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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1

Telecommunication is the transmission of messages over significant distances for the purpose of communication. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as smoke, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, or sent by loud whistles, for example. In the modern age of electricity and electronics, telecommunications has typically involved the use of electric means such as the telegraph, the telephone, and the teletype, the use of microwave communications, the use of fiber optics and their associated electronics, and/or the use of the Internet. The first breakthrough into modern electrical telecommunications came with the development of the telegraph during the 1830s and 1840s. The use of these electrical means of communications exploded into use on all of the continents of the world during the 19th century, and these also connected the continents via cables on the floors of the ocean. These three systems of communications all required the use of conducting metal wires. Telecommunication sector in India can be divided into two segments: 1. Fixed Service Provider (FSPs), 2. Cellular Services. Fixed line services consist of basic services, national or domestic long distance and international long distance services. The state operators (BSNL and MTNL), account for almost 90 per cent of revenues from basic services. Private sector services are presently available in selective urban areas, and collectively account for less than 5 per cent of subscriptions. However, private services focus on the business/corporate sector, and offer reliable, high- end services, such as leased lines, ISDN, closed user group and videoconferencing.

Cellular services can be further divided into two categories: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The GSM sector is dominated by Airtel, Vodafone-Hutch, and Idea Cellular, while the CDMA sector is dominated by Reliance and Tata Indicom. Opening up of international and domestic long distance telephony services are the major growth drivers for cellular industry. Cellular operators get substantial revenue from these services, and compensate them for reduction in tariffs on airtime, which along with rental was the main source of revenue. The reduction in tariffs for airtime, national long distance, international long distance, and handset prices has driven demand.

SERVICE PROVIDERS IN TELECOMMUNICATION


Some of the service providers in telecommunication in India are 1. Airtel 2. Vodafone 3. BSNL 4. Idea 5. Reliance

INTRODUCTION OF BSNL
When it comes to connecting the four corners of the nation, and much beyond, one solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle - BSNL. A company that has gone past the number games and the quest to attain the position of a leader. It is working round the clock to take India into the future by providing world class telecom services for people of India. BSNL is India's no. 1 Telecom Service provider and most trusted Telecom brand of the Nation. Driven by the very best of telecom technology from chosen global leaders, it connects each inch of the nation to the infinite corners of the globe, to enable you to step into tomorrow.

1. Type 2. Industry 3. Founded 4. Headquarters 5. Products

State-owned Telecommunications 19th century, incorporated 2000 Bharat Sanchar Bhawan, Harish Chandra Mathur Lane, Janpath, Wireless Telephone Internet

6. Owner(s) 7. Employees 8. Website

The Government of India 57,000 March 31, 2009[2] Bsnl.co.in

PRESENT AND FUTURE


BSNL (then known as Department of Telecom) had been a near monopoly during the socialist period of the Indian economy. During this period, BSNL was the only telecom service provider in the country (MTNL was present only in Mumbai and New Delhi). During this period BSNL operated as a typical state-run organization, inefficient, slow, bureaucratic, and heavily unionized. As a result subscribers had to wait for as long as five years to get a telephone connection. The corporation tasted competition for the first time after the liberalization of Indian economy in 1991. Faced with stiff competition from the private telecom service providers, BSNL has subsequently tried to increase efficiencies itself. Dot veterans, however, put the onus for the sorry state of affairs on the Government policies, where in all state-owned service providers were required to function as mediums for achieving egalitarian growth across all segments of the society. The corporation (then Dot), however, failed miserably to achieve this and India languished among the most poorly connected countries in the world. BSNL was born in 2000 after the corporatization of Dot. The efficiency of the company has since improved. However, the performance level is nowhere near the private players. The corporation remains heavily unionized and is comparatively slow in decision making and implementation. Though it offers services at lowest tariffs, the private players continue to notch up better numbers in all areas, years after year. BSNL has been providing connections in both urban and rural areas. Preactivated Mobile connections are available at many places across India. BSNL has also unveiled cost-effective broadband internet access plans (Data One) targeted at homes and small businesses. At present BSNL enjoy's around 60% of market share of ISP service.

BSNL OBJECTIVES
To provide high speed Internet connectivity (upto 8 Mbps) To provide each & every village with a telephone To encourage development of telecommunication facilities in remote, hilly, tribal areas of the country To make available affordable & effective communications for the citizens To provide Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to the broadband customers To provide multicast video services, video-on-demand, etc. through the Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS). To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either time-based or volumebased billing. It shall provide the customer with the option to select the services through web server To provide both pre-paid and post paid broadband services To be the Lead Telecom Services Provider. To provide quality and reliable fixed telecom service to our customer and thereby increase customer's confidence. To provide point of interconnection to other service provider as per their requirement promptly.

SERVICES OF BSNL 1. BASIC TELEPHONE SERVICES:


BSNL is the largest telecom operator in India and is known to everybody for Basic Telephony Services for over 100 years. Presently the Plain old, Countrywide telephone service is being provided through 32,000 electronic exchanges, 326 Digital Trunk Automatic Exchanges (TAX), Digitalized Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) all interlinked by over 2.4 lakh km of Optical Fiber Cable, with a host of Phone Plus value additions to our valued Customers. BSNL's telephony network expands throughout the vast expanses of the country reaching to the remotest part of the country.

2. INTERNET
Keeping the global network of Networks networked, the countrywide Internet Services of BSNL under the brand name includes Internet dial up/ Leased line

access, CLI based access (no account is required) and DIAS service, for web browsing and E-mail applications. You can use your dialup sancharnet account from any place in India using the same access no 172233, the facility which no other ISP has. BSNL has customer base of more than 1.7 million for sancharnet service. BSNL also offers Web hosting and co-location services at very cheap rates.

3. BSNL MOBILE POSTPAID AND PREPAID


BSNL GSM cellular mobile service Cellone has a customer base of over 5.2 million. BSNL Mobile provides all the services like MMS, GPRS, Voice Mail, E-mail, Short Message Service (SMS) both national and international, unified messaging service (send and receive e-mails) etc. You can use BSNL Mobile in over 160 countries worldwide and in 270 cellular networks and over 1000 cities/towns across India. It has got coverage in all National and State Highways and train routes. BSNL Mobile offers all India Roaming facility to both pre-paid and post-paid customers (including Mumbai & Delhi)

4. BROADBAND

BSNL launched Data One broadband service in January 2005 which shall be extended to all villages of the country very shortly. The service is being provided on existing copper infrastructure on ADSL2 technology. The minimum speed offered to the customer is 256 Kbps at Rs. 199/- per month only including rent of Telephone. So at just Rs 19 per month with 250 MB of free download.

Subsequently, other services such as Multicasting, Video Conferencing, Video-on-Demand, Broadcast application etc will be added. In UP east circle Broadband services are available at all DHQ, more that 50 BHQ, 350 towns and more than 5000 villages. By This year every corner of the UP East circle will be covered with Broadband services. For Applying Broadband Dial 1500 Or Fill the Broad Form and deposit in any of the customer service centers of your city.

5. WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOPS:


This is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as a substitute for conventional wires for all or part of the connection between the subscribers and the telephone exchange.

6. VIDEO CONFERENCING:Video Conferencing service allows multiple participants to converse with each other regardless of their location through the video end-points or Personal computers. It involves Video and Audio communication. It's about connecting people. A video conference subscriber can add two or more video participants in a particular conference. The customers can schedule their video conferences through the Web. The video conferencing service can be availed by any user through IP or ISDN interface.

7. AUDIO CONFERENCING:Audio Conferencing service allows multiple participants to converse with each other regardless of their location through the normal fixed line telephone or cellular phone. An audio conference subscriber can add two or more participants in a particular conference. The customers can schedule their audio conferences through the Web or through IVR. The service is available to existing BSNL subscribers only.

BSNL AT FEROZEPUR
Ferozepur Secondary Switching Area (SSA) as designed and developed by BSNL covers Four Revenue districts i.e. Ferozepur, Moga, Muktsar, and Faridkot. Geographically it is the Largest SSA of Punjab Telecom Circle. It has Ten (10) Short Distance Charging Areas (SDCA) namely. Ferozepur Moga Muktsar Faridkot Abohar Fazilka Malout Kotkapura Zira Guruhar Sahai It also manages TAX exchange at KotKapura At Ferozepur BSNL is providing following services. Bfone Cell One Excel WLL (Fixed/ Mobile) Telegraph STD/PCOs Net One (Dial up Internet) Data One (Broadband) Leased Lines IPTV Video Conferencing

Sancharnet, ITC, Call Now, Cards As on 30-06-2009 the customer base at BSNL Ferozepur is as detailed below Bfone Cell One Excel WLL (Fixed/ Mobile) STD/ PCOs (including VPTs)4929 Data One (Broadband) 17908 10256 170725

OFFICE FEROZEPUR (CODE-01632) INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Human resources are the most valuable and unique assets of an organization. The successful management of an organization's human resources is an exciting, dynamic and challenging task, especially at a time when the world has become a global village and economies are in a state of flux. The scarcity of talented resources and the growing expectations of the modern day worker have further increased the complexity of the human resource function. Even though specific human resource functions/activities are the responsibility of the human resource department, the actual management of human resources is the responsibility of all the managers in an organization. It is therefore necessary for all managers to understand and give due importance to the different human resource policies and activities in the organization. Human Resource Management outlines the importance of HRM and its different functions in an organization. It examines the various HR processes that are concerned with attracting, managing, motivating and developing employees for the benefit of the organization.

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HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT

There exists Flat Structure in H R Department. The five main executives are responsible to the HR. Manager. The various tasks assigned to managers are as follows: Recruitment & Selection Executives Officers Workers (Permanent & Temporary) GATs, Apprentices

Organization Development Driving yearly performance appraisal process Career Planning Succession Planning Change management Organizational Restructuring

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Confirmation Process / Probation Period

Learning & Training Training need assessment Planning Training Calendar to meet set training man days Training Feedback & evaluation Generation of Necessary MIS reports Coordinating with corporate Learning & Training on training initiatives Employee Relations Maintaining congenial relations with Union Disciplinary Action Employee Counseling Ensuring Statutory compliance on working terms & conditions of workers Communicating with Union on organizational strategy and policies Employee Welfare Canteen facilities Dispensary Uniforms & Safety Shoes SAP Administration Event management Summer Camp Travel & Guest House

Compensation

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Salary fitment Salary budgeting Correction of compensation anomalies Coordinate with corp. hr for salary increases/increments wage surveys for workman

Administration Payroll & Statutory Compliance Time office Payroll Retiral Benefits administration Statutory Compliance Like PF & ESI Security

1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE EMPLOYEE HEALTH, SAFETY AND WELFARE


Working conditions have attracted a great deal of attention of managements of business and other organizations in the recent years. There are two basic reasons for this .Firstly, the growth rate of trade union movement has compelled the managements to provide better working conditions to the employees, Secondly, enlighted managements realise the significance of better working conditions facilities to employees for achieving greater productivity and efficiency in the organization. An employ spends about 8 hours at the place of work during any working day. He must be provided with such types of facilities which will maintain his health and keep him interested in his work.

1.2.1 EMPLOYEE HEALTH


Health is a general state of physical, mental and emotional well being. The main objective of an organization health is to: Improve quality of work.
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Reduce accidents, injuries, absenteeism and labour turnover.

Protect workers against any health hazard arising out of work condition.

HEALTH OF WORKERS
There are some provisions regarding creation of healthy working conditions for workers. These are examined below:

1. CLEANLINESS:
Every organization shall be kept clean and free from effluvia. Dirt must be removed daily. Benches, staircases and passage and the floor of every room shall be cleaned daily so that there is no accumulation of dirt. All inside walls and partitions, all ceilings or tops of rooms and all walls, sides and tops of passages and staircases shall be suitably cleaned, painted periodically. In BSNL There are proper cleaning equipments for cleaning floors. You will find all the industries places neat and clean any time. Taking in consideration the point washing facility is there in the industry.

2. DISPOSAL OF WASTES AND EFFLUENTS:


Effective arrangement shall be made in every organization for the treatment of wastes and effluents. In BSNL organization the disposal system is very good. For the disposal of wastes there is a canal near the industry. There is water purifier which purifies the water and that water used for the plants. There is time to time checking of the water by the Environment officers
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3. VENTILATION AND TEMPERATURE:


Every workroom in the organization e must have proper natural ventilation permitting circulation of fresh air, and such a temperature as will secure to workers therein reasonable conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health. Walls and roofs shall be of such material and as designed that such temperature shall not be exceed. In BSNL most of the industry places are air conditioned.

4. DUST AND FUMES:


Effective measures shall be taken to prevent its inhalation and accumulation of dust and fumes. Exhaust appliances should be employed near the place of origin of dust and fumes. In BSNL all the organization area is either cemented or there are grassy lawns inside the organization so the chances of the presence of the dust are very low in BSNL. Air conditioning system help in checking the entry of dust in the office Even then the regular cleaning is done to avoid the ham to the workers.

5. ARTIFITIAL HUMIDATION:
In respect of all organization in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the state government rules should be followed. In BSNL most of the places are air conditioned and proper exhaustion system is there in all the n area of the organization.

6. OVERCROWDING:
No room in the organization should be overcrowded. There should be atleast 14.2 cubic meters of space for every workman.

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In BSNL all the areas are quite special and there is not any sort of overcrowding. There is also the proper seating arrangement in the all areas. Apart from this there are no rest rooms where they can rest.

7. LIGHTING:
The industry must have sufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, or both. Provision shall, so far as is practicable, be made for the prevention of; a) Glare, either directly from a source of light or by reflection from smooth or polished surface; b) The formation of shadows to such an extent as to cause eye strain or the risk of accident to any worker. In BSNL the lighting system is very good. There is proper arrangement of light during day and night. Tube lights are fitted along with the reflectors witch lights and replace the defected ones. increases the light very much. There is contract with the contractors who will time to time check the tube

8. DRINKING WATER:
The organization must provide wholesome drinking water at suitable, convenient points. All such points marked drinking water in a language understood by a majority of the workers employed in the factory, provisions shall be made for cooling drinking water. In BSNL there is proper provision of drinking water for the employees. In each and every area pure drinking water tapes are there. In summer season there is provision of cold drinking water. Glass is there for drinking the water.

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9. LATRINES AND URINALS:


In every organization: a) Sufficient latrines and urinals accommodation of prescribed types shall be provided conveniently situated and accessible to workers at all times while b) c) d) e) they are working in the organization; workers; Such accommodation shall be adequately lighted and ventilated, All such accommodation shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition at all times; Sweepers shall be employed whose primary duty would be to keep clean latrines, urinals, and washing places. In BSNL there is provision of Toilets in different areas of the organization. These toilets are kept neat and clean. Separate enclosed accommodation shall be provided for male and female

10. SPITTOONS:
In every organization, there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons in convenient places and they shall be maintained in a clean and hygienic condition. In BSNL hygienic ness is given very much importance so there is proper provision of washbasins and spittoons for washing hands and spitting etc. In this way BSNL organization fulfill almost all the requirements regarding the health of the workers and provide them healthy working conditions. The factory is considered very good as a work place.

1.2.2 EMPLOYEE SAFETY


It is the responsibility of every management to ensure workers safety while they are at work. Safety measures not only result in reduced industrial accidents but also raise efficiency. Therefore, employers should lay emphasis on safety measures in their plants. Safety measures include precautionary steps to be taken by the management of an
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enterprise in order to prevent accidents. Thus, accident prevention is the main objective of any safety programme . Accidents in industry cause damage to property and life.

MEASURES FOR ENSURING SAFETY


There should be a Safety Director in every organizational undertaking to design and operate the safety programme. The basic objective of the safety programme should be safety and security of the lives, health and welfare of the workers employed therein. The following precautionary steps may be adopted to prevent accidents in the:

1) SAFETY COMMITTEE:
Safety committee may be constituted in every plant. It should consist of the representatives of both the management and the workers.All the safety programmes should be implemented through the safety committee.

(2) SAFETY TRAINING:


The supervisors should train the new employees in safety methods. The possible causes of accidents should be explained to the new employees and they should be taught habits and motions that will keep them out of danger. Training programmes should also be designed for the supervisors

3) MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS:


Material handling equipments should be installed to carry bulky materials from one place to another.No worker may be required to lift or carry heavy loads which may cause injury.

4) MAINTENANCE OF PLANT:
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The plant should be maintained in good condition. All objects likely to obstruct the passages meant for movement by workers should be removed. Passages should not be used to store goods or materials.

5) REGULAR INSPECTION:
There should be regular inspection of machines and equipment and electricity cables to check any leakage

6) EQUIPMENT REDESIGN:
Organization engineers should be engaged to improve the man-machine system. Equipment, machinery and work procedures should be redesigned to cut down accident rate

7) CLEAN FLOORS:
There should be no trailing of telephone cables on the floors. Floors, passages and stares must be kept clear of obstructions.

8) SAFETY CAMPAIGN:
Safety programme must be given a wide publicity through posters and hoardings. Work Safety and Safely Saves are illustrations of the slogans which may be displayed at critical points. Safety contests may also be held between the plants as a part of the safety campaign. Plant with lowest accident rate may be given some reward.

SAFETY OF WORKERS
There should some provisions regarding creation of safety working conditions for workers. These are examined below:

1) FENCING OF MACHINERY:
In every, organization every dangerous part of any machinery-every moving part of a prime mover and every flywheel connected to prime-mover, the head-race and tail-race

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of every water wheel and water turbine, and every part of an electric generator, motor or rotary converter, every part of transmission machinery-must be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial construction. The State Government is empowered to frame rules in this regard.

2) WORK ON OR NEAR MACHINERY IN MOTION:


With a view to secure the safety of the workers, it is necessary to examine any part of the machinery while it is in motion. The examination and lubrication of the machinery, should be carried out only be a specially trained adult worker wearing tight-fitting clothing. Such a worker is not allowed to handle a belt at a moving pulley unless the belt is less than fifteen cm. in width and the belt-joint is either laced or flush with belt. women and young children are not allowed to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of a prime-mover or of transmission machinery while it is in motion, if it is likely to expose her or him to risk to injury from any moving part.

3)

EMPLOYMENT

OF

YOUNG

PERSONS

ON

DANGEROUS

MACHINES:
No young person shall work at any machine unless he has been fully instructed as to be dangers arising in connection with the machine and the precautions to be observed and: a) has received sufficient training in work at machine, or b) Is under adequate supervision by a person who has a through knowledge and experience of the machine.

4) STRIKING GEAR AND DEVICES FOR CUTTING OFF POWER:


In every organization: a) suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliances shall be provided and used to move driving belts to and from fast and loose pulleys which form part of the transmission machinery, and such gear or appliances

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shall be constructed back on to the fast

placed and maintained as to prevent the belt from creeping pulley;

b) Driving belts when not in use shall not be allowed to rest or ride upon shaft in motion.

5) SELF-ACTING MACHINES:
No traversing part of a self-acting machine in any organization and no material carried thereon shall be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse within a distance of eighteen inches from any fixed structure which is not a part of the machine.

6) CASING OF NEW MACHINERY:


In all machinery driven by power and installed in any organization: a) every set screw, bolt or key on any revolving shaft, spindle wheel or pinion shall be so sunk, encased or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger; b) All spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing which does not require adjustment while in motion shall be completely encased, unless it is so situated as it would be if it were completely encased.

7) HOISTS AND LIFTS:


In every organization every hoist and lift shall be of good mechanical construction, sound material and adequate strength and shall be enclosure fitted with gates and shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of six months. The maximum safe working load shall be clearly indicated on every hoist or lift. A heavier load shall not be allowed to be carried on that hoist or lift.

8) REVOLVING MACHINERY:

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In every room in a organization in which the process of griding is carried on, there shall be permanently affixed to or placed near each machine in use a notice indicating the maximum safe working peripheral speed of every grindstone or abrasive wheel, and the diameter of the pulley upon such shaft or spindle necessary to secure such safe working peripheral speed.

9) FLOORS, STAIRS AND MEANS OF ACCESS:


In every organization, all floors, steps, stairs, passage and gangways shall be of sound construction and properly maintained and shall be kept free from obstruction and substances likely to cause persons to slip and where it is necessary to ensure safety, steps, stairs, passage and gangways shall be provided with substantial handrails.

10) PRECAUTIONS AGAINST DANGEROUS FUMES:


In any organization , no person shall enter or be permitted to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space in which dangerous fumes are likely to be present to such an extent as to involve risk of persons being overcome thereby, unless it is provided with a manhole of adequate size or effective means of either. Person may be allowed to enter only when suitable steps have been taken to remove dangerous fumes. In case of emergency suitable breathing apparatus, belts and ropes are kept ready.

11) PRECAUTIONS REGARDING THE USE OF PORTABLE LIGHT:


In every organization: a) no portable electric light or any other electric appliance of voltage exceeding twenty-four volts shall be permitted for use inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space; and vat, flue or other confined space, no lamp light other than that of flameproof construction shall be permitted to be used therein.
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b) If any inflammable gas, fume or dust is likely to be present in such chamber, tank,

12) PRECAUTIONS IN CASE OF FIRE:


a) In every organization there shall be provided such means of escape in case of fire as may be prescribed. b) In every organization the doors affording exit from any room shall not be locked or fastened so that they cannot be easily and immediately opened from the inside while any person is within the room, and all such doors, unless they are of the sliding type, shall be constructed to open outwards. case of fire, other than the means of exit in ordinary use shall be distinctively marked in language understood by the majority of the workers and adequate size or by some other effective and clearly in red letters of understood sign. d) There shall be provided in every factory effective and clearly audible means of giving warning in case of fire to every person employed in the organization . c) In every organization very window, door or exit affording a means of escape in

13) POWER TO REQUIRE SPECIFICATION OF DEFECTIVE PART OR TESTS OF STABILITY:


If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a organization is in such a condition that it may be dangerous to human life or safety, he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the organization an order in writing requiring him before a specified date: a) To furnish such drawings, specifications and other particulars as may be necessary to determine whether such building, ways, machinery or plant be used with safety, or b) To carry out such tests in such manner as may be specified in the order, and to inform the Inspector of the results thereof.

14) SAFETY OF BUILDINGS AND MACHINERY:

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If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a organization is in such a condition that it may be dangerous to human life or safety, he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the organization an order in writing specifying the measures which in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before a specified date.

15) MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS:


If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building in a industries is in such a state of disrepair as is likely to lead to conditions detrimental to the health and welfare of the workers, he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory an order in writing specifying the measures which in his opinion would be taken and requiring the same to be carried out before such date as is specified in the order. 16. ELECTRICAL SAFETY Telecommunications workers may be exposed to occupational hazards from contact with live power lines during construction, maintenance, and operation activities. Prevention and control measures associated with live power lines include: Only allowing trained and certified workers to install, maintain, or repair electrical equipment; Deactivating and properly grounding live power distribution lines before work is performed on, or in close proximity to, the lines; Ensuring that live-wire work is conducted by trained workers with strict adherence to specific safety and insulation standards. Qualified or trained employeesworking on transmission or distribution systems should be able to achieve the following: 1. Distinguish live parts from other parts of the electrical system 2. Determine the voltage of live parts 3. Understand the minimum approach distances outlined for specific live line voltages 4. Ensure proper use of special safety equipment and procedures when working near, or on, exposed energized parts of an electrical system.

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17). FALL PROTECTION


Workers may be exposed to occupational hazards whenworking at elevation during construction, maintenance, and operation activities. Prevention and control measures for Working at height include: 1 Implementation of a fall protection program that includes training in climbing techniques and use of fall protection measures; inspection, maintenance, and replacement off all protection equipment; and rescue of fall-arrested workers, among others 2. Provision of an adequate work-positioning device system for workers. Connectors on positioning systems should be compatible with the tower components to which they are attached; 3. Safety belts should be of not less than 16 millimeters (mm)(5/8 inch) two-in-one nylon or material of equivalent strength. Rope safety belts should be replaced before signs of aging or fraying of fibers become evident. 4. When operating power tools at height, workers should use a second (backup) safety strap.

18) MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY


The geographically dispersed nature of the infrastructure of some telecommunications operators may require the frequent use of ground transportation for maintenance activities. Under these circumstances, companies should prepare and implement motor vehicle safety programs to protect the safety of its workers and the communities in which they operate. Specific recommendations for motor vehicle safety are provided in the General Guidelines.

19) SAFETY OFFICERS:


In every organization: a) Wherein, one thousand or more workers are ordinarily employed, or b) Wherein, in the opinion of the State Government, any operation is carried on, which process or operation involves any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease, or any other hazard to health, to the persons employed in the organization ,
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The duties, qualifications and conditions of service of safety officers shall be such as may be prescribed by the State Government.

1.2.3 EMPLOYEE WELFARE


Employee welfare is a comprehensive term including various services, benefits and facilities offered to employees by the employer. It serves the following purpose: Enables workers to have a richer and more satisfying life. Raise the standard of living of workers. Promotes a sense of belonging among workers.

The basic features of labor welfare measures are as follows: 1. Labor welfare includes various facilities, services and amenities provided to workers for improving their health, efficiency, economic betterment and social status. 2. Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits available to workers due to legal provisions and collective bargaining 3. Labor welfare schemes are flexible and ever-changing. New welfare measures are added to the existing ones from time to time. 4. Welfare measures may be introduced by the employers, government, employees or by any social or charitable agency. The purpose of labor welfare is to bring about the development of the whole personality of the workers to make a better workforce.

WELFARE ACTIVITIES
1. Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 2. Employees State Insurance Act, 1948 3. Workmens Compensation Act, 1923
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4. Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 5. Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 6. Factories Act, 1948 7. Dock Workers (Safety, Health & Welfare) Act, 1986

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A number of researches have been conducted on Employee Health , Safety And Welfare. Due to shortage of time and resources, a review of all the past researches done could not be mentioned in this research project. So, a snapshot of some of the reviews is being presented. Danna and Griffin (1999) concluded that Investing in the health of employees can also bring business benefits such as reduced sickness absence, increased loyalty and better staff retention. Health and well-being in the workplace have become common topics in the mainstream media, in practitioner-oriented magazines and journals and, increasingly, in scholarly research journals. In this article, we first review the literature that serves to define health and well-being. We then discuss the primary factors associated with health and well-being, the consequences of low levels of health and well-being, and common methods for improving health and well-being in the workplace. Finally, we highlight important future directions for future theory, research, and practice regarding health and well-being from an organizational perspective. Many employers recognise that they have an obligation to the health and wellbeing of their workforce. Fullers (1999) study indicated that managers had little health and safety training which left them with limited understanding of their legal and corporate responsibilities within the area. Often the safety officers do not have the power and influence within the organization to improve health and safety on their own. Therefore managers may need to be made aware of how they can undermine any health and safety initiative through their behaviour.It indicated that the stick rather than the carrot may be most effective for persuading senior managers to invest more in health and safety. 43% of managers said

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they would invest more resources if forced to do so by HSE, whilst 43% said they would increase investment if they had a serious accident or fatality. Research carried revealed that for one health and safety officer an Improvement Notice issued by an inspector was a catalyst in gaining greater support for health and safety from the executive manager. This suggests that firmer action from the Inspectorate may help to convince senior management that their full commitment to safety is needed. It is senior managements commitment to safety that influences employees safety behaviours. However, this is not to say that all management is at fault or that managers deliberately act to undermine safety issues. It may be that that senior managers do not realize that they have to support the safety officer to influence the employees to work safely. Pransky (1999) concluded that accurate reporting of work-related conditions is necessary to monitor workplace health and safety, Under-reporting of workplace injuries and illnesses is common due to a variety of causes and influences. Safety incentive programmes typically reward supervisors and employees for reducing workplace injury rates, and thus may unintentionally inhibit proper reporting. The authors describe a case study of several industrial facilities in order to illustrate the extent of under-reporting and the reasons for its occurrence. A questionnaire and interview survey was administered to 110 workers performing similar tasks and several managers, health, and safety personnel at each of three industrial facilities. Although less than 5% of workers had officially reported a work-related injury or illness during the past year, over 85% experienced work-related symptoms, 50% had persistent work-related problems, and 30% reported either lost time from work or work restrictions because of their ailment. Workers described several reasons for not reporting their injuries, including fear of reprisal, and a desire not to lose their usual job. Interviews with management representatives revealed administrative and other barriers to reporting, stemming from their desire to attain a goal of no reported injuries, and misconceptions about requirements for record ability. The corporate and facility safety incentives appeared to have an indirect, but significant negative influence on the proper reporting of workplace injuries by workers. Because of under-reporting, worker surveys and symptom reports may provide more valuable and timely information on risks than recordable injury logs.

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Reid (1999) evaluated that the benefits of an OHS are to maximize health and morale of employees; maximize performance and increase productivity; minimize medico-legal costs; enhance workplace safety; and reduce sickness absenc There is an increasing need to evaluate the costs and benefits of an occupational health service (OHS). However, measuring benefits from an OHS is inherently difficult. Instead, an economic model can be constructed to present the minimum threshold benefits required for OHSs to be costeffective, given what is known about costs. This model assumes that the benefits of e. A certain distribution across these benefits can be assumed for each OHS. The overall required value of all benefits brought about by use of an OHS is in the range 158199 per user per year. The plausibility of results can be assessed using known data and judgement. Despite many uncertainties it is likely that the minimum benefit thresholds will be achieved overall. Johansson and Partanen (2002) concluded that workers have organized in trade unions and parties to strengthen their efforts at improving workplace health and safety, job conditions, working hours, wages, job contracts, and social security. Cooperation between workers and their organizations and professionals has been instrumental in improving regulation and legislation affecting workers health. The authors give examples of participatory research in occupational health in Denmark and Finland. The social context of workplace health promotion, particularly the role of unions and workers safety representatives, is described in an international feasibility study. Health promotion is rife with fundamental political, socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, gender- and ethnicityrelated, psychological, and biological problems. Analysis of power and context is crucial, focusing on political systems nationally, regionally, and globally. The authors advocate defending and supporting workers and their trade unions and strengthening their influence on workplace health promotion. In the face of rapid capitalist globalization, unions represent a barricade in defense of workers health and safety. Health promoters and related professionals are encouraged to support trade unions in their efforts to promote health for workers and other less privileged groups.

30

Nicholson (2002) despite extensive legislation in the European Union, employees remain exposed to occupational risks and there is still a significant burden of work-related illhealth. The trend for more people to work in service industries rather than manufacturing has resulted in a change in the nature of risk and pattern of occupational illness. Worker access to occupational health services range from 15% to 96% and depend on the country in which employees live and the type of operation in which they work. The increasing number of small enterprises provides a particular challenge when trying to provide occupational health support to the European Union's 158.4 million workers. European law alone is not sufficient to improve the health of those at work and further action is needed at state, employer and professional level. New initiatives seek to improve the health of the Union's workforce, including a drive for better compliance with new law by every member state. Governments are working with key stakeholders through partnering strategies to develop innovative approaches for better access to quality occupational health services. Furthermore, targets for reduction in occupational ill-health have been identified. Where country laws do not mandate the provision of occupational health services, employers need to see the benefit of providing occupational health support. Finally, the medical profession is making procedures for self-regulation more rigorous and professional bodies are actively engaged in issuing professional standards and guidelines. Ultimately, the individual practitioner is responsible for ensuring that he or she develops and maintains the necessary knowledge and skills to provide competent services. Shaw et.al (2004) concluded that after workplace injuries, supervisors can play an important role in aiding workers, accessing health care services, and providing reasonable accommodation. However, few studies have identified those aspects of supervisor involvement most valued by employees for post injury recovery and return to work. As part of needs assessment for a supervisory training program, 30 employees from four companies were interviewed about the role of supervisors to prevent workplace disability after injuries. From interview notes, 305 employee statements were extracted for analysis. An affinity mapping process with an expert panel produced 11 common themes: accommodation, communicating with workers, responsiveness, concern for welfare,

31

empathy/support, validation, fairness/respect, follow-up, shared decision-making, coordinating with medical providers, and obtaining coworker support of accommodation. Interpersonal aspects of supervision may be as important as physical work accommodation to facilitate return to work after injury. Hasle and limborg(2005) the scientific literature regarding preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises in order to identify effective preventive approaches. Many researchers claim that small enterprises have special problems with the work environment, the risk is higher and the ability to control risk is lower. Research found that employers must meet as regards the organization health and safety activities. It is normally requires to establish a management system which should include a health and safety committee, election of safety representatives and periodical risk assessment. It is important to focus on simple and low cost solutions. Participation of the employees in health and safety activities is also given importance. Another type of method is accident prevention. it is important to take a point of departure in the special nature of small enterprises especially focusing on the owner manager. The development of trust and dialogue is crucial. In addition simple and low cost solutions taking the limited human and economic resources into consideration is also a necessity. Mishra and Bhagat (2007) concluded that high rate of labour absenteeism in Indian industries is indicative of the lack of commitment on the part of the workers. This can be reduced to a great extent by provision of good housing, health and family care canteens, educational and training facilities, provision of welfare activities enables the workers to live a richer and more satisfactory life and contributes to the productivity of labour, efficiency of the enterprise and helps in maintaining industrial peace. Hence steps need to be taken on a larger scale to improve the quality of life of the workers. India introduced literal industrial policy which is aimed at stepping up industrial growth promoting modernization and technological up gradation to make industrial competitive in both domestic and global market. In this perspective enterprises have to improve their production and productivity which is possible with the satisfaction of labour.

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McEwen and Ritchie (2008) indicated that management has responsibility for employee welfare at work and that an appropriate management structure to address safety issues should be accessible. A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine attitudes and perceptions of employees of a Scottish local authority of the role of occupational health services. Questions were included covering the following areas: influences on health, the effect of the workplace on health, satisfaction with work and working conditions, the role of occupational health services, and personal health experience. Most of the survey respondents believed that the prime function of an occupational health service is to ensure a safe working environment. In addition, employees would like the occupational health service to provide some health promotional activities, particularly stress management courses and the opportunity for exercise. Previous studies on Employee Health, Safety and Welfare focuses on the importance of these welfare activities in an organization. It also focuses on the role on management and supervisor in promoting these activities in the organization. Accurate reporting of workrelated conditions is necessary to monitor workplace health and safety. A fresh research is needed to study that what the Indian industries are doing to promote these employee health, safety and welfare activities in their organization and the employee attitude towards it..

33

NEED, SCOPE & OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

34

NEED, SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.1 Need of the Study


Labour plays a very important role in the industrial production on the country. Earlier researches show that organization following health and safety and welfare programmes leads to minimize absenteeism and labour turnover. A fresh study was needed to have more insight into the fact that how these programmes are followed in Indian organization, its benefits and employee attitude towards it. It will enable to cover the gap identified from the review of literature. So, a need was felt to undertake a fresh research in this area.

3.2 Scope Of The Study


The scope of the study is restricted to BSNL ferozepur.

3.3 Objectives Of The Study


Following were the objectives for carrying on the study 1. To study employees perception regarding health and safety provision. 2. To know about the present working conditions of the BSNL. 3. To know about the satisfaction levels of the employees regarding BSNL.

35

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

36

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research is a common parlance which refers to search for knowledge. It is a procedure of logical and systematic application of the fundamentals of science to the general and overall questions of a study and scientific technique, which provide precise tools, specific procedures, and technical rather philosophical means for getting and ordering the data prior to their logical analysis and manipulating different type of research designs is available depending upon the nature of research project, availability of manpower and circumstances. According to D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson research may be defined as the

manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in the construction of theory or in the practice of an art. Thus it is original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge of making for its advancement. In short, the search of knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research.

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN


A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. In fact, the research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted. This research was descriptive and conclusion oriented research.

Descriptive research:
The research was a descriptive research as it describes the various health, safety and welfare measures in BSNL ferozepur.

37

3.2 SAMPLING DESIGN


The following factors have to decide within the scope of sample design:

3.2.1 Universe of study: It can be divided as follows:


Theoretical: -It includes all the employees working in the organizations all over the Accessible: -It includes all the employees working in organization in India.

world. .

3.2.2 Sample Size: Total population in BSNL IS 158. A sample of minimum


respondents was selected from various Departments of BSNL ferozepur. An effort was made to select respondents evenly. The survey was carried out on 100 respondents.

3.2.3 Sample Unit: It indicates who is to be surveyed. The researcher must define the
target population that will be sampled. In this project sampling unit was employees of BSNL ferozepur.

3.2.4 Sampling Technique: For the purpose of research convenient sampling


technique was used as employees from different departments were selected according to convenience.

3.2.5 Sampling Frame: It consisted of various sources from where information about
the respondent is extracted. In this project HR executive has helped in getting the questionnaires filled.

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3.3 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 3.3.1 Data Collection


There are two types of data sources. These are

1. Secondary data:
Secondary data is the data collected from already been use or published information like journals, diaries, books, etc .In this research project, some of the data is collected through reports and officials publications i.e. BSNL registers.

2. Primary data:
Primary data is the data collected for the first time from the source and never have been used earlier. The data can be collected through interviews, observations and questionnaires. In this project, an appropriate questionnaire was designed which was filled by various employees of BSNL.

3.3.2 Data Analysis A) Tools of Presentation:


It means what all tools are used to present the data in a meaningful way so that it becomes easily understandable. In this research tables and graphs were used for presenting the data.

B) Tools of Analysis
In this research the tools of analysis used were percentages.

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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

40

Statement 1: Opinion about Lightening System in BSNL


Satisfaction With Lightening Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

Highly satisfied 85 Partially Satisfied 11 Neutral 4 Partially Dissatisfied 0 Highly Dissatisfied 0 Table 4.1 Opinion about Lightening System In BSNL
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Li gh te ni ng h Pa ly s at rti is al fie ly Sa d tis fie Pa d rti al Ne ly ut Di ra Hi ss l gh at isf ly ie Di d ss at isf ie d

85% 11% 4% 0 0

Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

Graph 4.1 Opinions about Lightening System In BSNL Analysis and Interpretation: Out of the total 100 respondents 85% had the highly satisfied with Lightening System facilities in BSNL and 11% had the partially satisfied 4% had neutral. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Lightening System facilities in BSNL.

Hi g

41

Statement 2: Satisfaction with Facilities Cleanliness Provided


Satisfaction With Cleanliness Highly satisfied 65 65% Partially Satisfied 28 28% Neutral 5 5% Partially Dissatisfied 2 2% Highly Dissatisfied 0 0 Table 4.2 Satisfaction with Facilities Cleanliness In BSNL Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

Number Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.2 Satisfactions with Facilities Cleanliness In BSNL Analysis and Interpretation: Out of the total 100 respondents 65% had the highly satisfied with Cleanliness facilities in BSNL and 28% had the partially satisfied 5% had neutral and 2% had Partially Dissatisfied. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Cleanliness facilities in BSNL.

Statement 3: Freedom from noise In BSNL.

42

Satisfaction With Freedom from noise

Number Of Respondents

Percentage Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Table 4.3 Freedom from noise In BSNL
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
no ise

78 22 0 0 0

78% 22% 0 0 0

Number Of Respondents

Graph 4.3 Freedom from noise In BSNL Analysis And Interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 78% had the highly satisfied with Freedom from noise facilities in BSNL and 22% had the partially satisfied .It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Freedom from noise facilities in BSNL.

Statement4.Satisfaction Regarding Working Space within Plant and Canteen

Hi g Pa hly rti sa t al ly isfie Sa d tis Pa fie rti al Ne d ly D Hi u g h iss tra l at ly Di isfi s s ed at isf ie d

Fr ee do m

fr o m

43

Satisfaction With Working Space

Number Of Respondents

Percentage Of Respondents

Highly satisfied 77 Partially Satisfied 17 Neutral 4 Partially Dissatisfied 2 Highly Dissatisfied 0 Table 4.4 Regarding Working Space In BSNL
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
h Pa ly s at rti is al fie ly Sa d tis fie Pa d rti al Ne ly ut Di ra Hi ss l gh at isf ly ie Di d ss at isf ie d Sp ac e

77% 17% 4% 2% 0

Number Of Respondents

W or kin g

Graph 4.4 Regarding Working Space in BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 77% had the highly satisfied with Working Space facilities in BSNL and 17% had the partially satisfied 4% had neutral and 2% had Partially Dissatisfied. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the in Working Space BSNL.

Statement 5: Work place


Satisfaction With Work place Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

Hi g

44

Highly satisfied 76 Partially Satisfied 19 Neutral 5 Partially Dissatisfied 0 Highly Dissatisfied 0 Table 4.5 Regarding Work place In BSNL

76% 19% 5% 0 0

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.5 Regarding Work place In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 76% had the highly satisfied with Working place facilities in BSNL and 19% had the partially satisfied 5% had neutral. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the in Working place BSNL

Statement 6: Satisfied With Workers compensation


Satisfaction With Workers compensation Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied 65 26 65% 26% Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

45

Neutral 6 Partially Dissatisfied 1 Highly Dissatisfied 2 Table 4.6 Workers compensation In BSNL

6% 1% 2%

Number Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.6 Workers compensation In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 65% had the highly satisfied with Workers compensation facilities in BSNL ,26% had the partially satisfied 6% had neutral ,1% had Partially Dissatisfied and 2% had highly dissatisfied. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Workers compensation facilities in BSNL

Statement 7.Satisfied With Perception regarding health& safety provision


Satisfaction With Perception regarding health& safety provision Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied 67 27 5 0 67% 27% 5% 0
46

Number Of Respondents

Percentage Of Respondents

Highly Dissatisfied 1 1% Table 4.7 Perception regarding health& safety provision In BSNL
Number Of Respondents

Perception regarding health& safety provision Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.7 Perception regarding health& safety provision In BSNL Analysis and interpretation: It can be concluded that the majority of the respondents were very much satisfied with health and safety facilities.

Statement 8. Fire fighting system of BSNL


Satisfaction With Fire fighting system of BSNL Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 73 19 6 1 1 Table 4.8 Fire fighting system of BSNL 73% 19% 6% 1% 1% Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

47

Number Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.8 Fire fighting system of BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 73% had the highly satisfied with Fire fighting facilities in BSNL and 19% had the partially satisfied 6% had neutral and 1% had Partially Dissatisfied and Highly Dissatisfied 1%. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Fire fighting facilities in BSNL.

Statement 9.First Aid


Satisfaction With First Aid Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 67 24 8 0 1 Table 4.9 First Aid of BSNL 67% 24% 8% 0 1% Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

48

Number Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.9 First Aid of BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 67% had the highly satisfied with First Aid facilities in BSNL and 24% had the partially satisfied, 8% had neutral and 1% had satisfied with the First Aid facilities in BSNL. Highly Dissatisfied. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much

Statement 10 Hygienic condition of latrine & urinals


Hygienic condition latrine & urinals of Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

Highly satisfied 51 51% Partially Satisfied 38 38% Neutral 4 4% Partially Dissatisfied 1 1% Highly Dissatisfied 6 6% Table 4.10 Hygienic condition of latrine & urinals In BSNL

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Number Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.10 hygienic conditions of latrine & urinals In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 51% had the highly satisfied with latrine & urinals facilities in BSNL and 38% had the partially satisfied, 4% had neutral ,1% had Partially Dissatisfied and 6% had Highly Dissatisfied . It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the latrine & urinals facilities in BSNL.

Statement 11.Drinking water facility


Satisfaction With Drinking water facility Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 74 17 6 2 1 Table 4.11 Drinking water In BSNL 74% 17% 6% 2% 1% Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

50

Number Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.11 Drinking water In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 74% had the highly satisfied with Drinking water facilities in BSNL and 17% had the partially satisfied 6% had neutral and 2% had Partially Dissatisfied and Highly Dissatisfied had 1%.It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the in Drinking water BSNL.

Statement 12.Canteen facility In BSNL


Satisfaction With Canteen facility Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 13 40 20 6 21 Table 4.12 Canteen facility In BSNL 13% 40% 20% 6% 21% Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

51

Number Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.12 Canteen facilities In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 29% had the highly satisfied with Canteen facility in BSNL and 32% had the partially satisfied 20% had neutral and 6% had Partially Dissatisfied and Highly Dissatisfied is 13%. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Canteen facility in BSNL.

Statement 13.Proper fencing of machinery


Satisfaction With Proper fencing machinery Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied of 77 15 7 1 0 Table 4.13 fencing of machinery In BSNL 77% 15% 7% 1% 0 Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

52

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Hi g Pa hly rti sa t al ly isfie Sa d Pa tis fie rti al Ne d ly D Hi u g h iss tra l at ly Di isfi s s ed at isf ie d ac hi ne ry

Percentage Of Respondents Number Of Respondents

Pr op er fe nc in g

of

Graph 4.13 fencing of machinery In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 77% had the highly satisfied with fencing of machinery facilities in BSNL and 15% had the partially satisfied 7% had neutral and 1% had Partially Dissatisfied. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the fencing of machinery in BSNL.

Statement 14.Safety officers perform their duties


Satisfaction With Safety officers perform duties Highly satisfied 71 Partially Satisfied 17 Neutral 8 Partially Dissatisfied 2 Highly Dissatisfied 2 Table 4.14 Safety officers perform duties In BSNL 71% 17% 8% 2% 2% Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

53

Number Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.14 Safety officers perform duties In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 71% had the highly satisfied with Safety officers duties in BSNL and 17% had the partially satisfied 8% had neutral,2% had Partially Dissatisfied and 2% had highly dissatisfied. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Safety officers in BSNL.

Statement 15.Working conditions


Satisfaction With Working conditions Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 75 19 5 0 1 Table 4.15 Working conditions In BSNL 75% 19% 5% 0 1% Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

54

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Ne ut ra Di l ss Hi at gh isf ie ly d Di ss at isf ie d co nd itio Hi ns gh ly sa Pa tis rti fie al d ly Sa tis fie d

Number Of Respondents

W or kin g

Graph 4.15 Working conditions In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 75% had the highly satisfied with Working conditions facilities in BSNL and 19% had the partially satisfied 5% had neutral and Highly Dissatisfied had 1%.It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Working conditions in BSNL.

Statement 16.Infection control for health and safety


Satisfaction With Infection control for health and safety Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 64 18 15 2 1 Table 4.16 Infection control In BSNL 64% 18% 15% 2% 1% Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

Pa rti a

lly

55

Number Of Respondents

Infection control for health and safety Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.16 Infection control In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 64% had the highly satisfied with Infection control facilities in BSNL and 18% had the partially satisfied 15% had neutral and 2% had Partially Dissatisfied and Highly Dissatisfied had 1%. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Infection control facilities in BSNL.

Statement 17.Transport facility


Satisfaction With Transport facility Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 68 18 13 1 0 Table 4.17 Transport facility In BSNL 68% 18% 13% 1% 0 Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

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Highly Dissatisfied

Partially Dissatisfied

Neutral

Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

Partially Satisfied Highly satisfied

Transport facility

20

40

60

80

Graph 4.17 Transport facilities In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 68% had the highly satisfied with Transport facility facilities in BSNL and 18% had the partially satisfied 13% had neutral and 1% had Partially Dissatisfied. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Transport facility in BSNL.

Statement 18.Covers electrical outlets


Satisfaction With Covers electrical outlets Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 79 16 5 0 0 Table 4.18 Electrical outlets In BSNL 79% 16% 5% 0 0 Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

57

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
el ec tr i ca lo Hi ut gh le ts ly Pa sa tis rti al fie ly d Sa tis fie Pa d rti Ne al ly ut Di ra ss Hi l gh at isf ly ie Di d ss at isf ie d

Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

Co ve rs

Graph 4.18 Electrical outlets In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 79% had the highly satisfied with electrical outlets Facilities in BSNL and 16% had the partially satisfied 5% had neutral. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the electrical outlets in BSNL.

Statement 19.Lock and seals


Satisfaction With Lock and seals Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 81 14 5 0 0 Table 4.19 Lock and seals In BSNL 81% 14% 5% 0 0 Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

58

Number Of Respondents

Lock and seals Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.19 Lock and seals In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 81% had the highly satisfied with Lock and seals facilities in BSNL and 14% had the partially satisfied 5% had neutral It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Lock and seals in BSNL.

Statement 20.Heaters and fans facility


Satisfaction With Heaters and fans facility Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

75 19 6 0 0 Table 4.20 Heaters and fans In BSNL

75% 19% 6% 0 0

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80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
fa ns y Pa sa rti tis al fie ly Sa d tis fie Pa d rti Ne al ly ut Di ra Hi ss l gh at isf ly ie Di d ss at isf ie d fa ci lit

Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

an d

He at er s

Hi g

hl y

Graph 4.20 Heaters and fans In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 75% had the highly satisfied with Heaters and fans facilities in BSNL and 19% had the partially satisfied 6% had neutral. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the Heaters and fans in BSNL.

2. Benefits of Conducting Employee Health Safety and Welfare Programmes


Benefits Of Conducting Employee Health, Safety And Welfare Programmes Decrease Accident Rates Better Work Environment Improve Employment 40 31 14 Percentage Of Respondents

Relations Improves Quality Of Work 36 Reduce Employee Turnover 38 Table 4.21 Benefits of Conducting Employee Health Safety and Welfare Programmes

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Percentage Of Respondents

Decrease Accident Rates Better Work Environment Improve Employment Relations Improves Quality Of Work Reduce Employee Turnover

Graph 4.21 Benefits of Conducting Employee Health Safety and Welfare Programmes Analysis and interpretation Majority of the respondents reply Benefits of Conducting Employee Health, Safety and Welfare Programmes is Decrease Accident Rates.

3. Satisfied the overall health and safety facilities provided by the BSNL
Satisfaction With the overall health and safety facilities Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied 66 25 7 2 0 66% 25% 7% 2% 0 Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

Table 4.22Satisfied the overall health and safety In BSNL

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Number Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.22Satisfied the overall health and safety In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 66% had the highly satisfied with Heaters and fans facilities in BSNL and 25% had the partially satisfied,7% had neutral and 2% had Partially Dissatisfied. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the overall health and safety facilities in BSNL.

4. Opinion regarding health and safety at BSNL


Opinion regarding health and safety Number Of Respondents Percentage Of Respondents

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

66 27 4 3 0

66% 27% 4% 3% 0

Table 4.23 Opinion regarding health and safety In BSNL

62

Highly satisfied Partially Satisfied Neutral Partially Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Graph 4.23 Opinion regarding health and safety In BSNL Analysis and interpretation Out of the total 100 respondents 66% had the highly satisfied Opinion regarding health and safety with in BSNL and 27% had the partially satisfied, 4% had neutral and 3% had Partially Dissatisfied. It can be interpreted that majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with Opinion regarding health and safety the in BSNL.

63

CHAPTER 5 Summary

SUMMARY OF MY STUDY
1. Majority of the respondents felt that there is proper floor cleaning system in

BSNL
2. Majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the drinking water

facilities BSNL.
3. Majority of the respondents consider Hygienic conditions in latrines and urinals

above average in BSNL

64

4. Majority of the respondents agreed with the arrangement of proper fencing of Machinery
5. Majority of the respondents agreed that defective parts of machines were always

replaced. 6. Majority of respondents ranked Medical Aid as the most important Employee welfare activity and Recreation Facilities as least important. 7. The major benefit that the respondents felt of employing these programmes was the reduce accident rates. 8. Majority of the respondents were very much satisfied with the sitting arrangements. 9. Majority of the respondents agreed that first aid box was mostly available.
10. Majority of the respondents found that the hygienic conditions maintained were

somewhat higher. 11. It was found that respondents were very much satisfied with health and safety facilities. 12. Majority of the respondents were satisfied to a great extent with Welfare Facilities. 13. Majority of the respondents were not satisfied with canteen facility of BSNL.

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CHAPTER 6
LIMITATION & RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY

6.1 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY The following were the limitations of the study: 1. Non representative sample: In this research project a sample survey was conducted. A sample of 100 respondents was selected. So such sample size cannot be said to be the true representative of the universe.

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Shortage of time: The time period of study was very limited. It is very difficult to have in detail study on project work due to limited time period. The period of 4 to 6 weeks is not enough for the proper study of the project. 2. Inadequate data: The data provided was not up to the mark due to which we faced problems in our research. 3. Lack of scientific method: The lack of scientific training in methodology of

research was great impediment in our research program, which led to the delay of research. 4. Biasness in the responses: The answers provided by the respondents suffer from biasness. 5. Cost Factor: It was not possible to conduct extensive research due to paucity of funds.

6.2 CONCLUSION
In this we will discuss about the conclusions which are drawn from the findings which we have discussed earlier in the data analysis:

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An employee spends about 8 hours at the place of work during any working day. He must be provided with such types of facilities which will maintain his health and keep him interested in his work. It is the responsibility of every management to ensure workers safety while they are at work. Safety measures not only result in reduced accidents but also raise efficiency. Therefore, employers should lay emphasis on safety measures in their plants. Accident prevention is the main objective of any safety programme. Accidents in cause damage to property and life. Besides BSNL also provides various welfare facilities like proper fans, Lockers & Rest rooms, and Medical Aid etc. Previous studies on Employee Health, Safety and Welfare focuses on the importance of these welfare activities in an organization. It also focuses on the role on management and supervisor in promoting these activities in the organization. Accurate reporting of workrelated conditions is necessary to monitor workplace health and safety. A fresh research is needed to study that what the organization are doing to promote these employee health, safety and welfare activities in their organization and the employee attitude towards it. It can be concluded that there is proper floor cleaning system in BSNL. Majority of the respondents were Very much satisfied with the drinking water facilities in BSNL. They consider Hygienic conditions in latrines and urinals above average in BSNL They agreed with the arrangement of proper fencing of Machinery and that defective parts of machines were always replaced. Majority of respondents ranked Medical Aid as the most important Employee welfare activity Facilities as least important. The major benefit that the respondents felt of employing these programmes was the reduce accident rates. They were very much satisfied with the sitting arrangements. They agreed that first aid box was mostly available. It found that the hygienic conditions maintained were somewhat higher.BSNL employee not satisfied with canteen facility. It was found that respondents were very much satisfied with health and safety facilities. They were satisfied to a great extent with Welfare Facilities. They agreed that the company conduct Health and Safety Programmes and majority disagreed that the company provides technical expertise on accident prevention

6.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

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As we did our research on knowing the Employee Health, Safety and Welfare in BSNL Ferozepur.According to prescribed length and limitation, but we had received better view from the employees in this regard and also we got some suggestions from the various employees which may be contradict to each other because each person has its on perception about every thing. A few suggestions received from employees are like below: Regular cleaning should be done in training department Temperature should be maintained at such level so that the body can tolerate it. Mosquito killing spray should be used in drainage area Sewerage storage area should be covered separately. Grassy lawn should be properly maintained. There should be some medical facilities available for night shift, and two employees from each department should be well-trained for providing first aid.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Danna And Griffin (1999), Health and Well-Being in the Workplace: A Review and Synthesis of the Literature, Journal of Management, Vol. 25, No. 3, last accessed on 26 June, 2008 Available at http://jom.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/25/3/357

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Fuller (1999), Safety culture, Available at http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/hsl_pdf/2002/hsl02-25.pdf Hasle And Limborg (2005), Health And Safety Problems ,Available at www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/.../indhealth_44_1_6.pdf Johansson (2002), Role of Trade Unions in Workplace Health Promotion, International Journal of Health Services, Vol .32, No.1, pp.179-193, Available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home McEwen and Ritchie (2008), Towards A Employee perceptions of workplace health and safety issues. Can a questionnaire contribute to health needs assessment?, Available at http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/44/2/77 Mishra and Bhagat (2007), Principles of successful Implementation of labour welfare Activities, available at http://www.tesionline.com/intl/indepth.jsp?id=575 Nicholson (2002), Occupational health in the European Union, Society of Occupational Medicine , Available at http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/52/2/80 Pransky (1999) , Under-reporting of work-related disorders in the workplace: a case study, Family And Community Medicine, Vol.42, No. 1 , pp. 171-82 , Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9973879 Reid (1999), An Economic Evaluation of Economic Health, Available at http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/50/3/159 Shaw(2004) , Employee Perspectives on the Role of Supervisors to Prevent Workplace Disability After Injuries , Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation,Vol.13,No.3 ,pp.129142, Available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/t131h846hl0550t6/

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BOOKS Chhabra, T (2009) , Human Resource Management, Fifth Edition, Delhi: Dhanpat Rai & Co.(P) Ltd, pp 479-508. Rao, V (2006), Human Resource Management, Second Edition, New Delhi: Excel Books, pp 432-455. ELECTRONIC MEDIA WWW.BSNL.CO.IN

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ANNEXURE

QUESTIONAIRE
(A) BASIC DETAILS
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I am Student of MBA 4TH SEM and as a part my final research project, I have undertaken a project on employees Health and Safety measures being providing in BSNL, Kindly help me to gather the information by sparing you 5-10 minutes for filling the questionnaire. I will be very thankful. I assure you that the information will be kept confidential (B) QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following facilities are provided to you by BSNL regarding health and safety? Facilities regarding health Lightening Cleanliness Freedom from noise Working Space Work place Workers compensation Perception regarding health& safety provision Fire fighting system of BSNL First Aid

Extremely partially satisfied satisfied

Neutral

partially dissatisfied

Extremely satisfied

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Facilities regarding health

Extremely partially satisfied satisfied

Neutral

partially dissatisfied

Extremely satisfied

Hygienic condition of latrine & urinals Drinking water facility Canteen facility Proper fencing of machinery Safety officers perform their duties Working conditions Infection control for health and safety Transport facility Covers electrical outlets Lock and seals Heaters and fans facility 2. In your opinion, what are the various benefits of conducting employee health, Safety and welfare programmes for employees? (Multiple choices allowed) (1) Decrease accident rates (2). Improve employment relationship (3) Reduces employee turnover 3. Are you satisfied the overall health and safety facilities provided by the BSNL? (1)Highly satisfied (4). Better work environment (5) Improves quality of work

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(2) Satisfied (3) Neutral (4) Dissatisfied (5) Highly Dissatisfied 4. What is your opinion regarding health and safety at BSNL? (1) Highly satisfactory (2) Satisfactory (3) Neutral (4) Dissatisfactory (5) Highly Dissatisfactory

(C) PERSONAL INFORMATION


NAME: __________________________ AGE: 20-25 35-40 GENDER: Male 25-30 40-45 Female 30-35 Above 45

TELEPHONE NUMBER __________________________ DEPARTMENT__________________________ MONTHLY INCOME Less than 10,000 10,000 to 25,000 25,000 to 50,000 More than 50,000

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