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Encoding and Transmission Choices

Analog data, Analog signal Analog data, Digital signal





Digital data, Analog signal

Digital data, Digital signal




Digital transmitter


Data source can be analog or digital Transmission can be analog or digital


How do we encode the data for transmission so that it can be recognized by the receiver?
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

Sender: Transmission media Receiver:


wheres the clock? 0

how many 0 bits here?

Reception Problems
Receiver must determine the start of each bit period (clock synchronization). Receiver must detect where each frame starts and ends. Signal contains noise thermal noise, impulse noise, delay distortion, ... in general, higher transmission rate means more noise

Desirable Features of Encoding

Efficient use of bandwidth Clock recovery (synchronization) sender can recover timing of original signal Error detection some codes enable decoder to detect bit errors (higher layers contain additional error detection) Error recovery after an error, can receiver find the start of next frame?

Desirable Features of Encoding

Minimize high frequency component lower frequencies mean less transmitted energy, less radiated EMF in electrical systems, cheaper hardware Concentrate info in the middle of the transmitted spectrum distortion and interference are worse at edges of band No net d.c. component d.c. component requires direct physical attachment of equipment for electrical transmission. No d.c. means electrical isolation can be done: protects equipment, less interference.

Digital Encoding Formats

NRZ NRZI Bipolar -AMI Pseudoternary Manchester Differential Manchester

Spectral Distribution
1.5 Mean square voltage per unit bandwidth



B8ZS, HDB3 AMI, Pseudoternary Manchester, Differential Manchester


0 0.5 -0.5 1.0 1.5

Normalized frequency (f/r)

Desirable Characteristics:

No d.c. component (energy at f = 0) Efficient use of bandwidth: small f/r Signal concentrated in center of band

Nonreturn to Zero (NRZ)

0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1

1 = power on (signal) 0 = power off (no signal) used on low speed links, e.g. serial ports Problems: lack of clock recovery during long string of 0 or 1 bits has d.c. component baseline wander during long string of 0 or 1 bits

Nonreturn to Zero Inverted (NRZI)

0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1

1 = change of signal level (on-off or off-on) 0 = no change of signal level NRZI is an example of differential encoding used with with 4B/5B on fast ethernet fixes clocking problem for long string of 1 bits Problems: lack of clock recovery during long string of 0 bits has d.c. component

Manchester Encoding
0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1

Always transition in middle of bit period: 0 = low-to-high transition 1 = high-to-low transition Transition at beginning of bit period when necessary used for 10Mbps ethernet over coax and twisted pair good clock recovery, good signal recovery, no d.c. comp. inefficient use of bandwidth: 10Mbps ethernet uses a 20Mbps signaling rate! Not used for fast ethernet. data-dependent high frequency component

Differential Manchester
0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1

Mid-bit transition is used only for clocking 0 = transition at beginning of bit period (low-to-high or high-to-low, depending on previous output level) 1 = no transition at beginning of bit period used in IEEE 802.5 Token Ring at 4Mbps and 16Mbps same properties as Manchester encoding, but better signal detection and clocking in presence of noise inefficient use of bandwidth: 2B signaling for a data rate B

Bipolar-Alternate Mark Inversion

0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1

Uses 3 signal levels: +V, 0, -V 0 = no signal (0 voltage) 1 = alternating +V and -V no net d.c. component (alternating +V and -V) can detect some bit errors (consecutive +V or -V) Problems: loss of synchronization during long string of 0 bits inefficient use of bandwidth: with 3 signal levels you could transmit log2(3)= 1.58 bits of information

Bipolar -AMI Pseudoternary

Same as Bipolar-AMI except reverses signaling: 1 = no signal (0 voltage) 0 = alternating +V and -V


Bipolar with 8-Zeros Substitution (B8ZS)

Modification to Bipolar-AMI to eliminate string of 0 bits: Replace any octet of all 0 (00000000) with: 000+-0-+ if previous non-zero signal was + 000-+0+if previous non-zero signal was This causes 2 code violations, so receiver knows it is a substitution byte, not a transmission error good clock recovery most of the transmitted energy is in middle of the spectrum; no d.c. component B8ZS is used with pulse code modulation (PCM) on T1 lines (1.544 Mbps); B3ZS and PCM are used on T3 lines.

B8ZS and HDB3

Bit value

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0





High Density Bipolar-3 Zeros (HDB3)

Modification to Bipolar-AMI to eliminate zero strings: Replace any 4 zero bits (0000) with: odd even 000+ -00- if previous non-zero signal was + 000- +00+ if previous non-zero signal was Alternate (odd/even occurrence) between the two Each replacement causes one code violation good clock recovery; most of energy is in middle of the spectrum; no d.c. component; not as robust as B8ZS HDB3 is used on E-series public carrier lines (E1 is 2.048Mbps).

Use 5 bit signals for each 4 data bits. The 5 bit sequences are chosen so that there are never more than 3 consecutive zeros in the output stream. When used with NRZI, will have at least 2 signal transitions in every 5 bits.
Input 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Output 11110 01001 10100 10101 01010 01011 01110 01111 Input 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Output 10010 10011 10110 10111 11010 11011 11100 11101 Other Line idle STX ETX Output 11111 11000 10001 01101 00111


4B/5B with NRZI

binary 4B/5B

(ushort) 260

0000 0001 0000 0100

11110 01001 11110 01010

4B/5B with NRZI is used for fast ethernet over fiber (100baseFX) FDDI 100Mbps Token Ring over fiber bandwidth is 125MHz for 100Mbps data rate not used with twisted pair due to high radiated EMF

Bandwidth Comparison
To send data at a rate D (bps) how much bandwidth do the encoding methods use?
Encoding Manchester B8ZS, HDB3 4B/5B+NRZI Used for 10Mbps Ethernet, Token Ring T1, E1 lines Fast Ethernet over fiber, FDDI Bandwidth 2D D log23 = 1.58D 1.25D


MLT-3 uses 4B/5B followed by a 3 level signaling: 0 = no change in output level 1 = transition from 0 to -V; next 1 returns to 0; next 1 transition to +V; next 1 return to 0 used for 100baseTX, CDDI (100Mbps FDDI over copper), and 100Mbps Token Ring on twisted pair most of the transmitted signal energy is below 30MHz no dc component; can detect some bit errors



Encodes 8 data bits using 10 signal bits, similar to 4B/5B, but with these advantages: minimum deviation in number of transmitted 1 and 0 bits in any data sequence, using disperity control better error detection capability than 4B/5B used for Gigabit ethernet on fiber optic cable and Fibre Channel balance of transmitted 1 and 0 bits is important to avoid data dependent heating of the laser, which would increase the error rate