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Nonisothermal Flow Around a Cooling Device

SOLVED WITH COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 3.5a

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Noni sothe r mal Fl ow Around a Cooling Device

Introduction
This model highlights the predefined multiphysics coupling Non-Isothermal flow. The momentum transport is described by the Weakly Compressible Navier-Stokes application mode, which is applicable to flow with velocities less than Mach 0.3 (approximately 100 m/s for atmospheric air). Below Mach 0.3 pressure expansion work done by the gas is negligible. The following example models the flow of air over a hot fin. The fin heats the fluid, and both density and viscosity vary significantly due to the heating. The heat transport is defined in both the fin and the air whereas the momentum transport is applied only in the air.

Model Definition
The geometry of the domain is shown below. The depth of the flow domain is large making a 2D approximation valid, assuming negligible gradients in the depth.
3D to 2D

Figure 1: Modeling domain of a cooling device. Air enters at the left boundary, flows over the fin, and the gas heats up. The model is described by weakly compressible Navier-Stokes equations and an energy transport equation with both convection and conduction; see Equation 1 and Equation 2: ( u )u = [ pI + ( u + ( u ) ) ( 2 3 ) ( u )I ] + g ( u ) = 0 C p u T ( k T ) = 0
T

(1) (2)

NONISOTHERMAL FLOW AROUND A COOLING DEVICE

In these equations, denotes the viscosity of the solution (kg/(ms)), u is the velocity (m/s), represents density (kg/m3), p is the pressure (Pa), k equals the thermal conductivity (W/(mK)), and Cp is the heat capacity (J/(kgK)).
Upper surface of the fin Inlet Outlet

Figure 2: Definition of boundary conditions. At the inlet, apply a laminar profile with a maximum velocity of 0.1 m/s. The corresponding average velocity is then 2 uaverage = -- u . 3 max (3)

At the outlet, the viscous stress is assumed to be zero, and the pressure is set according to the atmospheric conditions: p = 10 Pa At all other boundaries, use a no-slip condition: u = 0 (5)
5

(4)

For the energy transport, set the inlet temperature to 298 K, and at the top surface of the fin to 398 K. T = T0, inlet T = T 0, fin At the outlet, apply convective flux as a boundary condition. It assumes that heat transport is dominated by convection and follows from n ( k T ) = 0 This implies that the gradient of T in the direction perpendicular to the outlet boundary is negligible. At all other boundaries, insulating conditions apply: (7) (6)

NONISOTHERMAL FLOW AROUND A COOLING DEVICE

n ( k T + Cp T u ) = 0

(8)

Use material properties of atmospheric air for the fluid and those of copper for the fin. The viscosity varies with temperature and the density follows from the ideal gas law, varying with temperature and pressure. The model loads material properties from the built-in materials database.

Results
Results from the simulation show a clear influence of temperature on the velocity profile emerging from variations in density. Figure 3 shows a temperature distribution in the gas phase that is fairly large and will give rise to a significant effect on the flow profile.

Figure 3: Temperature distribution in both the flowing gas and the fin.

Density varies with the inverse of the temperature, as seen in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Gas density distribution in the cooling device. This variation has a direct influence on the velocity profile seen in Figure 5. At the outlet the flow reaches an almost fully developed profile but with an average velocity that is approximately 6.4% higher than the inlet value. The increased velocity is a consequence of the thermal gas expansion caused by the density decrease.

Figure 5: Velocity field distribution (left) in the cooling device and cross-sectional plots of the velocity field (right) at the inlet (solid line) and outlet (dashed line).

NONISOTHERMAL FLOW AROUND A COOLING DEVICE

Accounting for the temperature effects on fluid flow can be important. In this example, you can observe the effect of expansion as an increase in velocity.