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Introduction Local head losses occur in the pipes when there is a change in the area of the crosssection of the pipe (enlargement, contraction), a change of the direction of the flow (bends), and application of some devices on the pipe (vanes). Local head losses are also named as minor losses. Minor losses can be neglected for long pipe systems. Minor losses happen when the magnitude or the direction of the velocity of the flow changes. In some cases the magnitude and the direction of the velocity of the flow may change simultaneously. Minor losses are proportional with the velocity head of the flow and is defined by,

V2 2g

hL =

(3.1)

Where is the loss coefficient. 3.2. Abrupt Enlargement There is certain amount of head loss when the fluid moves through a sudden enlargement in a pipe system such as that shown in Fig. (3.1) Impuls-momentum equation is applied to the 1221 control volume along the horizontal flow direction. The forces acting on to the control volume are,

r a) Pressure force on the 1-1 cross-section, F1 = p1 A1 s b) Pressure force on the 2-2 cross-section, F2 = p2 A2 r c) Pressure force on the 3-3 cross-section, F3 = p3 ( A2 A1 ) r Laboratory experiments have verified that p3 = p1 , F3 = p1 ( A2 A1 ) r d) Momentum on the 1-1 cross-section, M 1 = QV1 r e) Momentum on the 2-2 cross-section, M 2 = QV2

Energy Line

hL =

(V1 V2 )2

2g

V 2g

H.G.L

2 1

V 22 2g p2

p1

Flow

3 1

QV1 p1A1

2

p2A2 QV2

p1(A2 -A1)

Fig. 3.1. Neglecting the shearing force on the surface of the control volume,

g p1 p 2

Q (V2 V1 ) gA2

Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2 V2 = V1 A1 A2

Substituting this,

p1 p 2 = A 1 V1 A1V1 1 V1 A1V1 gA2 A2

p1 p 2

V2 = 1 g

A 2 A 1 1 A2 A2

(3.2)

Applying Bernoulli equation between cross-sections 1-2 for the horizontal pipe flow,

V12 p 2 V22 = + + hL 2g 2g = V22 V12 + hL 2g 2g

p1

p1 p 2

2 V12 A1 A V2 V2 1 = 2 1 + hL 2 g A2 A2 2 g 2 g A V V1 A1 = V2 A2 1 = 2 A2 V1 2 V12 V22 V12 V2 V2 + hL = 2 g 2 g g V1 V1 2 2 2 V V V VV hL = 1 2 + 2 1 2 g 2g 2g g

hL =

hL =

(V1 V2 )2

2g

(3.3)

This equation is known as Borda-Carnot equation. The loss coefficient can be derived as,

V12 V2 V22 1 2 + 2 hL = 2g V1 V1 2 2 V A A hL = 1 1 2 1 + 12 2g A2 A2

2

A = 1 1 A 2

2

(3.4)

(3.5)

The loss coefficient is a function of the geometry of the pipe and is not dependent on to the flow characteristics.

Special case: Connecting to a reservoir,

Energy Line

V12/2g

H.G.L.

A2 A1

Fig. 3.2.

Since the reservoir cross-sectional area is too big comparing to the area pipe crossA section, A2 >> A1 , 1 0 , the loss coefficient will be equal to zero, =0. The head loss is A2 then, V12 hL = 2g (3.6)

Dead Zone

1

a 2

V1

A1

pa

A2 2

V2

Fig. 3.3

Derivation of the loss coefficient may be done by following these steps. a) Bernoulli equation between 1, C, and 2 cross-sections by neglecting the head loss between 1 and C cross-sections is for the horizontal pipe system, V12 p C VC2 p 2 V 22 = + = + + hL 2g 2g 2g

p1

Q = V1 A1 = VC AC = V 2 A2

( p C p 2 )A2 = Q(V2 VC )

Solving these 3 equations gives us head loss equation as,

hL =

(VC V2 )2

2g

2

V2 A h L = 2 1 2 2g A C Where,

(3.7)

CC =

AC = Coefficient of contraction A2

(3.8)

2

1 = 1 C C

(3.9)

V 22 hL = 2g

CC contraction coefficients, and loss coefficients have determined by laboratory experiments depending on the A2/A1 ratios and given in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1.

A2/A1 CC

0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 0.63 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.71 0.76 0.81 0.89 1.00 0.41 0.36 0.30 0.24 0.18 0.12 0.06 0.02 0

Example: At an abrupt contraction in a pressured pipe flow, Q = 1 m3/sec, D1 = 0.80 m, D2 = 0.40 m. Calculate the local head when contraction coefficient is CC = 0.60. Solution: Since discharge has been given,

V2 = A2 =

2 D 2

=

0.40 2

= 0.1257 m 2

hL = Or,

(VC V2 )2

2g

(13.26 7.96)2

19.62

= 1.43m

1 V2 hL = 1 2 C 19.62 C

2 7.96 1 hL = = 1.44m 1 0.60 19.62 2

Loss coefficient depends on the geometry of the pipe connection to the reservoir. The loss coefficient is 0.50 for square-edge entrance. Fig. (3.4)

0.5V2/2g

V2/2g

R.E.L. H.G.L. V

Fig. 3.4

h L = 0.5

V2 2g

(3.10)

The head loss at the pipe fittings, bends and vanes is calculated with the general local loss equation (Equ. 3.1). The loss coefficients can be taken from the tables prepared for the bends and vanes.

Example 3.1. Two reservoirs is connected with a pipe length L. What will the elevation difference between the water surfaces of the reservoir? Draw the energy and hydraulic grade line of the system.

0.5V2/2g V2/2g

E.L.

H=?

H1

H.G.L.

H2

L= Pipe Length

Fig. 3.5

V12 p 2 V 22 z1 + + = z2 + + + hL 2g 2g p1

Since the velocities in the reservoirs are taken as zero, V1 = V2 =0, and the pressure on the surface of reservoirs is equal to the atmospheric pressure,

z1 z 2 = h L

1) Local loss to the entrance of the pipe, h L1 = 0.5 2) Head loss along the pipe, h L2 = JL = f V2 L D 2g

V2 2g

The total loss is then will be equal to the elevation difference between the reservoir levels, z1 z 2 = h L z1 z 2 = 0.5 z1 z 2 = 1.5 V2 f V2 V2 + L+ 2g D 2g 2g V2 f V2 + L 2g D 2g

Numerical Application: If the physical characteristics of the system are given as below, what will be difference between the reservoir levels? Calculate the ratio of local losses to the total head loss and give a physical explanation of this ratio.

0.5V2/2g=0.20m V2/2g=0.41m

E.L.

H=82.62

z1

H.G.L.

z2

L= 2000m

Figure 3.6

4Q 4 0 .2 = 2 D 0 .3 2 V = 2.83 m sec V=

The velocity head, V 2 2.83 2 = = 0.41m 2 g 19.62 The elevation difference is then,

V2 f V2 + L 2g D 2g 0.02 2000 0 .2

z1 z 2 = 1.5

10

The ratio of local losses to the total head loss is, 0.62 = 0.0075 82.62 As can be seen from the result, the ratio is less than 1%. Therefore, local losses are generally neglected for long pipes.

3.4 Conduit Systems

The other applications which are commonly seen in practical applications for conduit systems are, a) b) c) d)

3.4.1 The Three-Reservoir Problems, Parallel Pipes, Branching Pipes, Pump Systems. The Three-Reservoir Problems

Consider the case where three reservoirs are connected by a branched-pipe system. The problem is to determine the discharge in each pipe and the head at the junction point D. There are four unknowns (VAD, VBC, VDC and pD/ ), and the solution is obtained by solving the energy equations for the pipes (neglecting velocity heads and including only pipe losses and not the minor losses) and the continuity equation. The physical characteristics of the system such as lengths, diameters and f friction factors of the pipes, the geometric elevations of the water surfaces at the reservoirs and the piezometric head at the junction D are given. The reservoirs are located as, zA> zB> zC. There are three possible solutions of this problem, p a) z + = z A D

zB E.L zA B

pD

zD D

zC

Figure 3.7

11

Q AD = 0, V AD = 0, J AD = 0

Q BD = Q DC

The relations between the reservoir levels B, and D and the piezometric head at the junction D are,

z B h LBD = z D +

pD

= z C + h LCD

zB zD J BD = L BD

pD

z B z A h LBD = L BD L BD

(3.11)

J=

fV 2 D2g

V BD

2 gD BD J BD = f BD

12

(3.12)

Q BD = ABDV BD

12

The energy line slope, the velocity and the discharge of the CD pipe are then,

J CD =

12

b)

zB E.L. zA B

pD

zD D

zC

Figure 3.7

Q Bd = Q AD + Q DC

The relations between the reservoir levels B, A, and C and the piezometric head at the junction D are,

p z B h LBD = z + = z A + h L AD = z C + h LCD D

13

p zB z + D h LBD = = L BD L BD p z + zA hL D = = AD L AD L AD

J BD

J AD

p z + zC hL D = = CD LCD LCD

c)

zB E.L. zA B

pD

zD

zC

Figure 3.8

Q BD + Q AD = QCD

The relations between the reservoir levels B, A, and C and the piezometric head at the junction D are,

p z B h LBD = z + = z A h L AD = z C + h LCD D

14

p zB z + D h LBD = = L BD L BD p zA z + D h L AD = = L AD L AD p z + zC hL D = = CD LCD LCD

J BD

J AD

J CD

Example: The water surface levels at the A and C reservoirs are respectively zA=100 m and zC= 70 for the given three-reservoir system. Reservoirs A and B are feeding reservoir C and QA = QB . Calculate the water surface level of the reservoir B. Draw the energy line of the system. The physical characteristics of the pipes are,

zB=89.47m

E.L. zA=100m B

pD

zD D

zC=70m

Figure 3.9 Pipe AD BD DC Length (m) 500 1000 1500 Diameter (mm) 150 200 250 f 0.03 0.02 0.03

15

Since,

Q1 = Q 2 = Q Q3 = 2Q

2

fV 2 L fL 4Q = 2 gD 2 g D 2 8f LQ 2 hL = g 2 D 5 hL =

2 8 f 1 L1Q12 f 2 L2 Q 2 hL = + 5 g 2 D15 D2 2 2 1500 (2Q ) 8 0.03 500 Q 30 = + 9.81 2 0.15 5 0.25 5 2 30 = 31566Q

2 1

2 3

16

h L1 = h L3

hl1 + hL3 = 15.43 + 14.57 = 30.00m For the pipe 2, Q1 = Q 2 = 0.0308 m 3 sec V2 = 4Q 2 = 4 0.0308 = 0.98 m sec 0.20 2

2 2

h L2 =

Water surface level of the reservoir B is, p z + = z A hL1 = 100.00 15.43 = 84.57 m D p z + = z C + h L3 = 70.00 + 14.57 = 84.57 m D p z B = z + + h L2 = 84.57 + 4.90 = 89.47m D

3.4.2 Parallel Pipes

Consider a pipe that branches into two parallel and then rejoins as in Fig.. . In pipeline practice, looping or laying a pipeline parallel to an existing pipeline is a standard method of increasing the capacity of the line. A problem involving this configuration might be to determine the division of flow in each pipe given the total flow rate. In such problems, velocity heads, and minor losses are usually neglected, and calculations are made on the basis of coincident energy and hydraulic grade lines.

17

hL1 = hL2

PB/ Q

Figure 3.10

Evidently, the distribution of flow in the branches must be such that the same head loss occurs in each branch; if this were not so there would be more than one energy line for the pipe upstream and downstream from the junctions. Application of the continuity principle shows that the discharge in the mainline is equal to the sum of the discharges in the branches. Thus the following simultaneous equations may be written.

h L1 = h L2 Q = Q1 + Q 2

(3.13)

12

V1 f 2 L2 D1 = V 2 f 1 L1 D 2

(3.14)

18

Expressing the head losses in terms of discharge through the Darcy-Weisbach equation, fV 2 L fL 16Q 2 = D 2 g 2 gD 2 D 4

hL

16 fL hL = 2 5 2 gD h L = KQ 2

Q2

(3.14)

2 K 1Q12 = K 2 Q 2

Q = Q1 + Q 2

(3.15)

Solution of these simultaneous equations allows prediction of the division of a discharge Q into discharges Q1 and Q2 when the pipe characteristics are known. Application of these principles allows prediction of the increased discharge obtainable by looping an existing pipeline.

Example: A 300 mm pipeline 1500 m long is laid between two reservoirs having a difference of surface elevation of 24. The maximum discharge obtainable through this line is 0.15m3/sec. When this pipe is looped with a 600 m pipe of the same size and material laid parallel and connected to it, what increase of discharge may be expected? Solution: For the single pipe, using Equ. (3.14),

h L = KQ 2 24 = K 0.15 2 K = 1067

19

1 B, LB=600m

24m

Figure 3.11

L2 600 K= 1067 L 1500 K A = 427 KA =

L L2 K L 1500 600 K = 1067 1500 K = 640

K =

For the looped pipeline, the headloss is computed first in the common section plus branch A as,

2 h L = K Q 2 + K A Q A 2 24 = 640 Q 2 + 427 Q A

(1)

2 24 = 640 Q 2 + 427 Q B

(2)

20

In which QA and QB are the discharges in the parallel branches. Solving these by eliminating Q shows that QA=QB (which is expected to be from symmetry in this problem). Since, from continuity,

Q = Q A + QB QA = Q 2

2 24 = 640 (2Q A ) + 427 Q A 2 2 24 = 2987Q A

Q A = 0.09 m 3 sec Q = 0.18 m 3 sec Thus the gain of discharge capacity by looping the pipe is 0.03 m3/sec or 20%.

Example: Three pipes have been connected between the points A and B. Total discharge between A and B is 200 lt/sec. Physical characteristics of the pipes are,

f 1 = f 2 = f 3 = 0.02 L1 = L2 = L3 = 1000m D1 = 0.10m, D 2 = 0.20m, D3 = 0.30m Calculate the discharges of each pipe and calculate the head loss between the points A and B. Draw the energy line of the system.

hL= 13.33m

2 A 3 B

Figure

21

Solution: Head losses through the three pipes should be the same.

h L1 = h L2 = h L3 J 1 L1 = J 2 L2 = J 3 L3 Since the pipe lengths are the same for the three pipes, J1 = J 2 = J 3 J= 8 f Q2 f V2 f 1 16Q 2 = 2 4 = D 2g D 2g D g 2 D 5

And also roughness coefficients f are the same for three pipe, the above equation takes the form of, Q12 D15 Using this equation, =

2 Q2 5 D2

Q32

5 D3

52

52

2.5

= 0.177

0.30 = 0.20

2.5

= 2.76

Q1 + Q 2 + Q3 = 0.200 0.177Q 2 + Q 2 + 2.76Q 2 = 0.200 3.937Q 2 = 0.200 Q 2 = 0.051 m 3 sec Q1 = 0.177 0.051 = 0.009 m 3 sec Q3 = 2.76 0.051 = 0.140 m 3 sec

22

Calculated discharges for the parallel pipes satisfy the continuity equation. The head loss for the parallel pipes is,

h L AB

h L AB =

3.4.2 Branching Pipes

zA

pc pB

p min

zC

C B zD D

pD

p min

Figure 3.12

Consider the reservoir A supplying water with branching pipes BC and BD to a city. Pressure heads (p/) are required to be over 25 m to supply water to the top floors in multistory buildings.

pC

25m,

pD

25m

Q AB = Q BC + Q BD

23

Two possible problems may arise for these kinds of pipeline systems;

a) The physical characteristics of the system such as the lengths, diameters and friction factors, and also the discharges of each pipe are given. Water surface level in the reservoir is searched to supply the required (p/)min pressure head at points C and D. The problem can be solved by following these steps,

1) Velocities in the pipes are calculated using the given discharges and diameters.

Q 4Q = A D 2

V=

hL =

f V2 L D 2g

Piezometric head at junction B is calculated by using the given geometric elevations of the points C and D.

p p z + = + z C hLBC B min

(1)

p p z + = + z D h LBD B min

(2)

Since there should be only one piezometric head (z+p/) at any junction, the largest value obtained from the equations (1) and (2) is taken as the piezometric head for the junction B. Therefore the minimum pressure head requirement for the points C and D has been achieved. 3) The minimum water surface level at the reservoir to supply the required pressure head at points C and D is calculated by taking the chosen piezometric head for the junction,

p z A = z + + h L AB B

24

b) The physical characteristics and the discharges of the pipes are given. The geometric elevations of the water surface of the reservoir and at points C and D are also known. The minimum pressure head requirement will be checked,

1) VAB , VBC and VBD velocities in the pipes are calculated. 2) Head losses along the pipes AB, BC and BD are calculated. 3) Piezometric heads at points B, C and D are calculated.

p z + = z A hL AB B p p p z + = z + hLBC C B min

p p p z + = z + h LBD D B min

4) If the minimum pressure head requirement is supplied at points C and D, the pipeline system has been designed according to the project requirements. If the minimum pressure head is not supplied either at one of the points or at both points, a) The reservoir water level is increased up to supply the minimum pressure head at points C and D by following the steps given above. b) Head losses are reduced by increasing the pipe diameters.

Example: Geometric elevation of the point E is 50 m for the reservoir system given. The required minimum pressure at point E is 300 kPa. The discharge in the pipe DE is 200 lt/sec. The physical characteristics of the reservoir-pipe system are given as,

25

Figure 3.13

Calculate the minimum water surface level to supply the required pressure at the outlet E. Draw the energy line of the system. water= 10 kN/m3.

Solution: The velocity and the head loss along the pipe DE are,

V De = h LDE

4Q 4 0.2 = = 1.59 m sec 2 D 0.4 2 2 fV DE L DE 0.03 1.59 2 1500 = = = 14.50m 2 gD 19.62 0.4

2 2 fV ACD L ACD fV ABD L ABD = 2 gD ABD 2 gD ACD 2 2 0.03 V ABD 1000 0.03 V ACD 1000 = 2 g 0.2 2 g 0.3 2 2 0.3 V ABD = 0.2 V ACD

26

Q = Q ABD + Q ACD

4 0.04 V ABD + 0.09 V ACD = 0.255 V ACD = 2.08 m sec V ABD = 0.816 2.08 = 1.70 m sec

2 D ABD

2 D ACD

2 fV ABD L ABD = 2 gD ABD

h L ACD = hL ABD

27

p z A = z + + h LDe + h L ACD E

Example: The discharges in the AB and AC pipes are respectively Q1=50 lt/sec and Q2=80 lt/sec for the pipe system given. The required pressure at the B and C outlets is 200 kPa and the geometric elevations for these points are zB= 50 m and zc= 45 m. The physical characteristics of the pipe system are, Pipe RA AB AC Length (m) 2000 1000 1500 Diameter (mm) 300 350 400 f 0.02 0.02 0.02

Calculate the minimum water surface level of the reservoir R to supply the required pressure at the outlets. Draw the energy line of the system. water= 10 kN/m3.

93.79m 70.79m

pB

B A 50m

= 20m

45m

pc

= 24.22m

Figure 3.14

28

V AB = h L AB

4Q AB

2 AB

V AC = h L AC

4Q AC

2 AC

If we take the largest piezometric head of the outlets 70.79 m, the pressure will be 200kPa at the outlet B, and the pressure at outlet C is,

p p = z + h L AC z C A C p = 70.79 1.57 45.00 = 24.22m C p = w 24.22 = 10 24.22 = 242.2kPa > 200kPa

29

Q RA = Q AB + Q AC = 0.05 + 0.08 = 0.13 m 3 sec V RA = h LRA 4Q RA

2 RA

3.4.4. Pump Systems

When the energy (head) in a pipe system is not sufficient enough to overcome the head losses to convey the liquid to the desired location, energy has to be added to the system. This is accomplished by a pump. The power of the pump is calculated by,

N = QH

(3.16)

Where = Specific weight of the liquid (N/m3), Q = Discharge (m3/sec), H = Head to be supplied by pump (m), N = Power of the pump (Watt). Calculated pump power should be divided by = Efficiency factor of the pump.

Example: Reservoir D is fed by a pump and pipe system. Pressure heads in the pipe flow at the entrance and at the outlet from the pump are respectively 5 and 105 m. The geometric of the pipe before the pump is 0.50 m. The efficient power of the pump is 75 kW. The friction factor at all the pipe system is f = 0.03. (Minor losses will be neglected). a) b) c) d)

Calculate the discharge in pipe BC, What will be the discharges in the parallel C1D and C2D pipes? Calculate the water surface level of the reservoir D. Draw the energy line of the system.

30

D 1

0.50m

Pump

The efficient power of the pump is,

N=

QH

Q=

V BC =

The head loss is,

h LBC = h LBC =

31

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Since,

h L1 = h L2 f V12 f V 22 L1 = L2 D1 2 g D2 2 g 0.03 V12 0.03 V 22 3000 = 1500 0.20 2 g 0.40 2 g V12 = V 22 V1 = V 2 = V

By equation of continuity,

Q = Q1 + Q 2 Q1 = V1 4 2 D 2 Q2 = V2 4

D12

Q1 = 15.2 lt sec Q 2 = 60.8 lt sec

0.4 2

c) The velocity and the head loss in the parallel pipes are,

4 0.0152 = 0.48 m sec 0.20 2 f V2 0.03 0.48 2 = L1 = 3000 = 2.64m D1 2 g 0.40 19.62

V1 = V 2 = V = h L1 = h L2

32

h h

L L

p z D = z + hL B z D = 0.50 + 105 8.58 = 96.92m

105.50m 99.56m

96.92m

D p/ =100m

5.50m C 0.50m

pump

Example: Reservoir A is feeding reservoirs B and C by a pump and pipe system. The discharge to reservoir C is Q2 = 0.10 m3/sec. If the efficient coefficient of the pump is = 0.70 n, what will be required power of pump? Draw the energy line of the system . The physical characteristics of the pipe system are,

Pipe 1 2 3

33

110m

90m

65m 3 A 1

Q 2 4Q 2 = 2 A2 D 2 4 0.10 = 5.66 m sec 0.15 2

V2 = V2 =

h L2 = h L2 =

Energy level at the outlet of the pump is, p H Poutlet = z + = z C + hL2 = 90 + 49 = 139m P Pipe 3: Head loss along the pipe 3 is, h L3 = H Poutlet z B = 139 110 = 29m

34

h L3

f 3 V32 = L3 D3 2 g

29 =

Q3 =

D32

4

V3 =

0.20 2

4

Pipe 1:

Q1 = Q 2 + Q3 Q1 = 0.100 + 0.067 = 0.167 m 3 sec V1 = 4Q1 = 4 0.167 = 2.36 m sec 0.30 2

2 1

h L1 =

Energy level at the entrance to the pump is, H Pent = z A hL1 = 65.00 7.57 = 57.43m The energy (head) to be supplied by pump is, H p = H Poutlet H Pent = 139.00 57.43 = 81.57 m The required power of the pump is, NP = NP =

QH P

9.81 1000 0.167 81.59 = 190952W 191kW 0.70

35

139m 110m

90m

65m

C 57.43m 3

1 Pump

Example: Reservoir B is fed by reservoir A with 600 lt/sec discharge. The water surface levels in the reservoirs are zA = 100 m and zB = 90 m. If the pipe diameter is D = 0.50m, the friction factor is f = 0.02, and the efficiency factor of the pump is = 0.70, calculate the required pump power. The lengths of the pipes are respectively L1 = 500 m and L2 = 1000 m. Draw the energy line of the system.

100m

pump 1 90m

2 C

Figure Solution: Since the discharge of the system is known, the head loss from reservoir A to the pump can be calculated as,

V= 4Q 4 0.60 = = 3.06 m sec 2 D 0.50 2

36

h L AC = h L AC =

The energy level at the entrance to the pump is, H Cent = 100 9.54 = 90.46m Since the pipe diameter is same along the pipe, and L2 = 2L1, the head loss along the pipe 2 is, h L2 = 2h L1 = 2 9.54 = 19.08m The energy level at the outlet of the pump should be, H Cout = 90.00 + 19.08 = 109.80m The pumping is then, H pump = 109.80 90.46 = 18.62m The required power of the pump is, N=

109.08m 100m

90.46m

90m

37

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