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Signals, signal acquisition and processing SIGNALS: Physical quantities changing (continuously) in time.

Examples: blood pressure recordings, ECG, EEG, EMG, respiratory airflow and pressures. DATA:Measured (numerical) values; they can be entered in the computer either manually or from an intelligent measuring device directly.

Optical instruments in medicine:

Imaging: If the light path is broken, we perceive the image as if it was positioned at the place where light rays or their extensions cross each others. Image properties: real / virtual reduced / magnified upright inverted Spherical mirrors:

Lensmakers equation:

Image of lenses:

Vision defects: There are four types of defect of the Eye: Myopia, Hypermetropia,Presbyopia and Astigmatism. Below are given the nature of the defect, its causes and corrective measures:Myopia: A nearsighted person cannot focus clearly on an object farther away than the far point for the defective eye. Correction: This defect can be corrected by using a concave (diverging) lens. A concave lens of appropriate power or focal length is able to bring the image of the object back on the retina itself. Causes : Excessive curvature of the cornea, or elongation of the eyeball.

Hypermetropia: A person sees near objects with blurred vision, while distant objects appear in sharp focus. In this case, the image is formed behind the retina. Causes: The focal length of the eyelens is too great, or the eyeball becomes too short, so that light rays from the nearby object, say at point N, cannot be brought to focus on the retina to give a distinct image. Correction:This defect can be corrected by using a convex (converging) lens of appropriate focal length. When the object is at N, the eye exerts its maximum power of accommodation. Presbyopia: Progressive form of farsightedness that affects most people by their early 60s. The power of accommodation of the eye decreases with ageing. Most people find that the near point gradually recedes. Astigmatism: a defect in the outer curvature on the surface of the eye that causes distorted vision.In astigmatism, a person cannot simultaneously focus on both horizontal and vertical lines. Causes: This defect is usually due to the cornea that is not perfectly spherical Correction: This defect can be corrected by using eyeglasses with cylindrical lenses oriented to compensate for the irregularities in the cornea.

Huygens-Fresnel principle: each point of an advancing wave front is in fact the center of a new train of waves; the advancing wave as a whole may be regarded as the sum of all the secondary waves arising from points in the medium already traversed. Interference: 1. constructive interference 2. destructive interference

Optical grating:The path difference of light from the neighbouring groves determines constructive or destructive interefernce.Direction of maxima:

X-ray diffraction: Microscope: Image produced by the first lens is just inside the focus of the second lens. Magnified final image. Laser: monochromatic coherent directional good focusability

Thermal Expansion: where is the coefficient of linear expansion. o -1 Its units are (C ) . This equation is empirical.

Volume Expansion: expansion. =3

where is the coefficient of volume

General Gas Law :

The Behavior of Real Gases The molar volume is not constant as is expected for ideal gases. These deviations due to an attraction between some molecules. Finite molar molecular volume. For compounds that deviate from ideality the van der Waals equation is used:

where a and b are constants that are characteristic of the gas. Applicable at high pressures and low temperatures Heat Transfer: The science of how heat flows is called heat transfer. There are three ways heat transfer works: conduction,convection, and radiation. Heat flow depends on the temperature difference. Basal metabolic rate: (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). Accordingly: 70 kg man BMR~1800 kcal

Modifying factors Age & gender Lean muscle mass Physical activity level Diet Hormones Basic Laws of Radiation: 1) All objects emit radiant energy. 2) Hotter objects emit more energy than colder objects (per unit area). The amount of energy radiated is proportional to the temperature of the object. 3) The hotter the object, the shorter the wavelength of emitted energy. Wiens law :states that the dominant wavelength at which a blackbody emits electromagnetic radiation is inversely proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the object. The Stefan-Boltzmann law :states that a blackbody radiates electromagnetic waves with a total energy flux E directly proportional to the fourth power of the Kelvin temperature T of the object

Heat Conduction: Conduction is the transfer of heat through materials by the direct contact of matter. A thermal insulator is a material that conducts heat poorly. The thermal conductivity of a material describes how well the material conducts heat.

Heat capacity (usually denoted by a capital C, often with subscripts) is themeasurable physical quantity that characterizes the amount of heat required to change a body's temperature by a given amount. Wind chill (often popularly called the wind chill factor) is the felt air temperature on exposed skin due to wind. It measures the effect of wind on air temperature. The wind chill temperature is usually lower than the air temperature, since the air temperature is usually lower than the human body temperature.The rate of heat loss by a surface depends on the wind speed above that surface: the faster the wind speed, the more readily the surface cools Unidirectional heat loss: Evaporation Sweat is produced from plasma water thus evaporative heat loss is also dependent on cutaneous blood flow. Rate of evaporation at any given time depends on number of molecules leaving the water surface minus the number of molecules returning to water surface due to condensation.

Principles of fluid mechanics

Circulation of blood arterial system capillary system venous system lymphatics respiration upper airways lower airways other body fluids. Bernoullis law The Hagen-Poiseuille law

High velocity in the center results in low hydrostatic pressure (Bernoullis law)


Noninvasive measurement of arterial pressure: mechanisms of the sounds

Physics of biological membranes, diffusion, osmosis Metabolic processes and transport processes. - Macrotransport : transport of large amount of material through vessel systems in large distance - Microtransport : small amount of material by diffusion in small distance