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Chapter 43: the immune system Innate immunity: rapid response to a broad range of pathogens (microbes), not specific,

, takes care of most issues. External defenses: physical barriers-skin, mucous membranes, secretions Internal defenses: phagocytic cells, anti microbial proteins, inflammatory response, natural killer cells Acquired immunity: slower responses to specific microbes; 2 layers of defense: Humoral response (antibodies) Cell mediated response (cytoxic lymphocytes)

A. Innate immunity: Found in all animals External defenses: Physical barriers: prevent bacteria to get into the body( skin, exoskeleton, lining of trachea...) Chemical barriers: lysozyme in tears, mucus, saliva, etc HCl in gastric juice Internal defenses: immune cells respond to molecules found on fungi and bacteria that are not found in the self. Phagocytic cells: consume other cells by endocytosis Hemocytes in hemolymph of insects. If they recognize that doesn't belong in there they eat them and spit them out in bits and pieces. Anti microbial proteins: toxic to invading cells, but not toxic to self. They circulate through the body Inactivate or kill bacteria, fungi... Innate immunity of vertebrates: Phagocytic cells Leukocytes: Neutrophils: 60-70% of leukocytes

Monocytes: 3-8% of leukocytes- immature form of leukocytes, they mature into macrophages. Some take up residence in variety of different tissues Some found in spleen and lymph nodes Eosinophils: 2-4% of leukocytes, they do do endocytosis Enter parasitic worms and release destructive enzymes Basophils:0.5%-1% of leukocytes-they don't do phagocytosis Release signal that intensify the inflammatory response Lymphocytes: 20-25% of leukocytes T cells: in acquired immunity B cells: in acquired immunity Natural killer cells: destroy diseased self cells Dendritic cells: found in connective tissues, play important role in acquired immunity Anti microbial proteins: Interferons: trigger anti-virus defenses Complement system: cascade of reactions that creates holes in the plasma membrane of invading cells Inflammatory response: if invaders get passed the skin(external defense) Macrophages Mast cells: Detect bacteria and release chemical signals, called histamine, which increases of blood flow. Increased permeability: allow fluid to leak out Redness, heat, swelling Neutrophils and monocytes will squeeze out of capillaries. They are attracted to the chemical signals. They join attack against bacteria. A. Acquired immunity Unique among animals Integrated with innate immunity Lymphatic system

Lymph: interstitial fluid that gets into lymphatic capillary Lymphatic vessels: conduct lymph, they could go only one way because of 1-way valves Lymph gets dumped into veins, back to the blood Spleen Packed with lymphocytes and macrophages Stores lymphocytes, erythrocytes and thrombocytes Removes worn out erythrocytes Globins and iron from hemoglobin are recycled Heme groups are converted into bilirubin Bilirubin is removed from the blood by the liver Liver modifies bilirubin and excretes it into bile Jaundice is excess bilirubin in the blood. It is responsible of the yellow color in bruises Breakdown product gives feces its brown color It is also removed from the blood by the kidneys (responsible of yellow color of urine, not urea which is white) Acts like a lymph node Lymphocytes come in 2 types: B and T cells B cells mature in bone marrow T cells mature in thymus Each of the lymphocytes have on their surface 1000s of antigen receptors Each receptor has an antigen binding site (chemically sticky parts) Epitope : specific sites on antigen(Protein) where potentially an antigen binding site could stick Each lymphocyte (B or T) has about 100000 antigen receptors on its surface ( all the same) Each human has 1000000 different B cells and about 10000000 different T cells (each with a different antigen receptor) As these cells mature, they mutate themselves Fig 43.13 A Helper T cell will make copies of itself immediately after it contacts the MHC, it doesn't attack anything, it's role is to activate cytotoxic T cells and B cells Cytotoxic T cells attack host cells that are cancerous or infected by virus. Activated by helper T cells and antigen presented by cancerous/infected cell

It will secrete proteins that rupture the plasma membrane of host cells (fig 43.17) B cell antigen receptors can bind to antigens that are free or on a pathogen B cells differ in antigen specificity Once it binds to antigen it will make copies of itself Some of the copies will become memory cells The rest will become plasma cells B cells are the only ones that produce antibodies Binding of antibodies to antigens inactivate antigens by Viral neutralization (blocks binding to host) and opsonization( increase phagocytes) Agglutination of antigen bearing particles, such as microbes Precipitation of soluble antigens =>enhance phagocytes Activation of complement system and pore formation in plasma membrane 43.20

Allergies Inappropriate response to antigen When allergen binds to IgE antibody, it stimulates mast cells to release histamines, which causes an inflammatory response ( take antihistamine to stop it) Autoimmune disease Vaccination Injecting antigens to make memory cells, so when a virus is contacted it would take less time to fight it.