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Fifth Edition







orL coMpANy(8.T.)LIMITED





{* S T *



:3?69 r rr53 $ rt


Frorilispiece: The Gau'clatt'palin Pogoda, neqr the Circuit House at Pagan, Burtttcls ancient capital on the le.ft banlc o.f the Irratt'odc!1' ahottt 90 tniles belou' Mondalay'

Over thirteen years have passed since the last edition of &is booklet was publisherl. This may soem surprising since it was describeil at the time as being of an interim nature' However' shortly after this *ast edition appeareil, Burma suffered rt p"iioO of widesprearl insurgency; many parts of the country fell into insurgents' hands and surface travel became unsafe-anal even impossible-in many areas'




t:i ]l

It has only been in the last few years or so that security conditions have improverl anr! to-ilayo happily' it is once more possible to motor in safety over the greater part of the country. At the same time, after the unavoidable neglect of **y y""rr, work is once more in hanil for the improvement of existing roails and the development of new ones' And although this development work will mean that anything publisheit now will, in certain respects, beeome out of tlate fairly quicklyo we nevertheless feel that this is an opportune


at which to publish a new edition af The fuIotor Roads of Burma. This is not a general guide book on Burma' As its name implies, its main purpose is to give a tlescription of the conditions to be encountered on the various motorable roails in the country' flowever, since the only guide books available on Burma are
those relating to Rangoon and Mandalay, we have endeavoured


.*ru *g#,j'

in a small way to mitigate this deficiency by incluiling a brief account of the counfty anil a number of items of general interest which may be useful to the traveller. In particular' we have tried to give as much information as we can about accommodation. Apart from Rangoon, Mantlalay anil one or
places where there are hotels or boarding housest the only forms of accommoilatiQn are the Government circuit houses or PIYD inspection bungalows. As their names suggest' these are intended primarily for Government and other sfficials on tour anil these officials have priority for acconmotlation' Subject to this priority, any traveller can stay at these places" 'fhe charges are very moderate. Food is available at sone of the


bigger circuit houses and, wherever possible, we have indicated this fact. Bedding and linen are available only at very few places and travellers are strongly ailvised to take their own. We have also indicated where petrol-ex-pump at a filling station and ex-drum or jerrican at a packed agency-is available from BOC agents. These agents also stock a full range of BOC anil Shell automotive lubricants and specialities. The

Getting to know Burma

Before driving along the many roails of this pleasant land ofpagodas it wlll help to know about the physical features' climate, people and the historical backgrounil of the country.

majority of them do not undcrtake repair or maintenance workl nevertheless, they will always be reaily to direct the
motorist to the nearest workshops in case ofneed. As far as road surfaces arc conccrned, we have useil the term 'surfaced' to denote an asphalted or bitumenised roarl; 'metalled' or 'laterite' to denote a roail which has been built up and consoliilated with metal or laterite; such roads are generally motorable in all weathers. Generally speaking, a 'fair weather' roarl is merely an earth roail and, as such, becomes an impassable morass of mud during the monsoon. Even on the main roadr the surfaced portion is not generally wide enough to permit two vehicles to pass without one or both of them going into the shoulder or unsurfaced edges; although, in general, these are kept in reasonable conilition, they can be badty pothoted and corrugateil anrl one shoulil drive onto them with care. Foreign motorists wishing to ilrive into Burma shoukl not embark on their journey until they have received full clearance either from the Burmese Foreign Office in Rangoon or from their nearest Burmese Embassy or Consulate. Apart from providing information for those who have to travel on business, we sincerely hope that this booklet will
intluce more people to venture forth in their cars for pleasure or on holirlay to see more of Burma, its peoples and its scenery. No doubt, there are omissions-and possibly inaccuracies-in the pages that follow. We shall always be grateful for additions and corrections from any source for inclusion in our next edition. Finally, we wish to express our thanks to all those who have helped in compiling this booklet.

Burma has an area of 250,000 square miles and a popula-

tion of about twenty million.

Physically, Burma falls into three well marked divisions:

the easternhills; 2. thecentralbeltconsistingofthe valleys of the Irrawaddy, Chindwin and Sittang Rivers, and 3. the Shan Plateau in the east, which continues to the southward, and is known as the Tenasserim Yomas. A feature of both the ranges and rivers is that they run from north to south.



The Arakan Yomas on the west and the Pegu Yomas, north of Rangoon, are two foltl ranges of young rocks. Between
the trvo lies an area of young soft rocks forming the valley of the Chindrvin and the Lower krawaddy. It is in that area that

the present oilfietds of Burma are situated. The mountainous eastern haif, i.e. the Shan Plateau and its southern continuation into the T'enasserim, consists of old hard rocks.

In the north, rubies anrl other precious stones are mined at

Mogok. One of the largest deposits of silver and lead ore in the world is at Barvdwin: the ,ore is smelted nearby at Namtu. There are big deposits of silver and lead near Heho farther
'I'enasserim has rich deposits of tin and wolfram, particuarly near Marvchi and'I'avoy. fhere are many deposits of coal, although these are of poor quality and have not yet been mined economically.


The Karens are itistributeil largely

in the area

east of

Ihe greater part of Burma lies within the tropics. There are three seasons, the rainy or wet (between mid-May and mid
October)o the cool (Novernber to February) and the hot season (March to mirl-May). The climate is ideal for rice prorluction anil tropical fruits and vegetables. As the climate dominates the country, so agri-

culture dominates the economic

life of the people of Burma.

In the areas where the rainfall is more than eighty

Toungoo, occupying a region iust south of the Shan States' although there are groups ofKaren along the Tenasserim and the Irrawadrly Delta also. The Shans inhabit the eastern part of the country knonn as the Shan Plateau, which covers some 56,000 square miles. The Kachins live in northern Burma, in the Bhamo anil Myitkyina districts, anil also in the Hukawng Valley. The Chins inhabit the hilty areas between the Chindwin River and the Indian border. The Kayahs occupy the area of some 4,520 square miles arounil Loikaw, south of the Shan

there are the evergreen forests. The valuable forests aresituated where the rainfall is between 40 and 80 inches" trt is in these areasthatthe monsoon forests of teak, pyinkado, in, ingyin and other valuable timber grow. The world farnous teak are on the Pegu Yomas, the eastern slopes of the Arakan and the hills north of the dry belt. The drier parts of Burma are covered with scrub, while the hills anil plateaux are covered with oak forests anil grassland. The most important grain is rice, which takes up about two-thirds of all the cultivated lanil and provides seventy per cent of the country's export earnings, rvhile in the dry belt sessamum, rnillet, beans, grounilnuts and cotton are gmwn.

Although Burma's indushial activities are concentrated in rice mills and saw mills there are other enterprises which have sprung up since 1948. There are the jute mill at Thamaing, the pharmaceutical industry at Gyogon, the brick and tile factory at Ywama, the steel mill and the spinning and weaving factory at Tharnaing-all situateil near Rangoon. There is also the bleaching anil dyeing plant at Thannaing, and tbe cement factory at Thayetmyo. Mulberry plantations have been estabIisheil for rearing silk worms at Maymyo, Myitkyina' Loikaw anil Paukkhaung anil there is a silk reeling factory at l\{aymyo and two cocoon drying factories at Myitkyina. Other industrial projects, which have been started up since the war with Japan' are the valuable petroleum inilnstry with centres at Chauk in Central Burma and Spiam near Raugoon, auil the sugar mills at Fyinnrana, Namti anil Zeyawaddy.

PEOPLE The inhabitants of Burma are descendants of the migrants from Tibet and Centratr Asia and are of Mongoloid stock. The msin races in Burma besides the Burmese are the Mons, Shans, Karens, Kachins, Chins and Kayahs. The Burmese themselves settled in the lowlands of Central Burma from about the ninth century, and it is this area which remains the traditional home of the Burmese. This settting of the Burmese in Lower Burma during the last 1{X) years is the result of the increase of rice cultivation in that area. The Mons live in the Irrawaddy Delta and in the Thaton and .A.mherst districts in the Tenasserim.

The political history of Burma. dates back to the eleventh century (before thatn the history of Burma is the history of the rnigrations of the Burmese and other races) when grouln of inrlependent Burmese states were joineil into one kingdom. However, the Burmese kings became involved in three wars

with the British in Inilia-in t8u, 1852 anil l88$leailing in X886 ultimately to the annexetion of Burma into British



62 62 62 64
64 64

I TouNcoo-Mawcsr 2 TouNcoo-TTTANDAUNG 3 TouNcoo-Lorxew 4 Lorr,rw-LAwPrrA 5 Loxew-MAwcHr 6 Lomnw-SourHERN SHaN Srarrs



Rangoon -Toungoo-Meiktila- Mandalay
The following information applies to the whoie of the existing R.angoon to Mandalay trunk road. In the course of the next few years it is planned to replace this with a new highway which



will probably follow a cornpletely


NORTH WESTERN ROUTE TO INDTA MANoAT,AY, Su#:no, Yn-u, KALEwe, Teuu eNn Ilrrprr.tr (INole)
Bnc,NcH Roeps:

alignment in certain places along its route. The table gives the approximate distances between the
more important places en route:

69 '15

I S,c.cetNc-MoNYwa 2 Sgwmo-KYAUKMYAUNc 3 SrrwEno-KAwLIN 4 ZrcoN-K,lno 5 SHwaso-MoNYY/A 6 Kalruyo-TrnpIrt-Ferau


76 76 76 76 77


RANc@N, Mour,urn*, Tevov,c.nD MEncut 79 BneNcn Ronos:

98 48 Nyaunglebin 142 92 44 Pyu 115 125 77 33 Toungoo 244 194 146 102 69 Pyinmana 299 249 201 157 124 55 Yamethin 312 262 214 fiA 131 68 13 Pyawbwc 338 288 24A D6 163 94 39 26 Meiktila 4A2 352 304 260 227 158 103 90 64 Kyaukse 430 380 332 288 255 186 131 118 92 28 Mandalay * This is the milestone reading based on the pre-war road:
the actual distance by the present road is 55 miles

50* Pegu

2 BUN-TluNczuN 3 Trrlrolq-Pe-.a.N-HrltNcswr 4 Mour.ltrrx-K,,\wKARElK-hdvew.q,onv 5 MourvuN-KvxKt*merv 5 T,qvoy-MAUNGMAGAN ? Tavov-KYAUKMEDAUIqc-Mvtrra 8 Tevov-Zarur



86 86 86 86 86
87 87


The surface is poor in flaces largely because, for long periods, the activities of insurgents made adequate maintenanceimpossible. However, with increased security maintenance has improved. Between Rangoon and Pegu the road is wide enough for two vehicles to pass comfortably. From Pegu Mandalay the surfaced portion of the road is generally only wide enough to take one vehicle. It is passable throughout the year except during exceptionall! heavy rainfall when flooding sometimes occurs, principally in the neigbbourhood of Pegu (MS 50) and Nyaunglebin (MS 98).



is situated on the left hand side of the main road near the
centre of the village.

ZAYATKWIN-At this point 36 miles from Rangoon and 19 rniles from Pegu there is a metal and laterite road to
Rangoon via'Thingangyun. This was the Rangoon to Mandalay trunk road before the war and the distance was only 30 miles from this point to Rangoon. A major bridge on this road was destroyed during the war but work is now in hand to rebuild the bridge, and a new road for traffic from Thingang)run is under construction " r At Zayatkwin the rnilestones change and read from Rangoon via Thingangyun.

bridge and thence a temporary fair weather road leads to the west bank of the Sittang River, a distance of 16 miles from Waw. A ferry serrrice for passengers and vehicles operates across the Sittang to Mokpalin*. At the time of writing security beyond Waw is doubtful.

DAIK-U-35 miles north of Pegu to the east of the rnain road, is approached by a badly surfaced track. Here there is a hospital, telephone with connection to the Nyaunglebin
exchange, post office and PWD inspection bungalow.

PEGU-MS 50 from Rangoon. At the entry to the town a road leads off from the left side of the main road to the famous reclining Buddha, Shwethalyaung-considered the largest complete image of the human figure in the world and measuring 180 feet in length and about 50 feet in height at the shoulder" The railway station is approachedby another road 100 yards after crossing the bridge over the railway, also to the left of the main road. The post office is on l0th Street to the right of Pegu
river bridge. Telegraph office, civil hospital and court house are on rhe main road" near thebazaar. 'fhere is a BOC fllling station on the main road north of
the telegraph office. There is a second BOC filling station on the rnain road about I mile to the south of the town centre. There is a circuit house in the new 'civil lines' and meals are available. A hundred yards north of rhe Pegu river bridge a naetalled road leads off from the main road to the right, and seven

PYTINTAZA is 42 miles north of Pegu and 6 miles south of Nyaunglebin. There is a BOC filling station on the main

I{YAUNGLEBIN-48 miles from Pegu.


may be diffi-

cult to find the way. The motorist travelling northwards must watch for a sharp turn left at the north end of the town. Post office with telephone is on Station Road near the 'police lines'. Hospital is 200 yards to the east of the sharp turn. There is a filling station on the main road.

KYAUKTAGA-65 miles from Pegu. PWD bungalow and hospital200 yards north of the Bazaar. The PWD bungalow is at present occupied by the Army. PYU-28 rniles from Kyauktaga. An inspection bungalow, post office and telephone near police station and a hospital. There is a BOC filling station at the northern approach to the

miles along this road


Thanatpin near the Pegu-sittang

TOUNGOO-on the Sittang River. In addition to a circuit house there is an inspection bungalow on Lloyd Road; no mebls are supplied. Meals are available at the railway station refreshment room, and restaurants in town. Sights to see in Toungoo are the old fort and moat and
Shwesandaw pagoda. Telephone is available at the post office 350 yards north of the maidan.

canal, where a PWD inspection bungalow is situated.

PAYAGYI-IOI miles north of Pcgu on the main road. A good surfaced road leads from here to Waw on the PcguSittang canal l0 miles distant. The canal is crossed by a

* *e Soutlcrn Trunk

Road on page 8l



brldge to Thandaung*.

road and Karen Road leading to the east over a

There is a BOC filling station at the junction of the mair


& +


ru mayr*yo

Pegu Yomas to Prome is under construction. (see furthel under route II).

new road westwards from Toungoo across thr


Leaving Toungoo

to the north, bea.r right. The


straight ahead leads to Htilaing.

YEDASHE-I8 miles from Toungoo. IIas a pWD bunga-

to Myolha. is l? ririles, and thence to pyinmana a further 34 miles. There are sevei.al stretches on this,section rvhere road surface is poor.

low near the police station on the east side of the main road but, at the time of writing, this is occupied by the Army. From









but no food is provided. Therc is a very reasonable restaurant at the railway station. From the east gate of the town a metalled road leads to the State sugar factory (Smiles).

PYINMANA - For those travelling from Rangoon either to Mandalay or to the Shan States, pyinmana is a convenient place at which to put up for the night. This far is a reasonable day's journey from Rangoon. The town itself is situated offthe trunk road and there is a BOC filling station at the point whcre the road to the town forks to thi right. There is a PWD inspection bungalow in the town




| ,*or,,



{+++ +++++ IIAGWE


Tat kon

TATKON - is reached at MS 277 where there is an inspection bungalow but no food is available. petrol is available from the BOC agent on the main road at the north
end of the town, from a hand-operated pump.
55 miles from pyinmana, has circuit house. There is a BOC filling station on the main road.

Rnilwo y





sce page 62





and a reasonable speed can be maintained.

YAMETHIN TO MEIKTILA is 39 mites. From yamerhin through Pyawbwe to Meiktila the road surface is good


noted for its betel leaves. A metalled road branche, *urt frorrt Shwedah to Thitson (9| miles) where there is a new irrigation dam.

- MS 306 from yamethin. This village is

offthe present distance from Rangoon to Taunggyi. There is also a proposal to extend the existing branch road, rvhich leads westwards from pyawbwe to yanaung, to Narmauk (the tiltrntagg of Bogyoke Aung San) a# thence to Magwe. This wilr provide a rink between the Mandalay trunk road and the western trunk road. (route II).

latter vinage is on the main Meiktila-Taunggyi road*. This new road will cut 3g miles

Payangasu (15 miles). The

There is a Government stud farm here for breeding ponies. There is an inspection bungalow near the civil hospitai which is approached by a road to the left at the south end. of the town. There is a BOC filling station on the main road. _ There is a proposal to build a road from pyawbwe

PYAWBWE - MS 312 and thirteen miles from yamethin.


IyIEIKTILA TO MANDALAY is 92 miles. This stretch is in good condition and the distance can be covered comfortably in tfuee hours. WLJI\IDWIN - 20 miles fronn Meiktila, is a cotton-weaving centre. Packed petrol is available from the BOC agent on the main road. At KUME ROAD - 44miles from lr{eiktila,thereisaBOC filling station. 6 rniles beyond Kume road the branch road to the left goes to Natogyi and Myingyan (see route II page 27). KYAUKSE - 64 milcs from Meiktila, is thc cerrtre of a district which has been well known from earliest tirnes for its fine system of irrigation and in consequence the land is very fertile in contrast to the general aricl nature of much of zone'. Kyaukse rice (of wtrich there are two crops the

"dry a year ) is well known throughout Burma.

There is a BOC fi.lling station at Kyaukse; also a circult house. There is a proposal to build a link road joining this road

MEIKTILA - 94 miles from pyinmana,

rn Meiktila, one at the southern entrance to the town, one on the Rangoon to Mandalay road and one on the Myingyan road. There is a pleasant circuit house overlooking the lake but no food is available. It is possible to reach Meiktila from Rangoon in one day, but il means a fairly hard drive for twelve hours or so.

westwards to Kyaukpadaung, Chauk, Magwe and prome (route II). There are three BOC filling stati-ons

Myingyan (route ll_branch roads), and one road runs

many important road routes. One road runs eastwards to the Southern Shan States (route IV), one road. runs north_west to

is the hub of

with the Mandalay to Maymyo to Lashio road (route IIT) which will enable direct traffic to the Northern Shan States from the south to by-pass Mandalay. This link road will leave the Mandalay hiehway at Chaungbat village, some 12 miles or so beyond Kyaukse, and will join the Maymyo road at about MS 15 out of Mandalay. It is proposed to build a ncw road from Mandalay north to Kin-U. MANDALAY - At present. there are three hotels in fvlandalay. European style food is available at the railway
There is much of interest in Mandalay. The Fort with its battlemsnts and its wide moat contains the sites of the old Palace of the Burmese kings; this is now occupied by the Army. There are many shrines and pagodas in and around

. aec Route IV It

page 57

town - one of most famous being the Mahanryatmuniand the pagodas on Mandalay llill are very pictursquely situated. Mandalay however suffered much during the war, and the Palace was completely destroyed before the town fell to the 14th Army in 1945.




Rangoon - Prome - Myingyan Mandalay

?8 48 Tharrarvaddv I4t tl3+ d5 paunjde 179 149 l0l 36 prorne ??t 193 t4S 80 44 Ar:nglanmyo 280 250 202 i37 I0l 57 Taunedwingvi i3! 3or i;; ;;; ;;; roe 5r Magwe 363 333 2gS 220 t84 t4O 83 32 yenangyaung 391 367 3I9 254 218 171 ttl d 441 4lt 363 2s8 262 2tg t6l IIO $'-Xyaurpadaung* 78 41 Taungtha



bordered by jungle; and the section betvreen Paungde and Prome, where the road follows the contour of the low hills which converge on the Irrawaddy river at Frome' This route follows route I as far as Htaukkyan (MS 2l) where there is a BOC filling stat"ion' Here the road to Prome forks left. Flalf a mile further on, a brailch road bears left to Hlawga. There is a lake here, in pleasant surroundings, which ,"ru"t at one of Rangoon's water reservoirs' For Prome go straight ahead until nearing MS 28 from Rangoon where the

Prome road takes a sharp turn to the left-straight ahead goes to Warretchaung 5* miles distant' HMAWBI is reached at MS 30, after passing an airstrip on the right hand side of the road at MS 28' Therc is an inspection bungalow here and
government agricultural faim at Hmawbi' TharrawaddY.

a BOC filling station' There is also a


From Hmawbi the route is straight forward as



'frf; #i'# ii! ?x ii'x ;i f:,r' *","p*"0.,."

followed by

THARRAWADDY - There is a circuit house, but obtaining accommodation here is uncertain as it is much in demand by Army personnel. A BOC lilling station is situated on tiie
main road. and then ,A,t MS 88/2 turn-sharp left over a srnall bridge leads io Letpadan sharp right at MS 88/5. The direct road

six_mile stretch

of surfaced


l#,:l' *1ifl1"i,*iHtH"i"T'",#,.l::ix im'}:l1.f,.fji#'frT#

:1ffinx iti #:s"y. :*Ln


new BOC filling station is due for co-nstruction on the right just before MS 88/2' At Gyobingauk (MS 122) take the road which bears to the left of the railway line, avoiding the bazaar. At Nattalin (MS 137) there is a BOC tilling station on the main road; also at Paungde (MS 142)' et tuts 168' beer right for Prome, and at the BOC filling station in Frome bear right for Aunglanmyo and Magwe; the road over the railway level crossing leads into the town'


miles distant).


::;#il15i til1-;:ih1::ffff*

the PROME - Accommodation is generally available at Prome has a inspection bungalow and iood can be supplied' lamous pagoda named Shwesandaw built about 2,000 vears


I'ROME TO AUNGLANMYO is 44 miles' The condition 2l



ofthe road is good. lt is undulating in parts and there are or two sharP bends. At MS 182 a metalled road branches off to the right to There is an Paungdaie (8 miles) and Paukkhaung (20 miles)'




t" iouNcoo

exteniion to this road under construction beyond Paukkhaung Prome with across the Pegu Yomas to Toungoo, thus linking road' the Rangoon to MandalaY trunk PWD Between Prome and Aunglanmyo there are Pyalo (MS 207)' bungalows at Dayindabo (MS 200) and station AUNGLANMYO (MS 223)-There is a BOC fllling in the centre of town' There is also on the main road is available' a PWD bungalow, sparsely furnished; no food t-he road leaves the Irrawaddy and After Aunglanmyo' bungalows at passes inland to Taungdwingyi. There at9-PyD


(MS 24310) and Nyaung-bintha (MS 253/0)'


at TAUNGDWINGYI (MS 280/0)-Turn left for Magwe BOC is a the cross roads in the centre of the bazaar' There


l8 nites Pi0ttg tr Truxeup)

crossing' filting station on the left about 100 yards beyond this bungalow in the town but meals are m"tl it an inspection

not available.

on the bears right. The straight road goes on to Meegyaungy 11 miles distant' where there is bank of the Irrawaddy, east

22 miles out of Taungdwingyi the road




the BOC u b.rogalow. Packed petrol is available here from

Yin chaung, about 14* miles from Magwe' is crossed October' by a ferry during hilh water between August and duringDecember a At other iimes the chaung is fordable and There are temporary causeway is built to facilitate crossing' even the ferry o"c"siooi when the chaung is in spate, when two or three days service has to be suspended fora period of


9eo40 Ltr



October and at a time. This occurs only between August and get advance are advised, during this time, to


information about the state of the chaung at Taungdwingyi' MS 320 There are two more chaungs to be crossed at year' and 321 but these are fordable ihroughout the



Road under comtruction

road there is a gravel road whichby,_p"rro lt"g*" and joins ,^1:.Mury"r:-t'ena,ngyaung roact twc miles north of the town. Although this by-pass saves about thrc,e miles, one shourd p.gg""d carefully as there is a sharp approach bend onto a bridge which requires carefr.rl driving. bank of the Irrawaddl' and is a distr-ict neaaqua.teil rn"r" is a p\4rD bungalow here g_nd food is uu"ii;'bi" ;" application to the caretaker. There i; also a BOC filling station at Magwe. The Myat.thalun pagoda, on tf,e bank of the Irr4*addy of the town, is worrh a visit. a big pagoda fsstival is :o-rlh ei

About two miles i.rorn lvlagrve on the Taungdwingy,i

There is a BOC filling station

at Thittabwe before one

enters Yenangyaung and another at Twingone at the northern

ond of the town. There is also a circuit house near the river.

y[AGtF (MS


is situared on rhe cast

Frgm Yenangyaung to Kyaukpadaung the road has an excellent surface which allows a high average speed to be rnaintained, except where the road crosses the Pin chaung shortly after it ha.s left Yenangyaung at Twingone. The Pin chaung is impassable while in flood, add this occurs at infrequent intervals during the rains. At Gwcgyo (28 miles from Yenangyaung) bear east for Kyaukpadaung, 8 miles distant. The fork to the west leads to Chauk (17 miles), where the Burma Oil Company O954) Limited's main oilfield is situatcd.
There is a BOC filling station in the centre of the town. From Chauk there is a very dusty road, hardly more than a sand track, which leads to Pagan, 23 miles to the north on the east bank of the Irrawaddy. This is the famous site of the ancient capital of Burma where many ancient pagodas, some dating back to the eleventh century AD, are still standing to t[is day. There is also a Shwesartdaw Pagoda in Pagan. (as in Prome and Toungoo). The name implies that the hair of Lord Buddha has been enshrined in the Pagoda. Pagan is also noted for its lacquerware.
There is a large circuit house at Pagan and the Government is also building a nw rest house for pilgrims.
A. surfaced road leads to Nyaungoo, 4 miles north-east of Pagan where there is a good rest house. Packed petrol is

helci hcre evel.y From lVfagwe there is a ferry which crosses on thc,. west bank of the lrrawaddy"


to Minbu

subsides after a fevs hours.

-tlre io extend the road beyond Natmauk io link ,rp with Rangoon to Mandatzy trunk road at Fyau,bwe**. There is a pWI) brngalow at Natniauir Th; roaci i!'om ldagwe to yenangyaung nrns through hroken hili country ancl is passable iirrn*gfrout the year exce.,Ft when the Kho,laung chaung, which is known l"""lit ls tle 'Daung The' chaung lnAS f +;Z f.o_ tut*gore), is in flood efter- heavy rain. F{oivever, the fiooJ water generally

he spent his cirild.hooi can still;.,;;;;;"Jhe first l6 miles of tfiis road are surfaced and itrere i";;;;*l

.\t &iS 337 a road. branches otr to tn" right to Natmauk, birrh olace cf Eogvoke Aung san,and ih. nour" in which

(N!S 363). This was Bunna,s main pre-war oilfield. To-day, srnall scale production and refieiag is carried on by a nlmber of small luconcerns. The BOC 1"* ltr: resurned operations on a small scaie here and have driUed der.'elopment wells.


available from the BOC agent here. An earth road leads from Nyaungoo to Kyaukpadaung (see below ) 29 miles away, but this route is not recommended as the going is very tough.

KYAUKPN)AUNG (MS 39710). Kyaukpadaung has

^ PWD inspection bungalow near to the bazaar. At this point

turn sharp left for Popa-Taungtha-Myingyan. Straight on is the direct road to Meiktila (54 miles).* There is a BOC




wde-t Braneh Roads

rpc furihcr und,cr Branch Roods


t = I


ANDAtAY rxI totB


filling stationinthe centre of the town and a new filling station has been built on the main road at the western entrance to














thetown. KYALJKPADALING TO TAUNGTHA (44 miles)-After leaving Kyaukpadaung the first eight miles are flat. There" after the road climbs steeply round Mount Popa (4,981 feet) until l0 miles after Kyaukpadaung where the village of Popa is reached. POPA (MS 40710) - This is a particularly pleasant place at which to put up for the night, being cooler than the plains below. There is a well situated PWD bungalow outside the village. There is also a guest house maintained by the Agricultural and Rural Development Corporation and accomnodation can be obtained on application to the officsr-in-charge of the Popa Hill rehabilitation scheme.
From Popa to Taungtha the distance is 341 miles. There are several unbridged chaungs on this section of the road but these are almost ahrays passable except perhaps for a few hours after heavy rain. Those proceeding to Mandalay via

Twltcgt{ }



++{t- t
lll eegyaung ye

ro RANGooN





Myingyan should turn sharp left at Taungtha. The road sharp right goes to Meiktila. TATiNGITIA (MS 441i0) - There is a PWD bungalow. The BOC filling station is situated on the north side of the Myingyan to Meiktila road and near the junction of this and the Popa to Kyaukpadaung roads. TAUNGTHA to MYINGYAN (15 miles) AND MANDALAY (lll miles) - From Taungtha to Myingyan the road is surfaced and in good condition. MYINGYAN - There is a circuit house in the town. There is also a BOC filling station on the rnain road in the
centre of the town. Myingyan is a big cotton centre. From Myingyan the road mns east to Natogyi-Myittha

and Yewun where


it joins the Rangoon-Meiktila-Mandalay

12 miles

trunk road at MS 390 at

from Kyaukse*. This road

Scc pago 19 ?:l

rruilG srlilol +++Propo$d Rmd

bungalow and packed petrol


is now much improved and, with the exception of one or two short stretches, is surfaced throughout. At Natogyi, 20 miles from Myingyan, there is a pWD

is available from the




2 Prome-Toungoo 3 Minbu District 4 Kyaukpadalrng- Meiktila 5 Myingyan - Meiktila



Od the coast at Ngapali, 5 miles from Sandoway, is a most delighfful beach with excellent bathing. There are regular UBA flights to Ngapaliand visitors can hire vehicles to explore thc bcauties of this part of the coast. There is arr inspectionbungalow on the beach at Ngapali. A surfaced road connects Ngapali with Sandoway. There is also a surfaced road from Ngapali to Andrcw Bay whieliis well worth a visit. A metalled road flom Sandoway leads south down the coast to Kyeintali (40 miles). A further 40 miles beyond Kyeintali is Gwa but the road between these two places has fallen into ilisrepair on account of insurgency in the area and is not fit for vehicular traffic. It is expected that this road will be re-opened as security improve s.



This road begins on the west bank of the lrrawaddy

PROME (Shrvebontha) - Padaung - Taungup (l 1l miles)-

is not fcasible to attempt this route except in a. four-wheel-drive vehiclc. So far, the metalling of the road has bcen completed as far as Nyaungchedauk, l6 miles beyond Padaung, where there is an unfurnished inspection completed
bungalorv. Thereafter. the road climbs and twists its way over the Arakan Yomas wherc thc scenery is wondcrful and thc area is famous for its tigers. One should allow nine to ten hours for the whole journey. It is possible-under very favourable circumstances-to take a four-whccl-drivc vehicle from Taungup to Sandoway, some 40 miles south of Taungup. It is, however, a rough and tedious journey and there are a number of creeks on the way which can be crossed only at low tide.

opposite Prome. Originally a cart track, which at one timc used to carry thc Arakan mail over the Arakan yomas, this road was widened and in"rprovcd during the last war. At the tirne of writing, work is in pro_eress to make this an all-weathcr metalled road but until such time as this is

be about 93 miles long. It will savc travclleis between Toungoo and Prorqg3 31l-mile detour via Htaukkyant (near Rangoon). The road from Prome will traversc the foot of Pyu-taung and later Myllung-taung at Letpangon. Letpangon is only 15 miles away from Toungoo.


) This ncw branch be completed by about thc micldlc of l96l and will

3 MINBU DISTRICT-MINBU is a district headquarters town for Minbu district, on the west bank of the Irrawaddy
opposite Magwe.
There are three roads from Minbu, None



these roads

is recommended for saloon cars as their condition good. Security in the district is still doubtful.'

is not

(a) MINBU TO SINBYUGYUN (5413 miles)-Minbu to Sagu is l0 miles and has a surfaced road. Sagu to Laikaing is 16 miles and is partly metalled and partly surfaced road. At Sagu one has to take a ferry across the Mun chaung. Iaikaing to Pwinbyu (7 milcs) has a partly metalled and partly surfaced road. Pwinbyu td Shauktaw (2 milcs) is a partly metalled and partly surfaced road. Just befcre reaching Shauktaw, another
chaung called Monechaung must be crossed by ferry.

Shauktaw to Thangaing (10/3 miles). At Shauttaw, the to Thangaing turns left. Thangaing is a river village on the Irrawaddy opposite Yenanglraung. Shauktaw to Salin (13i3 miles). Salin is a township headquarters. Salin to Sinbyugyun (6 noiles) - the busiest stretch of the whole road. (b) MINBU TO SHWE-SET-TAW (33 rniles! TrafEc on this road is heavy during the Shwe-set-taw pagoda fcstivals in





Mandalai' - Lash io - Bhamo - Myitkyina - Putao


February and March (Taboung). Thispagoda is noted for the footprints of Buddha which can bg seen there. It is a gravelled road with many steep gradients and a four-whoeldrive vehicle will take about two hours for this 3lmile

(c) MINBU TO NGAPE (zt4 miles)- Thisis a gravelled road. 4 KYAUKPADALING TO MEII(TILA (53 miles! This road has now been largely improved and surfaced but the fint and last l0 miles are still bad with many pot-holes and corrugations. f{owever, work is in progress onthesestretches. There are nine chaungs between Meiktila and Kyaukpadaung which are passable throughout the year except after heavy rain when the chaungs may be in floodfor a few hours. Particular care should be taken in crossing the following
chaungs: MS 24-Yeway chaung MS 27-Kyetpin chaung MS 29-Taung-oo chaung MS 43-Nyaung-garng chaung MS 45-Pyin cbaung.

84 42 Goteik Gorge 18 87 45 Hsipaw l"l5 133 91 46 Lashio 207 165 123 78 32 Hsenwi ?23 lEl 139 94 48 16 Kutkai 277 235 193 148 lO2 7O 54 MongYu zES ?A3 201 156 ll0 7t 62 t Muse 3M 262 22O 175 129 97 81 27 19 Namkhan 371 3D 287 242 196 164 148 94 86' 67 Bhamo 421 379 337 292 246 214 198 144 135 ll7 50 Nalone
?0S 566 624 579 533 501 485 431 423



487 445 4O3 358 312 280 264 210 2OZ 183 116 66 Mvitkvina 4U 337 287 221 hfiao

From Mandalay to Namkhan the road is asphalted

throughout and its general condition is good. From Namkban to Bhamo the road surface is poor and can be treacherous in wet weather. There is a further fourteen-mile stretch of asphalted road north of Bhamo; thereafter the road is metalled and
is in very reasonable condition.

5 MYINGYAN TO TALJNGTHA TO MEIKTILA(56 nilGs) This road is as described on page 2T as llar as Taungtha. Thereafter it continues as a surfaced road in good condition. At Mahlaing, 34 miles from Myingyan, packed petrol is available from the BOC agent. I I nihs beyond lvlrhlaing there is a big chaung known as yegyo cbaung which is soms
times imFassable for a few hours after heavy rains.



miles). From'Mandalay

there is an excellent road to Maymyo (3,519 feet).

3| miles out of Mandalay turn right. The hilt

starts 16| miles after leaving Mandalay and there are twentytwo hairpin bends. Care is needed on this section of journey, uptraffic having the right of way. View Point (2,453 feet) is reached 25* miles after leaving Mandaiay, where it is well worth halting for an ercellent panoramic view of the plains surrounding MandalaY.


MAYMYO is a popular hill station especially for the residents of Mandalay. There are a number of small hotels.
There are two BOC filling stations here, one of which is on the left of the main road as one enters the town. From Maymyo the road continues to Wetwun 13 miles distant. At this point the Burrna and Northern Shan States bounday is crossed. There is a PWD bungalow at Bambwe 19 miles from Maymyo and 68 miles from Hsipaw. 17 miles on at Nawnghkio there is a BOC petrol pump.

(from lvlanelalay)

or 7 miles before Lashio the road from

Kehsimansam anrl Mongyai joins the main road*.

THE GOKTEIK GORGE (MS 80 to MS 93) should


be negotiated with care as the bends are very sharp and it may be

for lorries to


on some of the worst


108 there is a BOC

filling station at the point

where a road branches from the main route and leads to bungalow. There is a BOC filling station at Kyaukme close to
the bazaar.

KYAUKME (2 miles distant), where there is a PWD

LASFIIO is the capital of the Northern Shan States. It boasts a PWD bungalow and a well furnished circuit house situatcd 100 yards ahead ofthe lirst turn left as one enters the town {iorn Hsipal. Meals are obtainable frorn the butler at the latter. There is a BOC filling station here . LASI{IO TO BHAMO (196 miles). The next section of the roa,J frorn Lashio to Morrgyu (10 rniles) passes through Flsenwi (32 miles fnom Lashio). At lvIS 23 are the l{senrvi.hot springs, wheie a bathing pool was built by the Japanese' One rnile out of l{senwi there is a PWD brrngalow on top of the hill. At this point there is a gravclled road leading off to tire right to Kunlong, a big opium ccntre, 52 rniles distant' This is reached by a ferry across the Salween river. One rnile out of Hsenwi the climb starts to Kutkai v;hich is nearly 5,000
feet above sea levc!,


miles from Kyaukme and 5 mlles from Hsipaw, the biggest festival of the year in the Northern Shan States is held during March (Tabaung Pwedaw). The architecture of the pagoda is peculiar as both Indian and Thai influence is seen; the former ln the domed building and the latter in the spired trzaungs.



At Bawgyo, l?

KUT"KAI (lvIS 48) - There is a BOC filling statlon here. From Kutkai to Mongyu (MS 102 ) the road passes over beautiful open roliing steppeJand. MONCYU (MS I02) - At Mongyu the road straight on leads to Kyuhkok, 1l| milcs ar'vay, and the last station on
the Burma side
of- the Chinese liontier. main roacl bears left from Mongyu and leads to The Muse, 8 miles distant, where petrol is available ex-drum from the BOC agent. The PWD bungalow here is magnilicently situated, overlooking the Shweli River and valley with a line view of the distant hills of China' This is part of the Ledo road built: by Genenal Stilwoll to Kunming in China via Kyuhkok. 19 r'niles from Muse is

HSIPAW-There is a PWD bungalow not far from the railway station. The filling station is situated in the centre of
the town on the main road.

HSIPAW TO LASIilO (46 miles). Just after passing MS 8 from Hsipaw, keep straight ahead for Lashie-the road which bears right leads to Mongyai, Namlan and the Southern Shan Statesr. At MS 21, the Se-en River is crossed by a Bailey brldge. From Se+n to Lashio the distance is 25 miles. At MS 168


NAMKI{AN is rtoted for its weaving industry and has an cxmllent hospital mn by f,)r" Seagrave of the Arncrican Eaptist Mission. There is a guest house within the hospital



furthqr under Routo lY

- Bmnch



furthcr undor R.oute lY - Branch Roads


conopound and a PWD bungalow is on the left as one enters the town. Petrol ex-drum is available frorn the BOC agent' 5 miles out of Namkhan the Shweli River is crossed by a Batliy suspension bridge. The Northern Shan States and Burma border is crossed at Mawswikha, 136 miles frorn


Lashio. The l*do road continues from Mawswikha to Manwing, 2 miles away, where a branch road leads to Pangkharn, 4 miles to the north" Manwing is almost on the Shweli F*iver. The river marks the Burma and China border'
There is a PWD bungalow here. From Manwing the road starts to clinrb. The first l8-mile ilretch is easily negotiated buf the next 20 rniles is very treacherous and is impassable during heavy rains, XITEHTEIK, a Kachin viilage of sorne size, is at the highest point in this section. There is a tea-house at the foot of the village. After Kitehteik the road descends down to Namyu, MS 34/2 from Bhamo. The last 20 miles cover a flat


stretch on the Bhamo Plains. BHALO (371 miles from Mandalay)-There are an inspection bungalow and a circuit house (permission must be obtained to stay in them). The latter is fully furnished and the butler can supply meals. Bhamo is the terminus of the IWTB river



IWTB boats leave Bharno for Katha andlor Mandalay every alternate day. Cars can be shipped from here to Thabeikyin, whence the road is motorsble to Mogok, Kyaukme, Narhhsan, etc.r Freight on cars from Bhamo to Thabeitkyin is Kyats 100. There ie a BOC filling station here. BHAMO TO VIY,ITKYINA (116 miles)-This road was
scrvice by steamer from Katha"





fo tot !Efrl

modified by the A:norican Army during the war. For the most part it is a broad river shingle, mechanically soled and graded higfiway. Between Bhamo atrd Momauk, a distance of 9 miles, it is asphalted, and the remainder is in fair condition. At MS 47 , stthe top of a short hilt section, it is inclined to be muddy


inthe monsoon,

sec furthcr lundcr Branch Roads



srATroN Road


Just before Nalone (lvIS 50 and approximatcly half-way) of 6 miles there is a right hand <livcrsion of a total distancc itsclf' This has before the rnain roao is re-joined at Nalone originally llcen neccssary as secrions of two bridges which away; tlre crosied the Nalone R'ivcr havc becn washed ,Jiversion has thLerefore bcen n-laclc io cross the Nalone Rrvcr by cne hridge .l rnilcs furrher 'lown' Tlie road lalts into ihc followirrg scctions: MOMAUK (9 milcs) - At iltomauk theie is a

The Katcho fcrry (at MS 480/ Inile fron Mandalay) which crosses thc Irrawaddy is u'orkcd by the Co-operative Ferry Society of lvfyitkyina and th.c charges are:
15 cu,tandabove
Weapon carriers and other light trucks
Jeeps and cars Jeeps and cars


K25 K20


br;rnchroar'i.(all-weatlrcrbutsuitairlcioiirrrrr-whccl-elrive ijinlunvehicles rtnly) leaclinil right. to thc hill staiion at rvhicii is 2l rniles away ancl well ra'orth a I{aba.(5"760 t-eet) plain' visit on account cf the fi.ne view it afFor"ds of the lJharno noon; 6 am to There is onc lvay trallic on tlr'is rtlad (up from to 6 pnl)' The road conlinucs to thc l3trrnra dawtr fr<tmlloon andChinabtlr<Jcriorr,nofl-wejc26lnilos|rcyori'il.'I'hcrgis Sinlum-Kaba and crockery' a t\.ryo-roorncd t'W[) bungaloi'v at but no lirod is ProvitJctt' is a FWD MOMAUK 'fO MYO'[}IIT (i5 mrles)-'[']rere bungalow rt MYothit'

K15 with trailer MYITKYINA is tirree miles distant from the ferry on the west bank of the lrrarvaddy. There is a PWD inspection bungalow anrr also a fuily iirrnisheC circuit house here rvhere meals carr be obtained froni thc butler' Therc is a BOC filling
station in thc town. From Myitk.vina there is a road leading to Sumpt'abum, 131 miles, and to ltrort Hcrtz (Putao) 221 miles north of Myitkyina. It is a dry weath.er road oniy at prescirt and is only suitablc for four-wheel-drive vehicles.

As the road is very narrow, one way trallc to


fbllowing time table is enforced:

Up traffic perrnitted time
6 am to 12 noon Myitkyina to TiangzuP (53rd mile)

flown traffic permitted tirne

a PWD bungalorv at DawhpLttnyairg'

12 noon to 5


DAwt{PUh{Y-Ar..l{;.I.()NAL(]NB(originaiiyl0rn'ilesbut ex'plained now l6 rrriics tlecau:;e <lf' the 6^nrile diversion and severa} l'{alorle a.bove)- There is a PWD bungalow at




Ttangzup to KawaPang (B2nd mile)

Kawapang to

6 am to 12 noon

6 am to 12


12 noon to 6


NALONE'fOKANTAOYANG(2lrtriles)-l'her:eisawell PWD bungalr:w at Karrleoyang 'sited on a bluff

overlooking titc roatl

Maithong (103rd mile)

12 noon to 6


Maithong to Sumpra- 6 am bum (l3lst r"niie)


12 noon

(14 miles)-'fhcreis a PWD KANTA.OYANG 1'O KAZTJ tlvctlooking the l"larrilairet chaung which is bungalow at Flazu
(previously it was crclssed by ferry)'

Th.c road up

to Tanghphro (27th rnile and site of the

rrrilcs from KAZLI T0 KATCHO triEllRY (20 nriics)-19

sharp lcft f or Katcho' X,or*, tt'r" rrrain roarl branches interior on leaeis to Saclon and Lankiraung in thc

Straight of tttc

Kachirr Statcs'

confluence of river:s which form thc trrrarvaddy) is good and the journcy can be covcred within one hour. It is essentiatr for traffi.c going up to Sumprabum to reach. Ta.nghphre before i0 am. The irill sectiotr starts fron the 30th mile and the nafrow road rneanders through the rnountain-sicle on its way

up to Sumprabum which is i1,600 feet above sea level' The riad run* paraltel to lv{alikha river between 3lst and 54th milestones and the scenery at the 35th and 40th milestones is very beautiful. fhe road from Tanghphre to Kawapang (82nd rnile) is per fairly good and an average speed of about twelve miles




I Kyauknre - Nanrhsan - Fanglong


is really "un ang. The hill section between IIlth and ll8th mile take three bal. During the rainy seasoil vehicles sornetimes or f,our dayi to negotiate this seven-mile journey' The PWD

be rnaintained. The road deteriorates after Kawap-

Kyaukme - Mogok - Momeik - Thabeitkyin 3 Kyaukme - fuIogok - Sr-U - Bhamo 4 F{sipaw-Namtu 5 Mansam- Lashio

isconstructinganewroadatalowerlevelbetrveerrtlrell0th l3and llgth rniies and it will be usable in all weathers. The is metalled' mile stretch between l l8th mile and Sumprabum the The Kachin State Government is trying to improve new condition of the road to Sumpraburn' So far sevcral



3l Supploi 44 1l Haikham 78 45 34 Namhsan 109 76 65 3l Panglong

bctwcen bridges have been constructed' Laying of stone metals miles is beirrg undertaken at present' It will S2nJand ll8th yearstomake the entire road really service'

takeatleasttwo able during the rainY season.

KYAUKME TO NAMHSAN (78 miles) - Originally a good rnetalled road, but certain sections, particularly the
last 30 miles, arc badly worn and potholed.

which The ro-ad beyond Sumpraburn to Fort Hertz is one four-whcel-clrive vehicles and only then can only be used by in the durjng it t dty season which is much shorter here than
rest of Burma. (Putao)' There is an inspection bungaiow at Fort Hertz

Frorn about 3 miles after leaving Kyaukme the road climbs tlren later descends to the Namong river at MS l3/1. From here the road follows the Namshim river till about MS 54, where the real climb starts and the road reaches an elevation of slightly over 6,500 feet at MS 66/3. The road then descends about 900 feet to Namhsan, l2 miles distant.

As the road from Kyaukme to Namhsan follows the

contour ofthe hills, there are very few straight sections of any length, and this necessitates careful driving, and this journey

from Kyaukme to Namhsan takes about five hours. The road, especially near the approaches to Namhsan, is subject to landslides.
Narnhsan is the centre of the local tea growing industry. This route is probably the highest and most picturesque motor road in Burma or the Shan States, and the view from the summit is magnificent. The roadpasses Supploi (MS 33) and Haikhanr (MS 44) which has a PWD bungalow, At Namhsan there is a furnished PWD bungalow on top of the hill where

3 KYAUKME-MOGOK. MOMEIK . BHAMO UNION HIGHWAY (226 miles) There is a new road beyond Momeik which crosses the Shweli River at Molo and thence via Si-U to Bhamo. At Molo there is a pleasantly sited PWD bungalow overlooking the Shweli. This highway will be surfaced throughout. 4 HSIPAW TO NAMTU (42 miles)
The surface of the road is metalled but slightly potholed. About 8 miles from Hsipaw the Namtu River is crossed by flying feny (K 2f-per car including passengers and K t0/- per three-ton truck each way). TheNamhsan road rneets it at Panglong which is 18


is passable throughout the year.

rniles from Hsipaw. At MS


28 Mansam

connects to Lashio. The last 14 miles to Namtu are in good condition. AtNamtu (MS4l/2) there is a PWD bungalow. Namtu and Bawdwin(the mine-head) are the seat of operations of the

a road

is reached. From

silver and lead mines of the Burma Corporation (1951) Limited. 5 MANSAM TO LASHIO (30 miles) Surface mainly gravel with stretches of metalling. Short hill sections have dangerous curyes and have to be driwn with care.

.l'agodas and sltrines

at Pagan, Burma's ancient capital




ir 'r:11:'1"::;,.

Inde pen

Rtngoon-Bantloolo Squure, shotving Ihe while pylon oJ the de nce mon tt me nt

Motor roatl at the lowesf point of the Cokreik gorge, on

route from MaYmYo to


Route IV


Union Highway

'72 58



14 56 12 HoPong 57 45 Loilem I 7-1 I 59 0l 256 242 18.1 l4b 128 8l Kunhing 28 Takaw 23-1 270 212 168 156 lll 397 iS3 325 28 I 269 224 l4l I I I Kctrglutrg

16 l0l 44


499 485 427 38-1 371 326 243 215 102 Tachileik


of Ma.ndalay Hitl Kachin girls in tlteir decoraled tribal tostume

NIEIKTILA TO TIIAI BORDER - This highway comnlenaes at Meiktila, where there is a BOC filling station. arld L'nds at Tachileik, the Brtnnese horder towll silualed at MS 499 6. Meiktila district jurisdiction covels as far as
Nampar,clet village (t\4S 53/4) on the N{eiktila to Kalarv road'

From Natrrpanclet upwards. Shan Gover-l)nlellt lerritory


of the

Southel'rr Shan States 1o

routes fronr Meiktila through the Loilem andthelrc'e to Kengtung and

Tachilcik are given in the above chart.

From Meiktila Io Nan'rsang (MS 188/6) the wholc stletch of road is sttrfaced and in reasonable condition but
the portion between MS 46 and N{S 48 (between Yinmabin village and Nampandet) demands slolv driving on account of constant repairs to the road due to landslides end erosion

oftlre enrbanknrent.
From Nanrsang ourvards the road is mostly ntetalled and is motorable throughout the year' There are a few sections rvlreie repeated landslides 6ave covered ove' tle nretalled surface; these sectior.rs can be treacherous in wet weather' THAZI (MS- 14) - A raihvay junction town to Myingyan




o j}l

and Shwenyaung (Southern Shan Statesl' Thttz'i lias







3i <l

.l j.J :l

railway restaurant and an inspection bungalow btrt this is now occupied by 'the sub-divisionai officer 'as temporary ollice. A BOC fiUing station is situated on the main road at the western end of the toun.


5314) - The reai here to Kalaw, a distance of 181 miles.

clinrb staltE I'rom




3 t
a J

3 4


' ;J


WETPHUYIX' (MS 63:['/) ' A water fountain cxists here and is in great clemand fbr topping up raciiators' KALAW (l$S 121 - There is a Ei-rropaan-style hotel l-rere' It is recoirrmended that advancc bookirrgs be nradc to stay hcre particularly <luring thc holiday scason' Therc is a PWD inspection bungalow on a hillock above thc BOC petrol filiing station which is on the main road at the rvestern entrance to the towtt. Fron Kalaw, through Aungban, Heho, 'Shwenyaung' 1o Taunggyi the road riins over fi.ne rolling open country'


= J



to Shwenyaung. Thereafter it clirnbs steeply up to Taunggyi which is 4,675leet above sea level. 5 miles bcyond Kalaw a road. branches off to the right which leacis to Loikavr*' AUNGBAN id 6 ririles fron Kalaw and at tltis point, before reaching the BOC filling station, a surfaced road journev to branches north to Pirdaya (24 miles). The'rcttrrn be made in one day, and is Ilindaya from Kalaw can casily of intlrest to tourists. pindaya is notcd for irs wohderf'ul is a caves which are heavily carved. At the entrance there the Shwe-Ohn-Flrnin heavily gilded pagoda known as pagoda" The annual pagoda festival which is hcld here each ivforcfr attracts pilgrims and visitors from all over the Shan Stats. There is an inspection bungalow between th town and the caves comrnan'ding a pleasant view of Pindaya lake' Facked petrol is available fromthe tsOC agenl' Just before antering Findayao a fair wcath6r brarrch road

drops again F-irst the Fletro plain is crossed and then thc road


nLLttG slATtoll


undef Route V

offto the right to Bawsaing (18 miles)r. The road continues beyond Pindaya to Lawksawk, a further 32 rnil,es, where there is a military training academy. The first 10 mites are surfaced; thereaftcr the road is metalled. Packed petrot is available from the BOC agent at I:wksawk. Frorn Lawksawk a metalled road leads to Shwenyaung, a distance of 35,6 miles. HBHO (MS 94) - The road which turns sharp north at the BOC filling station goes to tire Bawsaing lead nines, 19

not normally available for visitors unless they have obtained prior pernoission from the comrnissioner for the Shan States' Permission to stay at the former may be obtained from the
headquarters assistant.

Bawsaing to join the Aungban to Pindaya road. Packed petrol is availatfe from the BOC agent at Bawsaing. SHWENYAUT,IG (MS 104) - There is a BOC filling station here. From Shwenyaung a surfaced road branches south to Yawnghwe (7 miles) where there is another tsOC

miles away. This is an interesting diversion over a fairly good roacl and through fine country; the road extends beyond

There are also one or two reasonable boarding' houses in Taunggyi. TAUNGGYI TO LOILEM (57 miles) - F'rorn Taunggyi to Loilem the road. cut out of the hill side, twists and turns continuously. This section of the route is one of the rnosl magnificent in the Southern Shan States"

IIOPONG is 12 miles {ionr Taunggyi' Just before entering Hopong the road forks. The lef't fork is a by-pass wtrich avoids the town, the right fork leads to the town

filling station.

YAWNGHI{/E - Boatscan be hired at an approximate cost of K- 65 for visiting the famous lnle lake which is noted for its Intha oarsrnen who row their boats with their lcgs. The lake is over ten miles long and threre are a number of floating villages on it which are famous for their silk weaving. An inspection bungalow has been built in the middle of the lake where visitors can stay, but no food is available" Currently numerous motor boats plying for hire have their refuelling in the lake, alongside a floating filling station, run
by the BOC sub agent.

TAUNGGYI (MS 116) is the capital of the ShauStstcs. Its altitude is 4,675 feet. The bazaar which is hcld here every five days is well worth a visit. There is a BOC filling station at the entrance to the town and another in the centre of the
town near the bazaar. Taunggyi possesses a circuit house and a governncnt rest house at both of which meals are available. The latter is

the agent's shop a road branches on off on the right to Loikaw*. (MS l4l*) there are some fine stalactite 'dt HtarnsanC caves rvhich are worth a visit. A small path at MS 26 on the left ofthe road leads down to the caves' Shortly after passing the caves the road climbs u.p, then down again to a green fertile vatley in which, and across a srnall bridge, lies the village of Mongpawn (MS 153*). There is r'ixcellent mahseer fishing. There are hot springs in thc area and three morrntain peaks8,000feethigh, Facked petrol is available here from thcBOC agent. The road runs in the valley till MS 42 from which point it rises steeply for 5tr nniles to Kawknoi (tv{S 163})' Shortly after passing Kawknoi the highest point (4,800 f'eet) on this section ofthe road is reached, and a rnagnificent view can be obtained ofthe surrounding country' Frorn here the road descends to
Loilern (4,200 feet)"

Facked petrol is available from the BOC agent; opposite

LOII.['.M (MS 173) - Keep straight on for Kengtung.and Tbailand. the road left goes to Hispaw andLashio'* There is a BOC filling station atthis jrencti,on" I-oilern is thehead-

see Heho below

sce under Branch Roads and Route V




, y9

quarters of the Resident, I-oilem district. There is a circuit


o :


9o tR

z=p { -:=



ld o

house at MS 173/6.


5a iY




; \

LOILEM TO TAKAW (l1l miles) - The road from Loilem as far as Takaw (on the Salween river) is metalled' Though'rough in places, it is passable throughout the year' except during the monsoon when landslides may block
the road for a few hours.

LOILEM 'TO KUNHING (82 miles) - 151 miles from Loilem or at Namsang, a metalled or gravelled road leads
south to Mongnai, Mawkmai and Langkho*'

The Kengtung road bears left at Namsang' The road from Namsang to Kunhing is not very interesting and is mainly level, except for two scctions of fairly gradual descent' KYUSAWK (115 miles fronr Taunggyi) has a PWI)
bungalow. The Hsipaw-Kehsimansam-Thailand route* joins the the road at Hsaimong, l4 miles short of Kunhing'or 69 miles


from Loilent.

/*. .=t El

s 6g \/L

z4 4O rf

KUNHING (1,415 feet) is situatedonthe Nampang.river' Packed petrol is available from the BOC agent. There is a PWD bungalow on the west bank of the river but this is generally fully occupied by the Army- There is a wooden bridge over the Nampang river for light vehicles only; and
a ferry for trucks.

E 3





x r!

KUNHING TO TAKAW (29 miles) - After crossing the Narnpang river the road climbs 900 feet to Namawngun and then descends 1,?00 feet to Takaw, which is 800 feet abovc sea level. There are a number of bad co{llers on this section ofthe road, TAKAW - There are two PWD bungalows in Takaw, one on either side of the Salween: the bungalow on the west bank is the more cornfortable. But for those who are unfamiliar with the road and who wish to try to reach Kengtung

i; J



see under Branch Roads



possible from Takaw during daylight, it is advisable to avoid river on the previous ilelay in the morning ty "rossing the If time and sleeping in the bungalow on the east bank' "u"rring rather than staying at;ithr of these bungalows'it is prmits, L*tr"r ro go on to Mongping, 48 miles beyond the Salween bungalow' crossing *,brr" there is a newiy built inspection private car and this price is K5 for a

the right of rvay throughout' For quitc long stretches it is impossiUte for two vehicles to pass one another except at the
occasional bays made for that purpose.

buses and motor lorries are liable to be met' Uphill traflic has

car' The charge is K l0 for inclucies the passengers in the *a truck. in packed petrol is available from the BOC dealer
Salween' Takaw on the west bank of the

fne ferry


sident, East Kengtung. Thereare an inspection bungalow and a BOC filling station opposite the bazaar. KENGTUNG TO LOIMWE (20 miles) - The road ispass-


is the headquarters of the assistant re-

iAr"w To ;;ht"h

the road il" y*'"*""pt *tt* slips may block crossed' the second to be hours. There are two nigtr ridges
flrst. '*"-Thefirstmainclimbstartsgraduallysoonafterleaving

and passable throughout and Kengtung the roarJ is mctalled for a few than the t. slightly highei and rather more difrcult


(ll3 miles)- Between Takaw

able throughout theyear. This road meetsthe Kengtung to Thailand road at MS 2l/4. lvlost through traffic to the border follows the direct road (see below)' However, if time perrnits, this detour is worth making on account cf tiie fir'e

KENGTUNG TO THAI BORDER (lj2l2 miles)- Without passing through Loimwe the total distance frorn Kengtung to Tachileik is shortened by about 5 miles' The flrst l0 miles out of Kengtung are surfaceci but, after that, the road is in poor condition. lt is very narrow and there are many sharp bends. lt is necessary to drive with tire greatest caution. At least 3* hours should be allowed to cover the 5l miles to Mong HPaYak.

at 4'000 feet (30 miles Takaw, and after passing langkt'em andthendescends to from Takaw) it continuJs forl rniies 20.miles frorn Pangf,ii,O i"", af Mongping, a distance^of the BOC agent at Facked petrol is available from n bungalow here ".. t""tna"t. Theie is a newly buitt inspection ciimbs' between' ^'----iL#"" the fust and second main there is a rise of l'200 feet followed Mongping toO fu"gping, oioi*t 200 feetto Tongta' 29 miles from i'" "'irr"ttiaescent bungalow' ii".*oT"t' where thereis an inspectionTongta' The road rises "-""frJ""ond main climb begins at feet' Kiulong (15 miGs fron'rTongta) at 5'650
o"ry ,i""pry to After this the road'"uJni' feet. Thence

as high as 6'000 feet' theri descends (15 miles beyond Kiulong) at 3'600 very sharply to Pangsang gradually into ttre road Jo"tittu"s to elescend


(2,?00 feet) and the last

few miles are elnost

level. driviqg over Considerabie care is required when -this in the middle of long road as there are several sharp descents ;iirbr. stray buffaloes and bullocks as well as bullock carts,

There is an inspection bungalow in Mong Hpayak anci food is available from shoP-*. MONG HPAYAK TO TACHILEIK (51 miles) - This road runs through plains with occasional hill sectiorls" The entire stretch can be covered in about 21 hours' 2 miles out of Mong Hpayak, a fai-'' weather road branches off to Mongyang (46 miles) on the Chinese border where is a Burrna Army outpost. Beyond Mongyang theie are only mule paths and cart tracks into China. About 12 miles from Tachileik on the Mong HpayatTachileik road. a metalled road branches out east at Nam lvlanyang to Wan Pasak on the Mekong River which separates Burma from Laos. From Wan Pasak there is a motor boat service io e town on the other side of the Mekong about 22 miles south , in Laos. TACHILEIK (TAHKILEK) (MS 49916\ - This is the

Burrna border towrl on thc Mehsai River

with its Thai




counterpart (Mehsai) on the other side' and packed There is an inspection bungalow at Tachileik petrol is available through the BOC dealer' . MEHSAI - The pr.-*u' bridge spanning the Mehsai ferry passenRiver no longer exisls and small country boats and Thai gers and u.hi"l", across the river' The Burmese planning to build a new bridge as a joint Governments are venture.

Loilem - NamPhai - HsiPaw - Lashio 2 Loilem- Kehsimansam - Lashio 3 Hsipaw - Kehsimansam - Thailand 4 Namsang - Mongnai- Langkho-Mongpan


Loilem 33 Laikha

62 29 Mongkung 79|. 46, r7, Pangkitu 96 63 34 16] Tonglao ll8 85 56 38, 22 Namlan 142 lO9 80 62t 46 24 Nangkho 148 ll5 86 68* 52 30 6 Namphai: Turn left for Hsipaw 9 milcs 185 152 123 105+ 89 6'1 43 37 l-ashio
The route from Meiktila to Loilem (173 miles) is described on Pages 47 to 53. From Loilem there is a good road to Hsipaw' This is partly surfaced and partly metalled, and it is passable throughout the Year. TAIKHA - 33 miles from Loilem' There is a PWD BOC bungalow hcre. Packed petrol is available from the Fto- I-aikha a road runs north-east to Mongnawng (see page 58') "g"ot. (i'S mit"O on the Lashio'Kehsimansanr road iaONCfUxG (62miles from Loilem) - There is a FWD bungalow onthe south side of the village' plficxrtu - At MS 79i4 keep straight on for Manli goes on to and Hsipaw' The road bearing to the right and Lashio (see page 59)' The bungalow at Kehsima-nsam

at MS96/2.

Pangkitu is situated at MS 79/6'

(MS 96) - There is a bungalow by the rivcr

between the Northern

MANLI is situated on the border

snd Southern Shan States'





NAMLAN (MS ll8)-There is a FWD bungalow








Nakan g

M anPon g

At this point keep straight on for Hsipaw or Lashio. The road turning sharp right goes to Manpan and Mongyai. NANGKHO (NAKANG) (MS 142) - The road turning sharp right at this point also goes lo Mongyai via Hsongkye. There is no bungalovr at Nangkho. NAMPHAI (MS 148) - This is the junction of the Northern and Southern Shan States tlr.rirk roads. The road to the left goes to Hsipaw (9 miles) artd the road to the right goes to Lashio (37 rniles). At MS 178-seven miles before Lashio-keep straight on; the road to tl-re right goes to Mongyai - KehsimansanrLoilem (see below). At Lashio there is a PWD bungalow and a circuit house. Mcals are provided at the circuit house only.



Manhplt ' :. . ..


Loilem 33 Laikha



62 29 Mongkung 102 69 40 Kehsimansam 147 ll4 85 45 Mongyai 202 169 140 100 55 Lashio

Mo ng



Lai hka




This road is metalled and passable throughout the year. The alternative route via Namphai (see I above) is the main trunk road, and better. The distance by route 2 to Lashio is l7 miles longer and if time is available and a change of scene is required, it is worth the journey. Proceeding northwards from Loilerl one takes the same road described in the Loilem-Hsipaw-Lashio route, until before entering Fangkitu at MS 1914. Turn right hele for
Kehsimansam which is the State headquarters. KEHSIMANSAM (MS 102 from Loilem) - There is a PWD bungalow here. The Hsongkye to Mongnawng road crosses the route here.


Wan pong




MONGYAI (MS 147) - possesses a PWD Bungalow. From Mongyai roads lead direct to Namlan, Hsipaw
and Lashio.

Rtttt{G sTAlloll

Mougyaiand Nampang MONGYAI TO LASIilO-Between metaliing' 5

road (metalled) and leads across an undulating plain to


of the roa<l is g'uu"llJi"*ili-"ttr"tctres to straight.ott'lot Nampang miles out of Vfongyai keep Tangyau' 33 tigrtt leads-to Lashio. The road ot"ti"* iitt" Namsang
river. This

rnain Loilem-Kengtung-Thailand R'oad 14 miles from Kuntring or 69 miles from Loilem. (see pages 55 and 56; for
the remainder of this route. There are PWD bungalows


continues to Wansing and Hsaimong on the

now spans the miles away. A permaneit brldge ;;; ffip"* to' i'ashio road at MS ,ootte


Kehsimansam and


7 from Lashio, Frorn


the road is metalled"

house' brmgalow- anrl a circuit I.ASHIO - There are a FWD with tltc M"ali'un be-arranged both of w'hich are rn"t" is a BoC filling station boy in charge .t th" 1";;;;;luf'-'


4 NAMSANG - MONGNAI-LANGKHO-MONGPAN-This road branches from route lV (see page41) at Namsang. For the fust 30 miles to Mongnai the road is good and
partly surfaced.

at Lashio.

At Mongnai a road forks to the right to

agent at Maukmai.



(25 miles) which was at one time surfaced but which has now tleteriorated. Packed petrol is available from the BOC Taking the left fork at Mongnai the road to Langkho (22 miles) is in poor condition and is very steep and narrow in places. A four-wheel-drive vehicle is strongly recommended"

54 86 1{i8 80! 54 22 Wanstng 125 97! 7" i' 17 Hsaimong, ' 14 i3, llli 85 s3 31 it 5:-nhtnc ill^ Kenstune Border 280 252+ zzs lg4 1'72 'rhai iga zjd zsl 243 101 382 354t lz*
76+ Kehstmairsam -s84 32 lv{ongnawng
as far as Kehsimansarn' 'A'fter T'his road is metalle<l only good and is shorter but not as that it becontes "" to Hsipaw in" touO trom Manqlalav Loilem as the road ulu I-oililt' and lrom Hsipaw to is described on purt'':f "na:Z

2'7+ HsorrgkYe

LANGKHO TO MONGPAN (53 miles)-Bevond l-angklio, the road runs for about 8 miles through the plain and thereafter it climbs for 7 miles and descends for about the
with numerous sharp bends' This section is the most dangerous hilly road in the Eastern Shan States area as most of the bends are filled with earth which can easily involve slips off the roatl and therefore careful and slow driving is essential. Beyond Mongpan, a road built by the Army runs for
same distance



on Page'5'/to

59' , tirc r - road as far as .!-^ Lashio From Hsipaw this route takes on At mile l4l4rakethb road mile 8/3 where one;;;;itht' ahead gocs to fo"rgvai; straight the teti for Hrongk].l"d Loiiern (see Pagc 5il' 28 bear right for
''H'ongkye MS After pu"ing .a1. l"ft is a Mongtung o' f"il'i*u'-""a"t; .,

metalled road to

fft"rrttye' 'It is wise to keep a watch Mongyai 35 miles itttt Ln tnis section to Kehsirnanfor ,trrains oug u"ttJ' it'" tui

26 miles up to Watr-hsa-la/Ta-Sang where rafts powered by outboard motors ferry vehicles across the Salween river' Thereafter there is a fair weather road to Mongton' Frorn here a road goes south to the Thai border whence one can proceed to Chiang Mai (a town to the soutir-west of Chiangiai) in Thailand. At present, however, the whole area east orine salween is under military control and civilian traffic
is prohibited.

This route crossos thc Loilem-Kehsitnausam-Lashio



Route V


Toungoo to Mawchi 2 Toungoo to Thandaung 3 Toungoo to Loikaw 4 Loikaw to Lawpita 5 Loikaw to Mawchi 6 Loikaw to Southern Shan States


t d

E o

zO 5e F* <o EG' .9o

(13 miles)' unsafe for travel beyond Pathichaung


(98 miles)-This road remains

first 13 2 TOLTNGOO TO THANDAUNG (28 miles)-The the }dawchi road and is miles to Pathichaung is along ,oifu".A. There is an Army check point at Pathichauug this point unless and travellers will not be allowed beyond deputy comthey can produce authority to do so from the brigade commarlrnissioner, Toungoo, ancl from the local der.Thereis.notusuallyanydifficultyinobtainingper.

;zf. ."'o

Zc 4{ -o

= d o

3 o


c!: FE




7= i8 E4

E g

,a-. I fJt I vl

to the Pathichaung the road to Thandaung forks very fine scenery and those who left. The road passes through Thandaungg-yi have time to spare should 't'uk" u trip to the-surrounding country (4,832 feet) whcre a very fine view of at Thandaung is can Ue obiained. The inspection bungalow is not' therefore' occupi.d by the Army ani accommodation
available. has bccu 3 TOUNGOO TO LOIKAW (103 miles)-This road to provideaccess constructed by the electricity supply board from the by maintenance crews to the grid line running project to Toungoo' At pregd;th"ung

6 J

o c




o o



5l rl "h ps






it is a fair weather road only. The steepness of some of the gradients makes it inadvisable to travel over it in any vehicle not possessing four-wheel drive. The first 8 miles are along the old road to Mawchi and are surfaced; atthe 8th mile the road to Loikaw forks left and is a laterite road as far as Leikho (3? miles from Toungoo). Thereafter it is an earth road only, and this passes through wild and
desoliate areas.


LOIKAW is the capital of the Kayah' State. There ls a

BOC filliag station in the centre of the town. There is a good guest house near the airstrip at which accornrnodation can be arranged on application to the resident, Loikaw.

4 LOIKAW TO LAWPITA (12 miles)-This is a laterite all-weather road which is due to be surfaced in the near future. Lawpita is the site of the Baluchaung hydro-electric project wtrich meets an increasingly large proportion of Burma's power requirernents, The power station itself is
situated 6 miles beyond Lawpita at the bottom of the valley to which the road descends rapidly in a series of hairpin




There is a fine waterfall nearby. There is an ESB at Lawpita but visitors wishing to stay there-or indeed to visit the project-are advised to obtain prior per-

mission from the chief project officer at Lawpita.

5 LOIKAW TO IVIAWCI{I (92 rniles)-The first 50 rniles are througlr lonely country with thick forest borde,ring the rooc,l. 26 miles beyond Bawlake the Htuchaung is crossed by flying f'erry. From Kemapyu the last 15 miles to Mawchi are a stiff climb. There is a PWD bungalow at Mawchi. 6 LOIKAW TO SOLJTHERN SHAN STATES-There are two alternative routes:1a) Loikaw to Hopong (85 miles) or (b) I"oikaw to Kalaw (105 miles). The latter is a better road.
(a) LOIKAIT TO HOPONG (85 milesFThis road is metalled




(r !

93') -?*|


l( rrna pyu

and parts show signs of having been surfaced at one time;



However, the condition of the road has deteriorated and at least three hours should be allowed to complete the 85 miles. Hopong is on the main Taunggyi to Loilem Road

Route VI


Myitkyina to Ledo ( India )
The road is motorable during all weathers up
unbridgcd rivers

tV page 5l). (b) LOIKAW TO KALAW (105 miles)-This is a laterite, all weather road. This road forks left from a route 6 miles out of Loikaw and thereafter passes through wild and beautiful country which is the homc of the Padaungs, whose women folk have achieved fame as the 'giraffe necked' women. There are inspection bungalows at Pekon (25 miles), Piniaung (59 miles) and T'igyit (Bl miles) but no foob is available. Packed petroi is available from the BOC
(see route



(120 milcs from Myitkyina). Beyond this point, the road has not been kcpt up and among other hazards there are several

to contend with. A

l'ew four-whcel-drive


at Pinlaung. This road joins the main Merktiia io Taunggyi


vehicles have got through in reccnt ycars but it is a journey which calls for preparation, patience, perseverance and luck. Mileascs of this road are as follows:

between Kalaw and Aungban (see route lVpage49).

* i *

Myitkyina Namti
Warazup Shadazup


0 milcs
,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,

* * * *





Shinbwiyang Tagap Narnyung

143 163 188


Fangsan Pass

212 ,, 228 ,,

(Burma frontier)


From Ledo, in Assam, there are motorablc roads to Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Gologhat, Dirnapur, Gauhati, Shillong,
Imphal, Palal and Tarnu.


inspection bungalows





;r".'-j-l-i-i-! SUrlAA



- Shwebo -

Imphal (India

Ye-U - Kalewa - Tamu )

Mal ngkwa


8 Amarapura 13 5 Sagaing 7 63 58 Shwebo 99 91 86 28 Ye-U 212 2O4 199 141 ll3 Kalewa 306 298 293 235 207 94 Tamu (Indo-Burma border) 382 374 369 3ll 283 170 76 Irnphal (India)

Those travelling from the south and wishing to a'roid Mandalay should take the link road to Amarapura which leaves the main trunk road at MS 3/6 before Mandalay and joins the Mandalay to Amarapura road at MS 417 ftom
Mandalay. The Amarapura to Shwebo road starting from the clock tower in lvfandalay runs south past the Segyo bazaar and Arakan pagoda.



a tt
M use

n g


ila mkha



'o i


Ku nlo ng




AMARAPURA is the centre of the silk weaving industry, There is a BOC fllling station on the main road. 4 miles south of Arnarapura the Ava bridge is reached" This bridge, which was damaged during the war, has since been recommissioned and opened to traffic in October 1954 at the following charges: K 1.00 Motor cYcle K 1.25 with side car lvlotor cycle K 2.00 or jeeP Motor car K 4.00 or jeeP with trailer Motor car K 5.00 Motor bus or tractor (4-wheeler)



HtLtt{G $TATltll{

K 7.00 Motor bus or tractor (6-wheeler) K 5.00 Trailer attached to bus/tractor SAGAII{G - This town lies on the west bank of the Irrawaddy which at this point is bounded by a long scries of, steep bluffs studded with pagodas. Accomnrotlatiou may
be obtained at the inspection bungalow.


TO SHWEBO (58 rniles) - This road lcavcs through the bazaar where there arc two BOC

filling stations, ard thereafter falls into three sections:

SAGAING TO OHNDAW (15 nriles) - Thc asphaltecl road surfacc is excellerrt. On reaching Ohndaw keep straight on for Shwebo. The turning lefl is the direct road to MONYWAVIA, MYINMU, a distance of 57 miles*. A few rniles out of Sagaing one will see the famous domcshaped Kaung Hrnu Daw Pagoda on the right. OHNDAW THROUGH SADAUNG (14 rniles) TO SHWEBO (29 miles) - The entire asphalted road surface to Shwebo is in good condition. SHWEBO contains an inspection bungalow and a circuit house. Accommodation at the latter is under the control of the deputy commissioncr. A BOC fllling station is situated on the main road. In the Yadana Theinga Aung Mye pagoda there is the famous 'Victory Sand'. Therc is a belief that anyone wishing for success or victory can
have his wishes fulfilled by treading on this sand.

SHWEBO TO Yf,-U (28 miles) via KIN-U. This section follows the old Mu canal bank as far as Kin-U. It is gravelled but very narrow with occasional passing places. On reaching Kin-U, 14 miles from Shwebo, turn sharp left for Ye-U. A bamboo bridge crosses the Mu river at Ye-U during
the dry weather arrd there is a ferry during the rains.

YE-U TO KALEWA (ll3 miles) - The road is fair weather only, passing through thickjungle and a sparsely populated

* seo further undet Branch





region. It is advisable to exercis care in driving &s even a small shower in the'hills brings water into the chaungs
and impedes progress. The road falls into the following sections:

YtrrU T'O SHWEKADAW (14 miles) ' Earth


Corrugated and very dusty. A speed of not more than 10 mph can be maintained. At the cross road of Shwekadaw bear left for Kaduma. The track road to the right leads to

li *

Kabo irrigation works,4 miles away. SFIWEKADAW TO KADUMA (10 miles)

surface as above, also very


Maximum speed is

Comrgated l0 mph.

KN)UMA TO PYINGAING (38 miles) - A rigbt hand diversion off the main road starting from 3 miles out of Kaduma has now to be taken following repairs to small
bridges on tho main road. The diversion (earth road) passes

through the villages of Paga, Eine-ma, Yamontaung and Waingyo on the way to Pyingaing. On this section unbridged chaungs are crossed and recrossed no less than thirty times. The descent to these chaungs is steep and there are causeways consisting of small round logs interlocked to form a trackway over the sandybeds. PINGAING TO TIIETKAIGYIN (23 miles) - The roadsurface improves to the extent where a rnaximum speed of 20 mph can be maintained. A small hili section starts a few
miles out of Pyingaing.

:l :t



IIIETX.AIGYIN TO SHWEGYIN (?2 miles) - Three hill gections and twenty-two chaung crossings have to be negotiated on this sector. The road surface has been improved
to the extent where 20 mph can still be maintained. SIIWEGYIN TO KALEWA (6 miles) The last part of tho journey is by private motor boat ferry which has to be


arranged from MorYwa well atread.

After disemberking at Kalewa the ascent from the

shore is very steep and has to be negotiated with care'

XAI"EWA bas a two-roomed inspection bungalow' The BOC agent's shop where petrol is available ax-drum is

$tmt +++ hoprcd lod


less than

road in KALEWA TO TAMU $4 miles)' Metalled river till .the junction to disrepair. [t follows the Myittha

* mile distant from the bungalow'

Sagaing 2 Shwebo 3 Shwebo


junction turn i"." f Z miles from Kalewa is reached' At the7 miles awayr' Kalemyo ,igii ft. Tamu. Straight on leads to frontier' has an inspection Tamu, which is on the lndo-Burma at 36 rniles There are other inspection bungalows
miles beyond Palel' asphalted all the way' Imphal is 29

unaio miles out of Kalewa on the Tamu road' and iir*,ru To PALEL (47 miles) - This road is in India

to MonYwa to KYaukmyalrng to Kawlin (via Zigon and Kin-U) 4 Zigon to Kabo 5 Shwebo to MonYwa 6 KalemyotoTiddirn and Falam

far as Ohndaw. Turn left at Ohndaw' This is a metalled all-weather road but it is planned to
follows route
surface its entire length in due course.

I SAGAING TO MONYWA (72 miles) - This route

3* miles beyond Ohndaw the road forks; the right fork going to Monylva, the left fork going to a small village called Ywathitgyi. There is a combined rail and road bridge over the Mrl river at Nyaungbinwin, 12 miles from Ohndaw' Packed petrol is available from the BOC agent at Myinmu,2l miles from Ohndaw' Some 12 miles before Monywa an earth road leads off to the right for about I mile to the Mo Hmyin pagoda which is worth a visit. Built since the last war, it is chiefly noted for the hundreds of thousands of images of Buddha which decorate the interior. MONYWA is the largest town in north Burma after Mandalay. It is a big cotton-milling centre and is also the entrepot for traffic to and from the upper Chindwin area' Arrangem.nts can be made with the IWT to ship vehicles

from here to Kalewa*(the freight of a car being approximately K-70 ) but it is a slow journey (two days). Between June and Decernber there are weekly sailings but for the remainder of of the year sailings may be irregular owing to the low'water level in the Chindwin.



see above under

Route VIl


lunder Branch Roads

and also There is an inspection bungalow at Monywa a tsOC fllling station. - From 2 SHWEBO T0 KYAIXMYAUNG (17 miles)

on the west Shrvebo a good road leads to Kyaukmyaung bank ofthe IrrawaddY. Board l'erry There is a regular Inland Water Transport and Thabeitkyin on which service between Kyaukmyaung prior application to the cars (not trucks) can be shipped on From Thabeitkyin there is a IWTB head of0ce at Mandalay'

Kalewa section. At Ye'U turn left for Monywa(54 miles)' The first l0miles are surfaced, the next 24 milesare metalled and the remaining 20 miles to Monywa are surfaced' It is expected that the whole road will be surfaced in due course' O ffLnUyO TO TIDDIM AND FALAM - There is a

metalled road (in disrepaii) from Kalewa to Kalemyo (24 nriles). Fork left at MS 1?; the right fork goes to Tarnu and

Imphal. Packedpetrol isavailable from the BOC agent at Kalemyo. There is an inspection bungalow here'

.ouanoMogok*andKyaukme.FreightfromKyaukmyaung cars of l0 hp to Thabeitk-yin is K-25 for jceps and K-50 for

and above.

This is a fair weather earth road subjected to landslides in the rains. 9 miles after leaving Kaiemyo the foot of the Chin Hills is reached at a place whose name derives from the

3 SFIWEBO TCI KAWLTN (98 miles) via Kin-IJ Zigon. section SIIWEBO TO ZIGON (28 miles) via Kin-U' This is gravelled but very narrow follows the old Mu canal bank. It with only occasional passing places' At itn-U (half-way point-l4 miles out from Shwebo) leads to Ye-U keep straight on for Zigon' The turning left track to Thinbaungga whiie the turning right is a fair weather west- bank of the lrrawaddv' 6;;tii" ttrateittyin; on the Thinbaungga to Thabeitkyin '-" Th" {brry crtssing from is no ionger slaintained' track ZIGON TO KANBALIJ (22 miles) - An old cart bridges are continually under repair. ,urfu"" is bad.The "od bad track" KANBALIT TO KAWLIN (48 miles) - A It is used only by police and forest officers' are not recomThe sections between Zigon and Kawlin
and mended for general use"

last war, the Second Stockade. The First Stockade starls trom Pyinthazeik on the Myittha river some 18 miles upriver from Kalewa.From the Second Stockade the road climbs steeply to the Third Stockade (3,000 feet), a distance of 5* miles. After 8 miles of further steep climbing the Junction Point (6,0@ feet) is reached. The road to the right leads to Tiddim (24 miles) and the road to the left goes to Falam (42 miles) and to Haka (an additonal46 miles). tsRANCH ROAD TO TIDDIM - This road goes winding

along the mountainside via Fort White (7,758 l-eet) and Kennedy Peak (8,871 feet) to Tiddim which is 24* miles from the Junction Point and 47 miles from Kalemyo. The mountain
scenery is magnificent. There is a P!ilD bungalow at Fort White and at Tiddim which is a large trading centre for the Chin Hills.'From Tiddim the earth road continues to Tonzang the terminal point 261 miles further on. There are petrol points at Kalemyo and Tiddim'

a good 4 ZIGON TO KABO (6 miles) - Frorn Zigon which is the head of the irrigation ,nJ t.ua, west to Kabo works in Shwebo district' section 5 SHWEBO TO MONYWA (via Ye'U)-The the Shwebo to if,*"U" to Ye-U is covered above under
* 339 fu11|rer

undcr route


Branch Roads

BRANCTI ROAD TO FAII\M-This is equally nnaCnificent for its alpine s@nery, the road passing through beautiful pine forests. I I miles from the Junction Point the fust PWD bungalow is reached, called Bamboo camp. fuiother 11 miles further is Pine Tree canp, where the PWD $ungalow.ovedooks a picturesque stretchof pine forests along the steep mountain sides. 8 miles further is the big village of Lumbang and, thereafter, the road descends

sharply to Var camp at the foot of the Manipur River' The rivei is now bridged, the road ascending steeply thereafter to Falam (12 miles distant)which is the Divisional headquarters of the Chin tlills special division and the residence both of the commissioner and the deputy commisioner for the Northern Chin Hills district. There is a PWD bungalow at Falam and packed petrol is available from the BOC dealer' Beyond Falam a newly constructed earth road leads to Haka, the terminal point, 46 miles away' The alternative route by the old British mule track which diverts from the newly constructed road just B miles out of Falam is shorter (34miles)butthis route is treacherously steep and narrcw in parts. There is a PWD bungalow at Haka'




Rangoon - Moulnein -Tavoy-Mergui
At the time of writing security conditions, although steadily irnproving, are still uncertain over considerable sections

of this route.

72 22 Waw 88 38 16 Sittang lO4 54 32 16 Kyaikto 145 95 73 57 4l Thaton 184 134 ll2 96 80 39 Martaban 187 137 ll5 99 83 42 3 Moulmein (bv ferrv) 227 177 155 139 123 82 43 40 (Thanbvuzavat) 284 234 212 196 180 139 100 97 57 Ye 384 334 312 296 28A n9 200 r97 tJ? lC.rl Tavoy


Pegu (via Zayatkwin)

459 409 357 3,11 355 3i4 275 272 232 175 75 Palauk 484 434 412 396 380 339 3OO 297 25'1 200 100 25 Palaw 539 489 467 451 435 394 355 352 ll2 255 155 80 55 Mergui
described on Pags ll to 14. For those travelling to Waw, the Mandalay trunk road should be taken to Payagyi (about l0 miles north of Pegu) whence a surfaced road runs east to Waw' ll miles distant.

The road from Rangoon


Pegu has already been

There is a PWD bungalow at Waw but no food. Although there is a fair weather track across the paddy fields from Waw to the westbankofthe Sittang river-a distance of l6 miles, motorists proceeding further east than Waw are advised to
put their cars on the train at Pegu.

Advice should be given to the station master at Pegu or Sittang at least two days beforehand so that a car wagon can be placed in readiness at the loading ramp in the goods yerd. The c:lr can then be loaded immediately and arrange7E


ments rnade for hitching the wagon to pf"""" see the railway timetable for

the Sittang train' train timings and


A railway ferry service operates across the river' details of which are available at Pegu railway station' -*o* is progressing to replace the road and railinbridge 1942' was destroyed acr6ss the Sit-tang at thi; point which passes througb From Sittang east oa-nk a surfaced road Mokpatin to KYaillo (16 miles)'

KYAlrTo.HerethereisaPWDbungalowbutthisis I nile from occupied at present by the Army' ^At about iattil" on ih" Thaton road a surfaced road leads north


footpath ro Kinmumsakhan (9 miles) and from there a ,o tl" famous Kyaik+i-yo pagoda' 8 miles distant' This round pngoa" is about 15 feet high and built on a huge precipitous foirU"r, which is perched on the edge of a


From Kyaikto to Bilin bridge (19 miles) there is a but care surfaced roai which runs straight to lvlartaban,


Jould be taken while crossing narrow plank bridges' BILINBBIDGE-About 19 miles from Kyaikto a surfaced there is road lcads north to Bilin, 2 miles distant' At Bilin present occupied by the Army' a PWD bnngalow,but this at BILIN BRTDGE TO'MARTABAN (61 miles) - From Bilin bridge there is a good surfaced road passing through at Thcinzeik, Thaton, Zingyuk and Paung' The waterfalls
Zingyaikxre worth a visit duringthe rains'


Martaban and Mouhrein by the I\MTB' Motorists are advised to give at least one day's notice to the ferry agent'
The timings are as below.

- A ferry service is maintained between

llflartaban - DePart

6.30 arn 8,00 am 1.00 pm

9.30 am t1.15 am 3,30 pm


pc ctt

frLLrt{G 5TATl0}t

Roads under conltruction

Moulmein - DePart

5.24 anr 1.34 am 8.30 am

10.15 am

12.00 ltoolt 2.3O pm

Ye over an all-weather metalled road. The section between Thanbyuzaya-t and Lamaing is being repaired and is expected to be molorable soon.



l'he PWD bungalow at Ye is occupied by the Army. There is a ferry service over the Ye chaung' the charge
being K-30 pcr



tn Burtna and NIOULMEIN is the third largest town [t is the ccntre

factory *iriingl rhcre is also a Govcrnment pottery visit

river' ir rituut.a on the east bank ofthe Salween industry ls saw of a big rice-growing clistrict and its main


worth.a ' Mup.irr, outside the iown, which is the four fine pagodas on a ridgc overlooking There ale of thc torvn good vicw town. From the ridge ttrcre is a ve ry and its harbour' at the circuit Accomn.rodation and food are availablc commissioner' Board house on application to the deputy Hotel on Pagoda and lodging is also available at the Victory Road. in the lown' There are two BOC filling stations

YE TO TAVOY (100 milcs) - Some of'thelinest scenery in Burma lics between Ye and Tavoy. The country is mountainous in parts and the road runs for many miles through dense fores{s. Thc surface of the road from Ye to Tavoy is fairly good and passable throughout the year' After the first l3 miles, which are practically level, the road climbs to Mahlweta,ung (MS l616). At this place, on the border of Amherst and Tavoy districts, thcre is a pleasantly situated PWD bungalow. At this point thc milestones count fiom the Tavoy cnd. From Mahlwetaung the road dbscends to the Tavoy River over which there is a bridge at Kaleinaung chaung, 46 miles north of TavoY.
TAVOY - Therc is a circuit house but it is difficult to obtain accommodation as it is generally occupied by
Government officials. Accommodation is easier to get at the municipal rest house which is newly built and clean. Packed petrol is available from the BOC agent. There are regular

(40 mrlcs) - A MOULMEIN TO fgl'r'U-YUZAYAT between Moulmein and Than,""J rtrf".ccl road runsbr'rngalow herc but this is occupied "Uy"r"t"t t ih.r" i' a PWD the town there is an at present by the Army' Jusioutside
ion of who died during the construct
Ye as

cemctery where iie buried lmperial War Graves Ctmmission the Burma

flights by Union

of Burma Airways

between Tavoy and

turn left for "itft"te to Thailand rarlway' At Thanbyuzayat to AMHERS'I (Kyaikamt)' west


l0 miles out of Tavoy there is a very pleasant beach at

Maungmagan*. There are a number of tin and wolfram mines in the Tavoy area but, at the time of writing. only small scale

road straigirt on runs

a pleasant seaside '*tt''''

l5 miles distant'-1 here is a PWD


to certain limes oi' tne year' Visitors

here and sancly beacl.rcs sttitable

shrine which rs otl a comnrencled to vrslt ihe Ye-iai-t'aya PrornontorY' -.:r^-, (.57 nriles) - This road rs ilrflr...gvuzAYAT TO YE the only wa-v to gct a :"1:"",:: not at present motorable ancl ThanbyLrzayat to Lamalng is to put it orr the trairr from the remaming 23 miles to whence it is possible to nlotor

sea |rathtng at Amherst arc also re-


cxtraction is taking Place.

TAVOY TO MERGUI (155 miles) - This road ismeralled and is passable throughout the year. The last 91 miles from Kwegu ferry to Mergui are surfaced. For the first 60
miles of this road there is particularly fine scenery'


further under Branch Roads


The milestone system numbers from Tavoy to Et-Et (MS 67) where the Tavoy to Mergui boundary is crossed" ./
Thence MS B? backwards to MS 0 at


M ahl

wal a ung

There are four major ferry crossings on this route at: Palauk chaung (MS 84/4) charge for small cars K l0lPyicha chaung (MS ?0) charge for small cars K l0/Falaw chaung (MS 56) charge for small cars K l0/,, K 35/Tamok to Kwegu (MS 1614 to MS 10/3) ,' road journey. This last ciossing cuts out 5 miles of the All these crossings have to be negotiated with great car
durmg the monsoon and delays must be expected at thistime of jrear as crossings can only be made at certain states of the tide. Advance notice must be given to the Tamok to Kwegu






azunchaung av0l

Ttre only inspection bungalow dn this road is at Palaw (MS 55 from lvfergui) and this is at present occupied by the Army. MERGUI - Accomrnodation can be obtained at the circuit house on application to the deputy Cornmissioner and food is available.



the BOC agent. There are regulat flights by UBA between Mergui and
Packed petrolisavailable from




ute a number of rubber plant&tions in the vicinity


of Mergui. There are no motorable roads south and east of Mergui, and tlere is therefore no means of entry into Thailand by road from this direction.






6 TAVOY TO MAUNGMAGAN ( l0 miles) - About 2*



There are various motorable roads leading oll thc Southern trunk road. These are as follows and brief descriptions are given ofeach:

insurgency in the area this road has not been in use fbr many years and no indication can be given of when it will again be open for traffic.

I Bilin Bridge to Papun 75 miles 2 Bilin to Taungzun 8 miles 3 Thaton to Pa-an to Hlaingbwe 48 miles 4 Moulmein to Kawkereik to Myawaddy 124 miles 5 Moulmein to Kyaikmarayy l6 miles 5 Tavoy to Maungmagan l0 miles 7 Tavoy to Kyaukmedaung to Myitta 34! miles 8 Tavoy to Zalut 38 miles I BILIN BRIDGE TO PAPUN ( 76 miles ) - Because of

miles from the town there is a ferry across the Tavoy river (fare K 5 each way) to Kamayagin. A metalled road runs for 1 ?l miles to the beach at Maungmagan which has a beautiful I sandy stretch 5 miles in length where there is cxcellent bathing. There are two FWD bungalows but these are liable to be occupied by officers who have a prior right to their use. The executive engineer, Tavoy, can give information regarding these burrgalows, and his pcrmission for their use

must be obtainecl.

(34i miles) AND WAZUNCHAUNG (421 miles) This is a hilly road with many bends and travels througlt a tin ntining area. The road surface is surlaccd at MS 31/6' l0 milcs frotn
Tavoy a road branches north Lo Hermyirrgyi, a large wolfram rnining area. From Tavoy to Kyaukrnddaung is 28 miles, and there is an inspection bungalow here. At MS 3l/6 there is a fork, the road to the east leading to Myitta otr the Tertasscrim


weather road with bridges in a poor state of repair. yet considered safe for civilian traffic.

TO TAUNGZUN (8 miles) - A laterite allIt is not

river at the confluence of thc Ban and Karnaungtl'twe chaungs. The road turning south at thc fork lcads to Wazunchaung (MS 45/5) whcre therc is pleasantly located inspection bungalow. 200 yards from this bungalow is a hot

3 THATON TO PA-AN AND IILNNGBWE (48 rniles)A partly metalled and partly surfaced road lvhich is again not yet considered safe for civilian traffic. Before reaching Pa-an, the capital of the Karen State, the Salween River has to be crossed by a ferry. 4 MOULMf,IN TO KAWKAREIK AND ]VTYAWADDY (Thai border) - (124 miles). This road is not at present open right through to civilian traffic and none of the car ferries beyond Kawkareik is operating. There is a possibility that this road will bc rcopcncd in due course. 5 MOULMEIN TO KYAIKMARAW (16 miles) - This surfaced road branches left off the Moulmein to Thanbyuzayat road 2| miles out of Moulmein. f,yaikmaraw is on the
banks of the Ataran river.

After the Myitta to Wazunchaung fork at MS 36/6 on the Wazunchaung road a road leads west to Heinda, a large tin rnining centre with a hydro-electric plant.
8 TAVOY TO ZALUf (38 miles) - From Kamyawgin on the west bank of the Tavoy River a metalled road runs down a peninsula to Zalut throughLaunglon(MS l4), Lower Yegyu (MS 20) and Thayettaw (MS 32) which are centres of the salt trade. After passing Launglon at MS 15 a road connects with Sanhlan on the coast.

mineral spring.