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A Polynomial Approximation to the Neuronal Action Potential As Governed by the Hodgkin-Huxley Equations

Stathis Leondopulos and Evangelia Micheli-Tzanakou


Computational Intelligence Laboratories Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, 617 Bowser Road, Piscataway NJ 08854 cil.rutsers.edu Abstract - A numerical solution to the Aodgkiu-Aurley (Ha) equations is obtained with ion conductance variability as a forcing function. Next, a modified version of the ALOPEX algorithm is employed to fit a 6'L degree polynomial quotient to the numerical solution.
Index Terms Hodgklo-Huxley 0, uumerical solution, polynomial quotient approximation, action potential, ALOPEX.

h, = h , ,

h, - hk., . + -* ,

(3)

r*

1. INTRODUCTION The trans-membrane potential of excitable tissue cells was studied extensively by A.L. Hodgkm and A.F. Huxley in the late 1940's,resulting in the Hodgkin-Huxley (Em) equations I. that model the time-response of this potential [ ] The HH equations are non-linear time-variant differential equations with computationally demanding numerical solutions. Consequently, simplifications were introduced by Noble, Fitzhugh, Nagumo, and recently by Duckett and Barkley [2]. However, even the simplified equations are nonlinear with involved analytical solutions [3]. Clark and Plonsey proposed an approximation to the neuronal action potential by fitting the "tri-phasic" waveform to a sum of gaussian pulses [ ] In the present study, a similar 4. approach is made, with the exception that a polynomial quotient serves as the model, while the ALOPEX algorithm is used as the optimization technique. The resulting approximation can be used in simulations, preserving accuracy without the computational cost associated with the HH equations. 1 . SIMULATION 1

Here, the trans-membrane current is modeled as =gNa'(VnJA4 -VNa)+gr '(VnJH -&)+gL 'n4 (k ' J -K)' Finally, the trans-membrane potential is calculated as

(7)
(8)

V,,

= V,,,

- -,1 Imk ,A t .
C#"
~~

_ . . _ . _ I _ _ . _ _ _ _

TABLE 1

.-... _I _ I_ _
~

.. ..

. :

D i m : .......................................................................................................................
~

Timeresolution Patchlength

'
I

.............. *
~

hr D .............
~

50.104 i cm .............................................................

..................................

V, I ............................

c, j j fi/cm* ..............................................................................
- 15
.. . .............................

100.10-' cm PatchDmeter ......................................................................................................

I
~

i............................................... mV Restpotential. . . . . . . .
~

Capacitance .......................................... NArest potential


..................

VK ......................................

v,,-12

"....I .....

..................................
......................

mV

.................................

j
~

V +10.6 , ' V .....................................


..................................................................

.i . .......................

A temporal data set is obtained 60m a numerical solution to the HH equations for a single patch of cell membrane using the constants shown in Table 1, including computational resolution, membrane capacitance, Nernst potentials and maximum ionic conductances. Also, using the well-horn associative parameters labeled as n, m, and h with corresponding time constants, 7. and T ~ , rest values n . T and , m and h, (see [ ] ,and also defining external conductance , 7) components as gNqm and g x , the HH variables are computed for the k iteration as: ' *

G,,

G,

120 36
0.3

1
~

mV mV ."

j
~

........................

Krestpotential Leakagepotential Kconductance

.!
~

......

mS/cm* ms/cmi

...............................................................

Naconductance

...........................................

G,

:.... ....................................

mS/cmz

....................................................

Leakageconduct.

nI. -MODEL
The approximation of continuous and differentiable functions by polynomials has been known since the work of Taylor and Newton on interpolation 1 1 Also, the Weierstrass 5. Approximation Theorem states that any continuous function on a closed and bounded interval can be uniformly

0-7803-8285-4/04/$20.00 02004 IEEE

75

20.

~...
I

-~

4.(1-4364~+74464.(1-M1592+7298
~...~
~

qoi + I ' 3
OI

'

r.

The initial approximation of the action potential comes

from converling observed characteristics into polynomial


coefficients. Specifically, if Po(rest), p,,, beak relative to rest), w (width) and T (time delay) of the mrh , , pulse are given, then the associated offset 2"' degree polynomial quotient is

rv. ALOPEX
ALOPEX is a semi-random parallel optimization algorithm. That is, variables can be optimized in parallel to satisfy the requirements of a global cost function, while each iteration includes artificially generated random components [SI. Specifically, given a continuous and differentiable positive semi-defmite functionfofJvariables to be optimized, the cost function at iteration k is then (11) JG = f(wo,*.+VI,* ..... W,.k . Furthermore, each variable wj,* v:Oq.q is updated on iteration k by one random and one deterministic component. nta Speciiically, given the random component of Awj,*has i i i l and fmal magnitudes (aj,o ajJ},while the deterministic ) component of A q , i has initial and final magnitudes ( ~ j f .i J~ , then aj.r and yj,* decay at a rate aRt and are defmed as (12) aj,*= 0j.f +( o ,. and
I

Figrrre 1. ?'he numetice/ solurion Io the XX equations ( ) md the +, polpornid qpmximtion 6).

The arrows in Fig. 1 point to the regions of maximum deviation ofp..(t) fromp(t). Moreover, simulations of the HH model have shown that the values ofp(f) near regions A and B are influenced significantly by the maximum values of the Na and K conductances. Thus, an even better fit would conceptually be possible for p.(t) under different maximum values of the Na and K conductances. VI. CONCLUSION A time-dependent pulse in the Na conductance parameter can elicit an action potential in the HH model. Secondly, the modified ALOPEX algorithm can fit a 6* degree polynomial quotient to within 1.52% error of the HH solution. Finally, different Na and K maximum conductances than those commonly reported may yield a closer fit.

-d2

(1% Finally, given the component fj,r is a binary random variable ofvalues (-l,l), then wi,*iscalculated as
Y1.t

= I . .+(Y,,o-Y,./)e-*^" , /

REFERENCES
[I] Hodgkis A.L. Huxley, A.F. "A quantitative description of membntne nmcnt and ifs application to conduction and excitation in nerve:' 1. Physiol. e n d . ) 1 1 7 500.44, (1952). I21 oraham Ducken, Dwight BarLley, "Modeling tbe Dynamie~of Cardiae Action Potentials," Physical Review Letters, "85, n4,July 2000. [3] IMAJoumalofAppliedMalh-ti=s.v48nZ 1992p 107-115. 141 John Clark and Robert Plonsey, "A Malhematid Evaluation ofthe Core Conductor Mcdel,"Biophysieal Jomal v.6,.1966, p.95. [SI Envin Krcywig, "'Advanced Engineering Mathematics," J o b Wiley &
son*. 1999.

v.

RESULTS

For a single membrane patch, the response to a 0.5 ms pulse of Na conductance at time -Oms (peak = 0.372 mS/cm) is shown in figure 1. An initial approximation of error 5.64% was obtained by substituting the parameters of table 2 into equations (9) and (IO). Next, the optimization algorithm brought the error to 1.52%at iteration 13354 as seen in figure 1.

;.PI=..!? mv ........

TABLE 2 ......................................................................................
........... ....y2= 4

i.w1.=..? . ?
i -

;.P,=..-!OmV
i ... 44 ms TI=
~

........................................

.............." . P 3= F ...................
~

i T,= 41 ms . . .
i

2-3-=6o_nts

.w3.=..!9,mr .................... .
"

I..?!!

i. .____.-:
.~..;

............

.,I

WcisslciS Eric W. "Weimwss Approrimation Theom" Eric Weisstsin'r World of Mathematier. http:Nmathworldwolf.cm &VeierstrasrAppmximationTbeod~. Sid Deutach, Evangelia Micheli-TzanaLou, 'Hmoelectric Systems." New York Univesily Res, 1981. E Haah and E. Tzamkou, "ALOPEX: A stmhastic method for . dd&g visual receptive fields," Vision Rewarch, V o l m 14, Issue 12, D e c e m k 1974, Pages 1475-1482.

Po=-72mV ......................

............................................

............

76

approximated by polynomials to any degree of accuracy [a]. In this study, tbe action potential curve p(t) in fig. 1 is approximated by a 6* degree polynomial quotient. Or, more intuitively, the summation of three 2d degree polynomial quotients (time pulses) offset by a constant. That is,

The best approximation for this case is then given by


pJ1)=-701 I+

114 4+410@'+205

IIW

718
.....

(15)
...................

i - ,MO
I.

I ..........

..