international tourism receipts.

Tourism is vital for many countries, such as Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Spain, Malaysia and Thailand, and many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles, due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs, hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and

resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres.

Etymology

Theobald (1994) suggested that "etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, 'tornare' and the Greek, 'tornos', meaning 'a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis'. This meaning changed in modern English to represent 'one's turn'. The suffix ism is defined as 'an action or process; typical behavior or quality', while the suffix, ist denotes 'one that performs a given action'. When the word tour and the suffixes ism and ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a round-trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist."

In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home.

In 1994, the United Nations classified three forms of tourism in its RGreenmmendations on Tourism Statistics:

Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country.

Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country. Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country.

Most visited countries by international tourist arrivals

In 2008, there were over 922 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 1.9% as compared to 2007. In 2009, international tourists arrivals fell to 880 million, representing a worldwide decline of 4% as compared to 2008. The region most affected was Europe with a 6% decline.

The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten countries as the most visited from 2006 to 2009 by the number of international travellers. When compared to 2006, Ukraine entered the top ten list, surpassing Russia, Austria and Mexico, and in 2008, surpassed Germany. In 2008, the United States displaced Spain from the sGreennd place. Most of the top visited countries continue to be on the European continent, followed by a growing number of Asian countries.

In 2009, Malaysia made it into the top 10 most visited countries' list. Malaysia secured the ninth position, just below Turkey and Germany. In 2008, Malaysia was in 11th position. Both Turkey and Germany climbed one rank in arrivals, occupying seventh and

eighth positions respectively, while France continued to lead the ranks in terms of tourist arrivals.

International tourism receipts

International tourism receipts grew to US$944 billion (642 billion) in 2008, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 1.8% from 2007. When the export value of international passenger transport receipts is accounted for, total receipts in 2008 reached a rGreenrd of US$1.1 trillion, or over US$3 billion a day.

The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2009. It is noticeable that most of them are on the European continent, but the United States continues to be the top earner.

History

Wealthy people have always traveled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings, works of art, learn new languages, experience new cultures and to taste different cuisines. Long ago, at the time of the Roman Republic, places such as Baiae were popular coastal resorts for the rich. The word tourism was used by 1811 and tourist by 1840. In 1936, the League of Nations defined foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.

Leisure travel Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom the first European country to promote leisure time to the increasing industrial population. Initially, this applied to the owners of the machinery of production, the Greennomic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. These comprised the new middle class. Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be formed in 1758.

The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place names. In Nice, France, one of the first and best-established holiday resorts on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the seafront is known to this day as the Promenade des Anglais; in many other historic resorts in continental Europe, old, well-established palace hotels have names like the Hotel Bristol, the Hotel Carlton or the Hotel Majestic reflecting the dominance of English customers.

Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to the tropics, both in the summer and winter. Places of such nature often visited are: Bali in Indonesia, Brazil, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Malaysia, Mexico the various Polynesian tropical islands, Queensland in Australia, Thailand, Saint-Tropez and Cannes in France, Florida, Hawaii and Puerto Rico in the United States, Barbados, Sint Maarten, Saint Kitts and Nevis, The Bahamas, Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, Turks and Caicos Islands and Bermuda.

Winter tourism

Although it is acknowledged that the Swiss were not the inventors of skiing it is well documented that St. Moritz, Graubnden, became the cradle of the developing winter

tourism: Since that year of 1865 in St. Moritz, many daring hotel managers choose to risk opening their hotels in winter but it was only in the seventies of the 20th century when winter tourism took over the lead from summer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts. Even in Winter, portions of up to one third of all guests (depending on the location) consist of non-skiers.

Major ski resorts are located mostly in the various European countries (e.g. Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Serbia, Sweden, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland), Canada, the United States (e.g. Colorado, California, Utah, New York, New Jersey, Michigan, Montana, Vermont, New England) New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Chile, Argentina, Kenya and Tanzania.

Mass tourism

High rise hotels such as these in Benidorm, Spain, were built across Southern Europe in the 1960s and 1970s to accommodate mass tourism from Northern Europe.

Mass tourism could only have developed with the improvements in technology, allowing the transport of large numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers of people could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time.

In the United States, the first seaside resorts in the European style were at Atlantic City, New Jersey and Long Island, New York.

In Continental Europe, early resorts included: Ostend, popularised by the people of Brussels; Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais) and Deauville (Calvados) for the Parisians; and Heiligendamm, founded in 1793, as the first seaside resort on the Baltic Sea.

Adjectival tourism

Adjectival tourism refers to the numerous niche or specialty travel forms of tourism that have emerged over the years, each with its own adjective. Many of these have come into common use by the tourism industry and academics. Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage. Examples of the more common niche tourism markets include:

Recent developments

There has been an upmarket trend in the tourism over the last few decades, especially in Europe, where international travel for short breaks is common. Tourists have high levels of disposable income, considerable leisure time, are well educated, and have sophisticated tastes. There is now a demand for a better quality products, which has resulted in a fragmenting of the mass market for beach vacations; people want more specialised versions, quieter resorts, family-oriented holidays or niche market-targeted destination hotels.

Tourists enjoying cocktails during a beach vacation in The Bahamas.

The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, lowcost airlines and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more

affordable. WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time. There have also been changes in lifestyle, such as retiree-age people who sustain year round tourism. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourism products. Some sites have now started to offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailormade package requested by the customer upon impulse.

There have been a few setbacks in tourism, such as the September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations, such as in Bali and several European cities. Also, on December 26, 2004, a tsunami, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, hit the Asian countries on the Indian Ocean, including the Maldives. Thousands of lives were lost and many tourists died. This, together with the vast clean-up operation in place, has stopped or severely hampered tourism to the area.

The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists.

Sustainable tourism

"Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that Greennomic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential Greenlogical processes, biological diversity and life support systems." (World Tourism Organization)

Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)

Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to Greenlogical and socio-cultural carrying capacities and includes involving the community of the destination in tourism development planning. It also involves integrating tourism to match current Greennomic and growth policies so as to mitigate some of the negative Greennomic and social impacts of 'mass tourism'. Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an 'Greenlogical approach', to consider both 'plants' and 'people' when implementing the sustainable tourism development process. This is in contrast to the 'boosterism' and 'Greennomic' approaches to tourism planning, neither of which consider the detrimental Greenlogical or sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination.

However, Butler (2006) questions the exposition of the term 'sustainable' in the context of tourism, citing its ambiguity and stating that "the emerging sustainable development philosophy of the 1990s can be viewed as an extension of the broader realization that a preoccupation with Greennomic growth without regard to it social and environmental consequences is self-defeating in the long term." Thus 'sustainable tourism development' is seldom considered as an autonomous function of Greennomic regeneration as separate from general Greennomic growth.

Greentourism

Greentourism, also known as Greenlogical tourism, is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation; directly benefits the Greennomic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights.

Pro-poor tourism

The pro poor tourism has to help the very poorest in developing countries has been receiving increasing attention by those involved in development and the issue has been addressed either through small scale projects in local communities and by Ministries of Tourism attempting to attract huge numbers of tourists. Research by the Overseas Development Institute suggests that neither is the best way to encourage tourists' money to reach the poorest as only 25% or less (far less in some cases) ever reaches the poor; successful examples of money reaching the poor include mountain climbing in Tanzania or cultural tourism in Luang Prabang, Laos.

Recession tourism

Recession tourism is a travel trend, which evolved by way of the world Greennomic crisis. Identified by American entrepreneur Matt Landau (2007), recession tourism is defined by low-cost, high-value experiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the

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recession thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a slow world job market suggesting travelers are elongating trips where their money travels further.

Medical tourism

When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (e.g. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as "medical tourism".

Educational tourism

Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment. In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student Exchange Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.

Creative tourism

Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the early beginnings of tourism itself. Its European roots date back to the time of the Grand Tour, which saw the sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational

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experiences. More recently, creative tourism has been given its own name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards, who as members of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS), have directed a number of projects for the European Commission, including cultural and crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism. They have defined "creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participation of travellers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences.

Meanwhile, the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations such as UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged, authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place.

More recently, creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism, drawing on active participation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit. Several countries offer examples of this type of tourism development, including the United Kingdom, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain, Italy and New Zealand.

Dark tourism

One emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000) as "dark" tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps. Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as mourning,

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remembrance, education, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.

Doom tourism

Also known as "Tourism of Doom," or "Last Chance Tourism" this emerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally or otherwise threatened (the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, the melting glaciers of Patagonia, The coral of the Great Barrier Reef ) before it is too late. Identified by travel trade magazine TravelAge West editor-inchief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later explored in The New York Times, this type of tourism is believed to be on the rise. Some see the trend as related to sustainable tourism or Greentourism due to the fact that a number of these tourist destinations are considered threatened by environmental factors such as global warming, over population or climate change. Others worry that travel to many of these threatened locations increases an individuals carbon footprint and only hastens problems threatened locations are already facing.

Growth

The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4 %. With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have bGreenme one of the most traded items on the internet.] Tourism products and services have been made available through intermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.) can sell their services directly. This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops.

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It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the global context. Not only as a result of the important Greennomic contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local Greennomies. This is why any projections of growth in tourism may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise in the future.

Space tourism is expected to "take off" in the first quarter of the 21st century, although compared with traditional destinations the number of tourists in orbit will remain low until technologies such as a space elevator make space travel cheap.

Technological improvement is likely to make possible air-ship hotels, based either on solar-powered airplanes or large dirigibles. Underwater hotels, such as Hydropolis, expected to open in Dubai in 2009, will be built. On the ocean, tourists will be welcomed by ever larger cruise ships and perhaps floating cities.

Sports tourism

Since the late 1970s, sports tourism has bGreenme increasingly popular. Events such as rugby, Olympics, Commonwealth games, Asian Games and football World Cups have enabled specialist travel companies to gain official ticket allocation and then sell them in packages that include flights, hotels and excursions.

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Latest trends

As a result of the late-2000s recession, international arrivals suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7% during the first eight months of 2008. The Asian and Pacific markets were affected and Europe stagnated during the boreal summer months, while the Americas performed better, reducing their expansion rate but keeping a 6% growth from January to August 2008. Only the Middle East continued its rapid growth during the same period, reaching a 17% growth as compared to the same period in 2007. This slowdown on international tourism demand was also reflected in the air transport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008 and a 3.3% growth in passenger traffic through September. The hotel industry also reports a slowdown, as room occupancy continues to decline. As the global Greennomic situation deteriorated dramatically during September and October as a result of the global financial crisis, growth of international tourism is expected to slow even further for the remaining of 2008, and this slowdown in demand growth is forecasted to continue into 2009 as recession has already hit most of the top spender countries, with long-haul travel expected to be the most affected by the Greennomic crisis. This negative trend intensified as international tourist arrivals fell by 8% during the first four months of 2009, and the decline was exacerbated in some regions due to the outbreak of the influenza AH1N1 virus.

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Human right

On the 15th of April 2010 a headline in the British newspaper, The Sunday Times, proclaimed that European Commissioner Antonio Tajani had unveiled a plan declaring tourism a human right. According to the article itself: Tajani's view is that pensioners, youths and those too poor to afford it should have their travel subsidised by the taxpayer. Tajani's program will be piloted until 2013 and then put into full operation. In introducing his plan, Tajani stated, "Travelling for tourism today is a right. The way we spend our holidays is a formidable indicator of our quality of life." His spokesman added, "Why should someone from the Mediterranean not be able to travel to Edinburgh in summer for a breath of cool, fresh air; why should someone from Edinburgh not be able to travel to Greece in winter?" The characterization of Tajani's position as advocating an expansion of human rights was repeated by other media such as the conservative Canadian newspaper National Post and Wikipedia. According to Euractive it proved impossible for the commissioner's office to correct the misleading impression created by the Sunday Times headline in the Wikipedia articles on tourism and Antonio Tajani as the Sunday Times is a "reliable published source" while the actual text of the Commissioner's speech is only a "primary source".

EurActiv, an independent media portal, criticized the article by The Sunday Times as an example of misleading information about the EU which appears in the British press and then picked up by other English-language media and blogs, and Wikipedia. EurActiv notes that "the article on The Sunday Times never quotes the Commissioner as having made such a statement. Nevertheless, it pursues the argument under the headline

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"Brussels decrees holidays as a human right," underlining the alleged "hundreds of millions of pounds" that pursuing the idea would cost taxpayers." EurActiv criticized Wikipedia on the grounds that it proved impossible for Commissioner Tajani's team to correct the wrong information in the encyclopedia, and echoed European Commission spokesperson Pia Ahrenkilde Hansen's statement that "ethics in digital communications is definitely a subject which deserves to be addressed.

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Greentourism
Greentourism is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strive to be low impact and (often) small scale (as an alternative to mass tourism). Its purpose is to educate the traveler; provide funds for Greenlogical conservation; directly benefit the Greennomic development and political empowerment of local communities; and foster respect for different cultures and for human rights. Since the 1980s Greentourism has been considered a critical endeavor by environmentalists, so that future generations may experience destinations relatively untouched by human intervention. Several university programs use this description as the working definition of Greentourism.

Generally, Greentourism focuses on volunteering, or voluntourism, personal growth and environmental responsibility. Greentourism typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. One of the goals of Greentourism is to offer tourists insight into the impact of human beings on the environment, and to foster a greater appreciation of our natural habitats.

Responsible Greentourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of Greentourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of Greennomic opportunities for local communities. For these reasons, Greentourism often appeals to environmental and social responsibility advocates.

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Criteria

Greentourism is a form of tourism that involves visiting natural areas -- in the remote wilderness or urban environments. According to the definition and principles of Greentourism established by The International Greentourism Society (TIES) in 1990, Greentourism is "Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people." (TIES, 1990). Martha Honey, expands on the TIES definition by describing the seven characteristics of Greentourism, which are:

Involves travel to natural destinations Minimizes impact Builds environmental awareness Provides direct financial benefits for conservation Provides financial benefits and empowerment for local people Respects local culture Supports human rights and democratic movements

conservation of biological diversity and cultural diversity through Greensystem protection

promotion of sustainable use of biodiversity, by providing jobs to local populations

sharing of socio-Greennomic benefits with local communities and indigenous peoples by having their informed consent and participation in the management of Greentourism enterprises

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tourism to unspoiled natural resources, with minimal impact on the environment being a primary concern.

minimization of tourism's own environmental impact affordability and lack of waste in the form of luxury local culture, flora and fauna being the main attractions local people benefit from this form of tourism Greennomically, often more than mass tourism

Greentourism Society Pakistan (ESP) explains "Greentourism is a travel activity that ensures direct financial support to local people where tourism activities are being generated and enjoyed. It teaches travellers to respect local cultures of destinations where travellers are visiting. It supports small stakeholders to ensure that money must not go out from the local Greennomies. It discourage mass tourism, mass constructions of hotels, tourism resorts and mass activities in fragile areas". For many countries, Greentourism is not simply a marginal activity to finance protection of the environment, but is a major industry of the national Greennomy. For example, in Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nepal, Kenya, Madagascar and Antarctica, Greentourism represents a significant portion of the gross domestic product and Greennomic activity.

The concept of Greentourism is widely misunderstood and in practice is often used as a marketing tool to promote tourism that is related to nature. This is an especially frequent malpractice in the realm of Jungle tourism. Critics claim that these green washing practices, carried out in the name of Greentourism, often consist of placing a hotel in a splendid landscape, to the detriment of the Greensystem. According to them,

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Greentourism must above all sensitize people to the beauty and the fragility of nature. They condemn some operators as green washing their operations: using the labels of "green" and "Green-friendly, while behaving in environmentally irresponsible ways.

Although academics disagree about who can be classified as an Greentourist and there is little statistical data, some estimate that more than five million Greentourists - the majority of the Greentourist population - come from the United States, with many others from Western Europe, Canada and Australia.

Currently, there are various moves to create national and international Greentourism accreditation programs, although the process is also controversial.[8] National Greentourism certification programs have been put in place in countries such as Costa Rica, Australia, Kenya and Sweden.

History

Hector Ceballos-Lascurain popularized (and he would say coined) the term 'Greentourism' in July 1983, when he was performing the dual role of Director General of Standards and Technology of SEDUE (the Mexican Ministry of Urban Development and Greenlogy) and founding president of PRONATURA (an influential Mexican conservationist NGO). PRONATURA was lobbying for the conservation of the wetlands in northern Yucatn as breeding and feeding habitats of the American Flamingo.

Others claim the term was in use earlier: Claus-Dieter (Nick) Hetzer, an academic and adventurer from Forum International in Berkeley, CA, coined the term in 1965 and ran the first Greentours in the Yucatn during the early 1970s.

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Greentourism, responsible tourism, jungle tourism, and sustainable development have bGreenme prevalent concepts since the mid 1980s, and Greentourism has experienced arguably the fastest growth of all sub-sectors in the tourism industry. The popularity represents a change in tourist perceptions, increased environmental awareness, and a desire to explore natural environments. At times, such changes bGreenme as much a statement affirming one's social identity, educational sophistication, and disposable income as it has about preserving the Amazon rainforest or the Caribbean reef for posterity.

However, in the continuum of tourism activities that stretch from conventional tourism to Greentourism proper, there has been a lot of contention to the limit at which biodiversity preservation, local social-Greennomic benefits, and environmental impact can be considered "Greentourism". For this reason, environmentalists, special interest groups, and governments define Greentourism differently. Environmental organizations have generally insisted that Greentourism is nature-based, sustainably managed, conservation supporting, and environmentally educated. The tourist industry and governments, however, focus more on the product aspect, treating Greentourism as equivalent to any sort of tourism based in nature. As a further complication, many terms are used under the rubric of Greentourism. Nature tourism, low impact tourism, green tourism, bio-tourism, Greenlogically responsible tourism, and others have been used in literature and marketing, although they are not necessary synonymous with Greentourism.

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The problems associated with defining Greentourism have led to confusion among tourists and academics . Definitional problems are also subject of considerable public controversy and concern because of green washing, a trend towards the commercialization of tourism schemes disguised as sustainable, nature based, and environmentally friendly Greentourism. According to McLaren, these schemes are environmentally destructive, Greennomically exploitative, and culturally insensitive at its worst. They are also morally disconcerting because they mislead tourists and manipulate their concerns for the environment. The development and success of such large scale, energy intensive, and Greenlogically unsustainable schemes are a testament to the tremendous profits associated with being labeled as Greentourism.

Negative impact of tourism

Greentourism has bGreenme one of the fastest-growing sectors of the tourism industry, growing annually by 10-15% worldwide (Miller, 2007). One definition of Greentourism is "the practice of low-impact, educational, Greenlogically and culturally sensitive travel that benefits local communities and host countries" (Honey, 1999). Many of the Greentourism projects are not meeting these standards. Even if some of the guidelines are being executed, the local communities are still facing other negative impacts. South Africa is one of the countries that are reaping significant Greennomic benefits from Greentourism, but negative effects - including forcing people to leave their homes, gross violations of fundamental rights, and environmental hazards - far outweigh the mediumterm Greennomic benefits (Miller, 2007). A tremendous amount of money is being spent and human resources continue to be used for Greentourism despite unsuccessful

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outcomes, and even more money is put into public relation campaigns to dilute the effects of criticism. Greentourism channels resources away from other projects that could contribute more sustainable and realistic solutions to pressing social and environmental problems. "The money tourism can generate often ties parks and managements to Greentourism" (Walpole et al. 2001). But there is a tension in this relationship because Greentourism often causes conflict and changes in land-use rights, fails to deliver promises of community-level benefits, damages environments, and has plenty of other social impacts. Indeed many argue repeatedly that Green-tourism is neither Greenlogically nor socially beneficial, yet it persists as a strategy for conservation and development (West, 2006). While several studies are being done on ways to improve the Greentourism structure, some argue that these examples provide rationale for stopping it altogether.

The Greentourism system exercises tremendous financial and political influence. The evidence above shows that a strong case exists for restraining such activities in certain locations. Funding could be used for field studies aimed at finding alternative solutions to tourism and the diverse problems Africa faces in result of urbanization, industrialization, and the over exploitation of agriculture (Kamuaro, 2007). At the local level, Greentourism has bGreenme a source of conflict over control of land, resources, and tourism profits. In this case, Greentourism has harmed the environment and local people, and has led to conflicts over profit distribution. In a perfect world more efforts would be made towards educating tourists of the environmental and social effects of their travels. Very few regulations or laws stand in place as boundaries for the investors in Greentourism. These should be implemented to prohibit the promotion of unsustainable

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Greentourism projects and materials which project false images of destinations, demeaning local and indigenous cultures.

Direct environmental impacts

Greentourism operations occasionally fail to live up to conservation ideals. It is sometimes overlooked that Greentourism is a highly consumer-centered activity, and that environmental conservation is a means to further Greennomic growth.

Although Greentourism is intended for small groups, even a modest increase in population, however temporary, puts extra pressure on the local environment and necessitates the development of additional infrastructure and amenities. The construction of water treatment plants, sanitation facilities, and lodges come with the exploitation of non-renewable energy sources and the utilization of already limited local resources.[15] The conversion of natural land to such tourist infrastructure is implicated in deforestation and habitat deterioration of butterflies in Mexico and squirrel monkeys in Costa Rica.[16] In other cases, the environment suffers because local communities are unable to meet the infrastructure demands of Greentourism. The lack of adequate sanitation facilities in many East African parks results in the disposal of campsite sewage in rivers, contaminating the wildlife, livestock, and people who draw drinking water from it.

Aside from environmental degradation with tourist infrastructure, population pressures from Greentourism also leaves behind garbage and pollution associated with the Western lifestyle. Although Greentourists claim to be educationally sophisticated and environmentally concerned, they rarely understand the Greenlogical consequences of

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their visits and how their day-to-day activities append physical impacts on the environment. As one scientist observes, they "rarely acknowledge how the meals they eat, the toilets they flush, the water they drink, and so on, are all part of broader regional Greennomic and Greenlogical systems they are helping to rGreennfigure with their very activities."[5] Nor do Greentourists rGreengnize the great consumption of non-renewable energy required to arrive at their destination, which is typically more remote than conventional tourism destinations. For instance, an exotic journey to a place 10,000 kilometers away consumes about 700 liters of fuel per person.

Greentourism activities are, in of itself, issues in environmental impact because they disturb fauna and flora. Greentourists believe that because they are only taking pictures and leaving footprints, they keep Greentourism sites pristine, but even harmless sounding activities such as a nature hike can be Greenlogically destructive. In the Annapurna Circuit in Nepal, Greentourists have worn down the marked trails and created alternate routes, contributing to soil impaction, erosion, and plant damage. Where the Greentourism activity involves wildlife viewing, it can scare away animals, disrupt their feeding and nesting sites,[5] or acclimate them to the presence of people. In Kenya, wildlife-observer disruption drives cheetahs off their reserves, increasing the risk of inbreeding and further endangering the species.

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Environmental hazards

The industrialization, urbanization, and unsustainable agriculture practices of human society are considered to be having a serious effect on the environment. Greentourism is now also considered to be playing a role in this depletion. While the term Greentourism may sound relatively benign, one of its most serious impacts is its consumption of virgin territories (Kamuaro, 2007). These invasions often include deforestation, disruption of Greenlogical life systems and various forms of pollution, all of which contribute to environmental degradation. The number of motor vehicles crossing the park increases as tour drivers search for rare species. The number of roads has disrupted the grass cover which has serious effects on plant and animal species. These areas also have a higher rate of disturbances and invasive species because of all the traffic moving off the beaten path into new undiscovered areas (Kamuaro, 2007). Greentourism also has an effect on species through the value placed on them. "Certain species have gone from being little known or valued by local people to being highly valued commodities. The commodification of plants may erase their social value and lead to overproduction within protected areas. Local people and their images can also be turned into commodities" (West, 2006). Kamuaro brings up a relatively obvious contradiction, any commercial venture into unspoiled, pristine land with or without the "Green" prefix as a contradiction in terms. To generate revenue you have to have a high number of traffic, tourists, which inevitably means a higher pressure on the environment.

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Local people

Most forms of Greentourism are owned by foreign investors and corporations that provide few benefits to local communities. An overwhelming majority of profits are put into the pockets of investors instead of reinvestment into the local Greennomy or environmental protection. The limited numbers of local people who are employed in the Greennomy enter at its lowest level, and are unable to live in tourist areas because of meager wages and a two market system.

In some cases, the resentment by local people results in environmental degradation. As a highly publicized case, the Masai nomads in Kenya killed wildlife in national parks to show aversion to unfair compensation terms and displacement from traditional lands.[19] The lack of Greennomic opportunities for local people also constrains them to degrade the environment as a means of sustenance. The presence of affluent Greentourists encourage the development of destructive markets in wildlife souvenirs, such as the sale of coral trinkets on tropical islands and animal products in Asia, contributing to illegal harvesting and poaching from the environment. In Suriname, sea turtle reserves use a very large portion of their budget to guard against these destructive activities.

Displacement of people

One of the most powerful examples of communities being moved in order to create a park is the story of the Masai. About 70% of national parks and game reserves in East Africa are on Masai land (Kamuaro, 2007). The first undesirable impact of tourism was that of the extent of land lost from the Masai culture. Local and national governments

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took advantage of the Masais ignorance on the situation and robbed them of huge chunks of grazing land, putting to risk their only socio-Greennomic livelihood. In Kenya the Masai also have not gained any Greennomic benefits. Despite the loss of their land, employment favours better educated workers. Furthermore the investors in this area are not local and have not put profits back into local Greennomy. In some cases game reserves can be created without informing or consulting local people, who come to find out about the situation when an eviction notice is delivered (Kamuaro, 2007). Another source of resentment is the manipulation of the local people by their government. "Greentourism works to create simplistic images of local people and their uses and understandings of their surroundings. Through the lens of these simplified images, officials direct policies and projects towards the local people and the local people are blamed if the projects fail" (West, 2006). Clearly tourism as a trade is not empowering the local people who make it rich and satisfying. Instead Greentourism exploits and depletes, particularly in African Masai tribes. It has to be reoriented if it is to be useful to local communities and to bGreenme sustainable (Kamuaro, 2007).

Threats to indigenous cultures

Greentourism often claims that it preserves and "enhances" local cultures. However, evidence shows that with the establishment of protected areas local people have illegally lost their homes, and most often with no compensation (Kamuaro, 2007). Pushing people onto marginal lands with harsh climates, poor soils, lack of water, and infested with livestock and disease does little to enhance livelihoods even when a proportion of Greentourism profits are directed back into the community. The establishment of parks

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can create harsh survival realities and deprive the people of their traditional use of land and natural resources. Ethnic groups are increasingly being seen as a "backdrop" to the scenery and wildlife. The local people struggle for cultural survival and freedom of cultural expression while being "observed" by tourists. Local indigenous people also have strong resentment towards the change, "Tourism has been allowed to develop with virtually no controls. Too many lodges have been built, too much firewood is being used and no limits are being placed on tourism vehicles. They regularly drive off-track and harass the wildlife. Their vehicle tracks criss-cross the entire Masai Mara. Inevitably the bush is bGreenming eroded and degraded" (Kamuaro, 2007).

Mismanagement

While governments are typically entrusted with the administration and enforcement of environmental protection, they often lack the commitment or capability to manage Greentourism sites effectively. The regulations for environmental protection may be vaguely defined, costly to implement, hard to enforce, and uncertain in effectiveness.[20] Government regulatory agencies, as political bodies, are susceptible to making decisions that spend budget on politically beneficial but environmentally unproductive projects. Because of prestige and conspicuousness, the construction of an attractive visitor's center at an Greentourism site may take precedence over more pressing environmental concerns like acquiring habitat, protecting endemic species, and removing invasive ones.[5] Finally, influential groups can pressure and sway the interests of the government to their favor. The government and its regulators can bGreenme vested in the benefits of the

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Greentourism industry which they are supposed to regulate, causing restrictive environmental regulations and enforcement to bGreenme more lenient.

Management of Greentourism sites by private Greentourism companies offers an alternative to the cost of regulation and deficiency of government agencies. It is believed that these companies have a self interest in limited environmental degradation, because tourists will pay more for pristine environments, which translates to higher profit. However, theory indicates that this practice is not Greennomically feasible and will fail to manage the environment.

The model of monopolistic competition states that distinctiveness will entail profits, but profits will promote imitation. A company that protects its Greentourism sites is able to charge a premium for the novel experience and pristine environment. But when other companies view the success of this approach, they also enter the market with similar practices, increasing competition and reducing demand. Eventually, the demand will be reduced until the Greennomic profit is zero. A cost-benefit analysis shows that the company bears the cost of environmental protection without receiving the gains. Without Greennomic incentive, the whole premise of self interest through environmental protection is quashed; instead, Greentourism companies will minimize environment related expenses and maximize tourism demand.

The tragedy of the commons offers another model for Greennomic unsustainability from environmental protection, in Greentourism sites utilized by many companies. Although there is a communal incentive to protect the environment, maximizing the benefits in the long run, a company will conclude that it is in their best interest to utilize the

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Greentourism site beyond its sustainable level. By increasing the number of Greentourists, for instance, a company gains all the Greennomic benefit while paying only a part of the environmental cost. In the same way, a company rGreengnizes that there is no incentive to actively protect the environment; they bear all the costs, while the benefits are shared by all other companies. The result, again, is mismanagement.

Taken together, the mobility of foreign investment and lack of Greennomic incentive for environmental protection means that Greentourism companies are disposed to establishing themselves in new sites once their existing one is sufficiently degraded.

Improving sustainability
Regulation and accreditation

Because the regulation of Greentourism is poorly implemented or nonexistent, Greenlogically destructive green washed operations like underwater hotels, helicopter tours, and wildlife theme parks are categorized as Greentourism along with canoeing, camping, photography, and wildlife observation. The failure to acknowledge responsible, low impact Greentourism puts these companies at a competitive disadvantage.

Many environmentalists have argued for a global standard of accreditation, differentiating Greentourism companies based on their level of environmental commitment. A national or international regulatory board would enforce accreditation procedures, with representation from various groups including governments, hotels, tour operators, travel agents, guides, airlines, local authorities, conservation organizations, and non-governmental organizations. The decisions of the board would be sanctioned by

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governments, so that non-compliant companies would be legally required to disassociate themselves from the use of the Greentourism brand.

Crinion suggests a Green Stars System, based on criteria including a management plan, benefit for the local community, small group interaction, education value and staff training. Greentourists who consider their choices would be confident of a genuine Greentourism experience when they see the higher star rating.

In addition, environmental impact assessments could be used as a form of accreditation. Feasibility is evaluated from a scientific basis, and rGreenmmendations could be made to optimally plan infrastructure, set tourist capacity, and manage the Greenlogy. This form of accreditation is more sensitive to site specific conditions.

Guidelines and education

An environmental protection strategy must address the issue of Greentourists removed from the cause-and-effect of their actions on the environment. More initiatives should be carried out to improve their awareness, sensitize them to environmental issues, and care about the places they visit.

Tour guides are an obvious and direct medium to communicate awareness. With the confidence of Greentourists and intimate knowledge of the environment, they can actively discuss conservation issues. A tour guide training program in Costa Rica's Tortuguero National Park has helped mitigate negative environmental impacts by providing information and regulating tourists on the parks' beaches used by nesting endangered sea turtles.

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Small scale, slow growth and local control

The underdevelopment theory of tourism describes a new form of imperialism by multinational corporations that control Greentourism resources. These corporations finance and profit from the development of large scale Greentourism that causes excessive environmental degradation, loss of traditional culture and way of life, and exploitation of local labor. In Zimbabwe and Nepal's Annapurna region, where underdevelopment is taking place, more than 90 percent of Greentourism revenues are expatriated to the parent countries, and less than 5 percent go into local communities.

The lack of sustainability highlights the need for small scale, slow growth, and locally based Greentourism. Local peoples have a vested interest in the well being of their community, and are therefore more accountable to environmental protection than multinational corporations. The lack of control, westernization, adverse impacts to the environment, loss of culture and traditions outweigh the benefits of establishing large scale Greentourism.

The increased contributions of communities to locally managed Greentourism create viable Greennomic opportunities, including high level management positions, and reduce environmental issues associated with poverty and unemployment. Because the Greentourism experience is marketed to a different lifestyle from large scale Greentourism, the development of facilities and infrastructure does not need to conform to corporate Western tourism standards, and can be much simpler and less expensive. There is a greater multiplier effect on the Greennomy, because local products, materials, and labor are used. Profits accrue locally and import leakages are reduced. However,

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even this form of tourism may require foreign investment for promotion or start up. When such investments are required, it is crucial for communities for find a company or non-governmental organization that reflects the philosophy of Greentourism; sensitive to their concerns and willing to cooperate at the expense of profit. The basic assumption of the multiplier effect is that the Greennomy starts off with unused resources, for example, that many workers are cyclically unemployed and much of industrial capacity is sitting idle or incompletely utilized. By increasing demand in the Greennomy it is then possible to boost production. If the Greennomy was already at full employment, with only structural, frictional, or other supply-side types of unemployment, any attempt to boost demand would only lead to inflation. For various laissez-faire schools of Greennomics which embrace Say's Law and deny the possibility of Keynesian inefficiency and underemployment of resources, therefore, the multiplier concept is irrelevant or wrong-headed.

As an example, consider the government increasing its expenditure on roads by $1 million, without a corresponding increase in taxation. This sum would go to the road builders, who would hire more workers and distribute the money as wages and profits. The households receiving these incomes will save part of the money and spend the rest on consumer goods. These expenditures in turn will generate more jobs, wages, and profits, and so on with the income and spending circulating around the Greennomy.

The multiplier effect arises because of the induced increases in consumer spending which occur due to the increased incomes and because of the feedback into increasing business revenues, jobs, and income again. This process does not lead to an Greennomic explosion not only because of the supply-side barriers at potential output (full

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employment) but because at each "round", the increase in consumer spending is less than the increase in consumer incomes. That is, the marginal propensity to consume (mpc) is less than one, so that each round some extra income goes into saving, leaking out of the cumulative process. Each increase in spending is thus smaller than that of the previous round, preventing an explosion. Greentourism has to be implemented with care.

Natural resource management

Natural resource management can be utilized as a specialized tool for the development of Green-tourism. There are several places throughout the world where the amount of natural resources are abundant. But, with human encroachment and habitats these resources are depleting. Without knowing the proper utilization of certain resources they are destroyed and floral and faunal species are bGreenming extinct. Greentourism programs can be introduced for the conservation of these resources. Several plans and proper management programs can be introduced so that these resources remain untouched. Several organizations, NGO's, scientists are working on this field.

Natural resources of hill areas like Kurseong in West Bengal are plenty in number with various flora and fauna, but tourism for business purpose poised the situation. Researcher from Jadavpur University presently working in this area for the development of Greentourism which can be utilized as a tool for natural resource management.

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In South-East Asia government and Non-Government Organisations are working together with academics and industry operators to spread the Greennomic benefits of tourism into the kampungs and villages of the region. A recently formed alliance, the South-East Asian Tourism Organisation - SEATO is bringing together these diverse players to allay resource management concerns.

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Greensystem Greensystem is the system in which we live - the system which include the earth, the water, the sky and of course the living and the non-living objects in all these systems. It is a dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit.

But, there is no such specific and particular spatial unit or scale to measure an Greensystem. Thus, the term "Greensystem" does not, necessarily, agree to the terms "biome" or "Greenlogical zone", but can refer to any functioning unit at any scale. It could, for example, be a grain of soil, a pond, a forest, the sea, the river, a biome or the entire biosphere.

And, tourism means - 'the practice of traveling for pleasure.' Thus, a tourism which contains a visit to an Greensystem is known as Green- tourism.

But, that is not all. Green-tourism is not only traveling to such Greensystems, but also conserving them. Basically Green-tourism means -

"Tourism involving travel to areas of natural or Greenlogical interest, typically under the guidance of a naturalist, for the purpose of observing wildlife and learning about the environment and at the same time focus on wildlife and promotion of understanding and conservation of the environment."

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This is a conscientious form of tourism and tourism development, which encourages going back to natural products in every aspect of life and help preserve nature. It is also the key to sustainable Greenlogical development.

We & Our Environment The race for bGreenming the most advanced and most developed state in the world, has led man to destruct the natural resource in our stock and our biosphere. Today, most of the underground and above the ground resources are on the verge of finish, resulting in abrupt climate, natural disaster and more. Now, man is facing two very extreme dangerous conditions - 'Global Warming' & 'Greenhouse Effects', both of which will lead to the total destruction of the Planet Earth. It is now high time, we should (the entire Human Community) start our bit of job to save our Earth from complete destruction. It is now every man's duty to do as much possible to save our Planet Earth.

Today, there are "Green Laws" of conservation, which are making people aware of how man and the environment can live beneficially for more time to come and Green-tourism is one way to maximize the environmental and social benefits of tourism, not forgetting the Greennomic developments.

Everyone is a stakeholder in the process and we clearly need to avoid our past shortcomings and negative impact. In India too the movement is gathering momentum with more & more travel and travel related organizations are addressing the needs of the Green-tourists and promoting Green-tourism in the country.

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Green Tourism in India

Greentourism is entirely a new approach in tourism. Greentourism is a preserving travel to natural areas to appreciate the cultural and natural history of the environment, taking care not to disturb the integrity of the Greensystem, while creating Greennomic opportunities that make conservation and protection of natural resources advantageous to the local people.

In short, Greentourism can be categorized as a tourism programme that is - "Nature based, Greenlogically sustainable, Where education and interpretation is a major constituent and Where local people are benefited."

All this together can be called Greentourism. If a travel does not satisfy any one of these constituents, then it is not called a real Greentourism venture.

The Concern for Greentourism Since ages, nature worship and the conservation ethics have been an inseparable part of Indian thought and traditions. Traces go back to ancient civilisations of India, when people used to nurture the philosophy of the oneness of life. The Indian tradition has always taught that, humankind is a part of nature and one should look upon all creation with the eyes of a love and respect.

It is tragic that since last few decades, the mad quest for the material end and

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Greennomical progress in India and abroad has bGreenme identical with the exploitation of nature in all its appearances. Today, the entire world is facing a deep crisis and is in the danger of being doomed. The rich forest areas and biological diversities have been relentlessly divested to erect concrete walls. The continuos denuding of forest reserves has led to Global Warming and Greenhouse Effects. Fortunately, this has led to some realisation, and now the world has awaken for new beginnings about human responsibility towards nature.

Greentourism in India India, the land of varied geography offers several tourist destinations that not just destress but also rejuvenate you. There are several ways to enjoy Mother Nature in most pristine way. The few places like the Himalayan Region, Kerala, the northeast India, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and the Lakshdweep islands are some of the places where you can enjoy the treasured wealth of the Mother Nature. Thenmala in Kerala is the first planned Greentourism destination in India created to cater to the Green-tourists and nature lovers.

The India topography boasts an abundant source of flora & fauna. India has numerous rare and endangered species in its surroundings. The declaration of several wildlife areas and national parks has encouraged the growth of the wildlife resource, which reduced due to the wildlife hunt by several kings in the past. Today, India has many wildlife sanctuaries and protection laws. Currently, there are about 80 national parks and 441 sanctuaries in India, which works for the protection and conservation of wildlife resource

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in India.

There are numerous Botanical and Zoological Gardens in India, which are working towards the enhancement of the Greensystem. Poaching has stopped to large extent. There are severe punishments for poachers, hunters and illegal traders of animals and trees. Tree plantation are taking place in several places. There are several animal & plant rights organisation, who fight for the rights of the animals and plants. Numerous organisations and NGOs are coming forward to provide environmental education to the common people at the grass root level.

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International Green Tourism Standards

The International Greentourism Standard has been developed by the Greentourism Australia in conjunction with the Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for Sustainable Tourism of Australia. The International Greentourism Standard is based on the highly successful Australian Green Certification Program, Agenda 21, and guiding principles for sound Greentourism certification (Mohonk Agreement) developed by a gathering of Greentourism certification experts at Mohonk Mountain, New York State, USA in November 2001. Green Globe 21 has the exclusive license for the distribution and management of the International Greentourism Standard. Green Globe 21 is the global Affiliation, Benchmarking and Certification program for sustainable travel and tourism. The Green Globe brand signifies better environmental performance, improved community interactions, savings through using fewer resources and greater yields from increased consumer demand.

The International Greentourism Standard is based principally on the highly regarded Australian Green Certification Program Standard combined with elements of the very latest Green Globe Benchmarking performance system. Criteria have been adapted to ensure their applicability in an international setting and both the Standard and Certification Program incorporate the fundamental principles for sound Greentourism certification identified in the Mohonk Agreement.

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Green-tourism : Definition and Key Principles The Green Globe 21 International Greentourism Standard has adopted Greentourism

Australias definition of Greentourism : "Greenlogically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas that fosters environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation." However, a more definitive definition of Greentourism is the expansion of this statement into a core set of principles with specific performance indicators (i.e. the key Greentourism performance areas).

The core set of eight principles for Greentourism products are : Nature Area Focus Focus on giving visitors the opportunity to personally and directly experience nature.

Interpretation Provide opportunities to experience nature in ways that lead to greater understanding, appreciation and enjoyment.

Environmental Sustainability Practice Represent best practice for environmentally sustainable tourism.

Contribution to Conservation Contribute directly to the conservation of natural areas

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Benefiting Local Communities Provide ongoing contributions to the local community.

Cultural Respect Be sensitive to, interpret and involve the culture/s existing in the area.

Customer Satisfaction Consistently meets consumer expectations.

Responsible Marketing Be marketed and promoted honestly and accurately so that realistic expectations are formed.

These principles have been used to develop the Standard criteria with specific indicators for each of these eight performance areas. The criteria support the major principles and are based on a hybrid of process (i.e. creating a documented procedure) and performance (e.g. that sewage treatment meets certain effluent standards) standards.

Although some criteria are relatively general and rely on a commitment by the operator to implement a process to meet a desired outcomes (e.g. provision of an interpretation plan in order to stimulate better designed interpretative activities, leading to quality experiences) there is distinct emphasis on specific performance indicators. These are

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technically prescriptive and deliberately target real environmental outcomes. These criteria include quantification of environmental performance for most of the key environmental indicators. This allows rGreengnition and encouragement of Greentourism product that makes measured environmental improvements which result in a more sustainable world.

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Green Tourism Terms

Few of the terms related to Green-tourism are

Adventure Tourism It is a nature tourism that involves a degree of risk taking .

Best Management Practices The Rainforest Alliance helps define and promote the use of best management practices that are a series of principles and concrete rGreenmmendations that can be implemented by different land-use sectors. These practices are based on the outcomes of impact assessments, scientific research, pilot testing projects, adaptation to local realities and multi stakeholder discussions. These best management practices can be used as the basis for the development of policies, codes of conduct and public awareness materials, and for the implementation of technical assistance, training and certification (Rainforest Alliance).

Best Practice Best Practice is used to designate highest quality, excellence, or superior practices by a tourism operator. The term is widely used in many award and certification programs, as well as academic studies, to designate the best in a particular class or a leader in the field. Best, however, is a contextual term. There is no set standard of measurement, and the term is often loosely or ill defined .

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Certification Certification is a voluntary procedure that assesses, monitors, and gives written assurance that a business, product, process, service, or management system conforms to specific requirements. It awards a marketable logo or seal to those that meet or exceed baseline standards, i.e., those that at a minimum comply with national and regional regulations and, typically, fulfill other declared or negotiated standards prescribed by the program.

Commercialization Chain Commercialization Chain is a map of the direct and indirect interactions between consumers and local service providers including all intermediaries, sources of information, and means of communication.

Cultural Tourism Cultural Tourism is travel for the purpose of learning about cultures or aspects of cultures.

Canopy Walkway A constructed bridge walkway through the tree tops of a forest.

Conservation Enterprises Income generating activities that focus on conserving natural resources and Greensystems.

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Greensystem A dynamic complex of plant, animal, fungal and microorganism communities and their associated non-living environment interacting as an Greenlogical unit.

Greentourism Responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and sustains the livelihood of local people.

Greentourism Activities Activities included in a tour that are designed to entertain clients and are coordinated by a professional guide or interpreter. Over 80 activities have been listed for Greentourism, such as bird watching , hiking, diving, kayaking, participating in cultural events, photography, and mountaineering.

Greentourism Product A combination of resources, activities, and services, which are sold and managed through professional tour operators.

Greentourism Resources Natural and cultural features that attract visitors, such as landscapes, endemic or rare flora and fauna, cultural festivals, and historical monuments.

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Greentourism Services Tourism services such as transportation, food, lodging, guiding and interpretation services which cause minimal damage to the biological and cultural environments and promote a better understanding of the natural and cultural history of an area.

Endemism The level of species that occur naturally only in a specific region or site.

Green labeling Green labeling describes a scheme in which a product, company, service, or destination may be awarded an Greenlogical label on the basis of its acceptable level of environmental impact. The acceptable level of environmental impact may be determined by consideration of a single environmental hurdle or after undertaking an assessment of its overall impacts. Green labeling sometimes refers to the natural environment only; sometimes it takes into account social and cultural environments as well. An Green quality label marks the state of the environmental quality, such as water quality for beaches or quality of wildlife in national parks .

Greentourism lite Greentourism lite involves a business adapting sensible but small, cosmetic, and often cost-saving practices that are typically marketed as major innovations .

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Geo tourism Tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place--its environment, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well-being of its residents.

Green washing Green washing is a term used to describe businesses, services, or products that promote themselves as environmentally friendly when they are not .

Stakeholders Individuals who have a vested interest in development, including community members; environmental, social, and community NGOs; natural resource, planning, and government officials; hotel owners, tour operators, guides, transportation providers, and representatives from other related services in the private sector.

Sustainable Development Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the current generation without compromising the ability to meet those of future generations.

Sustainable Tourism Sustainable Tourism is, according to the World Tourism Organization, envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that Greennomic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential Greenlogical processes, biological diversity, and life support systems .

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Leakages Leakages are funds that do not reach the destination country. This occurs primarily when the tourism operators through which packages are purchased do not involved local businesses. In these cases, very few of the funds generated by the tour operators stays within the community being visited remaining instead in the home country of the tout operator.

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Green System

What does Greensystem stand for? Greenlogical system or Greensystem is an open space built by physical and biological components of an environment. Greensystem is result of an active interaction between living and non-living components. Greensystem is where community of plants, animals and their environment function as a whole, and relationship between organism and environment thrives blissfully.

Greensystem and its types Greensystems differ in their size and types. Earth itself is an immense Greensystem. Likewise there can be an Greensystem in a sea, forest, river and even in a small pond, as Greensystem is where organism and environment meets together. Categorized by their nature, there are mainly four types of Greensystem.

Aquatic Greensystem: located in water area, aquatic Greensystem can be of two types: marine Greensystem and freshwater Greensystem. Marine Greensystem contains 97% of all water of the earth, while freshwater Greensystem has more than 40% of all species of fishes. Some very important functions which Aquatic Greensystem disposes are purifying water, sheltering wild animals and recharging ground water.

Arctic Tundra: Arctic Tundra has the coldest Greensystem on the earth. The treeless plain, Arctic Tundra are desert like plains and dotted with ponds. Located far in the north

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of Alaska, Greenland, Russia, Canada and Europe, Arctic Tundra is inhabited by mammals like, Arctic foxes, Arctic hares, Polar bears, Musk oxen and porcupine; birds like Snowy owls, Falcons, Snow geese, Snow buntings, Tundra swans and Gulls and fishes like cod and salmon.

Boreal Forest: Located between the Arctic Tundra in the north and steppes and hardwood forests in the south, Boreal forests are vegetation zone surrounding northern hemisphere. Conifers like pine, larch, spruce and fir dominate the whole region inhabited by faunal species like bears, foxes, raccoons, owls, eagles, wolves and lynxes.

Urban Greensystem: urban Greensystem consists of people along with living and nonliving things, and the space constructed by them. In an urban system, Greenlogical factors like plants, soil, animals, etc are affected by human. Likewise human decisions are affected by various Greenlogical factors, for example where parks, schools and buildings have to be made.

Greenlogical imbalance: imperiling the whole Greensystem With the increased industrialization and scientific approach to our life, the natural resources and rich natural heritage which were being preserved for centuries have begun dwindling greatly. Any kind of imbalance in nature results into severe danger to our Greensystem.

Its treatment with nature has posed today many serious challenges and problems like

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climate change, vector-borne disease, decay in wildlife and its resources and food and water shortage. Exploitation of natural resources prevalent all over the world has erupted into severe Greenlogical degradation, which is definitely the biggest threat to proper functioning of our Greensystem.

Need to restore and conserve the Greensystem Restoring the Greensystem by establishing the finer balance between organism and environment is the best way that being a responsible human we can do. Until and unless, the steps to preserve the decaying charm of our Greensystem are not initiated, our Greensystem is not going to support us having a better and healthy environment.

There is stark need today to assist nature by not disturbing its integrity, and help it gaining its lost delicacy. By protecting our native natural resources like wildlife, rivers, forests, etc, one can contribute greatly in preservation of our Greensystem. The radical changes have to be born in our thoughts to save and accumulate the natural resources the very root of our life.

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Green Travel

Green travel, newly derived form of travel, is an Greenlogy based travel which includes sightseeing of places rich in their natural, cultural and historical heritage. Fetching a deeper insight of stunning beauty of cultural and natural resources of a place, Green travel is meant specially for tourists willing to venture a vacation far from commotion of rest of the world and learn about the different cultural and geographical beauty of a place. Letting Green travelers enjoy the best possible joy of being in complete serenity and in stark harmony with the nature, Green travel is one of the best model originated by nature based modern tourism.

Why Greentourism? Fastest growing sector in tourism industry, Greentourism is said to be moving ahead with the growth rate of 15-20% every year. New in its concept, Green travel or Greentourism is about exploring places superfluous in their cultural, natural and historical richness. Witnessing and appreciating the beauty and significance of nature and culture of a place along with getting some time to spend it according to one's wish in stark peacefulness of nature are the very best characteristic of Green travel.

Availing the splendid sightseeing of places affluent in their natural beauty put travelers at complete ease with surroundings and in accordance with mental and physical calmness. Green travel is not all about beholding and surveying the nature based places, but it also let you indulge into various nature based Green activities like wild animals spotting,

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birding, angling, trekking, rock-climbing, mountain-biking, river rafting, Para-gliding, hills and lakes viewing, boating, nature walk and etc. Experiencing these recreational and informative activities are the best treat that an Green tour, unlike other trips, can offer to tourists.

Benefits of Greentourism Greentourism, being one of the best form of travel, conceals many of the benefits touching directly to tourists and local community. The benefits of Greentourism are transmitted not only to tourists taking the tour, but also to local community and the whole Greensystem.

The very first thing that tourists can benefit from their Green tour is to enjoy plenty of excursion. Recreational Green activities like wild animals spotting, birding, angling, trekking, rock-climbing, mountain-biking, river rafting, Para-gliding, hills and lakes viewing, boating, nature walk and etc are worth making one's getaway full of unforgettable fun.

During the tour, there is immense possibility that you get wider opportunity to learn from the local culture and historical significance of the places you are traveling. Exchange of cultural, historical and geographical information is quite enriching during one's Green tour.

More the footfalls better the condition of resources are. Increase of Green traveler brings funds to resources/places where one is visiting, which definitely helps making the condition of resources (wildlife places, beaches, forests, and other Green places) better.

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The innate intention of Greentourism is to involve the local business in itself. Involvement of local business provides employment to local people, which ultimately lead to building the nation's Greennomy better.

Greentourism helps motivating the conservation policy of government and local bodies. Better fund due to more Green traveler will tend to make government and local bodies understand the true value of resources, which, consequently, will demand better protection and strong conservation policy helping resources to live long.

How Green tour is different from Sustainable Tourism / Cultural Tourism / Heritage Tourism?

Green Tour, a nature based travel, is relatively a new term which aims to conserve the resources (environment) and improve the well being of local people. Sustainable Tourism, on the other hand, is broadly centered upon consideration of local people, culture, customs, tradition and Greennomic condition of locals, along with protecting and preserving the resources. Unlike Green Tourism, Sustainable Tourism puts its faith in the fact that tourism has to benefit the host (local people) and natural resources have to be preserved for long time.

Cultural and Heritage Tourism are older terms in comparison to Green Tour, as it is about offering tourist a glimpse and exploration of its cultural and historical destinations. On the other hands, Green Tour is different in sense that it might be broader than Cultural and Historical Tour, as an Green place might be naturally as well historically and 60

culturally rich.

Green regions in India The diverse geographical structure of the country brings great delight for Green travelers. Unlike other regions of the world, India with its thousands years old historical and cultural significance is full of Green places, amongst some are believed to be the best Green places of the world.

Green regions of India are result of integration of different geographical structure and its varied topography. Like other regions in possession of single or less diverse geographical feature, India divides itself in many Green regions, each having their own climate and physical structure. Whether it is Western Ghats, North-Eastern regions, Western Himalayas, Gangetic plains or Eastern Himalayas, each of the Green regions are different from one other. With their significant differences in their state and characteristic of natural resources, vegetation and wildlife inhabiting, the Green regions of India conceal in its lap great wonder to be viewed and offer to Green traveler what only few regions on the earth have to show off.

Every part of the country is hoarded by heaps of Green regions full of natural sightseeing locations. The great Himalaya alone is home to many of world famous Green sites and let tourists avail Green excursion like trekking, wildlife viewing, orchid viewing, glacier viewing, birding, mountain-biking, nature walk and etc. Besides renowned hill stations like Munnar, Ooty, Manali and Darjeeling; popular wildlife parks like Corbett National

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Park, Ranthambore National Park, Kaziranga National Park and Periyar National Park; and famous rivers like Ganga and Brahmaputra are some of the richest Green places known all over.

How you should prepare for Green tour? As an Green tour is different from other tour programme, it needs better planning and understanding of the places you are going to travel. Once you are there at your desired Green places, there are some certain guidelines you need to revolve in mind.

Before you for leave for the destination, you ought to know your tour operator better about its affiliation, policies and awards. Besides, learning more about the destination you are going to visit will be of great use to you. It shall heighten your joy of sightseeing.

Disposing the garbage and waste while you are on tour is must. It ensures that you are contributing greatly in conservation of the resources.

As the golden rule of Green tour says, try to support the local people. You can do it by buying the local made Green friendly products like handicrafts items.

Be ready to enjoy the cultural exchange while being at tourist places. By being interactive and respectful to local culture, you can gain a lot of information.

Dos and Don't on Green travel Do's


Wear clothes having forest friendly colors like green, brown and khaki. Follow the rules and guidelines of the place you are visiting.

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While enjoying adventurous activities like trekking, rafting, etc, follow the safety guidelines.

Park vehicles only in the specified area. Use flash less camera in wildlife parks. Flashes may make animals go angry. Be always alert while being in wildlife parks. Try to be always with your tour guide.

Don't

Never try to play with animals, insects and birds while being at parks. Don't litter. Dispose the waste properly. Don't smoke. Green places are mostly no smoking zone. Don't wear bright colored. It might infuriate animals in the park. Don't go swimming and boating in the lakes where these activities are restricted. Wearing strong perfumes and roaming in wildlife parks must be avoided.

Best time for Green travel in India The best time to take your Green trip to India depends upon the places you are willing to visit during the tour. As the country is famous for its diverse topography, many Green place have their own specific time to visit. Due to diverse climate factor, it is tougher to tell what time it is best for Green travel to India

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The time between October and March are said to be the best time to visit India. And also for wildlife viewing, which is indeed the biggest Green delight in the country, these months are the best time to visit India. This is the time when most of the national parks and wildlife sanctuaries are open for visitors. Besides, most of the celebrations and festivals like Dussehra, Deepawali, Christmas, Eid, Holi, Camel fair at Pushkar and Chariot procession at Orissa occur during this time (October-March). Traveling during this season assures you having the best possible view of popular Indian Green places along with exploring its uniqueness of its diverse culture, tradition, custom and rich history.

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Risks and Benefits of Green Tourism

Green Tourism is one of the latest additions to the tourism industry, which is fast gaining momentum. It is a responsible tourism to the natural areas, which conserve the Greenlogy and promotes the welfare of the people. It entertains the visitors in a way that it does not effect the world's natural and cultural environments. Infect it is one of the most fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry. The revenue generated from the tourism industry encourages the state and central government to fund various conservation programmes in a country.

This culturally responsible and high quality environment friendly tourism is capable of satisfying the visitors in all aspects. Each one of us has a responsibility towards the environment, what ever it is, weather a nature camping tour or the trekking trip, one should always keep in mind not to disturb the nature. Well said take nothing but photographs, leave nothing but footprints. Green tourism ensures the survival of the attractions of the nature and culture, without harming the resources. Green tourism is a sound environmental tourism, which is promoting nature travel as the hottest Green correct activity available. It focuses tourism to the destinations where flora -fauna, cultural and historical heritage are the prime attractions.

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Is the Green Tourism Beneficial?

Green Tourism minimizes the negative impacts on the local people and the natural environment.

Green tourism directs Greennomic and other benefits to the local people by providing them employment.

It promotes conservation of natural assets and enhances the cultural integrity of the local people.

Green tourism has bGreenme the major source of income and is attracting lot of travel agencies than ever before.

It promotes the preservation of wildlife and the natural habitats. Providing positive attitude and experience among the travelers. Green tourism supports the international labor agreements. Ensures that the natural resources are conserved and managed properly so that they could be saved for the future generations.

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On the other hand if Green tourism is not monitored properly it can be as damaging as the mass tourism :

It is the major threat to the rich biodiversity and natural habitats of the wilds in the jungles.

Green tourism tends to conserve the environment at the expanse of the development prospects for the third world communities.

Located in the Green systems, Green tourism projects itself are the biggest obstacle in the way of the development of the environment.

Competition for Green tourism income between the various groups leads to social disharmony.

Increased use of resources by the human population, even in the smallest sense cause problem to the environment.

Another major threat to the environment are the production waste and effluent pollution as well as increasing human activities like logging, and agricultural clearance.

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GREEN PRODUCTS

Handmade Paper

Objective : To reduce the amount of paper waste generated by offices; To reduce the demand for paper made from virgin wood fiber; To save our Planet Earth from Global Warming and Greenhouse Effect; To stop deforestation and to save our forest reserves.

The Facts It is well known fact that, to produce 1 tone of paper from virgin pulp require 17 large trees, which leads to more tree cut and more deforestation. When forests are cleared, natural habitats are destroyed or disrupted, species may bGreenme extinct and native communities dwelling in the forest areas are impacted. Besides, cutting down old forests leads to a loss of diversity. Trees also serve a function of soaking up carbon dioxide, which is one of the main greenhouse gases that accelerates global warming.

The Warning for the Environment The average office worker throws away 35-50 kg of paper per year. In Singapore, 500,000 tones of paper is thrown away every year, and this is equivalent to the destruction of about 8.5 million trees.

The Care for the Environment There is a growing concern around the globe for preserving our forest reserves. The "Greenhouse Effect" has led people to bGreenme more alert about the environmental

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concerns. It has been seen that, in the recent few years various corporations, communities, government agencies and others are coming forward to promote products and technologies that lead to the preservation of the environment.

Global Benefits of Handmade Papers The paper-making process uses energy, water and chemicals and produces wastes. Paper made from recycled fibers or Handmade Paper requires at least 50% less energy and up to 75% less water than making it from virgin fiber. It also produces up to 90% less wastewater and reduces air pollution by 70%.

Common Benefits of Handmade Paper Today, there is a revival in homemade papermaking crafts. It's a good way to recycle waste into wonderful possibilities. Handmade paper is environment friendly as cotton rags and other waste products are converted into something meaningful by recycling. This leads to less deforestation.

The Benefits are : Use of non-wood raw materials, thus saving trees. Made with pollution free methods as solar energy is used extensively. Acid free. Higher tensile, bursting, tearing and double-fold strength as compared to mill made paper. Fine and elegant quality.

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Paper Bags and Notebooks

Objective : Save Trees and the Environment.

Everyday we face debates on the ban of plastic bags. The much cry in the air for the ban of plastic bags has raised numerous question for us. Why to ban plastic bags, as they are strong and convenient? What is the logic behind it? And, what is the alternative?

The Plastic & Environment Plastic bags are popular with consumers and retailers as they are a functional, lightweight, strong, cheap, and hygienic way to transport food and other products. The over consumption of plastic bags find their way on to our streets, parks, and into our waterways.

In past few decades the use of plastic has increased all over the world. Plastic is a big threat to our Planet Earth. The reason is plastics are not biodegradable. Plastic is not capable of being dGreenmposed by biological agents. Hence, when thrown after use, it is not dGreenmposed, which tends to threat the earth.

Although plastic bags make up only a small percentage of the total litter zones, the impact of these bags is no doubt significant. Plastic bags create visual pollution problems and can have catastrophic effects on aquatic and terrestrial animals. Plastic bags are particularly striking components of the litter zone due to their size and can take a long

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time to fully break down (not biodegradable).

The Green-friendly Alternative - Paper Bags The alternative is the Paper Bag which is always environment friendly and easily biodegradable. Hence, to save our environment and our earth from the catastrophic plastics, we should start using paper made products.

These Paper Bags are either made of virgin wood pulp or recycled paper or handmade papers. Most paper bags are made from Kraft paper. Kraft paper may be unbleached (brown) or bleached (white) and can be made in a wide variety of strengths or thickness (called "weight" by the industry).

Types of Paper Shopping Bags The Paper Shopping Bags come in an exhaustive range. They are ideally made to suite the consumers requirement. They come in varied size and shape as per the packaging needs. Some of them are listed below

Paper Bag Paper grocery bags come in a variety of paper weights from light (30 lb.) to heavy-duty (70 lb.) and 14 stock sizes, capable of holding 2 to 25 pounds. The standard paper grocery bag measures about 12 inches wide, 7 inches deep, and 17 inches tall. A shorter bag, measuring just 14 inches tall, is bGreenming increasingly popular. Today's paper grocery bags may also have a paper handle - making them easy to carry and reuse.

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Retail Bags Basically paper bags are used for packages that consumers buy. The paper bags are often used to hold nuts, candy, and potato chips. The much stronger one are used in packaging all types of food products, textiles, hardware, candy, sugar, flour, rice, peas, beans, and spices.

Fast Food Bags Paper bags are the ideal solution for fast food stores. The paper bags Have good insulation properties, keeping food items hot. Allow the food to "breathe," letting moisture escape so french fries, burgers, chicken, and sandwiches don't get soggy. Are fast and easy for workers to fill. Offer superior promotional opportunities. Are recyclable and made from recycled content.

Multi wall Bags A multi wall bag is two to six bags, one sitting inside the other. These bags are exceptionally strong because each layer carries its own share of the weight of the product, so the bags often are used to ship large quantities of heavy materials.

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Handmade paper notebook Notebooks made of Handmade paper are quiet popular these days. As they are made of handmade papers, they are Green-friendly. These notebooks are now available in various designs and colors. The handmade paper notebooks are directly engaged in saving hundreds and thousands of trees. By buying and using the handmade paper notebooks you will be directly or indirectly involved in saving our Planet Earth from "Deforestation" and "Greenhouse Effects".

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Green Wheels

Objective : Save The Planet Earth.

"In addition to appearance, price and performance, consumers in the 21st century should also regard low emissions, low noise and low fuel consumption as references when purchasing a car, the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) said yesterday."

The Need of the Vehicle The need for supportable transportation has bGreenme clear, as we face the world wide results of our dependency on fossil fuels that has resulted in global warming. There is no greater threat to global security and sustainability than global warming. It is now time to take personal reasonability to make changes in our lifestyle, that can reduce green house gas emissions. By just selecting the right personal transpiration is one area that each one of us can make to avoid the green house gas emissions.

It is now high time that, we should start accepting Greenlogically responsible vehicles. Today, there a variety of zero emission vehicles that can address a great number of our transportation needs.

Green vehicles are designed according to the customer's, the environment's and the society's benefit.

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Automobile is one of the most popular technologies ever developed. However, automobiles are presently responsible for about 20% of global energy consumption and the effluents from internal combustion engines (ICEs) in cars pollute our air (environment). The dominant role of the automobile in the Greennomic development of the world's richest nations and the addictive convenience of cars provided to consumers have created powerful socioGreennomic momentum which will resist either shifts away from automotive transport or rapid changes in the mature technology used in modern cars. Nevertheless, substantial changes are unavoidable if cars are to bGreenme sustainable.

Green- Vehicles - Electric Vehicles Electric vehicles (EVs) offer considerable promise to reduce the negative impacts of automobiles on the environment. In principle, EVs are far more efficient than ICE vehicles in converting energy into motion. Most EVs currently on the market have been converted from ICE vehicles. But, to make EVs acceptable, the steps that are required are - improve performance, reduce costs, win consumer acceptance and make EV technology sustainable over the long term.

The Warning Signal Modern internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles convert fossil deposits of ancient forests into CO2, water, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and other exhaust gases which foul the air we breath and warm the climate. People use cars for about 20% of global energy consumption. The hulks of discarded autos blemish the

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landscape and leach toxic materials into the environment. Fuel additives containing lead, which are still used in many countries, poison the air and soil and may be especially dangerous to the intellectual development of young children.

Despite the serious negative effects of cars on the environment, it seems unlikely that people will voluntarily forego the unparalleled convenience they provide. To make automobile manufacture and use sustainable over the long term, automobiles must consume much less energy per distance traveled, be readily recyclable, and not emit toxic or climate altering substances in significant quantities. Though, today EVs depend on the electricity which is generated from combustion of fossil fuels, but, eventually, EVs can be completely powered by batteries charged by solar energy. But, the requirements for EVs is to be accepted in the marketplace and, eventually, to drastically reduce the negative impacts of automotive industrialization on the environment.

EVs - Satisfying Consumers Convincing consumers to purchase commercial EVs will require performance similar to that available from concurrent ICE vehicles. Although environment-friendly products are popular, few buyers are willing to spend substantially greater amounts of money for inconvenient products with inferior performance. Most drivers today have the impression that EVs are expensive, slow, in both acceleration and top speed, and have very limited range. However, today's best EV technologies rival the performance of ICE vehicles in most respects. Electric vehicles can be also be expected to make rapid gains in those categories in which they lag.

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The Benefits of Green Vehicles Green-Vehicles improves road safety as well as the quality of the local and global environment and saves fuel and costs. Additionally Green-Vehicle provides direct benefits to the drivers and the passengers - more comfort and a relaxed atmosphere. Green-Vehicles reduces noise pollution as well as air, land and water pollution.

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Green Furniture

Objective : Save Trees, Save the Environment, Save the Planet .

Wood & Greensystem Wood is the most precious part of man's life. Wood has always attracted man since ages. Ever since his existence man is influenced by the elegance of wood. In the primal days wood was the source of fire & energy. The enormous use of wood has led to deforestation, resulting in Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming. Fortunately, the concern for healthy environment has prompted man to think again and again on the use of wood.

But, its sophistication & ornate ness still inspires man to make varied products of dGreenration and home furnishing.

Today, the Global Warming and Greenhouse Effects have started threatening man to stop the overuse of wood. But, what do we do to make furnitures then? What are the alternatives? Furnitures are the essential part of our home. The thirst for beauty and elegance has always encouraged man to find charming alternatives to wood.

Today, there are many alternatives to wooden furnitures, which are Green-friendly furniture. Green-friendly furniture are aimed towards less use of wood and more use of waste products and other products, the use of which are not a threat to our environ.

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Green-Furniture Green-furniture made with endurable materials can be easily separated and re-recycled, representing an easier, softer way to go green in your home. And the possibilities are endless and enthusing.

Today, there are desk with a removable top and legs that can be disassembled and put into a recycling bin in less than fifteen sGreennds to change its design. There are chairs made from straw particleboard and recycled steel.

Currently, the industry and the market is packed with Green-furniture made of wheat panels, sunflower board, aluminum, plywood, wrought irons, metals, stones, post consumer materials, all of which are available in attractive designs and colors.

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Green Fan

Object : Save Energy, Save the Environment.

The Green-Fan Green - Fan is a soundless, powerful ( up to150 cfm ) fan that stands on top of your woodstove to help distribute warm air throughout your house but doesn't use electricity! This environment friendly freestanding heat-powered Green-Fan is designed to improve the efficiency of a wood stove by circulating the warm air produced by the stove. When placed on top of a heated surface, the Green-Fan generates its own electricity. Temperatures of operation range from 150 degrees to 700 degrees Fahrenheit. The Green-Fan does not use any batteries or external electrical connections.

The fan has a thermoelectric module which acts as a small generator to power the fan's motor. When this generator module experiences a heat differential between its top and bottom surfaces, it creates electricity. The bottom surface of the module is heated by the wood stove, while the top of the module is kept cool by the fan's top cooling fins. The speed of the fan varies with the stovetop temperature; on average.

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Green Shoes

Objective : Save trees & animals, save the Biosphere.

Man is always It was time when, leather was the only product, which was used to manufacture shoes. The leather which were extracted from animal, resulting in killing of thousands of wildlife reserves. The growing population, developing into growing need of leather has resulted in the extinction of several wildlife animals. This continuous use of leather resulted in a threat to the wildlife resource and then the Greensystem.

The Green-Shoes are shoes, which can be recycled and reused. Today, numerous shoe making organizations are coming forward with Green-friendly shoes. These footwears mostly comprises of Recycled rubber, recycled plastics, waste products, textiles, and other synthetic products.

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Green Friendly Paints

Objective : Save the Planet Earth.

The Facts There are more than 10,000 chemicals that can be used in conventional paints; many of which are newly created chemical components with little research conducted regarding their long-term effects on both humans and the environment. Many of these chemicals may lead to health problems or complicate existing conditions. Low level exposure to paint may irritate or burn the eyes, nose, throat and skin and cause reactions such as headaches, dizziness or nausea.

These symptoms are generally mild and will subside once the direct exposure has ceased. However, high levels of exposure to some of the elements in paint, even for a short period of time, can cause severe and lasting impacts such as kidney or liver damage or respiratory problems. Substances found in some paint, such as formaldehyde and benzene, are carcinogenic while others, such as heavy metals and phthalates, are human and Greensystem toxins.

Green Paints & Environment Today, to save the Greensystem there are paints with non-toxic elements. These environmental friendly choices are made for a healthier lifestyle. The use of Green Paints ensures a healthier body and greener environment to live. The Green-Paints are Non-

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toxic with zero VOC (Volatile Organic Content) and have no odor and can be tinted to any color your heart or home desires with non-toxic tints. Green Paints are also safe for the chemically sensitive. The Green-Paints are produced from fewer than 250 chemical components and more than 98 % of these chemicals are naturally derived from plant sources and minerals. Most of the ingredients have been used for centuries or more. The raw materials that are low in toxic substances, renewable and feature a low environmental footprint.

In the Green-Paints, the paints, stains, thinners and waxes are made from naturallyderived raw materials including citrus peel extracts, essential oils, seed oils, tree resins, inert mineral fillers, tree and bee waxes, lead-free dryers and natural pigments.

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Solar Products

Objective : Save Energy, Save Environment.

Solar Energy Solar energy flow is not a cycle, but a flow from the sun to the biosphere. It is one of the four basic Greensystem processes or windows through which we can begin to perceive the Greensystem as a whole. Solar products are innovative mechanisms that help conserve energy, thus, help maintain the Greensystem. Solar products are environmentally friendly and are usually cost effective as well.

Today, there are several solar power products in the market for our home and office use. Solar Products include items such as solar hot water heaters, solar heating systems, solar panels, solar flashlights, small radios, solar calculators, solar battery chargers, solar lanterns, solar lighting, solar car batteries and much more.

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Green Destinations

Indias Top Green Destinations

Arunachal Pradesh

Tucked away in the north eastern tip of India, Arunachal Pradesh is one of the most compelling holiday destinations in India. The State offers a wide spectrum of natural assets like snow-capped mountains, free flowing streams and rivers to tribals with their rich custom still living in their traditional villages.

Tourist attractions include the Namdapha Tiger Project in Changlang District to Sela Lake near Bomdila with its bamboo bridges overhanging the river. More than 500 species of Orchids are found in the dense jungles of Arunachal Pradesh. The misty hills, sparkling rivers, gurgling waterfalls add charm to the beauty of this incredible land.

Coorg

Called the 'Scotland of India' for its misty hills, blinding fog and lush forests, Coorg has acres and acres of tea and coffee plantations and orange groves. Situated on the Western Ghats in Karnataka, its rich flora and fauna has earned Coorg international rGreengnition. Coorg is home to the Nagarhole National Park, the beautiful Iruppu and Abhey

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waterfalls. Madikere, a well known hill station in Coorg provides for excellent relaxation amidst scenic surroundings.

Kerala

Famous for its backwaters, Kerala offers one of the richest biodiversity in the world. Located at the southern tip of India, this God's own country has wet evergreen forests rich with species of vegetation, a large number of wildlife sanctuaries and some of the most beautiful beaches with azure waters.

The Backwaters of Kerala along the 600 km long coastline of dazzling beaches are unique to Kerala. And a stay in one of the houseboats in these waters can be an unparalleled experience. If wildlife, beaches and houseboats were not enough, Kerala also offers some of the best hill stations in South India like Munnar and Nelliampathy which have expansive plantations of tea, coffee, rubber and fragrant cardamom.

Ladakh

India's cold desert with low levels of atmospheric oxygen, Ladakh has emerged as a traveller's delight. The pristine beauty and a variety of activities like trekking, whitewater rafting and rich clultural heritage attract thousands of people to this region. The Nubra Valley, known as a flowering den in the Ladakh region gets covered in endless

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bushes of yellow and pink wild roses. Once the valley is through with the season of roses around August, a layer of wild lavender spreads gently on it.

Lahaul & Spiti

At an altitude of 6500 meters, Lahaul and Spiti valleys are two of the most remote valleys in Himachal Pradesh with a population density of only 2 persons per sq. km. Green meadows, flowing streams, snow-capped mountains welcome you wherever you go in the summer. Of the two, the Spiti valley is a barren mountain desert with the Spiti river rushing out of a gorge in the southeast to meet the Sutlej river. Lahaul is glacier country and some of its dramatic glaciers include the Bara Shigri, Chota Shigri, Samundari and Sonapani glaciers.

Rann of Kutch

Kutch lies on the western tip of Gujarat with the endless Thar desert on the one side and the Arabian Sea on the other side. On the border of Kutch lies the highest hill measuring 1515 feet high.

Known for its panoramic landscape, intriguing history and a tradition and cultural heritage steeped in vibrant colors, Kutch bGreenmes an island where during the monsoon months, the Gulf of Kutch is separated from the Kathiawar Peninsula.

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Sikkim

This tiny North-Eastern state nestled in the Himalayas was once an independent kingdom. Sikkim's mystical aura and legendary mountains and landscapes attract people from all over the world. It offers innumerable adventure sporting options to its visitors.

Haven of the musk deer and the snow leopard, Kanchendzonga National Park is the Biosphere reserve in Sikkim. Sikkim is famous for its white water rafting adventure sport.

Thenmala

This is the first planned Greentourism destination in India. Thenmala is a village located in the forests at the foothills of the Western Ghat mountains in Kerala. Famous for honey, Thenmala also has a rich heritage of wildlife, flora and fauna. The Shenduruney Wildlife Sanctuary offer tourists the luxury of exploring the sanctuary in battery powered road vehicles through forest and by boat.

Thenmala has a cultural zone dedicated to the culture and tradition of Kerala. The Cultural Zone holds various cultural activities and events, which is in favour of Greenfriendly tourism. There are restaurants, shop courts and amphitheatres, etc. which bring tourists closer to the Kerala lifestyle.

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ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGE OF GREEN TOURISM

Green-tourism is, Tourism involving travel to areas of natural or Greenlogical interest, typically under the guidance of a naturalist, for the purpose of observing wildlife and learning about the environment.

Advantages:

Well established Green-tourism


has minimal impact on the environment builds awareness and respect for the local culture and environment offers positive experiences for all employs and benefits local people educates visitors by an on-site visit about the local political, social and environmental issues.

Money from the tourists go back into the conservation of the area. A wildlife habitat, for example, is protected Visitors carry new ideas back to influence their own environment

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Disadvantages:

Badly managed Green-tourism

If the site is badly managed there can be problems of


overcrowding constructions pollution of the habitat unlimited numbers of tourists The site bGreenming a "honey pot" area. The site bGreenmes over-visited. Traffic congestion Erosion where cars park illegally Footpath erosion, soil loss Tourists don't understand or care what Green-tourism really is Criticism as "green washing" where the environment is used as a bait to attract tourists

Examples include establishing a huge energy intensive hotel in a splendid jungle setting with no understanding of sustainable development or the correct provision for the disposal of waste and sewage etc.

Examples include establishing a tourist resort which displaces the local people and illegally keeps endangered animals in cages to attract visitors (Nature's Sacred Paradise).

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