Você está na página 1de 7

Motivational theories – general classification

’Content’ theories – a number of more or less identical


theories that attempt to explain which forces motivate
human behaviour i.e. theories that primarily try to identify
the internal forces, needs or urges that are believed to
control human behaviour.

’Process’ theories – a number of different theories that


attempt to explain how and why human behaviour is
directed towards certain choices/behavioural forms, and
which parameters other persons (i.e. managers) will try to
influence in order to promote a specific behavioural form.

This is a case of complementary – rather than competing


explanations.

(Bowditch & Buono, pg. 85-105; Schein, pg. 57-110)


1

Content theories – an outline

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs – people try to satisfy the


various needs according to a specific hierarchical pattern.

Alderfer’s ERG theory – human behaviour is controlled by


three basic needs, whose relative importance changes with
the opportunity to satisfy the needs.

McClelland’s Acquired needs theory – needs are to some


extent acquired and can therefore be influenced, just as
several simultaneous needs influence a person´s behaviour

Herzberg’s two-factor theory – job satisfaction and job


dissatisfaction are connected to various underlying factors
– the so-called motivators and hygiene factors

(Bowditch & Buono pg. 65 - 73; Schein pg. 57-110)

1
Maslow´s motivational theory
(Assumption about human beings = self-actualization)

High
Self-actualization
Intensity of needs
Growth
needs
Self-esteem

Affiliation

Safety Physiological
needs
Physiological
Low
Physiological growth
(Hypothesis of the relative intensity of needs)

- An often quoted, but seldom studied, motivational theory that is based


on a very idealistic view of human beings, based on studies of some rather
exclusive persons

- The central point is that the more basic needs have to be more or less fulfilled
before high-level needs will be activated and influence behaviour.

(Bowditch & Buono, pg. 65 - 66; Schein pg. 92-93) 3

Alderfer's ERG-theory
(Assumption about human beings = self-actualization)

High
Intensity of needs

Growth

Relatedness

Existence

Low
Time
(Assumption about human beings = self-actualization)

May at first seem like a simplification of the Maslow model of needs. But in
contradiction to the Maslow model, Alderfer´s is based on the assumption
that the relative intensity of the three forces or needs that control behaviour
can vary from one point in time to another. In other words, Alderfer rejects
the hypothesis of a hierarchical order of needs.

(Bowditch & Buono, pg. 67; Schein, pg. 92-93) 4

2
McClelland's Achievement-theory
Person A Person A

Power
Affiliation
Affiliation Power

Achievement
Training/development
Achievement

t0 t1

Human behaviour is controlled by three basic needs

•need for Achievement


•need for Power
•need for Affiliation

whose relative intensity can vary from situation to situation

Each individual seems to have a rather fixed combination of needs


that will influence behaviour towards achievement, power or affiliation.

According to McClelland, it is possible to change an individual´s


motivational code using systematic training.

(Bowditch & Buono, pg. 67 - 68; Schein, pg. 92-93) 5

Herzbergs two-factor-theory = The hygiene motivation theory


(Assumption about human beings = self-actualization)j

1. Hygiene/motivational factors:

The factors that influence job-dissatisfaction: Staff, policy, form of


management, work
environment, etc.

Satisfaction dimension:
dissatisfied Not dissatisfied
2. Motivational factors:

The factors that influence job satisfaction: Working conditions,


recognition, responsibility
etc.

Satisfaction dimension:
Not satisfied Satisfied/motivated

NB.: In principle the two-factor theory is not a motivational theory, but a


theory that focuses on the working conditions that are necessary for people
to be motivated and satisfied.

(Bowditch & Buono, pg. 68 - 70; Schein, pg. 92-93) 6

3
’Content’ theories – a comparison

Maslow’s Alderfer’s Herzberg’s McClelland’s


hierarchy ERG-theory 2-factor theory Achievement-theory

Self-actualization Achiecement
needs needs
Growth Motivational
needs factors
Self-esteem Power needs
needs

Social Relatednees
Affiliation
needs needs
needs

Safety Hygiene
needs factors
Existence
needs
Physiological
needs

(Bowditch & Buono, pg. 65 - 70 ; Schein, pg. 93) 7

Job design and motivation (Hackman & Oldham´s model)


(Assumption about human beings = self-actualization)

Job dimensions: Psychological state: Outcomes:

Skill variety Experinced Higher


Task identity meaningfulness motivation
Task significance of the job
Higher
quality
Autonomy Responsibility
Higher
satisfaction

Knowledge of Lower
Feedback absense and
actual activities
turnover

Ability and skill


Moderators Strength of employee´s growth need
Context satisfaction

Jobs that have the five characteristics will have a high motivational potential. A
person´s qualifications, growth needs and general job satisfaction will modify the
result.

Bowditch & Buono, pg. 70 -73; Schein, pg. 176-180) 8

4
The relative importance of the five job dimensions
in the course of a career

Importance
Hygiene
Feed-back factors
Positive All five dimensions
Purpose
Influence on
satisfaction

Autonomy Variation
Negative

Early Middle End

NB. The correlation is not particulary well documented

Schein, pg. 98-100; 9

Process theories – an outline

• Behaviour is influenced by the subjective expectations of the connections


between goal and effort that are the basis of rational choices.
– Expectancy theory
– Goal/means theory
• The patterns of behaviour are created through interaction/transaction with
others
– Classical conditioning
– Operant conditioning
• Identity and behaviour are primarily determined by the expectations
people have and their interaction/transaction with other people
– Balance theory
– Transaction theory
• Identity and self-knowledge are created in a dynamic process controlled
both by internal forces and by a number of situations and choices that
continuously test self-knowledge.
– Social learning theory

10

5
More recent studies - Peter Warr’s ‘Vitamin’-model

The 9 job situation factors:

1. Opportunity to control (AD)


2. Opportunity to use competence (AD)
3. Extrinsic goals (AD)
4. Task variation (AD)
5. Task/situation identity (AD)
6. Earning prospects (CE)
7. Physical safety(CE)
8. Opportunity for social contact (AD)
9. The ‘social status’ of the job (CE)

AD = Additional Decrement factores (gradual declining effect)


CE = Constant Effect factors (constant effect)

11

More recent studies - Peter Warr’s ‘Vitamin’-model

High

CE
’Mentanl health’

AD

Low

Low Job-situation High


(the 9 factors)

12

6
More recent study - Karasek & Theorel’s
Demand-control Model
Development line

High

Influence on own work Easy job Active job

Passive job Stressful job

Low
Low Demands of job High
Strain line
13

Conclusion

- If the difference in humans are greater than our similarity and we


all react differently in dífferent situations (the complex human), it
means that there is no ’best way’ solution in every situation.

- Thereby it´s meant, that it´s always a necessity

•To carry through situationanalysis and work, based on the assumption


that….

•all humans should be treated differently in order to make them fell


equally treated.

The different theories/models should not be seen as mutual


exclusive alternatives, but as complementary solution-models
and finally

Organizations should beware of that all motivation and behavioural


problems might not be organizational problems. Therefore those can´t
be directly solved by management, but this doesn´t mean that they
shouldn´t try.

(Bowditch & Buono, pg. 3 - 5, pg. 86 - 89; Schein, pg. 52)

14