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************************************************************************** A Shi'ite Encyclopedia Version 1.

5 Contents of Chapter 11: - Kumail's Invocation and other Supplications - Free Will and Fatalism - Divine Justice and the Problem of Evil - Some traditions from al-Kafi on the place of reason in religion - Some stories on Imam Ali (AS) - Islamic Scientists - List of Islamic Books ************************************************************************** ______________________________________, | w w w |\ | || || | || |\ | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |\ | ( : / (_) / ( . |\ |______________________________________|\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ KUMAYL'S INVOCATION The following invocation is the teaching of Imam Ali (AS) to one of his students, Kumayl Ibn Ziad, which is usually recited every Thursday night. For the Arabic text of this invocation, please see the book named "Keys to Paradise." For more information please see the end. ----------------------In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. O' my God! I ask You, by Your mercy, which covers everything, by Your power, which overpowers everything, and to which everything submits and is humble, by Your might, by which You overcome everything, by Your glory, before which nothing stands, by Your magnificence, which fills everything, by Your authority, which rises over everything, by Your face (i.e., essence), which remains after the destruction of everything, by Your names, which fill the essence of everything, by Your knowledge, which encompasses everything, and by the light of Your face (i.e., essence), for which everything shines. O' the Light, O' the Most Holy, O' the first of those who where first, and the last of those who will be last. O' God! Forgive me (my) sins, which tear apart modesty. O' God! Forgive me (my) sins, which bring down misfortunes. O' God! Forgive me (my) sins, which change prosperity. O' God! Forgive me (my) sins, which block out invocation. O' God! Forgive me (my) sins, which cut off hopes. O' God! Forgive me (my) sins, which bring down distress. O' God! Forgive me all sins that I have committed and all mistakes that I have made. O' God! I approach You by Your remembrance, seek Your intercession through Yourself, and ask You by Your generosity, to bring me closer to You, to bestow on me the ability to thank You, to inspire me to Your remembrance.

O' God! I ask You as a person who is submissive, humble, and obedient, to treat me kindly, to have mercy on me, and to make me satisfied, content with what You have allotted, and humble in all circumstances. O' God! I ask You as a person, whose poverty is intense, who presents his need only to You, and whose desire is great for what You have. O' God! Great is Your authority, exalted is Your place, unknown is Your plan, clear is Your command, overwhelming is Your might, continuous is Your power, and escape is impossible from Your domain. O' God! who can who can who can I can not find anyone, forgive my sins, cover my ugly misdeeds, nor change my misdeeds to good, but You.

There is no God but You, glory and praise be to You. I have harmed myself, I dared (to sin) because of my ignorance, and I was confident in Your past remembrance of me, and Your continuous grace on me. O' God! How many How many How many How many How many spread! ugly deeds You have covered! heavy misfortunes You have lifted! stumblings You have prevented! disliked (objects) You have removed! graceful praises, which I was not worthy of it, You have made

O' God! My distress is great, my sorry plight exceeded the limits, my deeds are short, my chains kept me down, and my high desires withheld me from gaining what was at hand. The world has deceived me by its illusion, and my soul by its disloyalty, and my postponement. O' my Master! I ask You by Your might, not to let my ugly deeds and acts conceal my invocation from You. Thus do not disgrace me by exposing what is secret of my acts which only You are aware of, and do not rush the punishment of what I have done secretly, such as, my ugly deeds, my offenses, my continuous negligence, my ignorance, my numerous whims, and my foolishness. O' God! By Your might, be compassionate to me in all circumstances, and have grace on me in all matters. My God and my Lord! Whom can I ask, beside You, to remove my disadvantages, and to look into my affairs? My God and my Protector! You have laid on me rules (to follow), but I followed my own whims. I did not take protection from the sham of my enemy. Therefore, he was able to deceive me through my desire, and the divine decree favored him in this matter. Thus I have exceeded Your limits by violation of some of Your rules, and disobeyed some of Your commands. But Your praise is due on me in all these matters, and I have no argument against the judgment You passed on me. Your judgment and Your test on me became indispensable. My God! I come to You after my faults and my wastefulness against myself,

while apologizing, repentant, dejected, asking to discharge me from my sins, asking forgiveness, turning to You, confessing, yielding, and acknowledging my mistakes. I do not find any way out from what I have done, nor any place to refuge to turn to, about my affairs, except Your acceptance of my apology, and Your entering me in to the range of Your mercy. O' my God! Then accept my apology, have mercy on my intense disadvantage, and free me from the solid chains. O' my Lord! Have mercy on my weak body, the thinness of my skin, and my delicate bones. O' He has began my creation, my remembrance, my upbringing, my welfare and my nourishment, Be generous to me as You were in the beginning, and be kind to me as You were before. O' my fire, after after after after after God, my Master, and my Lord! How could You see me punished with Your my my my my my belief in Your unity, heart recognizing You, tongue speaking continuously in Your remembrance, heart has been bound to Your love, true confession, and my humble invocation to Your divinity?

No, How impossible it is! You are too generous to abandon one whom You have raised, or to push away (from Your mercy) one whom You have already brought near, or to drive away one whom You have given shelter, or to leave to misfortune one whom You have enriched and blessed. O' my Master, my God! I wish I could know, how would You impose fire on faces, which fall down prostrating to Your magnificence, and on hearts, which surely acknowledge Your divinity, and on tongues which have sincerely pronounced Your unity and thanked You with Your praise, and on minds, which acquired knowledge until became humble, and on limbs, which hurried to praise You and which obediently moved to place of Your worship, introducing Your forgiveness, (while) yielding (to it). No. Never! Such a suspicion can never be directed to You, nor we have heard of such a thing from Your grace. O' the Most Generous! O' Lord! You know my weakness to endure a small portion of worldly misfortune, its punishment, and difficulties, which fall upon its inhabitants, while that is a misfortune and difficulty whose duration is short. How then can I bear the misfortune of the hereafter and the occurrence of its tremendous difficulties while it is a misfortune whose duration will be long, whose situation will continue, and there will be no decrease for its inhabitants because it can not be but from Your wrath, vengeance, and anger for which neither Heavens nor Earth can stand? O' my Master! How can I endure it, while I am Your servant, the weak, the insignificant, the low, the poor, and the humble. O' my God, my Lord, my Master, and my Protector! About which should I complain to You, and about what should I outcry and weep, for the grievous punishment and its intensity, or for the length of misfortune and its duration?

Therefore if You send me to Your enemies for punishment, gather me with misfortune people, and separate me from those who love You and those who adore You, Then O' my God, my Master, my Nourisher, my Lord! suppose that I would be patient on Your punishment, how then, would I be patient on my separation from You? and suppose that I would be patient on the heat of Your fire, how then, would I be deprived of looking into Your honor? or how would I abide in fire, while I hope for Your forgiveness? O' my Master and my Protector! Thus, truly I swear by Your might, that if You leave me with the power of speech, among the inhabitants of Hell, I would cry to You like those who cry out of hope, I would scream like those who scream for serious help, I would weep like those who have lost (hope), and I would call You saying: "O' the Protector of believers! O' the utmost hope of those who know You! O' the Helper of those who appeal for help! O' the beloved of trustfuls! O' the Lord of the worlds!" O' my God! Glory and praise be to You. How would You hear the voice of a submissive servant, who is imprisoned (within the fire) because of his disobedience, tasted the flavor of its punishment for his resistance, blocked within the layers of Hell for his sins and crimes, while he cries as one who hopes for Your mercy, calls You by the language of the people who believe in Your unity, and seek refuge to You by Your divinity! O' my protector! Then how can (Your servant) remain in pain while he hopes Your indulgence that was in the past? or, how can the fire hurts him while he has hope in Your favor and compassion? or, how can the flames burn him while You hear his voice and see his place? or, how can the exhaling (of fire) covers him while You know his weakness? or, how can he be immersed in its layers while You know his sincerity? or, how can the flames torture him while he calls You "O' my Lord!"? or, how possible can it be to leave him in the fire while he hopes for Your grace to free him?! No. Never. Such an idea can not be attributed to You, nor it is known of Your grace, nor it is similar to the way You have treated the believers in Your unity by Your kindness, and Your generosity. Therefore, I am certainly sure that had You not judged to punish unbelievers in You, and to leave Your enemies in the fire that lasts for ever, then You have made the fire totally cool and peaceful, and no one would have any place in it, neither permanently, nor even for a short time. But You have sworn by Your sanctified Names that You will fill it with all unbelievers, from the unseen (Jin) and mankind, and that You keep Your enemies there forever. You, great be Your praise, have said in the beginning, and by Your generosity extended the grace, that: "Is he who a believer like the one who is not? No, they can not be alike." (Quran: 32:18) O' my Lord and my Master! I ask You, then, by the power, which You have enforced, by Your divine decree, which You have made a necessity, governed, and overpowered whom You have imposed (the power) on, that, You forgive me at this night, and this moment, all crimes, which I have dealt with,

all sins, which I have committed, all ugly deeds, which I have kept secret, all foolishness, which I have done, whether kept it secret, or disclosed, covered or uncovered, and, all evils, which You have ordered the noble scribes to record, those whom You authorized to keep what is done by me, and made them witnesses on me beside my limbs, then, (after all) You are the observer above them, the witness of what remains hidden from them, and what You did hide by Your mercy, and (You have) covered by Your grace, and that You increase my share of all good things, which You have sent down, or good deeds, which You have favored, or Kindness, which You have spread, or means of living, which You have made available, or sins, which You forgive, or mistakes, which You conceal. O' Lord, O' Lord, O' Lord, my Master, my Protector, and the Master of my freedom! O' He who has my forehead in His hands, O' He who knows my disadvantages and my poverty, O' He who is well acquainted with my misery and neediness, O' Lord, O' Lord, O' Lord! I ask You by Yourself, by Your Holiness, by Your great attributes, and names, that, You make my times of days and nights alive by Your remembrance, and joined to Your service, my deeds accepted by You. So that my deeds and my remembrances all become one harmonic effort, and my (life be in an) eternal state, devoted to Your service. O' my Master! O' He only on Him I depend! O' He only to Him I complain about my situation! O' Lord, O' Lord, O' Lord! Strengthen my limbs for Your service, intensify (my) determination through all parts of my body, grant me eagerness in Your fear, and continuous service to You, in order to move towards You among those who are first in their fields, be prompt toward You among those who are first, yearn toward Your nearness among those who are eager, become close to You like the closeness of those who are sincere, fear You like those who are certain, and join the believers near You. O' God! Whoever wishes me evil, wish him the same, Whoever wants to harm me, harm him, put me among the best of Your servants, the closest in status to You, the most privileged to You. Indeed, that can not be attained without Your grace. Grant me generously by Your generosity, have sympathy for me, by Your glory, protect me by Your mercy. Make my tongue dedicated to Your remembrance, and my heart subservient to Your love. Bestow blessings on me by Your excellent fulfillment, prevent my stumbling, and forgive my lapses. Indeed You have commanded Your servants to worship You, ordered them to call upon You, and assured them Your fulfillment(of their requests). Therefore, O' Lord! I raise my face to You, and I extend my hands toward

You. O' Lord! By Your might, then, answer my invocation, make me attain my request. By Your grace, do not cut off my hope, and protect me from the harms from the unseen and the mankind among my enemies. O' He who is quickly pleased! Forgive he who has nothing but prayer. Indeed, You do what You please. O' He whose Name is remedy, whose remembrance is healing, and whose obedience is prosperity! Have mercy on he, whose capital is hope, and whose weapon is weeping. O' He who provides complete blessing, and, who removes misfortunes! O' the Light of those who are distressed in darkness! O' He who knows without learning! Bless Mohammad and The Members of his House, and do for me what You are worthy of doing. May Allah bless His Messenger, and the blessed Leaders among his descendants, and bestow upon them an endless peace and tranquillity. Ameen * ********* ************************* ********* * KUMAYL'S LIFE """"""""""""" Kumayl b. Ziyad b. Naheed b. Haytham b. Sa'd b. Malik b. Nakhai was chief of his tribe in Kufah, Iraq. He was a reliable reporter of Hadith, though he did not report much, and a great devotee to worship of, and service to, Almighty God. He was born c. 18 A.H., became the Governor of Heet, Iraq during the time of Imam Ali, c. 35-40 A.H. The Imam used to advise him on the general characteristics of a Muslim ruler. On one occasion, the Imam told him, "Neglecting the (immediate) duty and being concerned about what is not (urgent) is the permanent weakness," i.e., in order to succeed, one must have clear agenda with a list of priorities and focus on one duty at a time. In 81 or 88 A.H. the tyrant of Iraq, Hajjaj, killed Kumayl and many other believers for no reason but their faith. The shrine of Kumayl is in the suburb of Najaf, Iraq. (For details see al-Irshad by Shaykh al-Mufeed, d. 413 Najaf 1962, and Tahdhib al-Tahdhib by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani,d. 852, Hyderabad, India, v8, P.448, 1328.) THE INVOCATION'S MERIT """""""""""""""""""""" Kumayl reports that he was with the commander of believers, Imam Ali, at Basra Mosque, listening to him who was saying, "Whoever worships (the Almighty) on the night before the middle of Sha'ban (8th month of Islamic calendar) and recites the Khidr invocation, his wishes would be fulfilled." Shaykh al-Tusi, d. 460 A.H., reports the Kumayl had observed the commander of the believers during his prostration on that night, reciting this

invocation. Sayyid Ibn Tawus d.664 A.H. adds: Kumayl further asked the Imam about the merit of the invocation. Then, Imam replied: "When you (fully) understand the invocation, recite it every night before Friday, or once every month, or once every year, or once in your lifetime, you will be protected, helped, blessed, and forgiven (by the Almighty)." (for details see al-Tusi d. 460, "Misbah al-Mutahajjid", p.774, and Ibn Tawus, d.664, Iqbal al-Amal, p706.) THE ORIGINAL TEXT """"""""""""""""" The Arabic text of Kumayl's Invocation is an excerpt from the following sources: 1. "Key to Paradise", the concise edition of "Mafathih al-Jinan", by Shaykh Abbas al-Qummi, d. 1359 A.H., edited by Sayyid Hadi Suhufi, and the calligraphy by Abdul Rahim Afshari in 1381 A.H. However, the original Arabic text has been compared with the following sources: 2. "Misbah al-Mutahajjid", by Shaykh Muhammad b. al-Hassan al-Tusi, d. 460 A.H., edited by Haj Ismail Ansari, Qum, Iran, 1401. This edition is offset of the following: 3. Lithograph edition dated 1082 A.H., copyist, Muhammad Yahya b. Habib Allah. this was copied from the following: 4. Manuscript dated 1068 A.H., Copyist Ahmad b. Haj Tawwali. This has been compared with the following: 5. Manuscript dated 971 A.H., Copyist: 'Imam al-Din' Ali al-Sharif alIstrabadi. This was copied from the following: 6. Manuscript dated 571 A.H., Copyist: Muhammad b. Idris al-'Ijli. This has been compared with the original manuscript of "al-Misbah" written by the author, Shaykh Muhammad b. al-Hassan Abu Jafar al-Tusi, d. 460 A.H. The chain of documents to Shaykh al-Tusi is mentioned in "al-Mashikha" by Shaykh Muhammad Muhsin al-Tehrani, d.1389 A.H. in Najaf, Iraq, as well as other sources. In this translation, we have made all possible efforts to present an English version of Kumayl's Invocation as close as possible to the original Arabic text, based on the meanings of the equivalent roots in both Arabic and English lexicons. *************************************************************************** ______________________________________, | w w w |\ | || || | || |\ | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |\ | ( : / (_) / ( . |\ |______________________________________|\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ WHY INVOCATION? In Arabia, fourteen centuries ago, a man asked his friend for a recommendation: what prayer would be the most useful to the one seeking

assurance of God's mercy? This prayer was given in response. The man's name was Kumayl, son of Ziad, and his friend was Ali (AS), the Leader of the Faithful. Kumayl was a trusted companion of Ali (AS), well-known for his devotion, and unflinching adherence to his great master. Kumayl has transmitted a number of important sayings and teachings of the Leader of the Faithful. The famous supplication, known by the title Du'a-e-Kumayl or supplication of Kumayl, is one of the most important of those teachings. The instructions delivered with this prayer emphasize that it should be recited as frequently as possible. Faithful Muslims enjoy a weekly recitation, usually on the evening of Thursdays. A sincere reading of this prayer can reveal many things: the Islamic concept of God, His Attributes, man's well-founded hopes for reply to prayer and a tranquillity of spirit to be obtained with few other prayers. O' Nourisher, how can we thank You enough for the kind permission You have given us, that at any time and under any condition we can call upon You and You will take our hands. You have insisted that at any incident we should come to Your door, saying "I will support you and with My assistance you can overcome your problems." O' Lord, people are constantly wondering about invocation, which should be defined as relation with You. Sometimes people ask "what is invocation (Du'a)?" or they often ask "What effect does it have?" Sometimes they complain, saying their invocations (Du'a) are not accepted. Questions are raised about the invocations (Du'a) by sinless people and spiritual leaders, and the groans and wailing that accompany these prayers into Your Holy Presence. I now ask for help from You, for Your Aid in expressing this idea to present some points within a concise essay, hoping to provide a solution to the problems of researchers. Human beings live in a world with billions of creatures, known and unknown. Their numbers seem impossible to know for human beings. The span of man's vision is so small that he can not even obtain knowledge of creatures that are around him. Sometimes he can not even perceive them or get information concerning their existence. With the recognition of his own knowledge as so insufficient, when he reaches the climax of mental greatness, he cries out by saying "I am uninformed of other than myself." How can a human being, a trivial portion of the Universe live in such a way that he always finds success and prosperity? Every moment he is surrounded by problems, with heavy waves pushing him through unbearable ups and downs and blights. Can a path be found through all these difficulties? The way that a human being can take to bring himself to the coast of rescue? And in some manner continue his route and strive for the development that he desires and find his God by reaching Him and joining with the Sublime Essence, to grasp the real development that he was created for? Yes, the Creator of the World through the power which He entrusted to human beings directs all them to development. All human beings eagerly want to attain such development. This propensity that has been instilled in every human heart by the Nourisher pulls man to his Creator and aids him in heading on the path of development. The only way to enhance this inclination is an attempt that must be made, according to the order of God, for the protection of the relation between the human being and his Creator.

If this link to God is broken, it is like an electrical wire that is cut. The connection between the power plant and the light bulb does not exist any longer, and therefore the light is extinguished. When the connection between man and God is cut, man becomes a corrupt being and a painful element in the society, and he is only filling space and making the space tighter for others. This relation or connection is invocation (Du'a) that an alive human being offers to his Nourisher. With an expressive language, the supplicant presents his inability and helplessness and confesses to the ability, complete independence and absolute power of his Nourisher. Obviously the smaller we see ourselves and the greater we see Him, the more potential and more ability is there for us realize the importance of this connection, and we would therefore gain more benefit from it. From the Reservoir of Power, humans ask for the fulfillment of their needs. As a result of this connection, the invocation (Du'a) adds to his scientific and moral abilities in every moment. The more intensively the human being prays, the more his scientific grasp will be stronger, with man viewing himself as less and less, and His Creator as stronger and greater. As a result of this attempt, it gets to a point that an advanced human being according to his genuine nature does not make any hesitation in following the path of Almighty God. In every step that he takes towards development, the greatness and grandeur of the power of the Almighty will become more obvious him, and he will look at his past from a higher level. For what he has done he will sometimes apologize, even if what he has done was his duties. That is because he now comprehends its inadequacy. HE INTERPRETS HIS PAST WORSHIPS AS SIN and does not see any value for his work when presented to the Great position of the Lord. With his elevated view, he perceives his submission to God's presence as SINFUL and even an action far from politeness. What is My Performance? Offering praise in Your Presence is a lack and a sin. I am nobody and full of flaws and needs. Whatever goes from me to Your Presence is not only valueless but it is a fault due to my weakness and incapability. The only way out of this for me is to know myself with my imperfections and know You by Your Perfection. With the net of kindness that you have opened, I can reach complete development and benefit from the Grace pouring from the Essence of Being. We strive moment by moment to reach You. Of course, in this path all people are not the same, and do not strive in the same manner. When the range of our knowledge about ourselves and about the Creator increases and we do not stray from the path of humanity, we can travel in a better, easier, and stronger way. The Prophets and the Imams have reached this point. Since they realize the Magnificence of their Lord and comprehend the position of the Life-Giver, they see themselves, their activities, and their prostrations and praises so little that THEY INTERPRET THE WORSHIP OF THAT MUCH AFFLUENCE AND GREATNESS AS SIN, and with supplication and invocation, they ask for pardon and they hope for forgiveness. When they face the divine commandments and consider the Holy Position of the Almighty, they submit themselves to the Master. They see this action in front of the Lord as nothing, and recognize it AS NOT SUITABLE FOR PRAISE. They hope it would be accepted by the Generosity and Majesty of the Creator, OTHERWISE IT IS A SIN TO SUBMIT SUCH INADEQUATE WORSHIP TO THE HOLY PRESENCE OF THE LORD.

Those people like the Prophet Muhammad and his Ahlul-Bayt realized the Divine position with a much wider view. Continuously upon the two wings of knowledge and action, they progressed to a higher and superior position. They were at every moment finding out more about the Magnificence of the Life-Giver of the world, and more about their own incapability; consequently better understanding their inadequate actions in comparison with that much Power and Greatness. To compensate for that, they confessed to their sins and asked the Lord for the permission to apologize with the excuse that they CAN NOT do to the extent of what Allah deserves, with the hope that He would guide them to a higher and superior position until they could continue their development process in order to reach the sublime of morality. Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (AS) has proclaimed these instructions for invocation: "First we must testify to the Omnipotence of Almighty God, then we have to send greetings to the Prophet and his descendants, and then confess to our sins, flaws, and shortcomings. Then whatever we desire we should present before Him." It should be kept in mind that first a human being should make an acquaintance with his Lord and confess to His Grandeur, and then following the method of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) and the Chaste Leaders (AS), make a connection to him. He should then get to know himself, how many imperfections he has that ask the submission of his worship an impolite act toward Him. When he finds out about the two aspects: His ability and his own incapability and how to reach to the Source of Power, then it is time to share his statements with his Lord. It is at this time that a human being discovers the greatness of supplication and the degree of its value. This is the way of success in the existing world. Indeed, supplication or prayer is recognition of God and recognition of his own, and review and deliberation on one's past with an expectation to one's future. The more the human being becomes curious at these stages and studies the world of nature, the greater will be his understanding: How great is his Lord and with what ability He has created such a vast universe and how small and incapable are human beings in such an environment. He must realize that he could never be rescued all by himself in this world which is full of disturbances, except to be under the Guidance of the Creator of the world and ask assistance from Him. In that way, he can attain the position (that according to the tradition) he has been created for. In that way, he finds his way to the door of the Prophets and Saints. With the help of the Guider of the Righteous, he can continue his development process. When he makes progress, he becomes MORE SHAMEFUL OF HIS PAST and becomes more needful. With the power from the Hidden Source of the world, he enters society. In his life, he overcomes all problems, solving any thing he faces, with the favor of God. Under these circumstances he neither abjects himself to others or is cruel to others. He is a human being that on his humanistic path, he benefits from everything and is supported by the Divine Power. He is not afraid of anyone except Him, and he is not lax in action and work and he never fails on any battlefield. That is because he sees himself connected to the endless Divine Power, with a world of strength in the battles of life, and with a tireless power he smoothes out all unevenness. It is based on this principle that all Prophets and purified Imams, at every small or important event were first praying and begging for help from God, and then they began their task. The messenger of Islam first of all worshipped God before he was preparing to go to battle; he was offering his

inability before the Holy Presence of the Almighty and resorting to the infinite Divine Power; only then, he was entering the battlefield with good moral, knowing that conditions for the real victory were His. Yes, first power must be obtained and then action. Invocation can be this power-giver to all human beings. Regards. *************************************************************************** ______________________________________, | w w w |\ | || || | || |\ | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |\ | ( : / (_) / ( . |\ |______________________________________|\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Sundays' Supplication In the name of God, from whom I hope for nothing but His bounty, and from whom I fear nothing but His justice! I rely only upon His words, and I cling only to His rope! O' the pocessor of pardon and prosperity, In You I seek sanctuary, from oppression and enmity, from the changes of the time and recurrence of sorrows, from the striking events, and from the expiration of my term (life) before forgiveness and preparation. >From You I seek guidance wherein is righteousness and sets me right. >From You I seek help which is linked to success and favorable response. To You I tend, for the garment of well-being and its completion, and for the covering of health and its continuity. To You I seek refuge, O' my Lord, from the stimulations of Satans, and I seek protection in Your government, from the injustice of governors. So accept my past prayers and fasting, and make my tomorrow and its after, better than my present hour and today! Exalt me in my clan and my people. Protect me in my waking and my sleeping. For You are God, the best guardian, and the most merciful. O' God, I quit before You, on this day and the following Sundays (AHAAD), of associating anything with You (SHIRK) and of heresy (ILHAAD), and I sincerely devote my supplication to You seeking for response. So bless Mohammad and his Household, the best of Your creatures and the summoners to Your truth, and exalt me with Your exaltation which never suffers from loss, protect me with Your sight which never falls asleep, and seal my affairs by cutting me off from everything but You, and my life with forgiveness! Surely You are the merciful and the compassionate. ----------The above piece of supplication was excerpted from a book named "The Psalms of Islam" (al-Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya) by Imam Ali Ibn Husain (al-Sajjad, Zayn al-Abidin), the 4th Imam/successor and grandson of Prophet (PBUH&HF). The Psalms of Islam, Arabic-English, Translated by: William C. Chittick, Published by: The Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,

1988 ISBN 0-946079-51-X ISBN 0-946079-56-O ______________________________________, | w w w |\ | || || | || |\ | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |\ | ( : / (_) / ( . |\ |______________________________________|\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Mondays' Supplication Praise belongs to God, who allowed none to witness when He created the heavens and the earth, and who took no assistant when He shaped the spirits (of people)! He has no associate in divinity and no support in unity. Tongues fall silent in describing the deepness of His attributes, intellects fail in knowing Him thoroughly, tyrants fall low before His majesty, faces are humbled in fear of Him, and everything mighty is overwhelmed of His might! Thus praise be to You, again and again, and continuously! And His blessings be upon His Messenger endlessly and everlastingly! O' God, make the beginning of this day of mine righteousness, its middle prosperity, and its end success! And I seek refuge in You from a day whose beginning is fright, whose middle is anxiety, and whose end is pain! O' God, I ask forgiveness for every promise I have promised, then failed to keep. I ask You concerning Your servants: If there is any servant from among Your servants or any handmaid from among Your handmaids, who has against me a complaint because I have wronged him in respect to himself, his reputation, his property, his family, evil words I have spoken about him in his absence, an imposition upon him through inclination, caprice, scorn, zeal, false show, bigotry, whether he be absent or present, alive or dead, such that my hand has fallen short in order to find him and ask him for forgiveness, or my capacity has been too narrow to compensate for him, I ask You, O' He who owns all objects of need which are granted by His will and hasten to His desire that bless Mohammad and his Household, and have mercy on me by satisfying (the one I might have wronged) from me in the manner that You will. Because forgiveness decreases You nothing, and grant hurts You nothing, O' Most Merciful of the merciful! O' God, give me on every Monday (ITHNAIN) two favors from You: the opportunity to obey You from its beginning, and the favor of Your forgiveness by its end. O' He who is the God, and none but him can forgive the sins! ----------The above piece of supplication was excerpted from a book named "The Psalms of Islam" (al-Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya) by Imam Ali Ibn Husain (al-Sajjad, Zayn al-Abidin), the 4th Imam/successor and grandson of Prophet (PBUH&HF).

The Psalms of Islam, Arabic-English, Translated by: William C. Chittick, Published by: The Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 1988 ISBN 0-946079-51-X ISBN 0-946079-56-O ______________________________________, | w w w |\ | || || | || |\ | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |\ | ( : / (_) / ( . |\ |______________________________________|\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Tuesdays' Supplication In the name of God, the all merciful, the compassionate. Praise belongs to God, and praise is His right, for He deserves abundant praise! I seek refuge in Him from the evil of my soul (nafs), "for surely the soul commands to evil unless my Lord do bestow His Mercy (to protect my soul)" (12:53). I seek refuge in Him from the evil of Satan who adds sins to my sin. I seek protection with him from every wicked tyrant, unjust king, and conquering enemy. O God, place me among Your troops, for Your troops are the only real victorious (37:173), place me in Your party, for People of Your party are the only prosperous (58:22),and place me among Your friends, for Your friends no fear shall be upon them, nor shall they sorrow (10:62). O God set right for me my religion, for it is the protection (Ismah) of my affair, set right for me my Hereafter, for it is my permanent residence and to it I could flee from the neighborhood of the vile! Make life an increase for me in every good and death an ease for me from every evil! O God, bless Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets and the terminator of the number of the messengers, and bless his chaste and pure Household, and his select Companions, and grant me on the Tuesday three things: Afflict me no sin unless You have already forgiven, no sorrow unless You have already taken it away, and no enemy unless You have already repelled him! By means of "in the name of Allah", the best of the Names, in the name of Lord of earth and heaven, I seek to repulse every hateful thing (makrooh), which has His anger at its

beginning, and I seek to attract every lovable thing (mahboob), which has His satisfaction at its beginning! So seal me with forgiveness from You, O Patron of beneficence! ----------The above piece of supplication was excerpted from a book named "The Psalms of Islam" (al-Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya) by Imam Ali Ibn Husain (al-Sajjad, Zayn al-Abidin), the 4th Imam/successor and grandson of Prophet (PBUH&HF). The Psalms of Islam, Arabic-English, Translated by: William C. Chittick, Published by: The Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 1988 ISBN 0-946079-51-X ISBN 0-946079-56-O ************************************************************************** __________________________________________ | | | || || | || | | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, | | ( : / (_) / ( . | |__________________________________________| FREE WILL AND FATALISM ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ============ INTRODUCTION: ============ This article deals with the perplexing issues of Free Will and Fatalism. Both viewpoints, the Sunnis's and Shia's, will be presented, as the purpose is to be as fair and objective as possible. This is a VERY sensitive subject, and needs a lot of attention. I will NOT cover every detail such that I am not qualified, nor do I have all the resources. Nonetheless, I will cover as much as is necessary for you to understand your responsibility before Allah (SWT). Now, to get to the topic at hand, I will start with what the Sunnis believe, and then state what the Shia believe. This peace is taken from Dr. al-Tijani's second book "Ma'ah al- Sadeeqeen -- With the Truthful Ones (1989)", pp 133-148. I have quoted him where appropriate, and added my own remarks elsewhere. Please refer to those pages for consultation, as well as the books of history, hadith, and philosophy. ====================== FREE WILL AND FATALISM: ====================== Dr. al-Tijani starts out by expressing his own experience with the concepts of Free Will (Qadariyyah) and Fatalism (Jabriyah). He was always baffled, as I was, by what the Sunni scholars preach in sermons and by what their books state about EVERYTHING being the Will of Allah (SWT): Drinking wine is the Will of Allah (SWT), sleeping, killing, evil, adultery, marriage, knowledge, health, accidental death, and even whether you end up in hell or heaven was judged before you were born! How can that be? How can Allah (SWT) state in the Quran: "Allah is never unjust in the least degree: If there is any good (done), he doubleth it, and giveth from His Own Self a great reward.

[4:40]" Then Allah (SWT) states: "Whoever works righteousness benefits his own soul; whoever works evil, it is against his own soul: Nor is thy Lord ever unjust (in the least) to His servants. [41:46]" Again, among many other places, Allah (SWT) asserts: "Verily Allah will NOT deal unjustly with man in aught: It is man that wrongs his own soul (and other souls). [10:44]" How can these verses be reconciled with what the Sunnis preach? It is either that Allah (SWT) is right, and the scholars are wrong, or vice versa? Of course, for the believer, the answer to that question is quite obvious. However, the Quran also states: "But ye will not, except as Allah wills; for Allah is full of Knowledge and Wisdom. [76:30]" And Allah (SWT) states: "...For Allah leaves to stray whom He wills, and guides whom He wills...[35:8]" What kind of contradiction is this? Exalted be Allah (SWT) from contradicting Himself. It is this kind of mental torture and struggle that I went through every day: On the one hand, Allah (SWT) asserts His (SWT) Justice, yet on the other He (SWT) asserts His (SWT) Will to do as He (SWT) pleases because He (SWT) is the Creator (SWT). Note that I agree with Dr. al-Tijani regarding this mental struggle, and I have seen how it is destroying the fabric of our society, especially the youth. Dr. al-Tijani continues: I was not alone in this struggle, and that's why many scholars and sheiks when asked about Qada Wa Qadr (Destiny), they simply brush off the subject and say that it is not for us to decide this matter. Then the scholars state that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) said that we must believe in Qada Wa Qadr whether it is good or bad. Now, if an inquiring mind asked those scholars how can Allah (SWT) force someone to commit adultery, for example, and then condemn him to hell, they would claim that the questioner is a disbeliever that has abandoned his religion! It is this kind of avoidance of the crucial issues in one's existence and religion that has fostered intellectual decay in the Ummah of Muhammad (PBUH&HF). ========================================= THE SUNNIS AND THE QUESTION OF DESTINY: ========================================= Dr. al-Tijani narrates a brief encounter with a Sunni scholar that asserts that EVERYTHING is the will of Allah (SWT). So Dr. al-Tijani countered his argument with the following: First, marriage is NOT the Will of Allah (SWT) because Allah (SWT) says: ".....Marry women of YOUR CHOICE.....[4:3]" Second, divorce is NOT "written -- i.e., not the Will of Allah (SWT)" either:

"A divorce is only permissible twice; after that, the parties should either hold together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness....[2:229]" That is, the parties are AT LIBERTY to separate or maintain a relationship; they are NOT forced or coerced. Third, adultery is NOT the Will of Allah (SWT) either: "Nor come nigh to adultery: For it is an indecent (deed) and an evil way. [17:32]" You are AT LIBERTY to commit or refrain from adultery. Fourth, drinking alcohol is also NOT the Will of Allah (SWT): "Satan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah, and from prayer: Will ye not then abstain? [5:91]" You are AT LIBERTY to abstain. Fifth, as for killing a human being, it is also NOT the Will of Allah (SWT), for Allah (SWT) says: "If a man kills a believer INTENTIONALLY, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (for ever); and the wrath and curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful chastisement is prepared for him. [4:93]" Again, Allah (SWT) says: "....TAKE NOT LIFE, which Allah hath made sacred, except by way of justice and law: Thus doth He command you, that ye may learn wisdom. [6:151]" Your freedom in these matters is most apparent. Sixth, as for eating and drinking, they are also NOT the Will of Allah (SWT), for Allah (SWT) said: ".....eat and drink, but waste not by excess, for Allah loveth not the wasters. [7:31]" You are AT LIBERTY to eat or not to eat, to drink or not to drink, and to waste or not to waste. Dr. al-Tijani said to the scholar: "How, then, can you claim that EVERYTHING is the Will of Allah (SWT), when the Quran is clear about that matter?" The scholar answered that Allah (SWT) does whatever He (SWT) pleases, as the Quran states: "Say: O Allah! Lord of Power (and Rule), thou givest Power to whom thou pleasest, and thou strippest off power from whom thou pleasest: Thou enduest with honour whom thou pleasest, and thou bringest low whom thou pleasest: In Thy hand is all Good. Verily, over all things thou hast power. [3:26]" Dr. al-Tijani answered: "We are not quarreling about whether Allah (SWT) CAN do whatever He (SWT) wishes or not; we are debating whether or not Allah (SWT) FORCES people to do things, and then punishes them for it?" The scholar answered: "You have your religion, and I have mine!" and the discussion was over. Two days later, Dr. al-Tijani returned and said: "So if your belief is that Allah (SWT) executes EVERYTHING, and His (SWT) servants have NO choice

whatsoever in the matter, why, then, don't you apply the same reasoning to the matter of the Caliphate; and [surrender to the point] that Allah (SWT) chooses whomever He (SWT) wishes?" The point that Dr. al- Tijani is trying to drive across concerns the belief by the Shia that al-Imam Ali (AS) was chosen by Allah (SWT) to be the successor to the Prophet (PBUH&HF). The scholar said: "YES! I do believe that; because Allah (SWT) has chosen Abu Bakr, then `Umar, then `Uthman, and then Ali (AS)." Dr. al-Tijani said: "Now you have fallen in the trap of your own logic!" The scholar said: "How so?" Dr. al-Tijani said: "Either you say [and believe] that Allah (SWT) has chosen the first four Caliphs, and then left the matter for the people to decide upon. Or you say [and believe] that Allah (SWT) has not left the matter of the Caliphate for the people to decide upon; and it is He (SWT) Who chooses ALL the successors [of the Prophet (PBUH&HF)] from the day of his (PBUH&HF) death till the Day of Judgment?" The scholar answered by quoting the Quran: "Say: O Allah! Lord of Power (and Rule), thou givest Power to whom thou pleasest, and thou strippest off power from whom thou pleasest: Thou enduest with honour whom thou pleasest, and thou bringest low whom thou pleasest: In Thy hand is all Good. Verily, over all things thou hast power. [3:26]" Dr. al-Tijani contended: "So you believe that EVERY King or Leader, whether now or in the past, who has fought against Islam has been appointed by Allah (SWT)?" He (the scholar) said: "Yes! No doubt about it!" Dr. al-Tijani said: "Subhan Allah (SWT) -- Vindicated from ALL Impurities/Imperfections Be Allah! How, then, do you defend the Sunnis in their contention that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) died and left the matter for THE PEOPLE TO DECIDE?" The scholar said: "Yes, I do believe that, and I will continue to believe it (forever), In Sha' Allah (SWT) -- Allah Willing!" Dr. al-Tijani said: "How do reconcile Allah's (SWT) Will with that of the people?" The scholar said: "Since the Muslims chose Abu Bakr, that means that Allah (SWT) has chosen him!" Dr. al-Tijani said: "How did the Muslims know that Allah (SWT) wanted Abu Bakr?" The scholar said: "Because if Allah (SWT) wanted anybody else, neither the Muslims nor the scholars would be able to prevent what Allah (SWT) wanted!" At this stage, Dr. al-Tijani realized the futility of conversing with such men; and that if we abide by what these people say, we will never be able to forward a veritable scientific or philosophical theory or contention. (Note that I have skipped some of the dialogue between Dr. al- Tijani and the scholar for purposes of maintaining the attention span of the reader.

However, the parts I skipped in NO WAY affect the clarity or message of the conversation.) It is this kind of attitude that has destroyed the youth and the intellectual curiosity among humanity in general. For if we believe as this scholar believes, then we will never accomplish anything! Why? Because if we abide by the above fatalist approach, we would genuinely believe that the current state of the Ummah is what Allah (SWT) wants, and the massacring of Muslims is what Allah (SWT) wants, and the ignorance that prevails, and to fail on an exam at school, and to have a car accident are ALL the Will of Allah (SWT); and, as such, we cannot change anything until Allah (SWT) wants, so let's sit and wait while the nonbelievers have invaded outer space and reached the other planets!!! This is exactly what the enemies of Islam want! Dr. al-Tijani traces this concept of Fatalism to the Ummayads, who were the clan of `Uthman Ibn `Afan, the third caliph. He states that during these days, when `Uthman was caliph, and due to his corruption in politics and government, the Muslims requested that he step down from the leadership of the Ummah. `Uthman replied: "I shall not undress a shirt which has been clothed on me by Allah." The "shirt" here refers to the leadership of the Muslims; and the opinion of `Uthman that Allah (SWT) is the One (SWT) Who clothed him the shirt, indicates that it is the Will of Allah (SWT) that `Uthman is the caliph. And that the "shirt" shall only be undressed as a consequence of `Uthman's death (i.e., when he dies.). We also find the same attitude from Muawiyah, who is a relative of `Uthman, at a later point in time. For Muawiyah had said, as Ibn Kathir narrates in v8, p131: "I didn't fight you to pray, fast, and pay charity, but rather to become your leader and control you, and Allah (SWT) has given me that, even if you dislike it!" This is an indication that he never cared about any of Islam's mandates, nor Allah's (SWT) orders; rather his war was politically motivated to gain control of the region and become the appointed leader. Again, Muawiyah has claimed that he is the leader of the Ummah because Allah (SWT) has made him so. However, Muawiyah's claim is more far-reaching [and damaging] than that of `Uthman; for Muawiyah's claim lends credibility to the evil contention that Allah (SWT) has aided and abetted him (Muawiyah) in killing [innocent] Muslims. Allahu Akbar! (Allah is Great!) ==================================== THE SHIA AND THE QUESTION OF DESTINY: ==================================== Now, for the Shia's opinion on Free Will and Fatalism: Dr. al-Tijani has met with the Great Scholars of the Twelver Shi'ite in Iraq. Among those he talked to are: The Martyr Muhammad Baqr al-Sadr, alKhoie, Muhammad Ali al-Tabatabai, al- Hakim, and many others (May Allah (SWT) have mercy on those that have passed away, and on those that remain). Dr. al-Tijani narrates what these great scholars explained to him: When al-Imam Ali (AS) was asked about Free Will and Fatalism, he (AS) said: (NOTE: This is a VERY hard quote to translate; thus, this translation is ROUGH at best, but it does convey the point):

"Woe to you! Did you think that it was a mandatory destiny, and a final will? If it was as such, then reward and punishment would have no value, and admonition and exhortation would totally fail! Allah (SWT) has ordered His (SWT) servants to obey Him (SWT) voluntarily, and asked them to cease doing evil as a warning to them (from punishment); and He (SWT) has ordained easy (simple) things in religion, and He (SWT) has not ordained difficult (hard) duties. He (SWT) has given for the small amount of good deeds you do, a great reward; and He (SWT) is never disobeyed as a sign of His (SWT) defeat (or lack of power and ability); and He (SWT) is not obeyed [or worshipped] through coercion and force, rather voluntarily. He (SWT) has not sent Prophets and Messengers as part of a game He (SWT) is playing; nor did He (SWT) send down the Books (revealed scripture) for no reason. And He (SWT) did not create the Heavens and the Earths as a falsehood (triviality); That, indeed, is the belief of the nonbelievers: Woe to the nonbelievers from the hellfire..." NOTE: The latter part of the speech: "That, indeed, is the belief of the nonbelievers: Woe to the nonbelievers from the hellfire......" is a verse from the Quran that al-Imam Ali (AS) concluded with. Dr. al-Tijani, when he first heard it is HE who controls his actions, doing good deeds to enter heaven. claim, the Will of Allah (SWT) for this, was filled with joy to know that and it is HE who is responsible for And it is not, as the Sunni scholars him to enter hell.

Dr. al-Tijani says: al-Imam Ali (AS) struck the nail on the head when he (AS) said: "...and He (SWT) is never disobeyed as a sign of His (SWT) defeat (or lack of power and ability);..." For if Allah (SWT) wanted to force ANYBODY into doing something, NOTHING can stop Him (SWT). Rather it is a corroboration by al- Imam Ali (AS) to what Allah (SWT) said: "Say, `The Truth is from your Lord` Let him who will, believe (it); and let him who will, reject (it)...[18:29]" Then al-Imam Ali (AS) strikes the inner workings of the mind and consciousness by asserting that if EVERYTHING was the Will of Allah (SWT), then the function of the Prophets and Messengers would be a total waste of time. Again, if EVERYTHING was the Will of Allah (SWT), Revealed Scripture would have no value either; this would clearly violate the verses of the Quran: "Verily this Quran doth guide to that which is most right (or stable), and giveth the glad tidings to the believers who work deeds of righteousness, that they shall have a magnificent reward. [17:9]" So the Quran IS a book that guides people (which means that It was revealed for the purpose of guiding mankind), and the believers are AT LIBERTY to "...work deeds of righteousness..." The contention is that if EVERYTHING was the Will of Allah (SWT), why would Allah (SWT) send Messengers to warn us, when He (SWT) has already judged us? What good is it to do any kind of deeds (good or bad), when the judgment for these deeds has already been rendered, regardless of what you do? We have seen many sects in Islam that have either said: EVERYTHING is the Will of Allah (SWT) --This is Jabriyyah; or those who said: EVERYTHING is Free Will --This is Qadariyyah. Both views are wrong, because they are not realistic. Can you control to which parents you are born to, for example?

Or is it realistic to believe that Allah (SWT) FORCES you to drink alcohol, and then punishes you for it? The answer to both questions is: OBVIOUSLY NOT! The Shia, however, have struck it right: al-Imam Ja'far al- Sadiq (AS) said: "It is not TOTAL Free Will, nor is it TOTAL Fatalism; rather, it is a matter between [those] two matters." When a man asked al-Imam al-Sadiq (AS) what he (AS) meant by the above quote, al-Imam al-Sadiq (AS) answered: "To walk on the ground is not the same as to fall on it!" What a response!!! (My comment!) Here's what it means: You walk on the ground voluntarily, but it may happen to you that you fall because something unexpected happened to you (for instance, some body hit you from the back). Who among you wants to fall on the ground on purpose? Such is the wisdom of the Imams, the progeny of the Seal of Prophecy (PBUH&HF). So Qada Wa Qadr is a matter between two matters: Some things we can control, and others we can't; it is a mixture of Free Will and Allah's (SWT) Will. This belief is closer to reason than what all the other schools say. Moreover, a human being is ONLY liable for that which he has a will [and control] over; and Allah (SWT) will judge him on those deeds that he ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ voluntarily committed, NOT the ones that he has no control over. Allah ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (SWT) says: "By the soul, and the proportion and order given to it; and its inspiration as to its wrong and its right;-- Truly he succeeds that purifies it, and he fails that corrupts it. [91:7-10]" Indeed, he who purifies his soul is destined to succeed, and he who corrupts it is destined to failure. That is where your choice comes in. Again, things like the operation of the Universe, the movement of the planets, ones own sex at birth, one's color of skin, one's parents, and so on, we have no will or control over, and we will NOT be held responsible for; but whether or not to be believers, killers, hypocrites, commit adultery, feed our children, and so on, we do have control over, and we WILL be held accountable for them. As a conclusion to the matter, and a final display of the superior knowledge of the Imams, I quote the following: al-Imam Ali Ibn Musa al-Rida (AS), the Eighth Imam, was 14 years old when he (AS) was asked about what al- Imam al-Sadiq (AS) meant by "a matter between [those] two matters?" At 14 years of age, al-Imam Ali Ibn Musa al-Rida (AS) said: "He who says that Allah (SWT) FORCES us to do our actions, subscribes to the school of Fatalism (Jabriyyah). He who says that Allah (SWT) has left the matter of birth, creation, and wealth to the Hujjahs, subscribes to the school of Free Will (Qadariyyah)." [NOTE: Hujjah means "Proof." It includes Prophets, Messengers, and the Imams. The significance of the word is that the Prophets, Messengers, and Imams command what Allah (SWT) wants, and serve as a proof against the people they have been sent to; as such, they are Allah's (SWT) "Proofs" on Earth.] Then Imam (AS) continues...

"He who subscribes to Fatalism (Jabriyyah) is a Kafir (Nonbeliever), and he who subscribes to Free Will (Qadariyyah) is a Mushrik (Polytheist)." "As for the matter between two matters, it is the seeking of the path that leads to the fulfillment of Allah's (SWT) orders. Allah (SWT) has given man the ability and freedom to do good (deeds) or not to do good (deeds); and, Allah (SWT) has given man the ability and freedom to do evil (deeds) or not to do evil (deeds), then He (SWT) ordered him to do good (deeds), and prohibited him from doing evil (deeds)." Such is the great knowledge of the Imams, may Allah (SWT) bless them all. It is no surprise that even at the age of 14, they are so knowledgeable; for it only confirms what the Prophet (PBUH&HF) said about them: "Don't get too far ahead of them, or you'll be destroyed. Nor stay far behind them, or you'll also be destroyed. And don't try to teach them, for they are far more knowledgeable than you are." This tradition is mentioned in: Usd al-Ghabah, by Ibn Athir, v3, p137; alSawa'iq al-Muhriqah by Ibn Hajar, p148; Majma' al-Zawa'id, v9, p163; Yanabee' al-Mawada, p41; al-Durr al-Manthoor by al-Suyuti, v2, p60; Kanz al'Umal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v1, p168; and `Aqabat al-Anwar, v1, p184. ============================================== THE CALIPHATE AND THE QUESTION OF QADA WA QADAR: =============================================== The strange thing about the Sunni belief is that while they believe that EVERYTHING is the Will of Allah (SWT), they stubbornly attach themselves to the contention that the Prophet (PBUH&HF) left the matter of the Caliphate (Succession) for them to decide upon. The Shia believe the exact opposite of what the Sunnis believe with regards to this issue (i.e., succession). While it is true that the Shia ardently support the concept of Half-Free Will, they will NOT apply it to the concept of the Caliphate (Succession). The Shia believe that the Successor to a ANY Prophet or Messenger is a matter that ONLY Allah (SWT) decides upon; and they can have NO say in the matter. As such, it is the belief of Twelver Shi'ite that al-Imam Ali (AS) was chosen by Allah (SWT) to succeed the Prophet (PBUH&HF). Prima Facie (superficially), this appears to be a contradiction on the part of both parties, but the truth is otherwise. The Sunnis when they claim that EVERYTHING is the Will of Allah (SWT), they make Allah (SWT) the ACTUAL EXECUTOR of His (SWT) Will; and they are left with an IMAGINARY WILL of their own. So it was the Companions (along with `Umar) that chose Abu Bakr after the death of the Prophet (PBUH&HF); but, in actuality, they were only executing Allah's (SWT) Will (i.e., the companions were only instruments used by Allah (SWT) to execute His (SWT) Will.). That is the Sunnis's interpretation of the events. The Shia, however, when they assert that Allah (SWT) has given His (SWT) servants the freedom of choice, they DO NOT contradict themselves by stating that ONLY Allah (SWT) chooses the Chaliph (Successor). For Allah (SWT) states in the Quran: "Thy Lord does create and CHOOSE AS HE PLEASES: NO CHOICE have they

(in the matter)...[28:68]" "And We made them Imams, guiding (men) by Our command, and We inspired them to do good deeds, to establish regular prayers, and to give Zakat; and they constantly served Us (and Us only). [21:73]" "And We appointed from among them, Imams, giving guidance under Our command, so long as they persevered with patience and continued to have faith in Our Signs. [32:24]" [NOTE: In the above two verses A.Yusuf Ali uses the term "Leaders" instead of "Imams;" however, the Arabic Quran uses the word IMAMS -- Check for yourselves.] "And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands, which he fulfilled: He (Allah) said: I will make thee an Imam to the people. He (Abraham) pleaded: And also (Imams) from my offspring! He (Allah) answered: But My Promise is not within the reach of evil-doers. [2:124]" So, as we see from the above verses, the matter of Succession (Chaliphate) is just like that of Prophethood -- People have NO SAY in it. Allah (SWT) is the One who chose Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, and the rest of the Prophets, Messengers, and Imams; and there's NOTHING people can do about it. However, the Free Will component lies in the fact that you AT LIBERTY to believe in or reject ANY Prophet sent to you, as has happened throughout the history of mankind (i.e., some people believed, while others rejected the Prophets.). A true believer will accept Allah's (SWT) orders, and attain felicity; while a nonbeliever will reject Allah's (SWT) Signs, and suffer the consequences. Indeed, Allah (SWT) says: "...whosoever follows My guidance, will not lose his way, nor fall into misery. But whosoever turns away from My message, verily for him is a life narrowed down, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Judgment. He will say: O my Lord! Why hast thou raised me up blind, while I had sight (before)? (Allah) will say: Thus didst thou, when Our Signs came unto thee, forgot them: so wilt thou, this day, be forgotten. [20:123-126]" Now, if we objectively analyze both viewpoints: that of the Sunnis, and that of the Shia, we will discover that the Sunnis's viewpoint literally holds Allah responsible (SWT) for EVERYTHING in the Universe, whether it be good or bad. Whereas, the Shia have clearly vindicated Allah (SWT) from such impurities, and have proved that EACH Soul shall reap what it has sown. Which viewpoint is closer to reason? One that blames Allah, THE Creator and Sustainer of the Universe, or one that makes YOU responsible for your own actions? I leave the answer for the enlightened reader to provide. =========================== RESPONSES TO SUNNI BROTHERS: =========================== First, a Sunni brother made the comment that I am accusing ALL Sunni scholars of being fatalists, when in reality, this is NOT the case. My response was: First, I did not say that "ALL" the Sunni scholars are fatalists; rather, the MAJORITY. Moreover, most of the scholars preaching in the Mosques share the view of fatalism, and, as such, have contributed to the

corruption of the youths, who are the seeds of the future. It is a betrayal of the scholarly trust when a SCHOLAR BLINDLY accepts tradition and what others say. (NOTE: I emphasize the word "scholar" because I am NOT talking about the layman who CANNOT interpret complex philosophical issues and sophisticated matters of jurisprudence. But for a scholar, who is in a position to give "Fatwas -- Religious Opinions," to blindly become fatalistic is unacceptable in its entirety.) Indeed, Allah (SWT) challenged the Jews and the Christians by saying: ".....Bring forth your argument (proof) if ye are telling the truth! [27:64]" As such, it is MANDATORY for such scholars to provide proof to support their view of fatalism. Keep in mind that in Islam, the theory of proofs is as follows: If two proofs are presented, and each proof is strong enough to equal the other proof, they cancel each other out, and new proofs will be sought. However, if one of the proofs is stronger than the other, then the stronger proof prevails and becomes dominant. As far as Free Will vs. Fatalism is concerned, clearly Free Will, as I presented it, wins hands down. Note also that this article depicts what the MAINSTREAM Shia believe. Undoubtedly, there individuals who are NOT blind fatalists, and individuals who ARE blind fatalists. Neither thought within either faction. MAINSTREAM Sunnis and what the are Sunni scholars and there are Shi'i scholars and group represents MAINSTREAM

Second, another Sunni brother stated that I neglected the following verses in my analysis: >>>surah 74 >>54. Nay this surely is an admonition: >>55. Let any who will keep it in remembrance! >>56. But none will keep it in remembrance except as Allah wills: He is the Lord of Righteousness and the Lord of Forgiveness. >>surah 76 >>29. This is an admonition: whosoever will let him take a (straight) Path to his Lord. >>30. But ye will not except as Allah wills; for Allah is full of Knowledge and Wisdom. >>31. He will admit to His Mercy Whom He will; but the wrongdoers for them has He prepared a grievous Penalty. >>surah 57 >>22. No misfortune can happen on earth or in your souls but is recorded in a decree before We bring it into existence: that is truly easy for Allah: >>23. In order that ye may not despair over matters that pass you by nor exult over favors bestowed upon you. For Allah loveth not any vainglorious boaster My response was as follows: With regards to the above verses, and your claim that I am more in favor of Free Will than Fatalism, thereby neglecting the above verses, I offer the following: What Allah (SWT) is saying in the above verses, among others, when He (SWT) states: "But ye will not except as Allah wills...." is NOT as you understand it to be. Please remember the following very important sentence: SOME OF THE WILL OF ALLAH CHENGES BASED ON OUR ACTION. It is not fixed. This serves as Half-Free Will for the human. It is all the Will of Allah, but SOME of His Will are modified by Himself. (We do not modify it. He

modifies it based on our actions). Quran gives evidence to this fact: "Allah removes what He wills, and confirms (what He wills), and with Him is the Essence of the Book. [13:39]" Also this: "Allah does not change the situation of any group of people, unless they change what is in themselves. [13:11]" ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ Also the following two verse in which Allah changed the decision in real time, base on the weakness appeared to the companions: 8:65 "O Prophet! Exhort the believers to fight. If there be of you twenty steadfast they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a hundred steadfast they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (the disbelievers) are a folk without intelligence." 8:66 "Now, has Allah lightened your (duty), for He knowes that there ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ is weakness in you. So if there be of you a steadfast hundred they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a thousand (steadfast) they shall overcome two thousand by permission of Allah. Allah is with the steadfast. [8:65-66]" Also look at this: "But those who do ill deeds and afterward repent and believe lo! for them, then after that, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. [7:153]" ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Note that Allah changes His decision after the action of human (here is repentance). There are many more verses similar to above (see 16:110, 16:119, etc...) Allah (SWT) has given you the freedom to act and do whatever you want WITHIN the CONFINES of your abilities. Now Allah (SWT) can interfere at ANYTIME to change a matter without any inhibition from ANYONE. As such, His (SWT) Will to INTERFERE and change a matter prevails over His (SWT) creation's will. So Allah (SWT) Wills in the sense that He (SWT) ALLOWS an event to occur, without Him (SWT) stopping it from happening. That is His (SWT) Will, NOT that He (SWT) forces you to do something, and then punishes you for it. (Exalted be Allah (SWT) from such an inference!) Given that fact, Allah (SWT) can, for example, intervene to return Palestine to the Muslims, but He (SWT) doesn't. That DOES NOT mean that Allah (SWT) approves of having Palestine in the hands of the Jews, but rather Allah (SWT) has a more sublime wisdom in not interfering. Now, the obvious question is: Why doesn't Allah (SWT) interfere, for example, to help the Muslims that are being slaughtered in Bosnia, or elsewhere? The answer is as follows: Going back to the Free Will argument, you are responsible for your acts. If Allah (SWT) interferes to prevent evil from happening, then who will be held accountable? It is this "Accountability Principle" that precludes the interference of Allah (SWT) in many (not all) situations. That DOES NOT mean, however, that Allah (SWT) NEVER intervenes or that He (SWT) approves of the matter, but rather Allah (SWT) intervenes only when He (SWT), Himself (SWT), sees a reason to do so, as when He (SWT)

intervened and helped the Prophet Abraham (AS) from the fire of the nonbelievers, among other examples. Why did Allah (SWT) intervene then? That's where your faith in Allah's (SWT) wisdom comes into play. Do you believe in Allah (SWT) to the extent that you trust what He (SWT) does, EVEN if you don't fully understand it? If yes, then you have answered the question for yourself. If not, then you have a weak faith which is in need of some strengthening. ========== CONCLUSION: ========== In conclusion, I (myself, not Dr. al-Tijani) realize that many points presented in this article are NOT easy to comprehend, nor are they meant for the average person; however, I have deeply suffered from the problem of Free Will and Fatalism, and my agony throughout that ordeal is virtually beyond description. As such, I do not wish anybody to suffer as I have. Let me also assert that my PERSONAL opinion is that Fatalism in Islamic societies is one of THE MOST damaging ideologies around; it fosters a COMPLETE paralysis of intellectual and physical exertions, and promotes decay from within the community. It is a GREAT SHAME that we should profoundly suffer due to a false ideology. We have been deceived for all these years (1400 or so), while the Shia have always had the answer to this perplexing question. It is the irony of life that we mock those who possess knowledge, while we praise our own ignorance! Given that, I leave you with the same questions: "Are you realistic when you claim that Allah (SWT) FORCES you into committing evil, and then punishes you for it? If Allah (SWT) has created me a Kafir, why then should I bother and rectify myself? What difference would it make -- I have already been judged?" ************************************************************************** __________________________________________ | | | || || | || | | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, | | ( : / (_) / ( . | |__________________________________________| Divine Justice and the Problem of Evil Throughout the history of thought and action, the justice of God has been a problem which has occupied the mind of nearly every philosopher. The most important reason for this attention is that they have been aware of deprivation, poverty, exploitation and tyranny amongst human societies. Being aware of these bitter facts, some have been led to doubt the justice of God, or even doubt the existence of God. Others have tried to somehow justify this seeming contradiction between God being just and the above mentioned miseries. This article is a small attempt to prove two points: 1. God's justice is a reality. 2. If God is just, it does not mean that individuals have to accept their present social situations; but on the contrary, IT MEANS THAT THEY SHOULD CHANGE IT. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""

If there is just God why is there so much evil. There is death, war, earthquake, hunger, bitter conditions of life .....etc. The argument then follows that either there is no God or there is a cruel God, who, like a monster, enjoys seeing us suffer! This question has been answered in many ways in different ages. Some of them are as follows and we shall have a brief look at them: 1. God is the Perfect Being, and justice is part of perfection. Therefore, God is just. So whatever of injustice we see in the world, will be rectified eventually. In other words, He has no needs, and injustice is either from ignorance and fanaticism, or from need, and none of these are conceivable for the Perfect Being. Imam Husain, in the deserts of Arafat, before being martyred by the enemy, said: "O' God! you are so needless that you yourself can not benefit yourself. How then, can we give anything to you?!" 2. Evil is necessary for the greater good. Refraining from thousand goods for the sake of one evil, is itself a great evil. 3. Man's freedom is the cause of evil. Here freedom is not in political sense. It means being able to do good or bad. It is only mankind who has this ability. He can be kind or he can be cruel. He can be a humanist or he can be an oppressive tyrant and killer. Leibniz, the 17th century philosopher, is one of those who believe that man's freedom is the cause of evil. He wrote: "Free will is a great good, but it was logically impossible for God to give freedom and at the same time decree that there should be no sin. So God decided to make man free although sin inevitably brought punishment." This view can explain wars and social injustices, but can not explain earthquakes, death, illness, etc. 4. Evil is a negative thing. SUFFERING AND NOT EVIL """""""""""""""""""""" Now, let us go bit deeper in the problem. What we should say at this point is that we commit a mistake by using the term evil. We should rather use: suffering or hardship. By doing this we have not done anything against reality or any logical necessity. In the term evil there is a concept of injustice hidden. We shall avoid using it, because it is a loaded word. LIMITLESS DESIRES """"""""""""""""" Now, by looking at concrete experiences and the nature of things, and also looking at our internal and external factors of life, we see that they are not set in manner to always coincide with our desires and wishes. The limitlessness of our desires from one hand, and the mathematical nature of the universe on the other, is the cause of our illegitimate annoyance. For example, we want to have absolute knowledge. We want to possess absolute ownership of the world without being disturbed. We do not want to get sick. On the other hand, neither does our existential factors give value to these desires, nor do the natural elements abide to these wishes. And since our internal nature and the world itself do not permit our limitless desires, we raise our hands to the sky and say: O' God! what an evilful universe! But, somebody who knows that the paraffin in his lamp is limited, will not complain after its extinction. One who knows that this lamp which he has lit, is not safe from winds, will not scream when the wind blows it out.

The system of the natural world is the same, and one who lives in it, can not come out of the flow of that system. So, we are obliged to accept that there is suffering. The question to ask is that, is it logical to say that these sufferings are against justice? (Note that we are not talking about sufferings caused by human: wars, torture, poverty...). The answer to the question is negative, since we have to understand the various meanings of justice. There is sentimental justice, like a mother offering all her love for her child. There is legal justice. There is also moral and philosophical justice. I will try to define the last two: Philosophical Justice: Every subject and phenomenon should travel in its appropriate line and flow towards its perfection. Moral Justice: Do not inflict any suffering on anything else. Philosophical justice means that even if the sick screams and complains, we should give him the bitter medicine that he needs to take, and do the surgery which is for his good. VIEWERS AND PARTICIPANTS """""""""""""""""""""""" Those who have been in contact with mankind and nature from close-up, and have not been mere viewers, have never doubted the justice of God. Socrates (The Philosopher), in the time of his prosecution, takes the cup of poison from the guard and drinks it. Since he had a great message for all people of all times, he drank the poison with no fear. Prophet Muhammad, the best of mankind ever, said: "No prophet has been suffered like me!" If we also look at the life of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the Prophet Muhammad's miracle and his most beloved companion, we find that his life was highly filled out with suffering and pain. One out of many, is that he was the best in knowledge and action among his society after the prophet, yet he remained silent for twenty five years for the sake of the people's ideological unity at that time. He accepted this psychological suffering for twenty five years. Later, when the people realized who he was, and came to him and chose him as their leader, he ruled the society with utmost justice, even though he was continuously in war with so called Muslims during his short period of ruling, and then he was killed shortly. Ali's justice was a kind of justice which has made the eastern materialist, Shibli Shumayyil, to say about him: "The leader Ali, greatest of all, is the man who neither the West nor East, neither yesterday nor today, have seen his example." (Ali, The voice of human justice, by George Jordac). Ali himself said: "If you give me all the world with everything in it, with a condition that I take a husk of barley from an ant's mouth, I will not do so!" (Nahjul Balaqah, by Imam Ali). For the just, this world is most painful, but nevertheless, Ali never said that this world is evil. He always said that it is the world of suffering, be ready, be careful. He also said: This world is the best place for one who understands it well. In fact when we believe in the justice of God, we try to see the same justice in the society. Because any injustice is against the will of God and against the music of the universe. This is why belief in the justice of God has always been a great threat to the ruling powers. You might say that very well, but it does not follow that since some people like Prophet Muhammad, Ali have said and done so, the problem of evil does

not exist. Very well, but where did the problem of evil come from, anyway? >From the minds of some other people whose lives were quite more comfortable than Prophet or Ali! Like Epicurus, Hume or Mill or even me and you! Looking at their biographies, none have suffered as much as the first group. The latter in comparison with the former, were always viewers of life rather than participants. So you can see how subjective and relative the problem of evil and suffering is. Let me repeat the question again. Why do we have to go through all these difficulties, created by God, in order to reach the developed stage? To answer this question, we need to study the orders of existence. ORDERS OF EXISTENCE """"""""""""""""""" There are two orders in the beings of the world. We can call them the longitudinal order and the transversal order. The longitudinal order is the place of things in the cause and effect chain of creation. In the language of religion, Angels, The Book(of Allah), The Distributors, The pen and so on, all show of a certain order and arrangement in existence. This order is not formal but necessary. In this order, the flame of a match cannot compete with the Sun, and the change of a possible thing into something necessary is not imaginable. A cause cannot change its place with its own effect (at the same time and place). All the mistakes which we make that why 'this' couldn't have been in the place of 'that' or why an imperfect being can't change its place with a perfect being, is because we have not understood the necessary and essential relations of things. We compare the existential order with conventional orders and social stratifications. We think that when we can replace a manager with his employee, or a landlord with his tenant, then why could not have a sheep been a human being? It is impossible, since the cause of being cause and the effect of being effect are not conventional or formal. If 'A' is the cause of 'B', it is because that there is something in the nature of 'A' that has made it the cause. Also, the specification of 'B' has caused its relation to 'A', and this specification is nothing but those attributes which have made 'B' exist. Once you take those specifications away from 'B', you are left with something else and not 'B'. These specifications are real and not conventional or transferable. Take the number '5'. It comes after '4' and before '6'. You can not put '5' anywhere else without loosing its identity. If you put it before '4', it will be '3', even though you call it '5'. You can not change the reality of '3', though you can change its name. There exists such a deep and existential order between all creatures of the universe. If you take anything out of its existential place, it will loose its substance and will no longer be the same thing. If you give a triangle four vertices instead of three, it is not a triangle any more. In fact it is a square. Ibn Sina has a nice sentence here. He said: "God did not make apricots into apricots, but He created apricots." What he means is that there was no stage when all fruits were equal and then God discriminated between them. Each fruit is unique. This uniqueness applies to different beings and personalities as well. Allah said in Quran: "... Our Lord is He who gave every thing its nature, then guided it aright." (Quran 20:50). In another place He said:

"Our word for something that we intend, is that to say to it: Be! and it will be." (Quran 16:40). Now let us go over the transversal order. The transversal order determines the temporal and material conditions of different phenomena. It is with this order that history takes definite and certain form. Allah refers to this order of existence in this way: "..., and you shall not find any change in the custom of Allah." (Quran 33:62) Some of these deterministic laws are mentioned in Quran like the following: "Allah does not change the situation of any group of people, unless they change what is in themselves." (Quran 13:11). Now to sum up this section: 1. The universe has orders and necessary laws, and every phenomenon is within that system. For the universe to be in order, there should be differences and stages in existence. 2. Differences are necessary attributes of creatures, and God has made no discrimination between the creatures. 3. What is against the justice is discrimination and NOT difference. In the universe, there are differences among the creatures and not discriminations by Allah. Now that we have understood this section, we can answer the previous question by looking at the benefits of suffering for individuals. BENEFITS OF SUFFERING """"""""""""""""""""" It is only through suffering and difficulties that one can attain true happiness and true prosperity. Allah says: "Verily there is ease with hardship. There is ease with hardship. So when you are relieved, still toil, and strive to please your Lord." (Quran 94:5-8). Hegel says: Disputes and evil ('suffering' to be precise) are not imaginary. They are quite real and with open eyes they are steps of evolution and goodness. Struggle is the law of progress. Human attributes are evolved and made in the battlefield and riot of the world. No one can reach high perfection except through hardship, responsibility, and distress. Life is not for satisfaction, but for evolution. Ali (AS), in one of his famous letters to Uthman ibn Hanif, his governor in Basra, wrote: "living in comfort and delicateness, and avoidance of difficulties ends up to weakness and debility. In contrary, living in rough conditions makes human powerful and agile, and transfers his existential essence towards refinement." He also denounced him in the letter, for his having had a dinner with the rich who had allowed no poor to enter in their party. He then gave the

example of trees in forests and compared it with the trees in gardens. "Although constant care is given to the garden trees, yet the deprived trees of the forest have better quality." (Nahjul Balaqah). That is why when God is kind to somebody, he inflicts him or her with difficulty and suffering. This is exactly the opposite side of what most people think! Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (the 5th Imam) said: "Allah helps His believer and sends him hardships, like gifts that a man sends for his family." Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (the 6th Imam) said: "When Allah loves His servant, He drowns him in the sea of suffering." Like a swimming tutor who throws his new student into water, and makes him struggle and learn swimming, Allah does the same to develop his beloved servants. If one only devotes his whole life time to read about swimming, he will never learn how to swim. We have to go into water and struggle with the danger of drowning to learn how to swim. Imam Sadiq said in another tradition: "The most difficult lives are possessed first by prophets, and then those who come after them in virtue." Rumi, the philosopher and poet of 13th century, has a good analogy: "They threw the grain on the earth, then there came out branches. Next, they crushed it in the mill, and it became more expensive and useful in bread form. Next, the bread was grounded under the teeth, and after digestion, it became mind, spirit and useful thought. Again, when the mind was bewildered with love, what a surprise this cultivation had been!" Wassalam. *************************************************************************** ______________________________________, | w w w |\ | || || | || |\ | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |\ | ( : / (_) / ( . |\ |______________________________________|\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Lessons From the Prophet and the Imams of Ahlul-Bayt Excerpts from Usul al-Kafi Compiled by Thiqatul Islam al-Kulaini al-Razi Place of Reason in the Religion ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (Part I) The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) said: "Almighty God has endowed upon mankind nothing better than reason (wisdom). Sleep of a wise man is better than the waking hours of an ignorant. Rest of a wise man is better than the movement (journeys for Hajj or Jihad) of ignorant. God has not send any prophet or messenger

without first perfecting his reason; and his reason stands superior to all the reasons of (the people of) his community. What the Prophet has wished is preferable to all the Ijtihad (striving) of the Mujtahideen (those who strive). No creature can ever discharge his obligations to God unless he comprehends those (obligations). All the worshippers weighted together can not reach the height of excellence of a wise man. The man of reason who are the possessors of understanding minds about whom Allah said: `... But non will grasp the Message except men of understanding. [2:269, 3:7]'" Shi'ite reference: Usul al-Kafi, Arabic-English version, part 1, pp 30-31, Tradition #11 ______________________________________, (Part II) Next tradition is Tradition #12 from the Chapter entitled "The Book of Reason and Ignorance". This tradition is pretty large. So I decided to randomly select some parts of it, and I will continue to copy the other parts of this tradition in the next parts of these series. This tradition is the conversation of Imam Musa al-Kadhim (AS), and one of his faithful disciples, Hisham Ibn al-Hakam (RA). Hisham was well-known for his exceptional ability in debate with the polytheists and the members of the heretical groups. Hisham Ibn al-Hakam (RA) narrated that Imam Musa Ibn Jafar (AS) addressed him, saying: O' Hisham! Almighty God has given glad tidings to the people of reason and understanding to this effect: "Glad tidings unto My servants! Those who hear the sayings and follow the best of it; those are who Allah has guided and those who are the possessors of understanding minds. [39:17-18]" ... O Hisham! It is through reason and understanding that God has completed evidence of proof (in respect of Himself and His religion) for mankind. He has helped His prophets and His messengers by endowing them with the gift of eloquence and guided them to comprehend His overlordship through reason and understanding. As He himself has said: "And your Lord is one God. There is no God but He, the all-merciful, the compassionate. Surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alteration of night and day and the ship that runs in see with profit to men, and the water God sends down from heaven by which He revives the earth after its death and His scattering abroad in it all kinds of crawling creatures, and the turning about of the winds and the clouds suspended between the heaven and the earth surely there are signs for the people of understanding. [2:163-164)" ... O' Hisham! Remember that reason is in alliance with knowledge, as ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ God has said: "And those examples we strike for people, but non comprehends them except those who have knowledge. [29:43]" ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ Shi'ite reference: Usul al-Kafi, Chapter of "Reason and Ignorance", first

part of the Tradition #12 ______________________________________, (Part III) In this part the Imam talks about the meaning of heart in Quran. Imam Musa al-Kazim (AS) continued: ... O' Hisham! Almighty God has said in His book: "Surely in that there is a reminder to him who has a heart [50:37]". Heart means ^^^^^^^^^^^ reason. And God has further said: "Indeed we gave Wisdom to Luqman. ^^^^^^ [31:12]" Wisdom means (the capacity of) understanding and reasoning. O' Hisham! Luqman the Sage, counseled his son: "If you bow before the Truth and the Inevitable, you will be the wisest among people, since a wise man treats himself as little before the Truth and the Inevitable. O' my son! This world is like an unfathomable ocean in which many people have drowned. Make, therefore, the fear of God as your boat in this ocean, your faith as the main plank of the boat, the reliance of God as its sails, the reason as its rower, the knowledge as its Captain, and patience as its anchor." O' Hisham! Everything has its indicator. Man's thoughtfulness is the hall-mark of his reason. The symbol of thoughtfulness is silence. Everything has its climax and the climax of reason is humility (before Allah's commands). It is enough to prove you are ignorant and unwise if you do what Allah has prohibited. ... O' Hisham! Almighty God has mentioned about the people of reason in high terms, and has adorned them with the finest ornaments as per His own words: "He gives Wisdom to whomsoever He wills, and whoever is given the Wisdom, has been given much good; yet non will grasp the message but the possessors of understanding minds. [2:269]" "... And those who rooted firmly in knowledge say: We believe in it; all is from our Lord; yet none remembers, but the men who possess minds. [3:7]" "What? Is he who knows what has been sent down to you from your Lord is the truth, like him who is blind (void of knowledge)? Only the possessors of understanding minds will remember. [13:19]" "(O' Muhammad!) A book We have sent down to you, blessed, that the people of understanding may ponder its signs and so remember. [38:29]" Shi'ite reference: Usul al-Kafi, Chapter of "Reason and Ignorance", a part of Tradition #12 ______________________________________, (Part IV) Tradition #12 continued: Imam Musa al-Kazim (AS) added:

O' Hisham! God has appointed His prophets and messengers to make people wise and mindful of God. The more they accept and believe in these messengers, the greater is their God-consciousness. The wisest among men is he who knows about Allah most. He who is the most perfect in his reasoning enjoys the highest status among people in this life and the life of hereafter. O' Hisham! God has given two proofs for the guidance of mankind - the explicit/external, and the implicit/internal. The explicit/external proof is in the form of prophets, messengers, and the Imams (divinelyappointed guides). And the implicit/internal proof is in the form of reasoning and understanding. O' Hisham! A man of reason does not let his lawful occupations prevent him from thanksgiving/service to Allah, nor does the attraction of unlawful acts wear out his patient. O' Hisham! One who allows three things to be dominated by another set of three things, has actually destroyed his reason. The first thing is to allow the reason to be dominated by excessive hopes and expectations. The second thing is to allow the highest of wisdom to be dominated by excessive utterances. The third thing is to allow his admonition light to be extinguished/dominated by carnal desires. And the one who destroys his reason (by doing the above three) also destroys both his worldly life and his faith. ... O' Hisham! Truth is a sign of obeying God (i.e., truth leads to obey God). And there is NO salvation except through obedience to God. Obedience to Him can only be performed by means of knowledge. And knowledge is a matter of acquisition, and this acquisition is only through reason and intellect. And there can be NO knowledge except through the learned in divinity (`Aalimun Rabbani). And the consciousness of knowledge is through reason and intellect. O' Hisham! Virtuous conduct of a learned man, though limited, is acceptable (to God) at many times of its value. On the contrary, virtuous conduct of a greedy, lustful, and ignorant person is totally rejected. Shi'ite reference: Usul al-Kafi, Chapter of "Reason and Ignorance", a part of Tradition #12 ______________________________________, (Part V) Tradition #12 continued: O' Hisham! Limited material possessions for a man with sound wisdom are perfectly acceptable to him. Whereas unlimited wealth for a man with little wisdom is not at all accepted to him; and this is why such people have actually earned profit of the trade of their life (in this world). (i.e., they will have no share of profit in hereafter). O' Hisham! Lo! A man of reason pondered over the world and its people. He realized that he could NOT get the success in worldly life without hard struggle. Then he pondered over the life of hereafter and again realized that the success in the life of hereafter would NOT also be secured without hard struggle. Thereupon, the man of reason decided in

favor of the struggle which brought eternal success, as compared with the temporary one of the worldly life. O' Hisham! The wise people remain detached from the worldly possessions and its attractions, and they remain attached to the life of hereafter. It is because they have realized that the world attracts/lures and is lured; and also, the life of hereafter lures and is lured. But the world itself runs after the man who struggles for the life of hereafter to the extent that he receives in full the share which has been allotted to him for this worldly life. On the contrary, the one who spends his life and struggles for the worldly gains will continue till such time as the life of hereafter demands its own share in the form of death. It is then that he realizes that he is the loser of both, this life and the hereafter. O' Hisham! Whoever seeks comfort without wealth, and relief free from jealousy, and security for his faith, must implore God from the bottom of his heart for making his reason perfect. ... O' Hisham! Almighty God has related about a group of virtuous people who used to pray: "Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate after You have guided us; and grant us mercy from Your own Presence, for surely You are the Grantor of bounties without measure. [3:8]" In offering this prayer, they realized that human hearts could be deflected and could tend towards blindness and low-ness. Secondly they also understood that those who do not seek guidance and reason from God, are the people who are not afraid of God's (punishments) at all. And whoever is deprived of reason by God, can never be firm and steady in God consciousness in a way as to enable him to realize the truth of God in his own heart. No one can reach this stage unless his deeds corroborate his words... God Almighty never guides the inside of reason, except what comes out of it through deeds and the words. Shi'ite reference: Usul al-Kafi, Chapter of "Reason and Ignorance", a part of Tradition #12 ______________________________________, (Part VI) Tradition #12 continued: O' Hisham! The Commander of Believers, Ali (AS) used to say: "Of signs of a man of reason, one is that he has got three qualities: (1) He replies only when he is questioned; (2) speaks when all others fail; (3) Advises what is suitable for the good of the person (who is talking to). One who has non of these three qualities is stupid." The Commander of Believers (AS) further added: "No one should preside over a meeting except when he possesses either all the three or at least one of the above qualities. If a person presides over a meeting without having all or (at least) one of the above three qualities, he is just stupid!"

O' Hisham! The Commander of Believers (AS) (i.e., Imam Ali), used to say: "Of all the observance and devotions offered to God, the best one is of and by (the people of) reason. Reason of a person does not reach perfection unless it possesses some specific characteristics. The characteristics (of a perfect reason) is that: (1) It gives immunity against disbelief (Kufr) and evil; (2) Virtue and true guidance is expected to follow from such a man (of reason); (3) He exhausts his excessive wealth in good deeds; (4) He protects himself from irresponsible gossips; (5) His share in the worldly life amounts to what is needed for his existence; (6) He is never fed up with knowledge throughout his life; (7) Humiliation in pursuit of (belief, obedience and favor of) God is dearer to him than any honor in pursuit of things other than God; (8) Humbleness is dearer to him than dignity; (9) He regards the little good of others to him as much, and regards any good from him to others as little; (10)He regards people better than himself, and regards himself in his heart as of little consequence. And this is the climax!" ... O' Hisham! He who has no generosity, has no religion, and he who has no reason has no generosity. The greatest man is he who never deems himself equal in value to the worldly life. Verily There is NO lower price for your bodies except to be soled in exchange for Paradise. Hence do NOT sell it for anything less than that. Shi'ite reference: Usul al-Kafi, Chapter of "Reason and Ignorance", a part of Tradition #12 ______________________________________, Majority vs. Minority ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ (Part VII) Tradition #12 continued: ... O' Hisham! God has condemned majority as criterion of truth with the words: ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ "And if you obey the majority of those on earth, they will lead you astray from the path of God. [6:116]" "And if you ask them: Who created the heavens and the earth? Certainly they will say Allah. Say: All praise belongs to Allah. Nay, but the majority of them have no knowledge. [31:25]" {my comment: the majority mentioned in the above verse is the majority of believers since the verse mentions that they believe in Allah} "And if you ask them: Who sends down water from heaven thereby revives the earth after it's death? Certainly they will say Allah. Say: All praise be to Allah. Nay, but most of them have no understanding. [29:63]"

and He said: "... but most of them do not know {6:37, 7:131, 8:34, 10:55, 27:61, 28:57, 39:49, 44:39, 52:47]" and said: "... and most of them have no understanding [5:103]" and said: "... but most of them are not thankful [10:60, 27:73]" O' Hisham! On the contrary, Allah has praised the minority, by saying: "Few of My servants are thankful. [34:13]" and also said: "... And how few they are! [38:24]" and said: "... and those who believed, and they did not believed with him (Noah) but a few [11:40]" Shi'ite reference: Usul al-Kafi, Arabic-English version, part 1, pp 31-49, Tradition #12 ************************************************************************** * Love of a Friend * ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ There was a friend of Amir al-Muminin, a good and believing man, who unfortunately fell into error, and who had to be punished. Imam Ali cut off the fingers of his right hand. The man took hold of his cut hand, with the blood dripping from it, with his left hand and went away. He was then instigated by a seditious Kharijite, who wanted to take advantage of the course of events for his own party and against Imam Ali, so he came up to the man with an utter of compassion and said: Who cutt your hands off? The Chief of the Prophet's successors, he said, the leader of the untainted ones at the Resurrection, the most righteous among the believers, Ali ibn Abi Talib, the Imam of Right Guidance, cutt of the fingers of my right hand ..... the first to reach the Gardens of Felicity, the hero of the brave, the avenger against the promoters of ignorance, the giver of zakat .... the leader on the right and the perfect path, the speaker of what is true and appropriate, the Champion of Mecca, the steadfast exceller. Poor you! said the man, he cutt of your hands, and You extol him thus! Why should I not extol him, replied the companion, now that his friendship is mixed with my flesh and blood? I swear by God that he did not cutt off my hand except with a right that God has established. Such was the love, attraction and the affection of the companion for Ali. ---------Sunni reference: Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, v9 - Under the explanation of the chapter of al-Kahf - 9 ]

Shi'i reference: Bihar al-Anwar, v40, pp 281-282 ************************************************************************ * On Imam Ali (AS) * ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Kufa was now the seat of the Islamic rule. The entire Muslim world with the exception of Damascus looked towards Kufa for guidance. They travelled to Kufa often. Two men were in each other's company on the road to Kufa. One was a muslim and the other was a non muslim. As they progressed, the non muslim traveller asked his companion: I am going further than Kufa, to a small village where I live. Where are You going? His muslim companion said: I live in Kufa They proclaimed happily, discussing various things, helping each other, all in a spirit of cordiality. When they drew near to Kufa, the non muslim took a side road towards his village. Just as he was about to bid farewell, he observed that his muslim companion was coming with him. Didn't you tell me that You are going to Kufa where You lived? The muslim replied Yes of course On this the non muslim inquired Then why were you coming this way? That is the only road leading to Kufa? I know, said the muslim, But we have long been companions. Our Prophet (PBUH&HF) said that when two are companions to each other on a journey they have obligations and duties towards each other. You gave me company and now it is my duty to follow You a few steps and then make a gentle departure. No wonder that Your Prophet (PBUH&HF) managed to spread his faith so quickly. His (PBUH&HF) teachings were indeed great. And then it so happened that once the same non muslim entered Kufa. There he found that his muslim companion had been none other but the Khalifa of his time, Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS). He soon became a muslim and remained the most faithful of companion of the Imam. ---------To judge Your own souls before the time of judging of your action arrives. Make an assessment of Yourself before You are called upon to account for Your conduct in this existence. [ Imam Ali (AS) ---------Sources: Peak Of Eloquence Nahjul Balagha Sermons, Letters and Sayings of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib

Translated by Askari Jafari Islamic Seminary Publications ---------Sources: Unto Thee I grant ........ A collection of historical events from the following books o Tuhaful Uqool - Abu Muhammad al-Harrani o Biharul Anwar - Allamah Majlisi o al-Amthalan Nabawiyyah - Muhammad al-Gharawi o Dastan e Rastan - Allama Murtaza Mutahhari *************************************************************************** Subj: Islamic Scientists 1. Physics (a). Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Haitham ( 965 - 1039 ) * * * * * Know as Alhazen to the West Mathematical evolution of spherical mirrors Rectilinear motion of light and use of lenses Refraction angle variations Magnifying effects of the plano convex lens

(b). Abu Raihan al-Biruni ( 973 - 1051 ) * Gravitational force * Introduced the concept of elliptical shape of cosmelogical bodies (c). Abu'l Fath' Abd al-Rahman al-Khazini * Mechanics and Hydrostatics * Study of the Center of Gravity as applied to balance * Measurement of specific weights of bodies --------2. Mathematics (a). Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarazmi * * * * Known as Khwarizm to the West Rule of algebraic equations Solutions to quadratic and Cubic equations Work on square roots, squares, theory of numbers, solution of the fractional numbers

(b). Abul Fath Umar Ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam * Know for his tranlation of the Rubaiyat * Solutions of equations of cubic order * Wrote on conic geomatry elaborating the solution of algebraic equations * Determined the Trinomial Equation -----------

3. Medicine (a). Abu Ali al-Hussain ibn Sina * * * * Known as Avicenna to the West " Canon of Medicine " best known works Know as the Prince of Physicians to the West Wrote the first description of several drugs and diseases as meningitis.

(b). Hunain ibn Ishaq * Known as Johannitus Onan to the West * Translated 95 Works of Galen from Greek to Syriac and 99 into Arabic * Greatest translator of medical works (c). Muhammad ibn Zakariyya ar Razi * * * * * * * * * Know as Rhazes to the West Student of Ali ibn Rabban al-Tabari Skill in prognosis Treatment of Physoligical shocks An expert on psychosomatic medicine and psychology al-Biruni mentions 56 ( fifty six ) manuscripts on pharmacology Credited for identfying Small Pox and its treatment Use of alcohol as an antiseptic Use of mercury as a purgative for the first time

(d). Ali ibn al-Abbas al-Majusi * Known to the West as Holy Abbas * After Rhazes he was the most outstanding Physician * His works were authoritative till the works of ibn Sina appeared ---------4. Chemistry (a). Jabir Ibn Hayyan * Known as Geber to the West * Wrote on Cosmology Astrology Music Science of numbers and letters * Final authority on Chemistry for many many Centuries * Classified metals into three classifications * Laid the basis of the Acid Base theory (b). Muhammad ibn Zakruyya ar RAzi * Prominent Chemist * Secrets of Secrets - where he describes - chemical processes - experiments he performed himself * The processes were - distillation - calcination - crystallization

- he mentions the use of - beakers - flasks - phials - casseroles - naptha lamps - smelting furnaces - chear tongues etc ..... * Credited for the discovery of many acids (c). Abul Qasim al-Iraqi * Disciples of Jabir's school of thought * Cultivation of Gold - is a continuation of Jabir's work ---------5. Astronomy (a). al-Farghani ( Alfraganus ) * Celebrated astronomer known for his work ' Elements of Astronomy ' (b). Thabit ibn Qurrah * Theory of Oscillatory motion of equinoxes * Addition of ninth sphere to the eight Ptolematic astronomy (c). al-Battani ( Albategnius ) * Discovered the increase of the suns apogee * responsible for the discovery motion of the solar apsides * Best known is ' On the Science of Stars ' (d). al-Biruni * Determination of latitudes and longitudes * Determination of geodetic measurements (e). al-Hazen * Wrote ' Resume of Astronomy ' * Described the motion of the planets (f). ibn Yunus * Solved the problems of spherical trigonometry * First to study the isometric oscillatory motion of a pendulum (g). al-Zarqali * He was an Andulasian observational astronomer * Invented the instrument ' Sahifah " * Responsible for the proof of the motion of the apogee of the sun with respect to the fixed stars. (h). ibn Tufail * Known to the Occident as Abubacer

* An authority on the theory of the system of homocentric spheres (i). Ummar Khayyam * Prepared a calender that was more accurate than the Gregorian one, in use present day. ---------6. Art and Culture (a). Qutab al-Din Shirazi * Known for his work ' On the Highest Understanding of the Knowledge of the Spheres '. (b). Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi * Was well known for his work ' The Shape of the Earth ' ---------7. Philosophy (a). Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi * The First Muslim Philosopher knwo to the West as Alkindus * Also wrote treatise on mathematics, physics, medicine, natural history. * Compiled the first vocabulary in Arabic of technical philosophy (b). followed by Abu Nasr al-Farabi * First Muslim to classify the sciences and delineate the limit of each * Wrote extensively on Aristotle's work * Out of 70 works, more tha half were devoted to Logic * His commentaries on Metaphysics helped Avicenna understand the work * Know for ' Logic of the Orientals ' ---------8. Social Sciences (a). Abd al-Rahman Abu Zaid ibn Khaldun * Known as the ' Philosopher of History ' * His works analyze the cause and the fall of civilizations and cultures. * His work ' Kitab al-Ibar ' discusses the History of the Arabs, Persians, Berbers and their contemporaries who possesed great Powers. ************************************* Subject: * References - Scientists * This message is to the brother who had requested for the references of the Islamic Scientists. 1. Cultivation of Science by the Muslims

by M. Abdul Aleem Siddiqui 2. Incredible Islamic Scientists ( Two Volumes ) by K. Ajram 3. Muslim Contribution to * Civilization ( by Haider Bammate ) * Geography ( by Nafis Ahmed ) * Science and Culture ( by M. Abdur Rahman Khan ) ( These are infact 3 books in total that I have mentioned ) 4. Muslim Contribution to Psycotherapy and Modern Trends by Dr. Syed Azhar Ali Rizvi 5. Science and Islamic Civilization in Islam by Syed Hossain Noser All these books are available at Halalco Books ( Ask for their free Catalog ) 108 East Fairfax Street Falls Church VA 322046 Phone no. 703 532 3202 ( Call till 9 P.M ) Fax no. 703 241 0035 *************************************************************************** Some English Books on Shia Beliefs The first book is of a Sunni brother who was exposed to the Shi'a for the first time, after studying several Sunni madhabs, including Sufism. The book is written from a Sunni prespective. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. "Then I was guided", by Dr. Muhammad al-Teejani al-Samawi "Beliefs of Shi'ite School" by Muhammad Ridha Mudhaffar "Probe into the History of Hadeeth" "Role of Ahlul-bayte in preserving the teaching of Islam" "Imamate," by Dr. Akhtar Rizvi. "A Shi'a Anthology", by Tabatabai "Arabic for English speaking students" "Quran w/commentery+long intro" by S.V. Mir Ahmed Ali (Shia) "Abdullah Ibn Saba and Other Myths," by al-Askari, S. M. "The Awaited Savior," by B. al-Sadr and M. Mutahhari. "An Inquiry Concerning al-Mahdi," by B. al-Sadr. "A Reply To: Belief of Mahdism in Shia Imamia". $6 $6 $6 $8 $12 $5 $25 $25 $12 $3.5 $8 $6

These are a couple of places that have these books: TTQ al-Khoei Foundation More books in English: (718) 446-6472 in NY (718) 297-6520 in NY

13. "Shitte Islam", by Tabatabai (translated into English by Seyyed Hussein Nasr) Note: Allamah Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Husayn Tabatabayi, who passed away recently, was one of the scholars and philosophers of Shia Islam. He is known for many contributions to Islamic scholarship, including _Tafsir al-Mizan_. 14. "An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism", by Moojan Momen Note: The beginning chapters explain the historical events that lead to the Shia-Sunni split. I don't think the author is a Shia himself, but the book is informative. 15. "The Shiites Under Attack", by Mohammad Javad Chirri. Available from: The Islamic Center of America, 15571 Joy Road, Detroit, Michigan, 48228. This book is very interesting and highly recommened for those who would like to study Shia. It removes many doubts and allegations scientifically. Books 13, 14 and 15 are available in many US public and/or university libraries. *************************************************************************** ******************************************** * The Following Book List is for the * * Imam al-Khoei Islamic Foundation * * Phone no. 1 718 297 6520 * * * * al-Khoei Foundation Library, * * 89-89 Van Wyck Expressway, * * Jamaica, NY 11435-4123 U.S.A. * ******************************************** Name Books for Childdren Islamic Teachings Book 1 - 4 Childrens Guide to Islam Religious teachings for Children - Book 2 Imamia Book Of Religious knowledge( For K.G ) Imamia Book Of Religious knowledge ( For Class 1 ) Children's Book A Gift ( Story Book ) Books for Adults **************************** 1) Quran & Quranic Studies: **************************** Essence of the Holy Quran Guide Book of Quran Quran made easy 20.00 2.00 7.00 20.00 7.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 Price in $

Holy Quran - Arabic Text Only!!!!!! Small print -P/B Medium print - H/B Large print - H/B Holy Quran - Arabic Text with English Translation By S V Mir Ahmed Ali - H/B Same P/B By Shakir small P/B Same large " " " H/B By Pikhtall small P/B By Mohammad Sarwar P/B The Quran translation - English text only By Shakir Al_Quran with Spanish Translation H/B Same as above P/B AL_Quran with french Translation H/B ************************ 2) Tradition and Prayers ************************ Peak of Eloquence ( Nahjul Balagha ) ( H/B ) (IS) Nahjul Balagha (H/B) same (P/B) Al-Sahife-Al-Sajjadiya Supplications " Imam Ali (AS) " Al Salat ( English translation ) Same in French Translation The event of the Cloak ( Hadith Kisa ) ****************** 3) Islamic Studies ****************** Man and Universe Islamic Teachings ( An Over View ) Islamic Hijab ( Modest Dress ) What is to be done Man and Islam Jihad and Shahadat The Bible, Quran and Science The Justice of God The Faith of Shia Islam Elements of Islamic Studies The Imamat and Khilafat Know your Islam The Awaited Saviour Man & Faith Rationality of Islam Master & Mastership Then I was Guided Then I was Guided ( IS ) Caliph's Caliphate Islam & School of Economics 18.00 10.00 14.00 15.00 10.00 15.00 10.00 4.95 4.00 5.00 2.50 7.00 3.50 1.50 7.50 6.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 4.00 12.00 20.00 9.00 8.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 4.95 20.00 14.00 25.00 30.00 25.00 6.00 12.00 20.00 8.00 5.00 20.00 10.00 12.00

What do you know about Islamic Economics Temporary Marriage in Islam Trends of History in Quran He, His Messenger and His Message Probe into the history of Hadith What is our Mission PORK, possible reasons for prohibition Music & its Effects Hajj, The Pilgrimage to Mecca Unto Thee I Grant ... Seeker of Truth In Search of truth *************************** 4) Practical Laws and Fiqah *************************** Articles of Islamic Acts ( H/B ) Islamic Dietry Laws Islamic Practical Laws Explained H/B same as above P/B A Short History Of Ilmul Usul Namazee Jamaat Fasting Haj Rules Of Hajj ********** 5) History ********** Kitab al-Irshad P/B Same as above H/B The Voice Of Muman Justice ( on life of hazrat Ali A.S ) The Tragedy of Karbala Muharram and Karbala Khadija - Tul - Kubra Salman al-Farsi The memories of Mr. Humphrey ********* 6) Ethics ********* Lessons form Islam Islam a code of social life Marriage *************** 7) New Arrivals *************** Probe into the history of Ashoora Light within me Manners and Ethics A Textbook of ethics The Voice of Human Justice(PB) Beliefs of Shi'ite School

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Islamic Political System 5.00 Fixed term marriage 5.00 The Martyr 5.00 Tenents of Islam 4.50 The supplications of Kumal 0.50 The Occultation of Twelth Imam (HB) 25.00 Stories form Quran 12.00 Al Mizan 7 Volumes 84.00 Al Kafi 12 Volumes 96.00 A Shi'ite creed 18.00 Polarization around the character of Imam Ali 10.00 Rights of Women in Islam 20.00 Beacons of Light 18.00 Arabic for English speaking students 25.00 Abdullah Ibn Sabah and other Myths 12.00 Immamate 12.00 Islam Jafari rules of personal status 8.00 An Inqury Concerning al-Mahdi 8.00 The Message 18.00 The Last Luminary ( On Twelfth Imam ) 5.00 The Family Life Of Islam 8.00 Contemporary Man and Social Problem 5.00 A Shi'it Anthology 5.00 Hazrat Zahra (PBUH) and heart rendering episode of Fadak 2.00 A REPLY TO " Belief Of Mahdism in Shia Imamia " 6.00 *************************************************************************** * *************************************** * Book List - Tahrike Tarsile Quran * * P.O Box 731115 Corona Station * * Elmhurst, NY 11373 - 1115 * * Tel 718 446 6472 * * Fax 718 779 6532 * *************************************** On how to place an Order Please see the end of the file ------------------------------------------------------The Holy Quran -------------Holy Quran in Arabic with translation in English -----------------------------------------------Holy Quran Ahmed Ali ( Paperback large M. H. Shakir ( Casebound large M. H. Shakir ( Paperback large M. H. Shakir ( Paperback small Maududi ( Casebound large N. J. Dawood ( Paperback large M. Pickthall ( Casebound ) M. Pickthall ( Paperback small Sheikh M. Sarwar ( Paperback T.B Irving ( Casebound large Holy Quran in 30 parts ( Arabic / English Holy Quran ( English / Urdu / Arabic Quran The Final Testament ( Hardback Large ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 20.00 19.95 12.00 6.00 20.00 30.00 15.00 8.95 12.00 30.00 30.00 28.00 30.00

Holy Quran in Arabic with translation & commentary in English ------------------------------------------------------------Holy Quran A. Maududi A. Maududi A. Yusuf Ali A. Yusuf Ali A. Yusuf Ali Ahmadiyya S.V. Mir Ali ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Casebound Paperback Casebound Casebound Paperback Casebound Paperback set of 16 vols ) set of 16 vols ) large ) U.S Ed large ) Saudi Ed large ) large ) large ) 160.00 140.00 20.00 20.00 12.00 20.00 24.95

Holy Quran in Arabic with Translation in Roman Script ----------------------------------------------------Holy Quran M. Pickthall ( Casebound large ) Part 30th of Holy Quran ( Paperback small 5 " x 4 " ) pp 102 Part 30th of Holy Quran ( Paperback large 11 " x 8.5 " ) pp 34 Holy Quran in English Translation Only -------------------------------------The Quran M.H Shakir ( Paperback 7 " x 4 " ) Glorious Quran Pickthall ( Casebound 8 " x 5.25 " ) The Quran T.B Irving ( Paperback large ) Holy Quran in various other languages ------------------------------------Quran Kareem Quran Majeed Quran Majeed El Coran El Coran El Coran Qurani Tukufu Quran Kerim Quran Majid Quran Jamalul Quran Tarjuma Quran Quran Hakeem Quran Majeed French/Arabic/Commentary - Yusuf Ali ( Casebound ) Gukerati only ( Casebound large ) Persian / Arabic ( Hardback 6.75 " x 5 " 1208 pp ) Spanish / Arabic ( Casebound large ) Spanish / Arabic ( Paperback large ) Spanish only ( Paperback ) Swahili / Arabic ( Casebound large ) Turkish / Arabic ( Casebound medium ) Urdu / Arabic Commentary in Urdu English / Urdu / Arabic Urdu / Arabic ( Casebound large ) Urdu / Arabic ( Casebound large ) Urdu / Arabic ( Casebound 7 " x 5 " ) Urdu / Arabic ( 4.5 " x 3.5 " pocket size pp 732 ) Urdu / Arabic ( 6.5 " x 4.0 " pocket size pp 803 ) Urdu / Arabic ( 7.25 " 5. 0 " pp 799 ) 25.00 20.00 15.00 24.00 16.00 12.00 30.00 25.00 35.00 28.00 25.00 30.00 20.00 9.00 7.00 14.00 4.95 12.00 20.00 20.00 4.00 4.00

Titles on Quranic Subjects -------------------------Bible, Quran and Science ( Paperback ) Commandments by Gid in Quran ( Paperback ) Discussion on the errors of Yusuf Ali ( Paperback ) Distortion and Abrogation in the Bible Essence of the Holy Quran ( Paperback ) ( Casebound ) Guide book of the Quran Languages of the Quran Lessons from the Quran Quran made Easy Seeker of Truth ( Selected Suras ) Study of Part 1 of the Quran ( Paperback ) 10.00 12.00 12.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 4.00 15.00 12.00 6.00 5.00 8.00

Understanding the Bible through the Quran Titles on Traditions ( Hadiths ) -------------------------------Al Kafi ( Usoole Kafi ) Volume I - XII ( Paperback ) Al Mizan Vols I - VII ( Casebound ) Al Mizan Vols I - VII ( Paperback ) Saheeh Bukhari Vols I - IX Concise Encyclopedia of Islam Encyclopedia of Seerah Vols I - VII Fazail - e - Amal First Encylopedia of Islam ( Brills ) Vols I - IX ( Paper back ) ( Hard back ) Medicine of Prophet ( Tibbun Nabli ) Mishkatul Masaabih Vol I only Saheeh Muslim Vols I - IV The Right Path Ritadh Saleheen Vols I - II Titles on Islamic History ------------------------Encyclopedia of Seerah ( Hardback ) VII Vols Glance at the life of the Holy Prophet of Islam Holy Prophet ( Bilal Muslim Mission ) Life of Muhammad by Haykal ( Paper back ) Life of Muhammad Islamic foundation Message ( Life of Muhammad ) Muhammad in the Bible by Prof. Abdul Daud ( Paper back ) Muhammad Man Of Allah by Syed Hossein Nasr ( Paper back ) Seal of the Prophet and his Message Stories from the Quran ( Prophet Adam to Muhammad (PBUH&HF) ) Tragedy of Kerbala Tears and Tributes ( On the martydrom of Imam Hussain ) On Imam Mahdi (AS) -------------------Belief of Mahdism in Shia'ism Inquiry concerning al-Mahdi (AS) Last Luminary ( Imam Mahdi (AS) ) Occultation of the Mahdi ( 12th Imam (AS) Paperback ) Reply to the Belief of Mahdism in Shia Imamia On the Twelve Imams (AS) and the Ahl al-Bayt ---------------------------------------------Polarization around the Character of Imam Ali (AS) Role of Ahl al-Bayt in preserving the teachings of Islam Imam Ali Raza ( Shi'ite 8th Imam ) Kitab al-Irshad ( On the Life of the 12 Imams (AS) ) ( Casebound - Hardcover ) ( Paperback ) Hussain the Saviour of Islam ( Paperback ) Brother of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HF) Vols I - II Voice of Human Justice ( On Imam Ali (AS) )

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120.00 140.00 110.00 130.00 24.95 200.00 20.00 360.00 700.00 18.00 8.00 65.00 16.00 40.00

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( Hard back ) ( Paper back ) General Topics -------------Abdullah Ibn Sabah Imam Ali Raza ( Shi'ite 8th Imam ) Ammar Yasir ( Companion of the Prophet ) Anecdotes of a Pious man Beacon's Of Light ( On Prophet & His daughter Fatima ) Biography of the Leaders of Islam Bilal Of Africa by Malik Eshteyani Bilal ( with Illustrations ) by H.A.L Craig Caliphs Caliphate Concise Enclycopedia of Islam Gospel of Barnabas Ghadir - e - Khum ( paper back ) Hijrah ( Islamic Foundation - Paper back ) Imamate Jesus, Prophet of Islam ( Softcover ) ( Hardcover ) Imam Khoemeini ( The Inspirational Force ) Khadijatul Kubra - Wife of the Prophet Salman al-Farsi ( Companion of the Prophet ) Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam ( Brill's ) Then I was guided ( al-Tijani al-Samawi ) ( Paperback ) ( Casebound ) Letters and Sermons of Imam Ali (AS) --------------------------------------

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12.00 7.00 8.00 4.50 16.00 8.00 7.00 9.00 8.00 24.95 10.00 1.50 4.00 12.00 8.00 12.00 25.00 5.95 5.95 95.00 4.00 7.95

Nahjul Balagha - Peak of Eloquence ( Paperback ) 12.00 ( Casebound ) 18.00 ( Spanish Paperback ) 14.00 ( Spanish Casebound ) 25.00 ( Arabic / English Casebound ) 25.00 Sayings and the Wisdom of Imam Ali (AS) 15.00 On Shia'ism ----------Origin of Shia Islam Shia ( Allama Tabatai Casebound ) Shi'ite Anthology Shi'ite Creed Faith of Shia Islam Titles on the Creator ( God ) ----------------------------God and his attributes God Arises ( Evidence of God in Nature and Science ) He, His Messenger and His Message Justice of God Master and Mastership Master and Mastership ( Small Paperback ) Principles of Islamic Ideology 12.00 15.00 6.00 4.95 5.00 2.00 12.00 10.00 6.00 12.00 18.00 4.95

Seal of the Prophet and His Message Titles on Mankind and Death --------------------------Eternal Life by Allama Murtaza Mutahheri Journey of the Unseen World Life after Death Life, death and the Life after Light within Me Man and Faith by Allama Murtaza Murahheri Man and Islam by Dr. Ali Shariati Man and Universe by Allama Murtaza Mutahheri Mannes and Etiquettes Martyr ( Murtaza Mutahheri ) Medicine of the Prophet Muslim Names Our Philosophy ( Hard back ) ( Paper back ) Rationality of Islam by Allama Murtaza Mutahheri Resurrection, Judgement and the Hereafter Road to Faith Spectacle of death Spiritual discourses by Allama Murtaza Mutahheri Submission Textbook of Ethics What is to be done by Dr. Ali Shariati Whose Rule - God or man? Youth and Morals Titles on Islamic Laws and Acts ( Fiqah ) ----------------------------------------Articles on Islamic Acts Congregational Prayers Dinniyat Elements of Islamic Studies Everday Fiqh ( Islamic Laws ) Vols I - II Fatwas ( Islamic Rulings ) on Hajj - Manaske Hajj by Ayatulla Gulpeygani by Ayatulla Shirazi Furoo Uddin Fasting - Regulations and Practices Fiqh as Sunna ( Islamic Laws ) Vols I - V Hard back Hajj - Reflections on its Rituals by Dr. Ali Sharaiti Hajj - A Concise Pocket Guide Hajj Umra - A Concise Poecket Guide Khums ( Islamic Tax ) Salaat ( in Spanish Language ) ( in Urdu ) Taqleed - It's meaning and Reality Tendency of Rationalizing the Laws of Shariah Titles on Supplications ----------------------Dua's and Aamal Event of the Cloak ( Hadith e Kisa )

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Mafatihul Jinaan Majmou ( Gujrati ) Majmu'a Wazeefah Supplication of Kumail Selected Supplications ( Prayers and Salutations ) Saheefah Sajadiyyah ( prayers by Imam Zainul Abidin ) Saheefah Sajadiyyah ( Casebound 83 Supplications ) Tohfatus Sa'emeen ( Supplications for Ramazan ) Ziyarat al-Jamea Titles on Marriages ------------------Marriage - A Step towards fulfillment in life Matrimonial education in Islam Principles of Marriage ( Family Ethics ) Titles for Women ---------------Ideal Women Islamic Modest Dress Titles on al-- Islam -------------------Concise Encyclopedia of Islam First Course in Islam Guideline of Employment by Muslim Community Inquiries about Islam Introducing Islam to non - Muslims Introduction to Islam Islam - A Code of Social Life Islam - Beliefs and Teachings Islam the Straight Path Islamic Teachings by Allama Tabatai Know Your Islam Lessons from Islam Miracles of Islamic Sciences Muslims and non Muslims Face to Face Muslims contributuons to Science and Culture Our Philosophy ( Hardback ) ( Paperback ) Pillars of Islam Rationality of Islam Religion of Islam ( Maulana Muhammad Ali Ahmadiya ) Spirit of Islam Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam Sufism in the View of Islam Teachings of Islam Towards Understanding Islam ( Maududi ) What Everyone Should Know About Islam and Muslims Titles on Politics -----------------Babri Mosque of India Dispute Factors of Islamic Weakness Islam and Intolerance ( Reply to Salman Rushdie ) Islam and Revolution ( Writings of Ayatulla Khoemini )

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Islamic Fundamentilism Makkah MAssacre and the Future of the Haramain Qualities of a Thinker Missionary Terrorism - Why America is the Target They Dare To Speak Out ( On Israel's Lobby ) Titles on Economics ------------------Economic Development in Islamic Framework Iqtisad - Islamic Alternative for Economics Islamic Jurisprudence in Modern World What do You Know about Islamic Economics Iqtisaduna ( Translated as Our Economics by Ayatullah Baqir as Sadr ) Vols I - IV Titles on Dietry Law -------------------Comprehensive Lsit Of Halal Food Products Islamic Dietary Laws Explained Muslim Guide to Food Ingredients Pork - Possible reason for it's prohibitions Cultural Atlas of Islam by Ismail Faruqi Aalim Software ( Database ) Quran and Hadith Audio Cassettes ---------------

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5.00 4.00 8.00 4.00 36.00

8.00 12.00 12.00 3.50 95.00 115.00

* 45 cassettes ( C - 60 ) full Quran read by Sheikh Mehmood alHusri in Arabic, translated by M. Pickthall and spoken in English by Aslam Azhar Price 75.00 * 45 cassettes ( C - 60 ) full Quran recited by Qari Shakir Qazmi in Arabic, translation by M. Pickthall and spoken English by Aslam Azhar Price 75.00 * 45 Cassettes ( C - 60 ) full Quran read by Maulana Ehtishamul Haqq Thanvi in Arabic and spoken in Urdu translation by Maulana Saleemudin Shamsi Price 75.00 * 75 cassettes ( C - 60 ) full Quran read by Qari Ghulam Rasul in Arabic with Urdu translation by Muhammad Wajih as Seema Irfani Price 125.00 * 15 cassettes ( C - 60 ) full Quran read by Qari Khushi Muhammad in Arabic Only Price 40.00

* 30 cassettes ( C - 60 ) full Quran by Sheikh Huzafyi Price 50.00 * C - 30 cassettes of recitation by Sheikh Abdul Basit Price 2.50 * Quran on the CD Price 25.00 ---------They do have a seperate list for Arabic titles. Please call them up for the latest list available. The above list is however 6 months old. For delivery and mailing they do ship Overseas. And in case You are looking a specific title, please have the following information ready * the name of the author * the publisher * the ISBN number and they shall be able to help you track it down. *************************************************************************** Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HF) said: "He who wants this world should seek knowledge; he who wants the afterlife should seek knowledge; and he who wants both should also seek knowledge." al-Imam Ali (AS) said: "Through knowledge, one knows Allah (SWT) and is able to worship Him (SWT) properly." *************************************************************************** -+-----------------------------| Ali Abbas | | Graduate Student | Engineering Management Dept. | George Washington University | E mail: abbas@seas.gwu.edu +------------------------------